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# 2.

57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes Fall 2004 Lecture 19 In last lecture, we talked about the Newtons shear stress law.

U
o

vy u vx x

Assuming that the number density of particles is n, the number density of particles having velocity v is
y + v z / 2 B T m fo(vx,vy,vz)=nP(vz,vy,vz) = n 2 B T F From f = f o v r f o + v f o (F is zero here because this is no external fields m here and gravity is neglected), the distribution function is f f f f f u . f = f o vx i + v y j + vz k o i + o j + o k = f o v y o = f o v y o y z y u y x

3 / 2 m v x u e

) +v
2

## Note: We can also prove u = v x fdv x dv y dv z .

The shear stress along the x-direction, on a plane perpendicular y-axis can be calculated by considering the momentum exchange across the plane,

xy = v y [mv x ]fdv x dv y dv z

fo u u 2 dv x dv y dv z = v y mv x y u y

## The dynamic viscosity can be f = v y 2 ( mv x ) o dv x dv y dv z u

2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 19 1

m = m n 2 BT
2

3/ 2

mv 2 /(2 B T) z

dv z

ve
2

2 2 mv y /(2 B T) y

## v'2 mv'x2 /(2 B T) ' dv y x e dv x . T B

Note: Two integrations are used to calculate the above equation: (1)

e x dx

) = (
2
ax 2

e x dx

)(

e y dy = e

x2 + y 2

## dxdy = e r 2 rdr yields

2

e x dx = .
+

(2) f ( a ) = e

dx =

leads to f ' ( a ) =

xe

2 ax 2

3/ 2 dx = a . = a 2

'

## Ohms Law x x Now fo obeys the Fermi-Dirac distribution

fo ( E, E f , T ) = 1 , E exp +1 BT

F and f = f o v r f o + v f o becomes m
df q f E f = fo vx o + x o . m E v x dx

Empty levels Ec

Filled levels Ev

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 19

For metals (left figure), the electrons fill part of the band, while the Fermi level normally lies within the band gap for semiconductors. In the latter situation, the parabolic approximation is used 1 2k 2 1 E = Ec + = Ec + m* vx 2 + v y 2 + vz 2 , * 2 m 2 thus f f q f E f o + q x o . f = fo vx o + x o = f o v x E m E v x x x

## 1 1 Jq = qvx f = qvxfdkxdkydkz V kz = ky = kz = (2)3

Changing to spherical coordinate system ( dk x dk y dk z = k 2 sin d d dk ) and rewrite the above equation with D( E ) yields 2 + D( E ) J q = qvx f sin d d dE 0 0 0 4 . f o q f o 2 = v D ( E ) + q x dE E 30 x

Now we let Ec=0 be the reference energy level. And the distribution becomes 1 , fo ( E, E f , T ) = Ek ( Ec ) exp +1 BT where Ek denotes the kinetic energy. Noticing f 0 E f 0 f 0 f = k , = 0 , we have T T Ek Ek f 0 f 0 f 0 T = + x x T x f Ek f 0 T = 0 Ek x T Ek x

Note: Defining y =

## Ek 1 , fo ( E, E f , T ) = , we can observe BT exp ( y ) + 1

f 0 E f 0 = k T T Ek from f 0 f E f f 1 = 0 k 2 , 0 = 0 . T y k BT Ek y k BT
2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 19 3

## The flux is thus q Ek T f + q x 0 D ( Ek ) dEk J q = v 2 x 30 T x Ek

1 T f E f 0 1 = qv 2 0 D ( Ek ) dEk q x + qv 2 k E D ( Ek ) dEk x Ek 3 0 T k 3 0 x

Discussion
f 1 To simplify, let L11 = qv 2 0 D ( Ek ) dEk . Ek 30 1) T / x = 0 (isothermal), we have q x = L11q , J x = L11 x x

where =

## + v is the electrochemical potential.

Note:

dV q x = +q = + v . x x dx x q

## The flux is often written as

J x = qne x + Dq

where the first term corresponds to drift, the second term denotes diffusion; e is called the mobility [m2V-1s-1] and D is the diffusivity [m2s-1], n is carrier concentration. In the following figures, we actually measure both terms in the above equation. E

n x

is continuous
x

V Note: Recall we use n = fD ( E )dE to determine in Lecture 11. Normally n is related to . In semiconductors, when we increase doping, n will increase while will drop due to scattering. In metals, the large n is almost constant and J e = qne x = x .

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 19

In non-degenerate semiconductors, the Fermi-Dirac distribution can be approximated by the Boltzmann distribution and D = k BT / q , called Einstein relationship. This name comes because it is derived following Einsteins work on Brownian motions. 2) T / x 0 Now the equation is written as

d d J x = L11q + L21 . dx dx
For open circuits (zero flux), we have

d d 0 = L11q + L21 , dx dx
thus L dT d dT , = 12 = S dx L11 dx dx L where S= 12 (VK-1) is called Seebeck coefficient. The Seebeck voltage is the steadyL11 state voltage accumulated under the open circuit condition. If the conductor is a uniform material such that S is a constant, the voltage difference does not dependent on the temperature profile. This is the principle behind the thermocouple for temperature measurements. A thermocouple (the following figure) employs two conductors for the easy of measuring the voltage difference.

1=2
T drops at the junction.

1
1 For the heat flux, we have dE = dq + dn , 2

J q = 2 ( E ) vx f = L21

d dT . + L22 dx dx