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# 2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes Fall 2004 Lecture 22 We have talked about the heat flux as 1 qx = fvx .

V kx k y kz y vy vy v vx v vx

d
x
vz

## Temperature Gradient Or Electrical Field (a) The Boltzmann equation is F v r g + g = v r f 0 + v f 0 = S0 , m

(b)

F g v f 0 = 0 for phonons, g=f-f0. Noticing v r g v y y m df dT , the x direction component gives r f0 = 0 dT dx df dT g = vx 0 = S0 ( x ) , g + vy y dT dx the solution of which is y . g S0 = C exp v y One boundary condition is required to determine C.
where

(d<<x) and

Assuming both top and bottom of the film diffusely scatter phonons, we have y = 0, f = f 0 , g = 0 for 0, 2 . y = d , f = f , g = 0 for , 0 2 Finally we get y At y = 0, 0, , C = -S0 , g ( y, ) = S0 1 exp , v cos 2

## dy At y = d, , , C = -S0 exp ( d / v cos ) , g ( y, ) = S0 1 exp v cos 2

Note:

y is the ratio between the traveled distance and the mean free path of v cos phonons.
qx ( y ) = 1 V

vx vy vz

vx f =

max

d d
0

vx f

D ( ) 4

sin d ,

where vx = v sin cos according to our spherical coordinate system, f=g+f0. Thus
qx ( y ) =
max

2

## df 0 dT d y D ( ) sin d ] 1 exp dT dx v cos 4

Note: At y=0, the x-direction heat flux is nonzero. In the above expression, the second integral is not zero though the first one is. Now let cos = and thus sin d = d ,sin 3 d = 1 2 d . Also define
1 d En ( ) = n 2 exp d , = , = v . Noting 0 flow per unit width is

## cos 2 d = , the total heat

Q = q ( y )dy
0

dT
4 dx

max

1 df 0 2 v D ( ) d [ 1 2 d exp 1 d + 0 dT

(1 )d 1 exp d ]
1 2 0

## dT , dx which yields (if is independent on )

= kd

3 (1 4 E3 ( ) E5 ( ) ) . 8 The tendency is drawn in the following figure. It is expected that k approaches the bulk value for d larger than the mean free path. Since in diffuse scattering part of the phonons k / kbulk = 1

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 22

are scattered backward, the loss of x-direction momentum results in a lower thermal conductivity.

k = bulk kbulk

=
1

For specular case (above figure), the x-direction momentum is conserved. Following all these procedures, we can finally prove k=kbulk. Note: To determine the mean free path, we should use k = simplified k =
C v d instead of the 3

Cv , which gives an underestimation of . This is because the Debye 3 approximation overestimates the velocity approach the edge of the first Brillouin zone, where the group velocity should be zero.

Optical Acoustic k

For partial specular (momentum conserved) and partial diffuse (momentum not conserved), we have
f + ( , 0 ) = pf ( , 0 ) + 2 (1 p ) f ( , 0 ) d ,
0 1

f+

vy

## df dT g + g = v y 0 = S0 ( y ) . y dT dy . In general, use C ( y ) to replace

y To solve this, first let S0 ( y ) =0, then g = C exp vy C. Substitute into the governing equation, we get

v y exp

## dC = S0 ( y ) , dy y' exp vy y0 dy '+ C ( y ) , C = S0 ( y ') 0 y vy

y vy

y ' y exp vy y y0 dy ' . g ( y ) = C ( y0 ) exp + S0 ( y ') y vy v cos Now the boundary condition is (elastic scattering on boundaries) y = 0, f = f 0 , g = 0, C ( 0 ) = 0 for 0, 2 . y = d , f = f , g = 0, C ( d ) = 0 for 0 , 2 At steady state, we have max 2 D ( ) d d v y f Const = q y = d 0 0 0 4 dq y = 0 yields And dy
2 ( ) = E2 ( ) + ( ' )E1 ( ' ) d '

## where we used dimensionless parameters ( y ) =

T1 ( y ) T2 T1 T2

, =

y d , = .

## 2.57 Fall 2004 Lecture 22

The temperature profiles for two extreme cases are drawn in the following figure. For 0 (note T1 T2 ), it is in nonequilibrium state but we define the equilibrium conception, temperature, based on the average value.

T1 Teq T2

y/d 1