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2011

MANUAL
v1.5


2011

Greenroads Manual v1.5 Table of Contents

2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword............................................................................................................................................................1
Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................................3
Introduction
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................7
Background.....................................................................................................................................................17
ProjectRequirements
PR1EnvironmentalReviewProcess...............................................................................................................29
PR2LifecycleCostAnalysis............................................................................................................................39
PR3LifecycleInventory..................................................................................................................................47
PR4QualityControlPlan................................................................................................................................65
PR5NoiseMitigationPlan..............................................................................................................................69
PR6WasteManagementPlan.......................................................................................................................79
PR7PollutionPreventionPlan.......................................................................................................................91
PR8LowImpactDevelopment.......................................................................................................................95
PR9PavementManagementSystem...........................................................................................................107
PR10SiteMaintenancePlan........................................................................................................................117
PR11EducationalOutreach.........................................................................................................................123
Environment&Water
EW1EnvironmentalManagementSystem..................................................................................................129
EW2RunoffFlowControl.............................................................................................................................135
EW3RunoffQuality......................................................................................................................................153
EW4StormwaterCostAnalysis....................................................................................................................173
EW5SiteVegetation....................................................................................................................................177
EW6HabitatRestoration.............................................................................................................................183
EW7EcologicalConnectivity........................................................................................................................193
EW8LightPollution......................................................................................................................................201
Access&Equity
AE1SafetyAudit..........................................................................................................................................207
AE2IntelligentTransportationSystem........................................................................................................211
AE3ContextSensitiveSolutions..................................................................................................................219
AE4TrafficEmissionsReduction..................................................................................................................231
AE5PedestrianAccess.................................................................................................................................241
AE6BicycleAccess.......................................................................................................................................245
AE7Transit&HOVAccess............................................................................................................................251
AE8ScenicViews..........................................................................................................................................259
AE9CulturalOutreach.................................................................................................................................267
ConstructionActivities
CA1QualityManagementSystem...............................................................................................................279
CA2EnvironmentalTraining........................................................................................................................285
CA3SiteRecyclingPlan................................................................................................................................291
CA4FossilFuelReduction............................................................................................................................303
CA5EquipmentEmissionReduction............................................................................................................309
CA6PavingEmissionsReduction.................................................................................................................315
CA7WaterUseTracking..............................................................................................................................321
CA8ContractorWarranty............................................................................................................................327
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Table of Contents

2011
Materials&Resources
MR1LifecycleAssessment...........................................................................................................................339
MR2PavementReuse..................................................................................................................................357
MR3EarthworkBalance...............................................................................................................................375
MR4RecycledMaterials..............................................................................................................................385
MR5RegionalMaterials...............................................................................................................................403
MR6EnergyEfficiency.................................................................................................................................411
PavementTechnologies
PT1LongLifePavement..............................................................................................................................419
PT2PermeablePavement............................................................................................................................429
PT3WarmMixAsphalt................................................................................................................................441
PT4CoolPavement......................................................................................................................................447
PT5QuietPavement....................................................................................................................................455
PT6PavementPerformanceTracking..........................................................................................................465
CustomCredit
CCX[YourTitleHere]...................................................................................................................................471

Greenroads Manual v1.5 Foreword


University of Washington 2011
FOREWORD
WelcometothenewandimprovedGreenroadsManualv1.5!Inourfourthyearofresearchanddevelopment,we
haveplentyofnewstoreport!Wearehappytoannouncethatwehavemadegreatprogresstowardrefiningthis
continuallydevelopingsystemandyouwillseemanychangesinthisversionofthedocumentasaresultofinput
fromcasestudies,pilotprojects,andthoughtfulcommentswevegatheredinthelastyear.Plus,wearepleasedto
announcethatGreenroadshascommercializedandisnowapendingtrademarkoftheUniversityofWashington
(UW)!WehavealsoformedtheGreenroadsFoundation,athirdpartynonprofitcorporation,withamissionof
benefitingcommunitiesbypromotingsustainabilityintransportationpracticeandeducation.
ThisGreenroadsManualcontainsALLofthefinerdetailsofeachProjectRequirement(PR)andVoluntaryCredit
(VC)currentlyincludedintheGreenroadsRatingSystem.Youcanusethisdocumentasareferenceguidewhile
youproceedthroughthedesignandconstructionphasesofyourGreenroadsprojects.ForeachPRandVC,this
Manualprovidesthegoal,whatneedstobedonetomeetthatgoal,thedocumentationtoprovethosethings
weredone,benefits,sustainabilitycomponentsaddressed(Ecology,Economy,Equity,Extent,Expectations,
ExperienceandExposure),strategies,helpfulexamplesandasupportingbodyofresearchandreferencestohelp
youalongtheway.Forthoseofyouwhomaynothavethetimetoreadhundredsofpagesofroadwayresearch,
youmaynotethatthereisalsoashorterversionofthismanual,theGreenroadsAbridgedManualv1.5,whichis
alsoavailablefordownloadontheGreenroadswebsite(http://www.greenroads.us).Ithasagreencoverimage.
IMPORTANT STUFF
All11ProjectRequirementsmustbemetandcompletedinordertobeconsideredforcertification.Allofthem.
Noexceptions.Theyaredesignednottobedifficulttodo,especiallyifyoustartthinkingaboutthemearly.
CurrentpointrangesforthefouravailablecertificationlevelsarelistedintheIntroductiontotheManual.The
minimumlevelofCertifiedmeansthatall11PRshavebeencompletedandthataminimumof32pointshave
beenearnedbycompletingavarietyofVoluntaryCredits(VC).
PleasedonotusetheGreenroadslogoorGreenroadswithoutwrittenpermissionofUW.
Pleasegivecreditwherecreditisdue.IfyouareusingGreenroadsinanarticleorpaper,pleasebesuretocite
appropriately.Hereisasample,inAPAformat:
Muench,S.T.,Anderson,J.L.,Hatfield,J.P.,Koester,J.R.,&Sderlund,M.etal.(2011).GreenroadsManualv1.5.
(J.L.Anderson,C.D.Weiland,andS.T.Muench,Eds.).Seattle,WA:UniversityofWashington.
HOW TO SUBMIT YOUR COMMENTS
VisittheGreenroadswebsite:http://www.greenroads.us.
SignuptobeaReviewerbyclickingthebottomgreyandwhitebuttononthefrontpagethatsaysReviewthe
Manualorbyfollowingthislinkdirectly:http://www.greenroads.us/312/registertoreview.html
Fillinyourcontactinformationandyouwillreceiveaconfirmationemailwithyourlogincredentials.
NavigatetheonlineversionoftheManual,whichisintheorangeboxontherighthandsideofyourscreen
whenyouvisitthewebsite.
ADDITIONAL NOTES
Wefixedthepaginationandhaveprovidedatableofcontentsinthisedition.
Wehavepublishedaversion1.0.1tov1.5ErratawhichisdownloadablefromourManualwebpage.Errata
haveabluecoverimageandshowthedateofpublishintheirtitles.
WelookforwardtoworkingwithyouonGreenroads!
JeraleeAnderson,CraigWeiland,andSteveMuench
Editors
1
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Foreword
University of Washington 2011

2
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3
Acknowledgements Greenroads Manual v1.5
2011
SPECIAL THANKS
TheeditorswouldalsoliketothankthefollowingpeopleattheUniversityofWashington,CH2MHILL,Inc.and
otherorganizationsfortheirworkinreviewing,collaboration,casestudies,coordinationandotherefforts.
UniversityofWashington CH2MHILL,Inc.
JoeMahoney,PhD.
TimLarson,PhD.
RussellTorgesen,P.E.,LEEDAP
JoyceNuesca,M.D.

SabineEisma
RosslynLuke
ChristopherCroft
AncelmoMcCarthy
TimNeuman,P.E.
KirstenPennington
MarkBastasch,P.E.,
MikePaddock,P.E.,P.L.S.
BillDerry
CanisiusChan,P.Eng.
AlexChan,P.Eng.
JohnWillis,P.E.
KevinMurphy,P.E.
ThomasCahill,P.E.
GrahmSatterwhite

Others
AmitArmstrong,Ph.D.,P.E.,WesternFederalLandsHighway
Division(WFLHD)
LynCornell,ODOT
KimWilloughby,P.E.,WashingtonDepartmentof
Transportation(WSDOT)
JeffUhlmeyer,P.E.,WSDOT
JimWeston,P.E.,WSDOT
FreemanAnthony,CityofBellingham,WA
MaureenJensen,MinnesotaDepartmentofTransportation
AngelaBrady,P.E.,PMPSeattleDepartmentof
Transportation(SDOT)
MarkMazzola,SDOT
ErinMoxon,BritishColumbiaMinistryofTransportation
DanielMedina,Ph.D.,P.E.,PBS&J
MichaelBooth,P.E.,Perteet,Inc.
JesseThomsen,Perteet,Inc.
TravisRauscher,Perteet,Inc.
DebraT.Johnson,EcoEdge,LLC
MikeHutchinson,GeoEngineers,Inc.
KivaLints,AECOM,USA,Inc.
KaraSwanson,ParsonsBrinckerhoff,Inc.
SteveCarter,TriCar,Ltd.
TomWheeler,TransportationCorridorAgencies

VolunteerManualReviewers
BobGansauer,NationalParkService
BobHolzheimer,NationalParkService
DarinThacker,NationalParkService
DennisNagao,NationalParkService
GingerMolitor,NationalParkService
JanBurton,NationalParkService
JesseVanHorne,NationalParkService
JessicaHendryx,NationalParkService
KarenVaage,NationalParkService
LeeTerzis,NationalParkService
MargaretMcRoberts,NationalParkService
RobinGregory,NationalParkService
StevenCulver,NationalParkService
TreffAlexander,NationalParkService
Dean Potts,Caterpillar
GaryAamold,Consultant
SkipStothert,GreenRoadsRecycling,Ltd.
JonathanBraadvedt,KOACorporation
LionelLemay,NationalReadyMixedConcrete
Association
TarekEweida,ParsonsInternational
RyanWestrom,PatrickEngineering,Inc.
MikeHendrix,Perteet,Inc.
FaresAbdo,PortlandCementAssociation
DonnaDeNinno,UNIGROUP,USA
JudithRochat,USDOT/RITA/VolpeCenter

4

Greenroads Manual v1.5 2011



INTRODUCTION

5

Greenroads Manual v1.5 2011

6
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Introduction
University of Washington 2011
INTRODUCTION
WHY GREENROADS?
Didyouknowthatinordertomakeonelaneofroad,onemilelong,youwouldneedtousethesameamountof
energyusedinoneyearbyabout50averageAmericanhouseholds?In2008,theUnitedStateshadalmost8.5
millionlanemilesofpavementsand600,000bridges.So,theenergywehavealreadyusedtomakeour
transportationnetworkisover25%ofthatusedbytheentireU.S.intheentireyearin2005.Withthenationalcall
toenergyefficiencystandardsforourbuiltenvironment,whynotalsolooktoimprovehowwegetfromplaceto
placeeverydaybyrethinkingwhatweuse,howweuseit,whereitcomesfrom,andhowitallfitstogether?
Roadsandbridgesareacriticalpartofournationseconomicprosperityandlocalcommunitywellbeing.Itmaybe
hardtobelievethatoutofthetotal100hoursAmericansspendontheroadcommutingtoworkeveryyear,almost
onewholeworkweek(36hours)islostjustwaitingforroadconstructionprojectstobefinished.Youmighteven
besurprisedtolearnthatconstructiondelayscostregularAmericansalmost$80billioninlostproductivity,
benefits,andwagesannually.Thesedelaysalsorepresent2.9billiongallonsofwastedfuelandcountlesscarbon
dioxideemissions,aswellasotherharmfulenvironmentalexhauststhatcancauseacidrainandsmog.Inbusy
cities,manypeoplemayagreethattheirlocalcongestionproblemscanbeevenworse(insomecases,theyare)!
Peopleobviouslysufferfrustrations,butournaturalenvironmentprobablysuffersevenmore.Wealldependon
howwelltheenvironmentfunctionsforourownhealth,livelihoods,andcultures.Sadly,eventheconvenient
streettoandfromyourlocalgrocerystorecouldbetoblameforlossanddestructionofsensitivehabitatsand
wetlands,undrinkablewater,collisionswithinnocentanimals,andlotsofloudnoiseandunpleasantodors.
Thegoodnewsisthatthereisnowawaytoaddressandsolvesomeoftheseproblems,oratleastawaytohelpus
managethembetterandtomaketherightdecisionswhenwearethinkingaboutbuildingnewroadsinour
communities:theGreenroadsRatingSystem.Greenroadsisatool(http://www.greenroads.us)thatcanhelp
roadbuildersworktomakebettertransportationprojectseveryday,oneprojectatatime.

FigureI.1:GreenroadsPilotProjectatNorthshoreDriveinBellingham,Washington.
PhotobyFreemanAnthony,CityofBellinghamPublicWorks
7
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
WHAT IS GREENROADS?
Greenroadsisavoluntarythirdpartyratingsystemforroadprojects.Aratingsystemcanbeusefulformany
reasons.Ultimately,Greenroadsseekstorecognizeandrewardroadwayprojectsthatexceedpublicexpectations
forenvironmental,economicandsocialperformance.
Fundamentally,Greenroadshelpsquantifythesustainableattributesofa
roadwayproject.Thisquantificationcanbeusedto:
x Definewhatfeaturescontributetosustainabilityontheproject.
x Provideaccountabilityforsustainabilityonroadwayprojects.
x Measureandtrackspecificsustainabilitygoalsovertime.
x Manageandimproveroadwaysustainability.
x Encouragenewandinnovativepractices.
x Promotecompetitiveadvantageandothereconomicormarketincentivesforsustainability.
x Communicatesustainablefeaturestostakeholdersinanunderstandableway,especiallytothegeneralpublic.
Greenroadsisanawardbased,flexibleratingsystem(sometimescalledaperformancemetric)thatcanbeused
torank,scoreandcomparedifferentroadprojectsfortheiroverallperformancetowardbeingmoresustainable
thananaverageroadproject.EarningaGreenroadsaward,calledcertificationislikewinningtheOlympicGames
forroads:projectsearnpointsforspecialactivities.Uponsuccessfulcompletion,adistinctivesigncanbeusedon
roadprojectsthatgoaboveandbeyondcurrentstandardsforenvironmentalcompliance,roadwaydesignand
constructionpractice.Theseprojectsdemonstratealevelofexcellenceinsustainabilitybeyondtheaverage
roadwayprojectandcommunicatesubstantialachievementtoprojectstakeholders.

FigureI.2:YellowstoneEastEntrancePilotProject,WesternFederalLandsHighwayDivision.
PhotobyChrisCroft

A NOTE ON COPYRIGHT AND TRADEMARK USE


Greenroadsisapubliclyavailablesystemthatcanbeusedbyanyone.However,theGreenroadslogoandname
remainthepropertyoftheUniversityofWashingtonandmayonlybeusedwithexpresspermissionoftheUWora
licensedagent.AnyuseofideasorreferencestoGreenroadsrequirespropercitationofGreenroadsastheorigin
oftheseideasandrecognitionthatUWownsthetrademark.
WHAT IS A GREENROAD?
AGreenroadisdefinedasa
roadwayprojectthathasbeen
designedandconstructedtoa
levelofsustainabilitythatis
substantiallyhigherthancurrent
commonpractice.
8
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Introduction
University of Washington 2011
HOW GREENROADS WORKS
Greenroadsisacollectionofsustainabilitybestpracticesthatapplytoroadwaydesignandconstruction.These
bestpracticesaredividedintotwogeneraltypes:requiredandvoluntary.Greenroadsactivitiesarenotintended
tosupersedelocal,state,orfederalregulationorotherjurisdictionalordinances.
WHAT IS REQUIRED
Atminimum,everyGreenroadsprojectmustcomplete11specificactivitiesinordertoqualifyforanyaward.No
exceptions.TheseactivitiesarestraightforwardlycalledProjectRequirements(PRs)andaregroupedtogetheras
thefirstcategoryintheManual.
ThePRsareintendedtocapturesomeofthemostcriticalideasof
sustainabilityforanyroadwayprojectfromplanning,design,
constructionandoperationsandmaintenance,suchas:
x Environmentalandeconomicdecisionmaking
x Publicengagement
x Designforlongtermenvironmentalperformance
x Constructionplanning
x Planningforlifetimemonitoringandmaintenance
Notethatmany,butnotall,projectswillmeetseveralofthePR
outrightwithlittleornoadditionaleffort.Thisisbecauseunderlying
manyofthesecreditsareideasthatareoftenregulatedbybothfederal
andstatelaws.However,becausestatescarryasignificantamountof
autonomyformanylaws,someofthestandardsinthePRsmaybe
somewhatstricterorpossiblylessstrictthantheprojectsactualstate
laws.PRscarrynopointvalue.
WHAT IS OPTIONAL
Voluntarybestpracticesarethosethatmayoptionallybeincludedinaroadwayproject.Thesearecalled
VoluntaryCredits.EachVoluntaryCreditisassignedapointvalue(15points)dependinguponitsimpacton
sustainability.Currently,thereare37VoluntaryCreditstotaling108points.Greenroadsalsoallowsaprojector
organizationtocreateanduseitsownVoluntaryCredits(calledCustomCredits),subjecttoapprovalof
Greenroads,foratotalof10morepoints,whichbringsthetotalavailablepointsto118.
ProjectteamsapplyforpointsbysubmittingspecificdocumentationinsupportoftheProjectRequirementor
VoluntaryCredittheyarepursuing.Thesedocuments,whichcanrangefromprojectspecificationstofield
documentation,areverifiedbyanindependentreviewteam.Onceaprojectiscomplete,theGreenroadsteam
verifiestheapplicationandassignsaGreenroadsscorebasedonachievingall11oftheProjectRequirementsand
thenumberofpointsearnedfromtheVoluntaryCredits.Thisscoremaythenbeusedattheownersdiscretion
andmayalsobetranslatedtoastandardachievementlevelorcertificationifsodesired:themorepointsearned,
thehighertherecognition.IfaprojectreachesacertificationlevelitwillbeabletodisplaytheGreenroadslogo
andappropriatecertificationgraphiconcepermissionfromtheGreenroadsteamisgiven.TheGreenroads
certificationlevelsaredetailedinasubsequentsectionofthisdocument.
Owneragencies,developers,designconsultantsandcontractorsmaywishtopursueofficialcertificationoruse
Greenroadsinotherwaysthatareeithervoluntaryorprescriptive.Forinstance,developersanddesignersmay
wishtouseGreenroadsasalistofpotentialideasforimprovingthesustainabilityofaroadwayproject.Or,owners
maywishtouseGreenroadspointvaluesorcertificationlevelsasgoalsorbenchmarksfornewroadwayprojects
ormetricsbywhichtheycanmeasureandmanagetheirroadwaysustainabilityefforts.
FigureI.3:FernanLakeRoadPilotProject,
FernanLake,ID.WesternFederalLands
HighwayDivision.
PhotobyChrisCroft
9
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
IS GREENROADS RIGHT FOR ME?
Thereareanumberofstakeholderswhomayhaveinterestinaroadwaysustainabilityratingsystem.Each
stakeholderislikelytohaveopinionsonhowGreenroadsshouldwork;howeveritshouldbenotedthatnotall
pointsofviewcanbefullyaccommodated.Stakeholdersinclude:
x Roadowners:federal,state,countyandcityagenciesaswellasthegeneralpublic.
x Fundingagencies:federal,state,county,cityandotherregionalauthorities
x Designconsultants:thoseinvolvedwithcorridor,roadorevenparkinglotdesign
x Contractors:heavyconstruction,roadandpavingcontractors
x Regulatoryagencies:U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
x Sustainabilityorganizations:U.S.GreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC),GreenHighwaysPartnership,SierraClub,etc.
x Researchorganizations:universitiesandotherresearchorganizationsthatparticipateininvestigating
transportationrelatedsustainabletechnologies.
GENERAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE RATING SYSTEM
ThefundamentaltenetsthatguidethedevelopmentandwritingofGreenroadsare:
x Straightforwardandunderstandable.Nonexpertsshouldbeabletounderstandthesystem.Simplicityis
valuedoverexcessivedetailbecauseitismoreunderstandable.ProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCredits
areoftensimplisticinterpretationsofcomplexideas;theyareboundtocontainsomecontroversyhoweverthe
interpretationshouldholdtruetothefundamentalidea.
x Empiricalevidenceandexistingevaluativetechniques.ProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCreditsarebased
onapreponderanceofempiricalevidenceand,totheextentpossible,shouldbeevaluatedusingexistingtools
andtechniques.
x Pointscommensuratewithimpact.Itemsthathavehigheconomic,environmentalorsocialimpactare
assignedmorepointsthanlowimpactitems.
x Flexible.Greenroadsshouldbeabletoaccommodateabroadrangeofbothurbanandruralroadwayprojects
frompreservationoverlaystomajornewcorridordevelopment.ProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCredits
shouldbeapplicableanywhereintheU.S.Internationalversionsmayneedfurtherdevelopmentinthefuture.
x Continualevolution.Overtime,betterideas,morecompleteknowledgeandtechnologyadvanceswillrequire
Greenroadstobeupdatedandchanged.
x Minimalbureaucracy.Pursuingcertificationrequiresdocumentationbutdocumentsshouldeithercomefrom
existingdocuments(e.g.plansandspecifications)orbesimpleandinexpensivetoproducefromexisting
documents.
x Beyondminimumrequirements.Greenroadsshouldspurinnovationandencouragedesignandconstruction
decisionsbasedonsustainabilityconsiderationsthatgobeyondregulatoryrequirements.Whileregulatory
requirementsanddesignstandardscontributetosustainability,aratingsystemthatawardscreditforthese
itemsaloneessentiallybecomesamarketingtoolthatistechnicallyredundantandadministratively
burdensome.
WHO DEVELOPED GREENROADS?
GreenroadsisaresearchprojectthatoriginatedattheUniversityofWashingtonandhasdevelopedinseveral
versionssincetheinitialbeginningsofresearchworkin2007.Version0.95(2009)wasdevelopedjointlybythe
UniversityofWashington(UW)andCH2MHILL,withfurtherworkonv1.0,v1.0.1andthisversionoftheRating
SystemandManualweremanagedthroughtheUniversityofWashington,withhelpfulcollaborationfromCH2M
HILLandanumberofotherindustrygroupsandconsultantswhohavecontributeddataandcommentaryby
meansofpilotprojects,casestudiesandpubliccomments.
CurrentresearchattheUniversityofWashingtonisheadedbySteveMuench,anAssociateProfessorinthe
DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering.Workontheoriginal0.95versionofGreenroadsatCH2MHILL
10
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Introduction
University of Washington 2011
wasledbyTimBevan,MountainWestRegionTechnologyandQualityManager,TransportationBusinessGroup.
Importantly,althoughUWandCH2MHILLaredevelopingthissystem,thebrandassociatedwithanyratedproject
willonlybetheGreenroadsbrand,whichisapendingtrademarkoftheUniversityofWashington.TheGreenroads
Foundation,athirdpartyindependentnonprofitorganizationincorporatedin2010,isintendedtobethesole
licenseeoftheratingsystemandwillmanagefutureupdatestomaintainandcontinuallyimproveGreenroads.
GREENROADS WEBSITE
AllGreenroadswork,includingthisManualandallofitscredits,isdocumentedontheofficialwebsite:
www.greenroads.us
Pleasevisitthiswebsitetoseethelatestnews,copiesofpresentationsgiven,ratedprojectsandotherGreenroads
relatedinformation.YoucanalsocontactGreenroadsFoundationstaffdirectlyviatheContactUsform,register
yourprojectsorvolunteertoreviewtheManual.

FigureI.4:HomepageoftheGreenroadsWebsite:http://www.greenroads.us

FUTURE CHANGES
Greenroadswillchangeinthefutureasmoreinformationisgatheredandnewindustrystandardpractices/rules
aredeveloped.Thismeansthatnewcreditscouldbeadded,oldonesremoved,pointvalueschanged,certification
levelsadjustedandmore.NomatterwhatthecurrentGreenroadsversionis,wearealreadyworkingonthenext.
Therefore,usercommentsarewelcomedandmightverywellbeincorporatedintothenextversion.Ifyouare
gettingpursuingcertificationunderoneversionoftheratingsystemwhileanothercomesout,youwillbegiven
theopportunitytoupgradetothelatestversion.
11
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
GREENROADS ESSENTIALS
ThissectiondescribestheessentialsoftheGreenroadsRatingSystem.Theseareitemsaprojectmaywanttoknow
aboutwhendecidingwhetherornottopursueGreenroadscertification.
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
ProjectRequirementsaretheminimumstepsthatmustbecompletedinordertobeconsideredaGreenroad.They
canbethoughtofascharacteristicscommontoallGreenroads.Inordertoachievecertificationtheymustallbe
metandanadditionalnumberofVoluntaryCreditpointsmustalsobeearned.Inotherwords,regardlessofhow
manyVoluntaryCreditpointsareachieved,ifaprojectdoesnotmeetalloftheProjectRequirements,a
GreenroadscertificationlevelwillNOTbeawarded.
ProjectRequirementsarelistedintheirowncategoryatthefrontofthemanualtodistinguishthemfromthe
VoluntaryCreditcategories.TheProjectRequirementsalsoconsistofitemsorproceduresthatareoftenrelatedto
practicesthatcanachievepointsinoneormoreoftheVoluntaryCreditcategories,whichmaystrategicallyassist
projectsthatareplanningtopursuecertification.
VOLUNTARY CREDITS
InadditiontotheProjectRequirements,thereisawideselectionofVoluntaryCreditsthataprojectcanearn.Each
VoluntaryCreditisassociatedwithanumberofpoints(from1to5)dependingupontheimpactthecredithason
sustainability(asdefinedlaterinthisdocument).AprojectchoosestopursueVoluntaryCreditsonavoluntary
basis;nonearerequired.OncethosepursuedVoluntaryCreditsareverifiedbytheGreenroadsteam,thenumber
ofpointsachievedistalliedupandacertificationlevel(seenextsection),ifdesired,isawarded.
VoluntaryCreditsspanawidespectrumofprojectactionsfromculturaloutreachandmultimodalaccesstosafety
topavementmaterials.Therefore,itislikelythatnoprojectwillbeabletoachievealloftheVoluntaryCredits.
However,thegoalofGreenroadsistohaveenoughchoiceinVoluntaryCreditsthatanyroadwayprojectcouldfind
enoughrelevantcreditstoachieveatleastaminimumcertificationlevel.ThismeansthatGreenroadsshouldwork
forallroadwayprojectsfrombasicpreservationoverlaystolarge,multibilliondollarcorridorprojects.
ACHIEVEMENT/CERTIFICATION LEVELS
Greenroadsmaybeusedtocertifyaprojectbasedontotalpointsachieved.Dependingupontheappetiteofthe
project,theselevelscanbecalledachievementorcertificationlevels.Obtainingtheselevelsisanofficial
acknowledgementbyGreenroadsthataprojecthasmetallProjectRequirementsandachievedenoughofthe118
possibleVoluntaryCreditpointstosurpassapredeterminedcertificationlevel.Therearefourcertificationlevelsas
shownbelow:
x Certified:AllProjectRequirements+3242VoluntaryCreditpoints(3040%oftotal)
x Silver:AllProjectRequirements+4353VoluntaryCreditpoints(4050%oftotal)
x Gold:AllProjectRequirements+5463VoluntaryCreditpoints(5060%oftotal)
x Evergreen:AllProjectRequirements+64+VoluntaryCreditpoints(>60%oftotal)
TheselevelsaresubjecttorevisionwithnewversionsofGreenroadsandmaychangeinthefutureasthesystemis
updated.AcertifiedroadwaycanbeconsideredaGreenroad.

12
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Introduction
University of Washington 2011
SCOPE OF THE GREENROADS RATING SYSTEM
Thissectiondescribestheunderlyingideas,scopeandlimitsofGreenroads.Itisexpectedthatthebasicsystemwill
growandchangeassustainabilitythought,technologiesandregulationschange.However,thefundamental
conceptsaddressedhereareexpectedtoremainrelativelyconstant.
HOW DOES GREENROADS FIT WITH REGULATORY STANDARDS?
Greenroadsisdesignedtopromotesustainabilitybestpracticeswithinandbeyondexistingfederal,stateandlocal
regulations.Specifically,Greenroadscreditsaredesignedtoinfluencedecisionsregardingsustainabilityoptions
wheretheyarenotprecludedbyregulationorwhereregulationallowsachoicebetweenoptionsthatcouldhave
sustainabilityimpacts.
AnimportantcorollarytothisisthatGreenroadsisnotanabsolutemeasureofsustainabilitybecauseitdoesnot
includesustainabilityitemsthatarecoveredbycurrentU.S.regulation(e.g.,CleanWaterAct,CleanAirAct,
NationalHistoricalPreservationAct,AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct,etc.).However,giventhatallU.S.agenciesare
governedbythesamesetoffederalregulations,GreenroadscanbeconsideredasustainabilitymetricbuiltonU.S.
standardpractice.
Greenroadsisalsomeanttoencourageorganizationstoincludesustainablepracticesintheircompanywide
strategyanddailyworkpractices.Importantly,Greenroadsisnotmeanttodictatedesignortradeoffdecisions.
Ratheritprovidesatooltohelpwithsuchdecisions.
WHAT ARE THE SYSTEM BOUNDARIES?
Greenroads,initscurrentversion,isaprojectbasedratingsystem.Thismeansthatitisapplicabletothedesign
andconstructionofneworrehabilitatedroadways,includingexpansionorredesign.Thereareshortcomingstoa
projectbasedsystemwhicharehighlightedmorebrieflybelow.Specificallythough,Greenroadsbestappliestothe
designprocessandconstructionactivitieswithintheworkzoneaswellasmaterialhaulingactivities,productionof
portlandcementconcrete(PCC)andhotmixasphalt(HMA).
IfyouarewonderingifyourprojectfitswithasystemlikeGreenroads,contactusdirectlyoryoucanalsobrowse
theAbridgedManualwithachecklistinhandtohelpyoumakethatdeterminationyourself.Chancesarethatyou
willbeabletoincorporatemanyoftheideasintoyourproject.Actually,youmayfindthatyouarealreadythinking
aboutmanyofthem,butmayhavehadtroubleseeinghowtheywouldfittogether,orhelpachieveyour
sustainabilitygoals.
WealsothinktransportationplannersandpublicworksagenciescanuseGreenroadsasahandytoolduringearly
projectdecisionmaking,internalaccountabilityprogramsorevenasapartofhighlevelplanningorlongterm
maintenanceandoperationsdecisions.However,themajorityofthecreditsintheRatingSystemdonotaddress
planningandoperationsindepth.Werecognizetheconcernthatthisappearstocreateapiecemealapproachto
sustainabilitybutalsothatanenormousenvironmentalimpacthappensimmediatelyupongroundbreakingduring
roadwayconstruction.Ourlongtermgoalistobeabletodevelopprojectspecificcreditsthathelproadway
projectssupportandinterconnectwithmanyofthenetworkleveldecisionsforsustainabilityatanyowneragency.
How Do Greenroads Projects Relate To Transportation Planning?
Decisionsregardingthelocation,type,timing,feasibilityorotherplanninglevelideasforroadwayprojectsare
excluded.Forexample,Greenroadsdoesnotanswerthequestionshouldwebuildaroadornot?While
planningisfundamentaltoroadwayandcommunitysustainability,thesedecisionsareoftentoocomplexor
politicaltobeadequatelydefinedbyapointbasedsystem.Projectlevelplanninghowever,intermsofproject
developmentand/orprojectdelivery,isincludedandmanyoftheProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCredits
canbeusedduringdesignanddevelopmenttohelpshapedecisionsontheproject.
13
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
How Does Greenroads Address Upstream Supply-Chain Processes?
Currently,nocreditsintheratingsystemexplicitlyaddressdirectimprovementsinupstreamsupplychain
processes.Thisisbecausetheseupstreamprocessespresentaquantificationproblemthatisfundamentally
difficulttoassignspecificallyenoughtoaroadwayproject.However,ahandfulofGreenroadscreditsdo
captureideasthatinvolvesupplychainprocesses,andalsointerconnectwitheachothertomakeasmall
contributiontowardbroadersupplychaingoals.
Anupstreamsupplychainprocessisanactivitythatcontributesonlypartlytoaroadwayproject,suchas
petroleumrefiningorcementmanufacturing.Thereasonthisisdifficulttoquantifyonaperprojectbasisis
becausetheseprocessesaremultifunctionalandhavemorethanoneproductorresult.Petroleumisusedfora
numberofthingsbeyondthegasthatfuelsvehicles,includingtheproductionofasphalt,whichisactuallya
byproduct(waste)oftherefiningprocess.Also,cementandcementproductsareusedinmanyapplications
beyondroadways,suchasinbuildings.Shouldaprojectbeheldresponsibleforalloftheasphaltorcementin
thebatch,orjustaportionofit?
Addressingtheallocationofsustainabilityimpactstosuchindustriesorothersthatcontributetoroadway
designandconstructionwouldbeadauntingtaskandwethinkitmayalsointroduceunnecessarysubjectivity
totheratingsystem.Manyupstreamchoicesinvolvetradeoffsthatareoutsidethecontrolofaratingsystem
toollikeGreenroads.Forthisreason,multifunctionalprocessesareasubjectofhotdebateanduntilthereis
establishedconsensusonhowtoallocateresponsibility,aprojectlevelcreditforsuchactivitiesisnotlikely.
Ultimately,itisnottheprimarygoalorutilityofapointbasedratingsystemforroadwayprojectstoaddress
thesustainabilityofsupplychainmanagementandthismaybebestlefttoexpertsinthosefields.
Wedotrytoimproveawarenessoftheseupstreamactivitiesandtheirimpactsandtradeoffsthrough
integrationoflifecycleinventories(LCI)andassessments(LCA)throughprovidingincentivestoinformproject
decisionmaking.However,iftherearesuggestionsonhowtoresolvesomeoftheseissuesandintegratebetter
withupstreamgoals,wewouldbegladtoentertainthemforfuturecredits.
How Does Greenroads Address Structures?
Bridges,tunnels,wallsandotherstructuresarenotexplicitlyconsideredinGreenroads,buttheyarenot
explicitlyexcludedeither.Infact,severalexamplesintheGreenroadsManualfeaturethesetypesofstructures.
Atthistimethough,nostructurallyspecificcreditshavebeenidentifiedoutsidethepavementstructureand
bridges,butcouldeasilybeincorporatedintofutureversionsofGreenroads(i.e.viatheCustomCredits).We
thinkmanyoftheexistingProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCreditsareappropriatetobridgeandtunnel
projects,becausethecreditsaredesignedtobebroadlyapplicable.
YoumaynoticethatinthiseditionoftheManualwehaveupdatedsomeofthepavementspecificcreditsto
includealternativesfordifferenttypesofstructures.Manyoftheseupdatescameoutofourcasestudyand
pilotprojectresearchonahandfulofbridgeprojects.
Nonpavement,nonbridgeroadwaystructures,suchaswalls,luminairesandbarriers,canbeincludedinsome
creditsconceptuallyasalumpofmaterials,buttherearenocreditsexclusivelyfortheseroadrelateditems.As
always,commentsarewelcomeregardingadjustmentsthatwouldneedtobemadetobemorereflectiveof
sustainableactivitiesforbridges,tunnelsandotherstructures.
What about Operations & Maintenance Projects?
WhatIsIncluded.Overlays,rehabilitations,2R,3R,4R,younameit.Ifpavementisbeingmovedina
meaningfulway,itisincluded(i.e.toandfromsite,aroundasite,etc.).Amaintenanceprojectintendedto
preservethelifeofaroadwayisaconstructionprojectforthepurposesofGreenroads.
14
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Introduction
University of Washington 2011
WhatIsNotIncluded.ActivitiesthatareperformedaspartoftheSiteMaintenancePlan(seePR10),usuallyby
PublicWorksAgenciesandtheircontractors.
Maintenanceandpreservationactivitiesareakeypartinthelongtermsustainabilityofaroadway,sothere
areanumberofProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCreditsthatreflecttheseactivitiesandrequirethataplan
isinplaceforthesetobeperformedsometimeinthefuture.However,aratingsystemlikeGreenroadscannot
beusedtomonitortheseactivitiesoverthelongtermeffectively.ThismeansthatoncetheGreenroadsscore
iscalculated,essentiallythesemaintenanceandpreservationplansbecomepromisestoperform.
Thecurrentreviewprocessforcertificationdoesnotallowforensuringthatthesepromisesarekept.Ideally,
onceaprojectbecomesaGreenroad,themaintenanceandpreservationactivitieswillalsocontinuetofollow
thisframeworkwhethercertificationfortheseactivitiesispursuedornot.Werealizethisisaweaknessofthe
ratingsystemingeneralandwouldappreciatefeedbackonhowtoincorporatetheseideasinameaningful,
effectiveway.Wehavebeenthinkingaboutthisideabuthavenotbeenabletodetermineoridentifya
standardized,acceptedwaythatcurrentlymeetsalltherequirementsofourratingsystemphilosophy.Ifyou
haveideasonhowwecandothisataroadwayprojectlevel,weencourageyoutosubmitforaCustomCredit
onyourproject.
Does Greenroads Fit Pathway and Trail Projects?
PathsandtrailsmaybeabletouseGreenroadstoo.Wethinkthatthereisroomforincludingthesedesignand
constructionprojectsandthatmanyoftheideasinGreenroadswouldworkwell.Someofthecreditsmay
requiremodificationtobeapplicablethough,andearningenoughpointstobecomeCertifiedmightbedifficult
dependingonthesizeandscaleoftheproject.However,ifthereisapathwayortraildirectlyassociatedwitha
roadwayproject,itisdefinitelyincluded.Ifyouhaveapathwayprojectthatyouwanttotestoutwith
Greenroads,youcanalwayscontactGreenroadsFoundationtoinquireaboutpilotprojectopportunities.

15
GREENROADS RATING SYSTEM
LIST OF CREDITS (v1.5)
No. Title Pts. Description
ProjectRequirements(PR)Mandatoryforallprojects
PR1 EnvironmentalReviewProcess Req Completeacomprehensiveenvironmentalreview
PR2 LifecycleCostAnalysis(LCCA) Req PerformLCCAforpavementsection
PR3 LifecycleInventory(LCI) Req PerformLCIofpavementsection
PR4 QualityControlPlan Req Haveaformalcontractorqualitycontrolplan
PR5 NoiseMitigationPlan Req Haveaconstructionnoisemitigationplan
PR6 WasteManagementPlan Req HaveaplantodivertC&Dwastefromlandfill
PR7 PollutionPreventionPlan Req HaveaTESC/SWPPP
PR8 LowImpactDevelopment(LID) Req CompleteaLIDfeasibilitystudy
PR9 PavementManagementSystem Req Haveapavementmanagementsystem
PR10 SiteMaintenancePlan Req Havearoadsidemaintenanceplan
PR11 EducationalOutreach Req Publicizesustainabilityinformationforproject
Environment&Water(EW)Upto21Points
EW1 EnvironmentalManagementSystem 2 ISO14001certificationforgeneralcontractor
EW2 RunffFlowControl 13 Reducerunoffquantity
EW3 RunoffQuality 13 Treatstormwatertoahigherlevelofquality
EW4 StormwaterCostAnalysis 1 ConductanLCCAforstormwaterelements
EW5 SiteVegetation 13 Usenativelow/nowatervegetation
EW6 HabitatRestoration 3 Restorehabitatbeyondwhatisrequired
EW7 EcologicalConnectivity 13 Connecthabitatacrossroadways
EW8 LightPollution 3 Discouragelightpollution
Access&Equity(AE)Upto30Points
AE1 SafetyAudit 12 Performroadwaysafetyaudit
AE2 IntelligentTransportationSystems(ITS) 25 ImplementITSsolutions
AE3 ContextSensitiveSolutions 5 Planforcontextsensitivesolutions
AE4 TrafficEmissionsReduction 5 Reduceemissionswithquantifiablemethods
AE5 PedestrianAccess 12 Provide/improvepedestrianaccessibility
AE6 BicycleAccess 12 Provide/improvebicycleaccessibility
AE7 TransitAccess 15 Provide/improvetransitaccessibility
AE8 ScenicViews 12 Provideviewsofsceneryorvistas
AE9 CulturalOutreach 12 Promoteart/culture/communityvalues
ConstructionActivities(CA)Upto14Points
CA1 QualityManagementSystem 2 ISO9001certificationforgeneralcontractor
CA2 EnvironmentalTraining 1 Provideenvironmentaltraining
CA3 SiteRecyclingPlan 1 Haveaplantodivertwastefromlandfill
CA4 FossilFuelReduction 12 Usealternativefuelsinconstructionequipment
CA5 EquipmentEmissionsReduction 12 MeetEPATier4standardsfornonroadequip.
CA6 PavingEmissionsReduction 1 UsepaversthatmeetNIOSHrequirements
CA7 WaterTracking 2 Developdataonwateruseinconstruction
CA8 ContractorWarranty 3 Warrantyontheconstructedpavement
Materials&Resources(MR)Upto23Points
MR1 LifeCycleAssessment(LCA) 2 ConductadetailedLCAoftheentireproject
MR2 PavementReuse 15 Reuseexistingpavementsections
MR3 EarthworkBalance 1 Usenativesoilratherthanimportfill
MR4 RecycledMaterials 15 Userecycledmaterialsfornewpavement
MR5 RegionalMaterials 15 Useregionalmaterialstoreducetransportation
MR6 EnergyEfficiency 15 Improveenergyefficiencyofoperationalsystems
PavementTechnologies(PT)Upto20Points
PT1 LongLifePavement 5 Designpavementsforlonglife
PT2 PermeablePavement 3 UsepermeablepavementasaLIDtechnique
PT3 WarmMixAsphalt(WMA) 3 UseWMAinplaceofHMA
PT4 CoolPavement 5 Contributelesstourbanheatislandeffect(UHI)
PT5 QuietPavement 23 Useaquietpavementtoreducenoise
PT6 PavementPerformanceTracking 1 Relateconstructiontoperformancedata
CustomCredits(CC)Availableforallprojectsbasedoncontextandinnovation,subjecttoapproval
CC1 CustomCredit1 15 Designanewvoluntarycredit
CC2 CustomCredit2 15 Designanewvoluntarycredit
GreenroadsTotalPoints: 118
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Background
University of Washington 2011
BACKGROUND
WHAT WE MEAN BY SUSTAINABILITY
Whilemanyofthedefinitionsofferedbyotherauthorsorpoliticalgroupsaddressthethreecentralandwell
recognizedthemesofsustainability(ecology,economyandequity,a.k.a.thetriplebottomline),noneofthese
definitionsaredirectlyactionableataprojectlevelandareoflittleutilitywhenconsideringsustainabilityfromthe
perspectiveofatransportationdesignerorcontractor.Thisisfortwoparticularreasons:1)lackofprojectlevel
contextandspecifictangibleconstraints,and2)lackofincentiveordriverstoprogresssustainabilityina
meaningfulway.
However,threekeybroaderideasareconsistentinmostofthedefinitions:physicalconstraintsorlawsofNature
(naturallaws),satisfactionofbasichumanneedsanddesires(humanvalues),andtheideathatroadwayprojects
arebestperceivedassystemsofvaryingdegreesofcomplexity,interdependence,scaleandcontext.Thesethree
termsareclarifiedindetailbelow.
Auseful,implementabledefinitionofsustainabilityforroadwayprojectsmustfeaturethesethreetermsbecause
theseideasaresimpletounderstandandexplaintoprojectstakeholders.Importantly,howwellaparticular
projectfitstheseprojectspecificnaturallawandhumanvalueconstraintsis
acharacteristicortraitofthatsystemthatismeasurable(intermsof
quantityand/orquality).Thismeanssustainabilityononeroadwayproject
canbecomparedtootherroadwayprojects,andultimately,sustainability
becomesmanageableonbothshortandlongtermtimescales.Therefore,
sustainabilityisacharacteristicofasystemthatreflectsitscapacityto
supportnaturallawsandhumanvalues.
1

Thisdefinitionisessentiallycompatiblewithotherdefinitionsofsustainabilityorsustainabledevelopment,suchas
thatprovidedbytheBrundtlandCommission
2
andideasfeaturedinreportsandinternationalpolicydocuments
suchastheMillenniumEcosystemAssessment
3
andAgenda21
4
.Notethatprocesses(practices)arepartof
systemsaswell;thattheyareinclusiveintheabovedefinitionofsustainability,butarenotexplicitlyincludedin
thedefinitionforbrevityandsimplicity.
NATURAL LAWS
NaturallawsencompasstheessentialideaofEcology,whichisthestudyofecosystems.Theseconceptsare
illustratedbythesimple,butoxymoronicideathatecosystemsaretoocomplextobefullycontrolledor
understoodbyhumans,andthatourbestcontrolandunderstandingcomesfrombasicscienceslikephysics,
chemistryandbiology.Effectively,mathematicsandsciencesarethetoolsbywhichwemeasurethelimitsand
currentstatusofourenvironment.Thesenaturallawsformthephysicalconstraintswithinwhichallprojectsmust
fit,regardlessofhowmuchcontrolwethinkwemayhaveoverourownenvironmentashumansorhowcomplete
orcertainthescienceisperceivedtobe.

1
Anderson,J.L.(2008).Sustainabilityincivilengineering.Thesis(M.S.C.E.)UniversityofWashington,2008.
2
UnitedNationsGeneralAssembly,42ndSession.(1987,August4).ReportoftheWorldCommissionon
EnvironmentandDevelopment(WCED):OurCommonFuture.(A/42/427).AnnextoOfficialRecord.Geneva,
Switzerland,1987.(Masthead).
3
MillenniumEcosystemAssessment(MEA),(2005).EcosystemsandHumanWellbeing:Synthesis.IslandPress,
Washington,DC.
4
UnitedNationsConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment(UNCED),RiodeJaneiro,314June1992.(1993,
January1).ReportontheUnitedNationsConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment:Agenda21.
(A/CONF.151/26/REV.1[VOL.I]andCorrigendum).Vol.I.,AnnexIItoResolutionsAdoptedbytheConference.New
York,1993.(Masthead).
WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY?
Sustainabilityisacharacteristic
ofasystemthatreflectsits
capacitytosupportnaturallaws
andhumanvalues.
17
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
Wemustunderstandthatourconventionalunderstandingofnaturallawsisatbestincompleteandatworstcould
betotallywrong.Humansliveandoperatewithinthecontextofecosystems,notviceversa(asindicatedby
currenttrendsincivildevelopment).Theparadigminwhichwelive,operateandbehavemustthereforeshifttoa
moresustainableoneunderourbestpossibleandmostcurrentunderstandingofecology,suchasthatproposed
byTheNaturalStepframework,whichoffersasystembasedapproachtosustainabilityguidedbythreebasic
principles
5,6
asfollows:
x SubstancesshouldnotbeextractedfromtheEarthataratefasterthantheycanberegeneratedbynatural
processes.
x Substances(waste)shouldnotbeproducedatratefasterthantheycanbedecomposedandreintegratedinto
anecosystem.
x Ecosystemsshouldnotbesystematicallydegradedorotherwisedisruptedfromequilibriumbyhuman
activities.
Conventionalroadwaydesignandconstructionpracticesandsystemsdonotsupportthesethreeaboveprinciples
consistently;however,asignificantamountofacademicandindustryresearchinavarietyoffieldsindicatesthat
theycan.
HUMAN VALUES
Similarly,humanvalues(basicallyRobrtsfourthprinciple)includebothequityandeconomy.Equitycanbe
broadlyunderstoodasseekingqualityoflifeforall:ultimatelythismeanssatisfactionofbasichumanneedswithin
aspecificculturalcontext.Humanneedshavebeenwellstudiedinpsychologyandsocialsciences.Themost
prevalentideasregardinghumanneedscanbedefinedbyeitherahierarchicalmodel,suchasthatproposedby
Maslow
7
orataxonomicmodel.Maslowidentifiedphysiologicalneeds,safety,belonging,esteemandself
actualizationastiersofneeds.MaxNeefetal.
8
identifiednineuniqueneedsthatvaryaccordingtotheprocessby
whichtheyaresatisfied(being,having,doing,andinteracting):subsistence,protection,affectionunderstanding,
participation,leisure,creation,identity,andfreedom.Forthesustainabilitypurposes,eitherpsychologicalmodelis
fittingtobestillustratetheideaofhumanvalues.Thebasicideaisthatallhumanshavethesameneeds,thevalue
oftheseneedscanchangewithtime,andthereisawidevarietyandvaryingdegreetowhichneedsaresatisfied
andmanagedindifferentcommunitiesandcultures.
9

Thereareanumberoftradeoffsthatoccurwhenmeetingmorethanoneneedsimultaneously.Thesesocietal
constraints,includingregulationsandpolicy,governtheideaofEconomy,whichmeans,simply,managementof
financial,natural,manufactured,andhumancapitalresources.
10,11
Theconceptofeconomycanbescaleddownto
applytoprojectlevelfinancialchoicesorscaleduptomorebroadpracticesofresourcemanagementsuchas
sustainableforestry,wastemanagementorcarboncapandtradearrangements.Again,however,conventional
roadwaydesignandconstructionpracticedoesnotsupporttheseneeds,oraddresstheirdynamicsand
management,consistentlyonallprojects.

5
Robrt,K.H.(2000).Toolsandconceptsforsustainabledevelopment,howdotheyrelatetoageneral
frameworkforsustainabledevelopment,andtoeachother?JournalofCleanerProduction.8(3),243254.
6
Robrt,K.H.(2002).Thenaturalstepstory:seedingaquietrevolution.GabriolaIsland,BC:NewSociety
Publishers.
7
Maslow,A.H.(1943).Atheoryofhumanmotivations.PsychologicalReview.50(4),370396.
8
MaxNeef.M.A.;Elizalde,A.andHopenhayn,H.(1991).Humanscaledevelopment:conception,applicationand
furtherreflections.NewYork:TheApexPress.
9
Fisher,K.J.(2000).Awealthofnotions:reflectiveengagementintheemancipatorteachingandlearningof
economics.Unpublisheddoctoraldissertation,UniversityofWesternSydney,Richmond.
10
Hawken,P.;Lovins,A.B.andLovins,L.H.(1999).Naturalcapitalism:creatingthenextindustrialrevolution(1st
ed.).Boston,MA:LittleBrownandCo.
11
Goodland,R.(1993).InternationalAssociationofImpactAssessment(IAIA)Newsletter5(2).
18
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Background
University of Washington 2011
SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY
Clearly,asystemsbasedapproachtosustainabilityrendersadefinitionthatincludesonlyEcology,Equity,and
Economyincomplete.Inadditiontothesecomponents,sustainabilityiscontextsensitive.Specifically,aroadway
projectsystemscontextissensitivetowhateverhumanneedsandvalues
aredefinedbythemanagementteamandstakeholdersandits
environmentalsetting.Thesearetheconstraints,orboundaries,within
whichprojectdecisionsmustbemade.Therefore,twomorecritical
sustainabilitycomponents,extentandexpectations,areidentified.
12
These
twocomponentsactasthesystemboundaries,providingscopeandcontext
tosustainability.
Extentrepresentstheideathataprojectsystemhaswelldefinedconstraints
andlimitswithinwhichsustainabilitycanbemeasured.Extentrefersto
spatialandtemporalconstraintsofcivilprojects(suchascenterlinelength,
rightofwaydimensions,footprint,andservicelife,respectively)oftenexplicitlydefinedbynaturallaws(suchas
howgravityultimatelydefinesloadlimits).Someotherpracticalexamplesofextentareheightrestrictionsand
constructionworkinghours.
Performancecriteria,orExpectations,arethekeyhumanvalueconstraintsidentifiedfortheproject.Expectations
providetheequityandeconomiccontextwithinwhichtheoverallperformanceofthesystemismosteffectively
judged.Expectationsvarybyprojectandmayincludepracticalperformanceoftheindividualdesignelements,
overallqualityoftheconstructionprocessesofaproject,orsystemwideoutcomeslikereducedaccidentsor
improvedworkerproductivity.
WhiletheideasofExtentandExpectationsmaybeimplicit(orpresumedtobeunderstood)inthepreceding
descriptionsofnaturallawsandhumanvalues,thereisnoreasonforthemnottobeexplicitlystatedinworking
definitionofsustainability.Infact,withoutexplicitlystatingthesecomponents,itismorelikelythat
misunderstandingsofthesecriticallimits,boundaries,andconstraintswouldoccur,orthattheirimpactsand
importancewouldbeignoredordownplayed.
Furthermore,itisnotenoughtobelievethattheideaofsustainabilitywillselfpropagateandimplementitsown
paradigmshifttowardmoresustainablesystemsandpractices.Thus,thefinaltwoimportantcomponentsof
sustainability,ExperienceandExposure,translatethephilosophicalconceptofsustainabilityintoimplementable
practices.Experiencerepresentsbothwhathasbeenlearnedandthelearningprocessitself,whichisongoing.So,
experienceincludestechnicalexpertise,innovation,andknowledgeofapplicablehistoricalinformation,whichis
criticalindecisionmakingprocesses.Forexample,mostsuccessfulprojectteamsarecomprisedofinterdisciplinary
expertsthatcanbringspecializedexperiencetodesignorconstruction.
Finally,iftheconceptofsustainabilityistocauseaparadigmshiftinindividual,communityandsocietalbehavior
thenitmustincludeanactiveeducationalcomponent;ormorespecifically,ateachingoroutreachcomponent.
Exposurerepresentstheideathatimplementingsustainabilityinpracticerequiresongoingeducationaland
awarenessprogramsforthegeneralpublic,professionals,agencies,andstakeholders.Therefore,experienceand
exposuredrivetheprogressandimplementationofsustainabilitywithinaprojectsystem.Withoutthesetwo
drivingcomponents,civilengineeringsystemswouldremainstatic,andsustainabilitywouldbeabsent,
unmanageableorsimplyunrecognized.

12
Anderson,J.L.(2008).Sustainabilityincivilengineering.Thesis(M.S.C.E.)UniversityofWashington,2008.
7 ES OF SUSTAINABILITY
Ecology
Equity
Economy
Extent
Expectations
Experience
Exposure
19
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
GREENROADS BENEFITS
ThereareparticularsustainabilityrelatedbenefitsassociatedwithProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCredits.
Theseroughlycorrelatewiththeideasofnaturallawsandhumanvaluesthatwereoutlinedinthepreceding
sections.GreenroadsidentifiesthesebenefitsforeachProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCreditmakingiteasier
toatleastlist,ifnotexactlyquantify,thebenefitsassociatedwithGreenroadscertification.Thesebenefitsare:
PrimarilyEcocentricBenefits
9 ReducesRawMaterialsUse
9 ReducesFossilFuelUse
9 CreatesEnergy
9 ReducesWaterUse
9 ReducesAirEmissions
9 ReducesGreenhouseGases
9 ReducesWaterPollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 RestoresHabitat
9 CreatesHabitat
9 ReducesManmadeFootprint
Primarily AnthropocentricBenefits
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
9 IncreasesServiceLife
9 ImprovesHumanHealth&Safety
9 ImprovesLocalEconomies
9 ReducesFirstCosts
9 ReducesLifecycleCosts
9 ImprovesAccountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics
9 CreatesNewInformation
Wehavelistedthese,alongwitheachofthesustainabilitycomponentsaddressed,onthefrontpageofeachPR
andVC,sothatitiseasytoidentifywhatisbeingaddressedbyactingonthatPRorVC.ThisfeatureoftheManual
maybeparticularlyhelpfulforagenciesorprojectteamsthathavepredefinedsustainabilitygoals,valuesor
internalbenchmarkstomeet.
NotethatinthepreviousversionoftheGreenroadsManualwehadmade16benefitsexplicit:nowthereare22.
BasedonfeedbackfromusersandalsoourstudentsattheUniversityofWashington,webrokeapartthese16
benefitssomewhatandchangedthewordingusedtobetterreflectwhatwemeanbysustainabilitybenefitin
termsthataremorecommonlyunderstoodtotransportationprofessionals.Wealsohavetriedtoidentifythemas
beingprimarilyecocentricoranthropocentricbutwerecognizethismaybedebatableinsome,ifnotall,
instances.(SeeOtherNotesonthefollowingpagesformorecommentary.)
TRACING GREENROADS PRACTICES TO SUSTAINABILITY AND BENEFITS
EachGreenroadsProjectRequirementandVoluntaryCreditcanbetracedbacktoatleastonerelevant
sustainabilitycomponentandonerelevantbenefit;mostcanbetracedtoseveral.Wecallthismapping,and
believeitisimportantbecauseitprovidesthebasisbywhichaGreenroadsProjectRequirementorVoluntary
CreditcanbeconsideredtocontributetosustainabilityandprovidebenefitsasGreenroadsdefinesthem.This
mappinginvolvessubjectivejudgmentastowhichcomponentsandwhichbenefitsmaptowhichitems.While
eliminationofthissubjectivitywouldbeideal,morecomplexsystemsformappingwouldlikelyjustconcealrather
thaneliminatethissubjectivity.
Mappingofanitembacktosustainabilityandbenefitsisdone,wherepractical,usingempiricalevidencewith
propercitations.ThegoalistocreateametricwhereeachProjectRequirementandVoluntaryCreditis,tothe
extentpossible,shownthroughexistingresearchtohaveanimpactonsustainability.
ThismappingcanassistinselectingVoluntaryCreditstopursuebasedonuservaluesordesiredbenefits.
Importantly,thenatureofsustainabilityrequiresuserstomaketradeoffsbetweendifferentaspectsof
sustainability.Forinstance,onemighthavetoselectbetweenusingrecycledmaterialthatmustbetruckedovera
longdistanceorusinglocallyprovidedvirginmaterial.Bothconcepts(recycledmaterial,localmaterial)relateto
sustainability(e.g.,ecologyandeconomy)howeveronlyonecanbechosen.
20
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Background
University of Washington 2011
Decisionsregardingthesetypesoftradeoffsarelikelytobeatleastpartly,ifnotwholly,basedonthevaluesheld
byaproject,whichisaconglomerationofvaluesheldbyitsstakeholders,owners,designersandconstructors.
Sincethesevaluesarenotlikelytobeidenticalbetweenprojects,overtimeorbetweenstakeholders,one
predeterminedsetofvaluesincludedinaperformancemetricisprobablynotwise.Rather,Greenroadsallows
userstochoosefromalonglistofVoluntaryCreditsbasedontheirvalues.Mappingtosustainabilitycomponents
isdonebecauseusersmayfinditmorestraightforwardtochoosebetweenresourcesratherthanGreenroads
VoluntaryCredits.Forinstance,itmaybedifficulttochoosebetweenwarmmixasphaltandporouspavement
unlessatechnicalexpertisconsultedtofullyexplaineachitem.However,itmaybeeasiertochoosebetweenthe
benefitstheyoffer.
OTHER NOTES
1. Additionally,itisusefultonotethatseveralbenefitsmaybedirectlyquantifiablewhileothersaremorelikely
tobeindirectbenefits.Wherepossible,thisisdiscussedinthesupportingresearchforeachcreditinthe
Manual.Werecognizethatthisstillpresentsanincompletepictureofthebenefitsofsustainability,butour
intentistoprovideassistanceinunderstandingarelativelynewandsometimescomplexidea.
2. Also,itwouldberemissofusnottonotethatanyecologicalbenefitisalsoahumanbenefitsinceour
environmentisfundamentallywhatsupportsusaslivingbeingsandimpactsourqualityoflife.Similarly,
sometimesthereisbeneficialinteractionbetweenthesebenefitswherehumanscanimpactthequalityofnon
humanlifeinapositiveway.Forexample,pursuingCreditEW7EcologicalConnectivitycanimprovemobility
andaccessforbothhumansandwildlifesimultaneously,whileachievinganumberoftheotherbenefitsalso
listedabove.
3. Finally,werecognizethatreductionofgreenhousegasesisakeygoalofmanyagencies.Thislevelofspecificity,
sincetheyareatypeofairpollution,correlatesdirectlywiththebenefitofreducedairemissionsand
reducedfossilfueluse.Wefeltitwasusefultoprovidethisaddedspecificityinlightofcurrentstateand
federalpolicygoals.

21
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
HOW GREENROADS IS WEIGHTED
TheoverallgoalofweightingistomakeeachVoluntaryCreditspointvaluecommensuratewithitsimpacton
sustainability.Thiscannotbeachievedbyastrictlyobjectiveorempiricalapproachbecause:
x Somesustainabilitycomponentsaredifficulttodirectlycomparebecausethereisnogenerallyacceptedmetric
ofcomparison(e.g.,comparingscenicviewstostormwatertreatment).
x Traditionallyacceptedquantitativemethods,e.g.,lifecycleassessment(LCA),lifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA),
benefitcostanalysis,donotadequatelyaddressallsustainabilitycomponents.
x GreenroadsisdesignedtofunctionasasupplementtocurrentU.S.regulations.Therefore,someareasthat
mightotherwisehavebeenheavilyweightedreceivelessemphasisinGreenroadsbecausecurrentU.S.
regulationalreadyrequiresmanymandatoryactionsleavinglittleroomforsupplementalvoluntaryactions.
x Therearesomeactionsforwhichthedirectimpactonsustainabilitymaybedifficultorimpossibletomeasure,
howevertheirexecutionmayprovidevaluableinformationonwhichtobasefuturedecisions.
Weightingfollowsthegeneralframeworkdescribedhere.Asabeginningpoint,weestablishedaminimumvalueof
onepointandamaximumvalueoffivepoints.Thisrangeallowsweightstoreflectarangeofsustainabilityimpact
butlimitstheimpactofpotentialmissteps.Individualconstructionactivitiesduringinitialconstructionhavethe
lowestimpact(seediscussionlater)onsustainabilitysowestartbyassigningtheseVoluntaryCreditsonepoint
each.FromhereVoluntaryCreditpointvaluesaremodifiedbasedonthelogicpresentednext.Importantly,
weightsarebasedontherelationshipoftheirassociatedprevailingbroadconceptswhiletheactuallevelof
achievementnecessarytoqualifyforaVoluntaryCreditisbasedonanassessmentofwhatispracticallyachievable
givencurrenttechnologyandpractice.Thegoalistomakethelevelofachievementbeyondcurrentpracticebut
enticinglyattainableusingcurrenttechnology.Usingthislogic,itfollowsthatastheindustryssustainabilitysavvy
growsandtechnologyadvancesVoluntaryCreditrequirementsmustchange.Thefollowingsectionsdiscuss
weightingdetailsforthesystem.Thefigurebelowshowstheweightsofthecategories(withoutCustomCredits).

FigureI.5:GraphshowingthedistributionofVoluntaryCreditpoints(bypercentageofthetotal)
ineachofthe5categories.
22
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Background
University of Washington 2011
ECOLOGY WEIGHTING
Whileitisdifficulttoplaceavalueonecosystemservices,someresearchershavetried.Oneeffort
13
valuedthem
atUS$1654trillion/yrwithameanofUS$33trillion/yrfor17ecosystemservices(in1994USdollars).This
comparestoaworldgrossnationalproduct(GNP)ofUS$18trillion(1994USdollars)makingecosystemservices
about1.8timestheglobalGNPifthemeanvalueisassumed.Thiseffortacknowledgesthattheestimateisonthe
lowside,incompleteandflawedbutreasonthatsomeestimateisbetterthannone.Basedonthis,weestimate
thevalueofecosystemsasaboutthreetimesthevalueofhumaneconomicsystems(representedbythebaseline
valueofonepoint)forthepurposesofweightingVoluntaryCredits.Thisusesthehighendestimate(US$54
trillion)toatleastpartiallyaccountfortheiradmittedunderestimation.Fromthis,weassignEW2,EW3,EW5,
EW6,EW7,EW8andPT2threepointseachbecausetheyareprimarilyconcernedwithecosystemservices.
EQUITY WEIGHTING
Equity,asitisreflectedinGreenroadscanprimarilybeaddressedbyportionsofwhatiscommonlycalledcontext
sensitivedesign(CSD)orcontextsensitivesolutions(CSS).Toourknowledge,nobodyhasattemptedtoplacea
monetaryvalueonCSD/CSShowever,thereissubstantialevidencesuggestingthatithascometobeviewedasan
importantifnottheessentialcomponentinU.S.roadwaydesignoverthelastdecade.WhileCSD/CSSalsoincludes
ecologicalelements,itsstrengthliesinitsapproachtoidentifyingandinvolvingstakeholdersandreflecting
communityvaluesinaproject(theequitycomponentofsustainability).WhileCSD/CSSprovidesevidenceof
equitysimportanceitdoesnotprovideanyinsightregardingitslevelofimportanceinrelationtoother
sustainabilitycomponents.Infact,itarguesthatsuchvalueiscontextsensitive.WebelievethattheU.S.move
towardsCSD/CSSanditsemphasisonacollaborativecommunitybasedapproachtodesign(versusastrictlylow
coststandardsbasedapproach)showsthatequityissuesoughttobevaluedmorethantheminimumofonepoint.
Asafirstorderapproximation,weassignequityVoluntaryCreditstwopoints.BasedonthisweassignAE1,AE5,
AE6,AE8,AE9twopointseachbecausetheyareprimarilyconcernedwithequityissues.WeassignAE3the
maximumoffivepointsbecauseitactuallygivescreditforaCSD/CSSapproach,whiletheotherAEVoluntary
CreditsaddressoutcomesofaCSD/CSSapproach.
LIFECYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) BASED WEIGHTING
ForVoluntaryCreditsdealingwithmaterialsproduction,construction,transportationassociatedwiththe
constructionprocessandtrafficuse,weightingisbasedonlifecycleassessment(LCA)resultstothegreatest
possibleextent.SinceGreenroadsismeanttoapplytoanyroadwayproject,LCAresultsspecifictoaparticular
projectcannotbeusedalonebecausetheyareprojectspecificandnotentirelytransferrable.However,examining
arangeofspecificLCAsmayprovideinsightintosomegeneraltrendsthatcouldbeusedtoweightVoluntary
Credits.Weidentified12roadwayLCApeerreviewedjournalpapersconsistingof43assessmentsofeitheractual
orhypotheticalroadways.
14
FivepapersaddressedPCCpavements(10assessments),whileall12addressHMA
pavements(34assessments).Somegeneraltrendsobservedwere:

13
Costanza,R.,dArge,R.,deGroot,R.,Farber,S.,Grasso,M.,Hannon,B.,Limburg,K.,Naeem,S.,ONeill,R.V.,
Paruelo,J.,Raskin,R.G.,Sutton,P.,vandenBelt,M.,(1997).Thevalueoftheworldsecosystemservicesand
naturalcapital.Nat.,387,253260.
14
Thesepapersare:
Stripple,H.LifeCycleInventoryofAsphaltPavements.IVLSwedishEnvironmentalresearchInstituteLtdreportfor
theEuropeanAsphaltPavementAssociation(EAPA)andEurobitume,2000.
Stripple,H.LifeCycleAssessmentofRoad:APilotStudyforInventoryAnalysis,SecondRevisedEdition.IVLSwedish
EnvironmentalResearchInstituteLtdreportfortheSwedishNationalRoadAdministration,2001.
Mroueh,UM,Eskola,P.,LaineYlijoki,J.,Lifecycleimpactsoftheuseofindustrialbyproductsinroadandearth
construction.WasteManagement21,2001,pp.271277.
Treloar,G.J.;Love,P.E.D.andCrawford,R.H.HybridLifeCycleInventoryforRoadConstructionandUse,J.ofConst.
Engr.andMgmt.130(1),2004,pp.4349.
23
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011
x Energyuseandemissionsforconstructionfollowedthesamebasictrendsinmoststudies.Somegeneral
rulesofthumbwefoundwere:
9 Materialsproductionhas20timestheimpactofconstruction.
9 Transportation(ofmaterials)has5timestheimpactofconstruction.
9 Maintenancehas1/3theimpactofinitialconstruction.
x Fortheonestudythatquantifiedthem,roadwayoperations(e.g.,lighting,signals,etc.)over40yearshad
aboutthesameenergyuseasallconstructionactivities(initialconstructionplusmaintenance).
x Forthetwostudiesthatrelatedthem,theenergyexpendedininitialconstructionofanewroadwayis
roughlyequivalenttotheenergyusedbytrafficonthefacilityover12years.
Basedontheseideas,thefollowingweightingisused:
x Operationsvs.construction:MR6isassigned5points.
x Trafficusevs.initialconstruction:AE2,AE4,andAE7areassigned5pointseach.
x Transportationassociatedwithconstruction:MR5isassigned5points.
x Materialsproduction:MR2andMR4areassignedupto5pointseach.MR3isassigned1pointandPT3
isassigned3points.
INCENTIVE-BASED WEIGHTING
SomeVoluntaryCreditsareassignedadditionalpointstoprovideincentivetocollectdata,undertakeorganization
wideeffortsandobtainhighachievementlevels.Generally,higherlevelsofachievementwillcorrelateto
incorporatinganumberofothervoluntaryactivitiesthatmaybereflectedinothercreditstoo.Thefollowing
VoluntaryCreditsuseincentivebasedweighting:EW1,EW2,EW3,EW5,AE1,AE2,AE5,AE6,AE7,CA1,CA
4,CA5,CA7,MR1,MR2,MR4,MR5andPT5.
DEVELOPED AREA WEIGHTING
TheUrbanHeatIsland(UHI)effectisameasurableincreaseinambienturbanairtemperaturesresulting
primarilyfromthereplacementofvegetationwithbuildings,roads,andotherheatabsorbinginfrastructure.
15

UHIcanimpactsustainabilitybyincreasingenergyconsumption,andrelatedemissionsandaffectinghumanhealth

13
(cont.)
Zapata,P.,Gambatese,J.A.,EnergyConsumptionofAsphaltandReinforcedConcretePavementMaterialsand
Construction.J.ofInfrastructureSystems11(1),2005,pp.920.
Rajendran,S.,Gambatese,J.A.SolidWasteGenerationinAsphaltandReinforcedConcreteRoadwayLifeCycles.J.
ofInfrastructureSystems13(2),2005,pp.8896.
AthenaInstitute.ALifeCyclePerspectiveonConcreteandAsphaltRoadways:EmbodiedPrimaryEnergyandGlobal
WarmingPotential.ReporttotheCementAssociationofCanada,2006.
TramoreHouseRegionalDesignOffice.IntegrationoftheMeasurementofEnergyUsageintoRoadDesign.Rept.to
theCommissionoftheEuropeanDGforEnergyandTransport.ProjectNumber4.1031/Z/02091/2002,2006.
Weiland,C.D.LifeCycleAssessmentofPortlandCementConcreteInterstateHighwayRehabilitationand
Replacement.MastersThesis,UniversityofWashington,Seattle,WA,2008.
Chui,CT.,Hsu,TH.,Yang,WF.Lifecycleassessmentonusingrecycledmaterialsforrehabilitatingasphalt
pavements.Resources,ConservationandRecycling52,2008,pp.545556.
Huang,Y.,Bird,R.,Bell,M.Acomparativestudyoftheemissionsbyroadmaintenanceworksandthedisrupted
trafficusinglifecycleassessmentandmicrosimulation.TransportationResearchPartD14,2009,pp.197204.
Huang,Y.,Bird,R.,Heidrich,O.Developmentofalifecycleassessmenttoolforconstructionandmaintenanceof
asphaltpavements.J.ofCleanerProduction17,2009,pp.283296.
15
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).HeatIslandEffectwebsite.[http://www.epa.gov/hiri]Accessed9
June2009.
24
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Background
University of Washington 2011
andwaterquality.BasedonresearchfromtheLawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratory
16
agrossapproximationis
thatroadpavementsconstituteaboutonequarterthetotalsurfaceareacontributingtotheUHI.FromthisPT4is
assigned5points.Thisweightingisalsoconsistentwithotherconcernsthatarerelevantinurbanareas:AE4and
MR6.
DURABILITY WEIGHTING
Longlifepavementgenerallyresultsinlowerlifecyclecosts,lessmaterialandfewertrafficinterruptionsoverthe
lifecycleofapavement.Whilemoreworkneedstobedoneinquantifyingthesereductions,avalueforPT1canbe
attemptedbydrawingthelinkbetweenlessmaterialandfewertrafficinterruptionstolessenergyandlower
emissions.PT1isassigned5points.
AESTHETIC WEIGHTING
Onestudy
17
investigateddifferentmonetizationapproachesforthehealthimpactsfromroadnoise.Fromtheir
workweassignnoiseonethirdtheimpactoftrafficrelatedemissions.Sincetirepavementnoiseisthe
predominantsourceorroadnoiseaboveabout50km/hr(forautomobiles)achangeintirepavementnoise
resultingfromsocalledquieterpavementuseisaboutonethirdasimpactfulasactionsresultingintraffic
relatedemissionsreduction.Noisereductioncharacteristicsofquieterpavementstendtodiminishovertime.PT5
isassigned2to3points.ThiscorrelateswithEW8,whichisalsoassigned3pointsandaddressesglareother
unwantedlightemissions.

16
Rose,L.S.,H.Akbari,andH.Taha.2003.CharacterizingtheFabricoftheUrbanEnvironment:ACaseStudyof
GreaterHouston,Texas.PaperLBNL51448.LawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratory,Berkeley,CA.
17
Hofstetter,P.,MllerWenk,R.,2005.Monetizationofhealthdamagesfromroadnoisewithimplicationsfor
monetizinghealthimpactsinlifecycleassessment.J.ofClean.Production13,12351245.
25
Background Greenroads Manual v1.5
University of Washington 2011

26

Greenroads Manual v1.5 2011



PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

27

Greenroads Manual v1.5 2011

28
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-1 Environmental Review Process
ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCESS
GOAL
Evaluateimpactsofroadwayprojectsthroughaninformeddecisionmakingprocess.
REQUIREMENTS
Performanddocumentacomprehensiveenvironmentalreviewoftheroadway
project.Thisreviewshouldclearlyandconciselydocument:
1. Projectnameandlocation.
2. Namesandcontactinformationofkeyplayersinthedecisionmakingprocess,
including(butnotlimitedto):theowneragency,agencyrepresentatives
responsibleforcompletingtheenvironmentalreviewprocess,otherstakeholders,
andrelevantprofessionalsinvolved.
3. Intentandpurposeoftheroadwayproject.
4. Descriptionsofpotentialenvironmental,economicandsocialimpactsofthe
intendedroadwayproject.
5. Detaileddescriptionsoftheextentofthesignificanceoftheseimpactswithrespect
tothedecisionmakingprocessandfeasibleperformanceexpectations.
6. Descriptionofthepublicinvolvementopportunityintheenvironmentalreview
process;documentthisopportunityandtheresultsofinputinthefinaldecisions.
7. Anyjurisdictionalrequirementsformoredetailedenvironmentalreviewdocuments
suchasenvironmentalimpactstatements(EIS)orenvironmentalassessments(EA)
todeterminethesignificanceofenvironmentalimpacts.
8. Descriptionofthefinalenvironmentaldecisionsmade.
Details
Anenvironmentalreviewprocessisamethodofdecisionmakingusedinproject
development.Thebasicintentoftheprocessistopromoteinformeddecision
makingbyexplainingtheprojectinacomprehensive,conciseandunderstandable
way.Thisexplanationinvolvesanevaluationofenvironmental,socialandeconomic
impactsinordertomeetexistingregulationsandpublicstakeholderneeds.These
impacts,regulations,andneedsshapebasicdecisioncriteria,varysignificantlyin
complexitybetweenprojects,anddictatetheeffortrequiredduringthereview
processandprojectimplementation.TheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)
providesformalguidelinesforfederallyfundedroadwayprojects,andmanystates
haveenvironmentalreviewprocessessimilartoNEPA.
DOCUMENTATION
x Copyofthefinaldecisiondocumentthatdemonstratesanenvironmentalreview
processhasbeencompletedfortheproject,withallappropriateagencyor
jurisdictionrepresentativesignatures.Anyofthefollowingdocumentswillsuffice:
x ExecutivesummaryoftheEAorEIS,theRecordofDecision(ROD)orFindingof
NoSignificantImpact(FONSI),orjurisdictionequivalentofthesedocuments.
x CompletedcopyoftheWashingtonStateDepartmentofEcologyState
EnvironmentalPolicyAct(SEPA)Checklist(orlocalequivalent).Note:Dothisif
theprojectisexemptfromaformalenvironmentalrevieworisclassifiedasa
categoricalexclusion(CE).
PR-1
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR2LifecycleCost
Analysis
9 PR3Lifecycle
Inventory
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 MR1Lifecycle
Assessment
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics
29
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Environmental Review Process PR-1
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Checkifyourstatehasexistingproceduresthatstreamlinetheenvironmentalreviewprocessspecificallyfor
roadwayprojects.TheCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality(CEQ)maintainsanupdatedlistofstatesthatare
complianthere:http://nepa.gov/nepa/regs/states/states.cfm
x Identifyopportunitiestoinvolvethepublicearlyintheenvironmentalreviewprocess.Usuallythisstepismost
effectiveduringprojectplanning.
x Recognizethattheenvironmentalreviewprocesscanoftenbeiterative,especiallyduringplanninganddesign
stageswhenalternativesarestillsubjecttochange.
x Conductadetailed,multidisciplinaryliteraturereviewatthestartofaproject.Thisreviewcanhelpidentify
existingextraordinarycircumstances,suchasspecialwildlifeandplantconcernsandsocioeconomicissues.
x UsethechecklistprovidedbytheWashingtonstateDepartmentofEcologyStateEnvironmentalPolicyAct
(SEPA)asaguidelineforanenvironmentalreviewprocessinjurisdictionsnotsubjecttoNEPAorsimilarlocalor
staterequirements.Thischecklistiseasyandstraightforwardandmaybecompletedtomeettheintentofthis
ProjectRequirement.NotethatmanystatesalsooffercheckliststhatcoverthesametopicsastheWashington
SEPAchecklist,andwillalsomeettheintentofthisProjectRequirement.TheWashingtonstatechecklistis
readilyavailableanddownloadableforimmediateusehere:http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/ecy05045.html.
x Maketheenvironmentalreviewdocumentationasconciseandcomprehensiveaspossible,whilealsolimiting
useofprofessionaljargon.Thiswillcreateaneasytoreadandunderstandableenvironmentalreview
documentfordecisionmakers.ThereareanumberofguidancedocumentsavailablefromtheCEQforNEPA
documents,andindividualstatesmayalsohavehelpfulresourcesavailable.TheseareavailablefromtheCEQ
here:http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/regs/guidance.html
x Forprojectstypicallyconsideredcategoricallyexempt,wherejurisdictionalprecedenthasbeenestablishedfor
similarroadwayprojectsinpreviousenvironmentalreviewprocesses,completetheWashingtonstateSEPA
checklistforpurposesofthisrequirement.Thisprocesswillalsodemonstrate1)thatthereviewprocesshas
beencompletedandallimpactshavebeenaddressed,and2)whyyourprojecthasbeendetermineda
categoricalexclusion.
x FollowFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)andFederalTransitAuthority(FTA)guidelinesforcomplex,
detailedandlargerprojectsthatneedtoproduceEISreports.Theseguidelinesarecompiledina
straightforwardguidancedocumentlocatedhere:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/section6002/.Thisdocument
includesstepsrequiredfortheNEPAprocessandalsoexemplaryprojectcasestudiesthatmeetthe
requirementsfortheenvironmentalreviewprocess.
Example: SEPA Checklists
ProjectsnotsubjecttoNEPAoranequivalentlocalorstatepolicyforenvironmentalreviewwillneedtosubmit
acompletedenvironmentalreviewprocesschecklistforpurposesofthisrequirement.Therearemany
availablefromvariousstateagenciesorDepartmentsofTransportation(DOT),checkwithyourowner/agency.
SeveralexamplesofcompletedchecklistsareprovidedinTablePR1.1.
TablePR1.1:SampleCompletedSEPAChecklists
ProjectName Owner Type WheretoFindChecklist
SR509/SR518Interchange
SafetyImprovementProject
Washington
StateDOT
Highway
improvement
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/62
4594AC5B814D62BA042D926347628C/
0/SR518SafetySEPAChecklist.pdf
2009AACProgram
FauntleroyWaySWbetween
SWAlaskaStandSWHollySt
SeattleDOT
(SDOT)
Resurfacing http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/docs
/SEPAFAUNTLEROY.pdf
RevisedAuroraAvenueNorth
Transit,PedestrianandSafety
Improvements
SDOT,
WSDOT,
FHWA
Multipurpose
urbanarterial
improvements
http://www.seattle.gov/Transportation/doc
s/aurora/RevAurora_SEPAchecklist_
SigOnFile.pdf
EagleCreekRoadImprovement
Project
Chelan
County
Ruralroad
improvements
http://www.co.chelan.wa.us/pw/data/sepa_
checklist.pdf
30
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-1 Environmental Review Process

Example: Federally Funded Projects and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
FederallyfundedroadwayprojectsarerequiredtousetheNEPA(NationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct)
environmentalreviewprocess(CEQ,2007).ThisincludesallroadwayprojectsmanagedbytheFederalHighway
Administration(FHWA).
NOTE:NEPAclearlystatesthattheenvironmentalreviewprocessdoesnotrequirethatagenciesorproject
teamsmakefinalprojectdecisionsbasedonanyoftheenvironmentalimpactsthatarestudiedordiscovered.
Rather,theintentoftheNEPAprocessistoinformdecisionmakersofthepotentialeffectsoftheiractions
(Caldwell,1999;CEQ,2007).
TheFHWA,AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)andtheAmericanCouncil
ofEngineeringCompanies(ACEC)havecompiledaguidancedocumentcalledImprovingtheQualityof
EnvironmentalDocumentsthathighlightsseveralcasestudiesofexemplary,easytoreadandcomprehensive
NEPAdocuments.Afewofthoseprojectsarelistedbelow:
x AlaskanWayViaductandSeawallReplacementProject(WashingtonStateDOT)
x Mon/FayetteTransportationProject,PARoute51toI376(PennsylvaniaTurnpikeCommission)
x RoutePost13(I15)Interchange(UtahDOT)
x SouthernCorridor(I15)(UtahDOT)
x US93SomerstoWhitefish(MontanaDOT)
x I69EvansvilletoIndianapolis(IndianaDOT)
x MidCurrituckSoundBridge(NorthCarolinaDOT)
Detailedinformationoneachproject(andothernonroadwaytransportationprojects)isincludedinthe
completedreportfortheNationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)2525Task1(2005).This
NCHRPreportalsocontainsdescriptionsofwhythesereportsareexemplaryofasuccessfulNEPAprocess.
Accordingtoregulationsupdatedin2001fromtheFHWA,manytransportationprojectsforbothroadwaysand
bridges,specificallyrehabilitationactivities,areconsideredtobecategoricallyexempt(CEs)becausetheyhave
beendeemedtomeet40CFR1508.4basedonpastprecedent.Accordingly,thesecertainprojecttypes:
x Donothavesignificantenvironmental,plannedgrowthorlanduseimpacts
x Donotneedrelocationofmanypeople
x Donothaveimpactonnatural,cultural,recreational,orhistoricresources
x Donothaveair,noise,orwaterqualityimpacts
x Donothavesignificantimpactsontravelpatterns
x Donot,eitherindividuallyorcumulatively,haveanysignificantenvironmentalimpacts
See40CFR1508.4and23CFR771.117.Forpurposesofthisrequirement,projectsthatqualifyasNEPACEs
mustcompleteachecklistequivalenttothoseshowninTablePR1.1.
Example: States with Environmental Review Processes
Somestates,regionsandterritoriesoftheUnitedStatesrequireanenvironmentalreviewprocessthatis
similartoNEPA.TheselocationsarelistedinTablePR1.2.Additionally,somelocalandregionaldepartmentsof
transportation(DOT),orprojectsfundedbythoseagencies,mayalsorequireanenvironmentalreviewprocess
thatisgenerallybasedontheNEPA.Completingsuchanowner/agencyprocessmeetsthisrequirement,
providedthatitaddressesallthestepsnoted.Notethatsomeowners/agenciesmayhavestrictercriteriathan
NEPA.Also,guidancedocumentsandexamplesatthefederallevelcanoftenprovideahelpfulresourceor
templateforstateleveldocumentation.
31
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Environmental Review Process PR-1
TablePR1.2:U.S.LocationswithExistingEnvironmentalReviewProcesses
1

California Montana
Connecticut Nevada/CaliforniaTahoe
DistrictofColumbia NewJersey
Georgia NewYork
Guam NorthCarolina
Hawaii PuertoRico
Indiana SouthDakota
Maryland Virginia
Massachusetts Washington
Minnesota Wisconsin
1
http://nepa.gov/nepa/regs/states/states.cfm
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. ProjectsthataretypicallyclassifiedascategoricalexclusionsunderNEPA(orequivalent)mayneedtoexpend
extraefforttoachievetheintentofthisrequirement.
2. Inadequateorineffectivepublic,stakeholder,andagencyinvolvementduringprojectscoping,leadingtoa
poorlydefinedorincompletesolution.
3. Leadagenciesareresponsibleforthescopeoftheenvironmentalreview,butconsultantsordevelopersare
oftenrequiredtopayforandperformtheworkinvolved(CEQ,2007).
4. Climatechangeisnotoftenadequatelyaddressedbytheenvironmentalreviewprocess,whichhasoccasionally
resultedinlitigation(Clark,1994;Lemons,1998).
5. Inadequatemitigationofindirectandcumulativeeffectsbecauseofjurisdictionallimitationsorlackofscientific
data(Clark,1994;Lemons,1998).
RESEARCH
Anenvironmentalreviewprocesshastwomainpurposes:providinganavenueformoreinformeddecisionmaking
andallowingpublicinvolvementinagencyprojectsthatmayhaveadverseimpactsontheenvironment(CEQ,
2007).Generallyspeaking,itisthefirststeptowardachievingageneralmarkofroadwaysustainability;thisstep,
whentakenattheoutsetofdesignandconstruction,allowscomprehensiveconsiderationofelementsthat
contributetooverallsustainabilityatthemostbasiclevelofprojectdecisionmaking.
Completionofanenvironmentalreviewprocessensuresthattheprojecthasreceivedearlyscrutinyandguidance
fromthepublic,stakeholders,andappropriateagenciesandjurisdictionsbeforeitisdesignedandbuilt.However,
importantly,theprocessdoesnotdictatethefinaldecisionsmade.Inotherwords,someimpactsthatare
consideredadversemayactuallybeimplementedbasedonweighinganumberoftradeoffs.Thisway,stakeholder
valuesandlocalregulationsprovidetheenvironmental,social,economicandotherpoliticalparameterswithin
whichaprojectmustfit.
WhyistheenvironmentalreviewprocessarequirementinGreenroads?
Nomatterhowsmalltheroadwayprojectis,itstillhasanimpact,evenifitisconsideredatsomeregulatorylevel
tobeaninsignificantone.Greenroadsseekstorecognizethoseprojectsthathavebeensubjecttotherobust
publicandregulatoryagencyreviewprocessimposedbytheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)orastate
levelequivalentprocedure.Toclarify,inparticular,manyroadwayprojectshavebeenclassifiedasCategorical
Exclusions.Suchregularexclusionofthisprocessrequirementdetachestheimpactsthatareperceivedas
insignificantonaprojectbasisandatapracticallevelactuallyhasapotentiallylargeaggregateenvironmental
impact.Passingoffinsignificantimpactsdoesnotprecludethevalueoftheprocessinadecisionmakingsituation,
especiallyforthebroadrangeofimpactthatroadwayprojectshave.Also,byconsideringusingametriclike
Greenroadsinprojectlevelplanning,wefeelthattheenvironmentalreviewprocessmaybeaugmentedby
considerationofsomeoftheideasattheprojectconception.
32
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-1 Environmental Review Process
Whyisenvironmentalreviewimportantforroadways?
Roadwayconstructionandmaintenanceactivitiesplaceanincredibledemandonnationalenvironmentaland
financialresources.However,currentroadwaydesignandconstructionpracticedoesnotalwayssystematicallyor
holisticallyaddressenvironmentalimpactsorenvironmentalquality.Formanyprojects,oftenitisdifficultto
conceptualizetheenvironmentalimpactsorinfluencethataroadwayhasonitssurroundings.Thiscouldbedueto
threegeneralproblems:1)decisionmakersareunabletounderstandthecomplexityofecosystemsandhow
manmaderoadwaysfitwithinthiscontext;2)thedecisionrequiresthoughtfulnessthatgoesbeyondconventional
wisdomortraditionalassumptions3)decisionmakersfailtounderstandthelimitsofcontrolthathumanshaveon
ecosystemmanagement(Caldwell,1999).Also,notallprojectsarecoveredbyNEPAoranequivalentstateorlocal
policy;sometimesexistingpoliciesrequirenomorethanacursoryevaluationofenvironmental,socialand
economicimpacts.Inthesecases,manycriticalimpactsareunintentionallyoverlookedorignoredandthese
impactsmayhavelongtermconsequencesfortheenvironmentandlocalcommunities.Approachesthatdonot
addressdirect,indirectandcumulativeeffectsofroadwaydesignandconstructiondemonstrate,atbest,weak
stewardshipefforts,andareinadequatetowardachievingsustainabilityduetotheirlackofcomprehensiveness.
Forexample,evaluationofprojectairemissions,totalenergyuse,orsurroundingecosystemsisrarelyextended
outsideofregulatorycompliance,suchasmeetingrequirementsforacumulativeeffectsassessmentinNational
EnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)documents.TheBureauofTransportationStatistics(2007)reportsthat
approximately$54billionwasspentonpavementmaterialsalonein2006.Production,transportandplacement
ofcommonpavementmaterials,suchashotmixasphalt(HMA)andportlandcementconcrete(PCC),represent
themajorityoflifecyclegreenhousegasemissionsandenergyusageassociatedwithroadways(Zapataand
Gambatese,2005).Additionally,theU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)hasattributedseveraldirect,
cumulativeandlongtermenvironmentalimpacts,suchasecosystemdegradation,fragmentationandhabitatloss,
duetothelinearanddecentralizednatureofthefourmillionmilenetworkofroadwaysintheU.S.(1994)
Performinganenvironmentalreviewonaroadwayprojectprovidesameansofinvestigatingthesespecial
environmentalimpactsinamoredetailedmannerinordertomakebetterenvironmentaldecisionsforroadway
development.
Whatarethestepsintheenvironmentalreviewprocess?
Generally,therearethreegenericstepsintheenvironmentalreviewprocess.Forprojectswithnoenvironmental
reviewprocesswithintheirjurisdiction,theseareguidelinesprovideageneralideaoftheprocess.
1. Completetheinitialpermittingprocessforthegoverningjurisdiction.Usuallythisinvolvessomereviewof
historicaldocumentationfortheareawheretheprojectwillbelocated.
2. Determineifanenvironmentalreviewisneeded.Usually,aprojectfallsintoacertainclassificationwhichhas
specificenvironmentalreviewrequirements.
3. Ifneeded,performanenvironmentalreviewandsubmitforapprovalbythegoverningagency.
Thesethreestepsmaybeiterativedependingonthecomplexityoftheproject.TheeightstepsofthisProject
Requirementmatchthisgeneralframework,inslightlymoredetail,andwithouttheagencypermits.
Howistheenvironmentalreviewprocessusedfordecisionmaking?
Roadwaydesignandconstructionisacomplexprocessthatrequiresexperiencedprofessionalsandclearly
definedexpectationsandvalues.Theenvironmentalreviewprocessisanimportantpartofdecisionmakingin
roadwayprojectsbecauseultimately,ithelpstellthewholeprojectstoryinaneffectivemanner.Determining
stakeholderexpectationsandneeds,spatialandtemporalbounds(Clark,1994),feasibleoptionsandtheir
environmentalimpacts,andwhichchoicesaremostsensiblebasedonallknowncostsandbenefitsarecritical
stepsinapproachingtheprojectinameaningfulandcomprehensiveway.Further,withoutdefiningthesesame
values,effortstowardprojectsustainabilitywouldbeineffective.
Whatisthepublicinvolvementrole?
Publicinvolvementplaysakeyroleinacomprehensiveenvironmentalreviewprocessbecausethepublicisone
ofthelargeststakeholdersinmostroadwayandtransportationrelatedprojects.Itplaysacomplementaryrole
33
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Environmental Review Process PR-1
tothetechnicalknowledgeandexperienceoftheinterdisciplinaryprofessionalsinvolvedinthedesignand
constructionoftheroadway.Openconsensusbasedpublicparticipationstrategiesprovideacriticalavenuefor
exchangeofimportantinformationaboutneeds,opinions,expectationsandlocalvaluesbetweenthepublic
andprojectdecisionmakers.Essentially,thispartoftheenvironmentalreviewprocessengagesthepeople
whowillbemostlikelytobeimpactedbythedecisionsmade.
TheFHWAprovidesseveralpublicationsandguidancematerialsoncreatingandimplementingsuccessful
publicinvolvementcampaignsforroadwayprojects.http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/pi_pubs.htm
Whatisconsideredinanenvironmentalreviewprocess?
TheWashingtonstateDepartmentofEcology(DOE)SEPAchecklistprovidesacomprehensiveexampleofwhatis
typicallyincludedinanenvironmentalreviewprocess.BasictopicscoveredincludethoseshowninTablePR1.3.
TablePR1.3:TopicsAddressedbyanEnvironmentalReviewProcess
Earthenmaterials Sitetopography,soilconditions,gradingquantities,erosionpotential,impervioussurfaces
Air Expectedonsiteandrelevant offsiteairemissions
Water Waterbodiesinvicinity,inwatergradingquantities,surfaceandgroundwaterconditions,
floodplainstatus,expectedpointandnonpointdischarges,stormwatermanagement
Plants Nativevegetation,vegetationmanagement,landscapingplan,endangeredspecies
Animals Nativewildlife,migratoryhabits,endangeredspecies
Energy Energytypesneededandused,renewableenergysources,conservationefforts(ifany)
Humanhealth
andsafety
Exposuretotoxicchemicals,riskoffireandexplosion,spill,or hazardouswaste,emergency
servicesneeded,hazardcontrolsinplace,safetyissuesandneedsbeingaddressed.
Noise Traffic,equipment,operation (shortterm,longterm),timesofexpectednoise,
Landand
shorelineuse
Currentuse,existingstructures(anyplanneddemolition),agriculturalstatus,zoningand
masterplan,currentanddisplacedpopulations,environmentalsensitivity,
Housing Additionorlossofhousingunits
Aesthetics Structureheight,viewsinarea
Lightandglare Timeofdayforexpectedglare,safetyconsiderations,offsiteglare,
Recreational,
historic,cultural
resources
Typesofopportunitiesinvicinity,existingregistrations(ifany),anydisplacementof
recreational,historical,orculturalopportunitiesasaresultofproject
Transportation Accessfromotherpublicstreetsandhighways,transitfacilities,parking,typeofconstruction
expected,nearnesstoairandrailmodes,peaktrafficvolumes,tripgeneration
Publicservices
andutilities
Typesofpublicservicesandutilitiesneededorimpacted,newservicesorutilitiesproposed

Generally,documentationoftheenvironmentalreviewprocessforroadwayprojectsrequiresthatsourcesofall
potentialenvironmental,economicandsocialimpacts,expectednatureandextentoftheseimpacts,andthefinal
decisionsmadeinlightoftheseimpactsarestatedconciselyandclearly.
WhatisNEPA?
TheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)isabroaddeclarationofenvironmentalvaluesintendedto
encouragechangesinattitudesandsocialbehaviorsatanationallevel(Caldwell,1999).NEPAwasinstitutedas
federallawintheUnitedStatesin1969andpublishedintheFederalRegisterinJanuary1970.(CFR424321)The
fulltextoftheactisavailableonlineathttp://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/nepanet.htm.CompliancewithNEPAis
managedbytheCouncilofEnvironmentalQuality(CEQ,2007).Asalaw,NEPAmandatesthataninterdisciplinary
andtransparentapproachistakenduringalternativeselectioninthedecisionmakingprocess.Projectsare
requiredtostateallknowndirect,indirect,andcumulativeenvironmental,socialandeconomicimpactsthatmight
resultfromimplementingtheproject(CEQ,2007).
34
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-1 Environmental Review Process
NEPAappliestoallfederallyfundedprojects,whichcommonlyincludesprojectssuchasroadwaysmanagedbythe
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA),environmentalremediationeffortsthroughtheEPA,government
buildingsandotherinfrastructureprojectsreceivingfederalfunding.Becausemanyroadwayprojectsareatleast
partlyfundedbyfederalmoney,manyagenciesandconsultantsarelikelytobeexperiencedwiththelevelofdetail
expectedduringtheNEPAprocess.Additionally,manystatesmayhaveregulationsthatmapdirectlybacktoNEPA
orhavemorestringentenvironmentalreviewexpectationsduetolocalorstatewidepolicyorotherspecial
environmentalconditions.
Ingeneral,therearefiveclassificationsofprojectsthataresubjecttoenvironmentalreviewunderNEPA.Theseare
shownwithabriefdescriptionofthedocumentationneededandproducedtomeettherequirementsofNEPA
processinTablePR1.4.SignificantlymoredetailregardingeachtypeofreportinthetextoftheActitselfandfrom
CEQathttp://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/nepanet.htm.
TablePR1.4:TypesofNEPAEnvironmentalReviews
NEPAClassification DocumentationNeeds HowtoMeetNeeds
SignificantEffects
Identified
EnvironmentalImpactStatement (EIS)
RecordofDecision(ROD)
FollowNEPAProcessguidelinesforgenerating
anEIS.EPAreviewsEIS.
EffectsUncertain EnvironmentalAssessment(EA)
FindingofNoSignificantImpact
(FONSI)orfollowEISprocedure
FollowNEPAProcessguidelinesforgenerating
anEA.ResultsofEAmaydictateamoredetailed
EISisrequiredfortheroadwayproject.
ListedCategorical
Exclusion(CE)
Letterfromthegoverningjurisdiction
statingtheexistingCEforproject.
FHWAlistsCEsin23CFR771.117
Providecopyofexistingstatementof
CategoricalExclusion(CE)
NoCElistedbyAgency EnvironmentalAssessment(EA)
FindingofNoSignificantImpact
(FONSI)orEISandROD
FollowNEPAProcessguidelinesforgenerating
anEA.ResultsofEAmaydictateamoredetailed
EISisrequiredfortheroadwayproject.
Extraordinary
circumstancefora
listedCE
EnvironmentalAssessment(EA)
FindingofNoSignificantImpact
(FONSI)orEISandROD
FollowNEPAProcessguidelinesforgenerating
anEA.ResultsofEAmaydictateamoredetailed
EISisrequiredfortheroadwayproject.
CriticismsofNEPA
SomeofthecommoncriticismsofNEPAareoutlinedbyNCHRPReport2525(01)(TransTechetal.,2005).Most
complaintsarisefromlossofmeaningfulnessintheenvironmentalreviewprocessduetotwocoupledissues,
thevaguenessofthelanguageusedintheActandthebureaucraticapprovalprocessrequiredoftheNEPA
documentation.
ThelanguageintheActisverybroadcomparedtootherU.S.regulations,andoftentherequirementsforNEPA
areconsideredunclearbycomparison.IntervieweesintheNCHRP2525initialsurveycitedtheneedforclearer
language,lessjargon,consistentstylesandformats,andtheneedtobesuccinct(TransTechetal.,2005).
However,themeaningoftheprocessisnotlikelylostintheprocessitself,butratherintheunnecessarily
verbosedocumentsthataregenerated.Manysectionsoftencontainduplicateinformation.Thisproblemhas
spurredtheguidancedocumentsavailablefromFHWA,AASHTO,andACEC(notedintheprecedingExamples
section)whichstressbrevityandclarityinfinalNEPAdocuments.
Historically,documentationoftheNEPAprocesshasalsobeenconsideredunwieldyandarduousbecause
projectteamsoftentrytopresentasmuchinformationinasbroadoflanguageaspossible,inordertoaddress
thelackofspecificityintheActandavoidpossiblelitigationforerrorsandomissions(Clark,1994;Lemons,
1998).Intervieweesfrequentlymentionedthatdemonstratinglegalsufficiencyisthemainreasondocuments
byDOTsaresolong(TransTechetal.,2005).Consequently,theselengthydocumentsrequirelengthyreviews.
ThereviewprocessiscomplicatedfurtherifaprojectdoesnotbegintheNEPAenvironmentalreviewinearly
stagesofdecisionmakingorifdocumentationisnotproperlytracked.
35
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Environmental Review Process PR-1
Athirdcomplaintthathasactuallyresultedinrecent(andcomplicated)litigationistheNEPArequirementfor
cumulativeenvironmentaleffectassessment,specificallyrelatedtoglobalclimatechange.Smith(2008)notes
thattheNEPAhastraditionallynotincludedanyclimatechangeanalysesintheenvironmentalimpact
assessmentprocess.Recentlythough,climatechangehasappearedasacommentfromtheleadagencyon
reviewsofenvironmentalimpactstatementsandenvironmentalassessments.However,Lemons(1998,p.89)
statesBecauseofthesignificantamountofscientificuncertaintyinpredictiontheenvironmentalimpactsof
humanactivities[suchasclimatechange],opponentsofagencydecisionshaveoftenbeensuccessfulin
challengingagencydecisionsiftheycandemonstratethattheagencydidnotrigorouslyconsidercertain
impactsoriftheycandemonstratethatanagencydidnotfollowprescribedstepsindealingwithscientific
uncertainty.Alternatively,ifanagencyhasfollowedtheseprescribedsteps,thenopponentsofanagencys
decisionwillhaveadifficulttimefulfillingtheburdenofproofrequirementstooverturnthatdecision.For
example,Smith(2008,p.76)identifiesthelandmarkcase,CenterforBiologicalDiversityv.NationalHighway
TrafficSafetyAdministration,asthemostsignificantNEPAclimatechangecourtdecisiontodaterelatedto
NEPAandtransportation.Inthisdecision,theNationalHighwayTrafficSafetyAdministrationfailedtoidentify
thecumulativeeffectofincrementalemissionsonclimatechangeintheEAprocess.However,inthisand
similarcases,eventhebestscientificknowledgeforecosystemrelatedconsequencescanbetoovariableand
uncertaintobeconsideredsignificantevidenceinacourtoflaw.Statisticalsignificanceinscienceand
engineering,unfortunately,doesnottranslatetobeyondareasonabledoubtinlaw.
Clark(1994,p.322)echoesthisdifficultyandstatesthatthelackofconsensusconcerningtheapplicationof
cumulativeimpactanalysismethodologyisprimarilyassociatedwithissuesoftemporalandspatialboundsand
thedifficultyofreachingagreementuponthegeographicalboundariesofthestudyareaandhowfarintothe
futureandhowfarintothepastonemustlooktoadequatelyassessthecumulativeimpacts.Inessence,the
realissueisthatmostprojectteamsareunabletodefineregionalandglobalproblemsinacontextrelevantto
projectleveldecisions.Mostofthecumulativeeffectassessmentsfortransportationprojectsmissthepoint(if
completedatall),andmoredata(easytocollect)isoftenprovidedwithoutcompletelysynthesizingthe
informationinameaningfulway(becauseanalysisismoredifficult)(TransTechetal.,2005).Guidelinesforthe
levelofdetailrequiredandprocesssuggestionsforcumulativeeffectsstudiesoftransportationprojectsare
providedinNCHRP2525(01).
AmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof2009andNEPA
TheNEPAprocessisrequiredforanytransportationinfrastructureimprovementprojectapplyingforor
grantedfundsundertheAmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof2009(ARRA).AccordingtotheCEQ
(2009c),NEPAreviewsarerepresentativeofthesustainabilityandenvironmentalstewardshipgoalsembedded
inARRA.AsofSeptember2009,infrastructureprojectsthroughtheUnitedStatesDOTamountedto9%ofthe
totalfundedprojectsinARRA.NEPAwasnotapplicableforonlytwooftheseprojectsfundedforUSDOTin
2009(CEQ,2009c).
ResourcesforProjectEnvironmentalReviews
x BlankcopiesoftheWashingtonstateDepartmentofEcologySEPAchecklistareavailableanddownloadablefor
usehere:http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/ecy05045.html.
x InformationforhighwayproposalsandSAFETEALUrequirementsisavailablefromtheFHWAat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu.
x ACitizensGuidetoTransportationDecisionMakingandTheMetropolitanTransportationPlanningProcess:
KeyIssues.ABriefingNotebookforTransportationDecisionmakers,Officials,andStaffareavailablefromthe
FHWAathttp://www.fhwa.gov/planning/citizen/index.htm.
x TheFHWAprovidesanEnvironmentalReviewToolkitthatisausefulresourceformanyprojects:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/metro/index.htm
x DetailedquestionsandanswersforenvironmentalreviewprocessesarespelledoutintheSAFETEALUFinal
Guidance,availablehere:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/section6002/
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-1 Environmental Review Process
x TheFHWAalsohasguidanceforcreatingeffectivepublicInvolvementprograms.AusefulresourceisPublic
InvolvementTechniquesforTransportationDecisionmaking,availableonthewebat:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/REPORTS/PITTD/cover.htm
x TheTransportationResearchBoard(TRB)hasacommitteefocusedonpublicinvolvementwithseveraluseful
resources:http://www.trbpi.com/
x TheAASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellencehasmanyguidelinesandresourcesforaddressingNEPA
compliance,includingaguidebookforSAFETEALUEnvironmentalReviewProcesses.
http://environment.transportation.org/center/products_programs/practitioners_handbooks.aspx
GLOSSARY
ACEC AmericanCouncilofEngineeringCompanies
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
ARRA AmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof2009
CategoricalExclusion(CE) Adecision,project,oractivitythathasnosignificantsingleorcumulative
outcomethatunderminesthequalityoftheenvironmentandrequiresno
environmentalassessmentorenvironmentalimpactstatement.(40CFR
1508.4and23CFR771.117)
Categoricallyexempt SeeCategoricalExclusion(CE)
CEQ CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality
EA EnvironmentalAssessment(40CFR1508.9)
EIS EnvironmentalImpactStatement(40CFR1508.11)
Environmentalreviewprocess Amethodofinformeddecisionmakingusedinprojectdevelopment
Extraordinarycircumstance Anyspecialsituationthatmayindicateaneedforamoredetailed
environmentalassessment(EA),including(butnotlimitedto):impactsto
habitatforendangeredspecies,archaeologicallysensitiveareas,wetlands,
lowincomecommunities,etc.
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
FONSI FindingofNoSignificantImpact(40CFR1508.13)
Leadagency TheagencyheldresponsibleforNEPAcompliance (40CFR1508.16)
NCHRP NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram
NEPA NationalEnvironmentalPolicyActof1969
NHTSA NationalHighwayTransportationSafetyAgency
ROD RecordofDecision
SEPA StateEnvironmentalPolicyAct.Notethatsomestateshavedifferent
acronymsfortheirenvironmentalpolicies.

REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials.(2006,May)ImprovingtheQualityof
EnvironmentalDocuments:AReportoftheJointAASHTO/ACECCommitteeinCooperationwiththeFederal
HighwayAdministration.RetrievedAugust24,2009from
http://environment.transportation.org/pdf/nepa_process/QUALITY_NEPA_DOCS.pdf
BureauofTransportationStatistics.U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,ResearchandInnovativeTechnology
Administration.(2007).FIGUREG8PublicExpendituresonConstructionofHighwaysandStreets:19952007.
TransportationStatisticsAnnualReport,2007.RetrievedOctober21,2009from
http://www.bts.gov/publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/2007/html/chapter_02/table_g_08.
html
Caldwell,L.K.(1999).TheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct:anagendaforthefuture.Bloomington:IndianaUniv.
Press.209pp.
37
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Environmental Review Process PR-1
Clark,R.(1994.)Cumulativeeffectsassessment:atoolforsustainabledevelopment.ImpactAssessment.12(3):
319331.
CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality,OfficeofthePresident.(2007,December).ACitizensGuidetotheNEPA:Having
YourVoiceHeard.RetrievedAugust24,2009fromhttp://nepa.gov/nepa/Citizens_Guide_Dec07.pdf.
CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality,OfficeofthePresident.(2009a,March19).StateEnvironmentalPlanning
Information.RetrievedAugust24,2009.Availableathttp://nepa.gov/nepa/regs/states/states.cfm
CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality,OfficeofthePresident.(2009b,November1)NEPAnetCEQTaskForce.Available
athttp://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/nepanet.htm
CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality,OfficeofthePresident.(2009c,November2)TheThirdReportontheNational
EnvironmentalPolicyActandProgressforAmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof2009Activitiesand
Projects.Availableat:http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/reports_congress_Nov2009.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.OfficeofFederalActivities.(1994,April)Evaluationofimpactsfromhighway
development.(EPAPublicationNo.300B94006.)Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2008).EnvironmentalReviewToolkit.FHWA,USDepartmentof
Transportation.AccessedJuly25,2008.Availableathttp://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2005).Safe,Accountable,Flexible,EfficientTransportationEquityAct:A
LegacyforUsers.FHWA,USDepartmentofTransportation.AccessedAugust24,2009.Availableat
http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov.
Lemons,J.(1998.)BurdenofProofRequirementandEnvironmentalSustainability.Chap.6,pp.75103,in:J.
Lemons,L.Westra,andR.Goodland.EcologicalSustainabilityandIntegrity:ConceptsandApproaches.Boston:
KluwerAcademicPublishers.315pp.
Smith,M.D.(2008).NEPAandClimateChange.EnvironmentalPractice.10(2),7577.
TransTechManagement,Inc.&Parsons,BrinckerhoffwithAkin,Gump,Strauss,Hauer&FeldLLP.(2005,January).
SynthesisofDataNeedsforEAandEISDocumentationABlueprintforNEPADocumentContentRequestedby:
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)StandingCommitteeonthe
Environment.NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram2525/Task01.Availableat:
http://www.trb.org/NotesDocs/2525%281%29_FR.pdf
UnitedNationsGeneralAssembly,42ndSession.(1987,August4).ReportoftheWorldCommissionon
EnvironmentandDevelopment(WCED):OurCommonFuture.(A/42/427).AnnextoOfficialRecord.Geneva,
Switzerland,1987.(Masthead).Availableathttp://www.worldinbalance.net/agreements/1987brundtland.php
Zapata,P.&Gambatese,J.A.(2005).EnergyConsumptionofAsphaltandReinforcedConcretePavementMaterials
andConstruction.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.11(1),920.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-2 Lifecycle Cost Analysis
LIFECYCLE COST ANALYSIS
GOAL
Determinethelifecyclecostfortheroadwayprojecttoaidindecisionmaking.
REQUIREMENTS
Performalifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA)oftheroadwayproject.LCCAmustcontainat
leastagencycosts(listedbelow)andworkzoneusercosts.
LCCAcanbeperformedwithmanualcalculationsorbyusingrecommendedsoftware
(notedbelowforpavementsandbridges).Initialvaluesforcalculationsshouldbe
consistentwithexistingowneragencypoliciesandsoftwareshouldreport
probabilisticratherthandeterministicresults.Wherenoowneragencypolicyexists
forLCCA,dooneormoreofthefollowingtodetermineinputvaluesforsoftware:
x Justifytheuseofanydefaultinputs
x Usehistoricaldataasrepresentativevalueswhereavailable
x Useengineeringestimates
x Usevaluesrecommendedforselectsoftwarewherenotedbelow
Forprojectswithpavements:
PerformaLCCAoftheprojectspavementstructure(comparisonofmultipledesign
alternativesisencouragedbutnotrequired)inaccordancewiththemethoddescribed
intheFHWAsInterimTechnicalbulletin,LifeCycleCostAnalysisinPavementDesign
(1998,currentlybeingrevised).Thismaybecompletedmanuallyorbyusingthe
FHWAsRealCostsoftwareavailableforfreeat:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/lccasoft.cfm
UseparametersfortheLCCAthatareconsistentwithexistingowneragencypolicies.If
noowneragencypolicyexists,userecommendedvaluesshowninTablePR2.1forthe
FHWAsRealCostsoftware.
Forprojectswithbridges:
PerformaLCCAoftheprojectsbridges(comparisonofmultipledesignalternativesis
encouragedbutnotrequired)accordingtotheguidanceintheNationalCooperative
HighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)Report483(Hawk,2003)andthesoftware(called
BLCCA)developedforthisstudy.Thereportprovidesstandardinputvaluesforawide
rangeofpotentialbridgeprojectsandreferencedsourcesforotherinputdata.Other
lifecyclecostanalysissoftwaremayalsobeusedatthediscretionoftheproject
manager,includingRealCost,withsomeminoradjustmentstothespreadsheet.A
BLCCAmayalsobecompletedbyhand.TablePR2.1mayprovidesomeusefulinputs
forusercostsandtrafficdata.
x Useagencyandusercostparametersthatareconsistentwithagencypolicy,ifone
exists(thoughaccordingtothebodyofresearchsuchpoliciesforbridgesarerare.)
x Usethesamenumberofyearsforservicelifethatisusedfordesignofstructural
memberssubjecttolongtermloadingeffects.

PR-2
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR3Lifecycle
Inventory
9 EW4Stormwater
CostAnalysis
9 MR1Lifecycle
Assessment
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
BENEFITS
9 ReducesLifecycle
Cost
9 Improves
Accountability

39
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Cost Analysis PR-2
Forprojectswithadditionalfeatures:
PerformaLCCAoftheprojectsmajorfeatures(comparisonofmultipledesignalternativesisencouragedbutnot
required)inaccordancewithgenerallyacceptedengineeringeconomicspractices.Majorfeaturesmayinclude
tunnels,retainingwallsandotheritems.
Details
TypicalLCCAsandBLCCAsincludeagencyandusercosts,definedbelow.Occasionally,thirdpartycosts(suchas
monetizedenvironmentaldamagesorhazards)areincluded,butarenotrequiredforthisProjectRequirement.
Acostbenefitanalysis(CBA)thatincludestheminimumcomponentsbelowisacceptable.Assumptionsused
foragencyandusercostsshouldbeconsistentineachanalysisforprojectswithmultiplemajorfeatures.
AgencyCosts.Costsfromtheplanning,constructionandoperationoftheroadwayandstructures.
x PreliminaryEngineering.Planninganddesigncosts.
x ContractAdministration.Biddingandcontractoversight.
x Initialconstruction.Costsincurredduringtheinitialconstruction.
x ConstructionSupervision.Constructionmanagement,inspections,and
x Maintenance.Potholepatching,cracksealing,restriping,etc.
x Rehabilitation.Coststomaintainandrehabilitateorretrofitanassetthroughoutitsservicelife.
x AdministrativeCosts.Costofpavementmanagementandotheradministrativecosts.
x Salvagevalue.Expectedvalueofmaterialsandequipmentatendofservicelife.
UserCosts.Thosewhousethefacilityincurcostsduringnormaloperationandduringconstructionperiods
(e.g.,time,safety,fuelandothervehicleoperatingcosts).
x NormalOperation.OftenignoredinLCCA,astheymaybethesamebetweenalternatives.
x WorkZone.Costsincurredbytheuserfromworkzonedelays.
TheFederalgovernmentmandatedLCCAintheNationalHighwaySystemDesignationActof1995butthen
changedittoavoluntarystandardinTEA21.Section1305(c)statesthatLCCAisnotrequiredbuttasksthe
SecretaryshalldeveloprecommendationsfortheStatestoconductlifecyclecostanalyses.Mostrecently,
theSafe,Accountable,Flexible,EfficientTransportationEquityAct:ALegacyforUsers(SAFETEALU)seta
fundingthresholdthatmandatestheuseofLCCAorothervalueengineeringtoolsforbridgeprojectsUS$20
millionormore.AnothermandatethresholdissetatUS$25millionforanyfederalaidproject(FederalHighway
Administration,n.d).
Manyroadwayprojectshavebothpavementsandstructuresincludedinthescopeofwork.Forsuchprojects,
thelifecyclecostanalysispreparedforthiscreditmustreflecteachsubstantialprojectfeatureforitsentire
servicelife.ItmayalsobedesirabletoperformaLCCAontheentireroadwayproject(e.g.,includeall
earthwork,traffichardware,structures,etc.)butcurrentlynostraightforwardmeansofdoingthisexists.
Manystatedepartmentsoftransportations(DOTs)alreadyincorporateLCCAintoaformalpavementtype
selectionprocessorprojectalternativeselectionprocess,andthusalreadyhaveaformalLCCAprocessinplace
forpavements.However,aformalizedalternativeselectionprocessusingBLCCAdoesnotappeartobein
widespreaduseforbridgeorotherstructuralprojects(zbayetal.2004;Thompson,2004).
DOCUMENTATION
x AcopyoftheLCCAand/orBLCCAcalculations(ifdonebyhand)orthereportproducedbytheanalysis
software,includingasummaryofinputsandoutputs.
x AlinktoorcopyofagencypolicyonLCCAand/orBLCCAifoneexists.
x Ashort1paragraphnarrativedescribingwhichalternativewasselectedandtheprincipalreasonsforselection.
40
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-2 Lifecycle Cost Analysis
TablePR2.1:RecommendedLCCAInputValuesforRealCostifNoStandardAgencyPolicyExists
AnalysisOptions Probability Distribution Value
Analysisperiod NA 40years
DiscountRate Triangular min=1.7%,mostlikely=2.7%,max=3.7%
Includeagencycostresidualvalue NA Yes
Includeusercostsinanalysis NA Yes
Usercostcomparisonmethod NA Calculated
Trafficdirection NA BothorInboundorOutbound
Includeusercostresidualvalue NA Yes
TrafficData
AADT NA Bestestimate
Singleunittrucksas%ofAADT NA Bestestimate
Combounittrucksas%ofAADT NA Bestestimate
Annualgrowthrateoftraffic Normal Bestestimate
Speedlimitundernormalconditions NA Predominatespeedlimitinproject
Lanesopenineachdirectionunder
normaloperation
NA Bestestimate
Freeflowcapacity NA Calculatedbysoftware
Queuedissipationcapacity Normal average=1818vphpl,st.dev.=144vphpl
MaximumAADTbothdirections NA Bestestimate
Maximumqueuelength NA Bestestimate
Rural/Urban NA Bestestimate
ValueofUserTime
Valueoftimeforpassengercars Triangular min=$10,mostlikely=$11.50,max=$13
Valueoftimeforsingleunittrucks Triangular min=$17,mostlikely=$18.50,max=$20
Valueoftimeforcombinationtrucks Triangular min=$21,mostlikely=$22.50,max=$24
HourlyTrafficDistribution
Usedefaultvaluesifnoregionorprojectspecificinformationavailable.
AddedVehicleTimeandCost
Usedefaultvaluesifnoregionorprojectspecificinformationavailable.
Alternatives
Alternativedescription NA Fillin
Activitydescription NA Fillin
Agencyconstructioncost Normal average=bestestimateofcost
st.dev.=10%oftheaverage
Activityservicelife Triangular Bestestimate
Maintenancefrequency Triangular Bestestimate
Workzonelength NA Bestestimate
Workzonecapacity NA Bestestimate,ifnodataconsiderusingFigure
3.4inWallsandSmith(1998)
Workzoneduration NA Bestestimate
Workzonespeedlimit NA Postedvalue
Numberoflanesopenineachdirection
duringworkzone
NA Best estimate
Workzonehours NA Plannedhours
DiscountrateshouldbedeterminedfrommostrecentOMBCircularA94.AppendixCcontainsrealinterestratesfortreasurynotesand
bondsofvariouslengths.Treasurynotematuritythatmostcloselymatchestheprojectanalysisperiodshouldbeused.Useminimumand
maximumvaluesof1%.
DollarvaluesinthistablearetakendirectlyfromWallsandSmith(1998)andaregiveninAugust1996dollars.ThesevaluesMUSTbeinflated
todollarvaluesintheyearthatconstructionisscheduledtostartusingtheU.S.BureauofLaborStatistics(BLS)ConsumerPriceIndex(CPI)U.S.
cityaverageforallurbanconsumers(notseasonallyadjusted).Thevalueforthisindexin1996was156.9.TheBLSCPIInflationCalculator
(http://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm)canbeusedtodothisconversionquickly.
41
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Cost Analysis PR-2
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x CompletetheLCCAearlyenoughintheprojectsothatitsresultscanbeconsideredinselectingbetween
projectalternatives.Thisgenerallymeansitshouldhappenduringtheplanningstageandnotthedesignor
constructionstage.
x NotethatRealCostandBLCCAsoftwarearenotrequiredforthiscredit;howeveranyothermethodusedmust
conformtotheFHWAsInterimTechnicalbulletinforpavements,LifeCycleCostAnalysisinPavementDesign
(Walls&Smith,1998)andNCHRP483forbridges.
x IncludeLCCAconsiderationsinthetechnicalscoreofbiddersforpavementprojectsinorderforittobe
consideredinselectingadesignalternativeforDesignBuildcontractdeliverymethods.Thisisbecausethe
actualpavementdesignisoftenusedaspartofadesignbuildteamstechnicalscoreindeterminingcontract
award,aLCCAofalternativedesignscannotbeperformedbytheagencyuntilafterthebidcompetitionis
complete.Whilethiscanbedone,LCCAresultsshouldbeproperlyweightedsothattheyinfluencecontract
awardinamannerconsistentwithownerwishes.Unfortunately,GransbergandMolenaar(2004)showedthat
designbuildawardalgorithmsoftendonotweightLCCAconcernsheavilyenoughforthemtobeasignificant
factorincontractaward.
x IncorporateresultsofotherRelatedCredits,suchasProjectDevelopment:EconomyandCostBenefitAnalysis,
intotheLCCAforconsistencyacrossthewholeproject.
Example: Case Studies of LCCA
Rangarajuetal.(2008)reportonLCCAeffortsoftheSouthCarolinaDOTandlistseveralcasestudiesin
AppendixE(page117)thatdealwiththeinfluenceofdiscountrateandanalysisperiodonLCCAoutcomes.
Theentirereport,LifeCycleCostAnalysisforPavement(Rangarajuetal.2008)canbedownloadedat:
http://www.clemson.edu/t3s/scdot/pdf/projects/SPR656Final.pdf.
Example: Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) LCCA Protocol
WSDOTfollowsastandardLCCAprotocolwhenselectingpavementtypefornewfacilities.Thisprotocolis
basedontheFHWAsLifeCycleCostAnalysisinPavementDesign(WallsandSmith,1998)andusesRealCost
softwareforcalculations.ItincludesspecifiedinputsforWSDOTanalysisandhowtoconsiderresults.Ofnote,
costdifferencebetweencompetingalternativesthatarelessthan15percentareconsideredequalbasedon
theuncertaintyofinputvalues.
TheWSDOTPavementTypeSelectionProtocol(2005)isavailablefordownloadhere:
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/biz/mats/Pavement/Technotes/PTSP_Jan2005.pdf.
Example: Caltrans LCCA Procedures Manual
Caltranshasdevelopedamanual(Caltrans2007)thatdescribesLCCAproceduresforuseinCaltrans.The
manualisbasedonRealCostsoftwareandprovidesstandardinputvaluesforawiderangeofpotential
projects.CaltranshasadoptedanaggressivepolicytowardsusingLCCAmandatingthatitbeusedforall
projectswithincludepavementworkontheStateHighwaySystemregardlessoffundingsource(Land2007)
Themanualcanbedownloadedat:http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/Translab/ope/LCCA.html.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. WhileLCCAisafairlystandardeconomicanalysistool,thepotentialexiststoinputincorrectorirrelevant
numbersandmisuseitsresults.UsersshouldbefamiliarwiththeFHWAsLifeCycleCostAnalysisinPavement
DesignInterimTechnicalBulletin(WallsandSmith1998,currentlybeingrevised)beforeconductinganLCCA
withRealCostorBLCCA.
2. ALCCAassumesthatthebenefitsassociatedwithprojectalternativesareequal.Thus,itonlyanalyzescosts.
Projectswithdifferentbenefitsbetweenalternativesmaydesireamorecomprehensivecostbenefitanalysis.
42
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-2 Lifecycle Cost Analysis
3. ThemeaningfulnessofLCCAoutputsreliesheavilyongoodestimatesoffuturepavementlife,rehabilitation
costsandtheintervalbetweenfuturerehabilitationefforts.Theseallrelyongoodengineeringjudgmentand
pasthistoryratherthaneconomictheoryorprincipals.
4. LCCAisbasedonestimatedoftotalcostandcanbeeasilymanipulatedbychangingassumptionsandinput
values.Forthisreasontheresultsshouldnotbeweightedtooheavilyinthechoiceofdesignalternatives.
5. Thiscreditdoesnotcontainarequirementtouseorimplementthelowestlifecyclecostprojectalternative.
Therefore,itshouldbeviewedasacreditthatcreatesinformationthatisusefulindecisionmakingrather
thanadecisionmakingtool.Itdoesnotguaranteealowestlifecyclecostdecision.
6. ThiscreditdoesnotrequiretheLCCAtobedoneduringtheplanningstagewhereitwouldbemostlikelyto
influenceprojectdecisions.Therefore,itcouldbedonelateindesign,orevenduringconstruction,meaningit
wouldbeundertakenfornootherreasonthantomeetthiscredit,whichmissesthepoint.
7. Somerehabilitationeffortsandevenothereffortsthattakeasystematicapproachtochoosingtheproper
projectfeatures(e.g.,apavementmanagementsystem),theremaynotbeachoicebetweentwoormore
alternatives.ThismaybebecausesuchasystemalreadyincorporatesaformofLCCA,oritmaybebecauseno
otheralternativeisreasonablyfeasible.
8. Otherprototypesoftwareprogramsforbridgelifecyclecostanalyseshavebeendevelopedbutdonotappear
tobeinwidespreaduse,suchastheNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnologysBridgeLCCsoftware
whichwaslastupdatedin2003(availableathttp://www.bfrl.nist.gov/bridgelcc/welcome.html).Forpurposes
ofthiscredit,anysoftwarecanbeusedsolongastheinputsandresultsarejustifiable,reasonable,and
validatedbytheprofessionalsworkingontheproject.
RESEARCH
Lifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA)isaprocessforevaluatingthetotalcostofaproject,facilityorproductoveritsuseful
lifetime.Forroadwayprojects,thismeansaccountingforinitialconstructioncosts,maintenanceandrehabilitation
costs,roadwayusercostsandthirdpartycosts.LCCAcancontributetothesustainabilityofaroadwayprojectby
allowingprojectpersonneltoaccountfortotallifecyclecostswhenmakingkeyprojectdecisions.
AnimportantdistinctionmustbemadebetweenLCCAandlifecycleassessment(LCA)asthesetermsuse
confusinglysimilaracronyms.Bothhavesimilarutilityinthedecisionmakingprocess,buttheunderlyingpurpose,
scopeandmathematicalmodelforeacharedifferent.Forthisreason,LCAisdiscussedindetailinothercreditsin
theGreenroadsManual(seePR3LifecycleInventoryandMR1LifecycleAssessment)whileLCCAisdiscussedhere.
LifecycleCostAnalysisMethod
LCCAissimplyamathematicalaccountingtoolthatcanbeusedtocomparethevalueofmoneyatdifferenttimes.
UnderlyingtheLCCAprocessarebasicprinciplesofbusinessfinance,whichusescompoundinterestformulas(and
tables)andreasonableassumptionsaboutthefuturetotranslatedifferenteconomicvaluestoanequalreference
pointintime.LCCAmaybequitefamiliartomanytransportationprofessionalsintheformofcostbenefitanalysis
(CBA)orcommonlyjustengineeringeconomics.Thehowtoofbusinessfinanceandengineeringeconomicscan
befoundinaplethoraoftextbooksandwillnotbediscussedindepthhere.
LCCAisausefulprocessinroadwaydesignbecausetheresultsquantifythetotallongtermvalueofproject
alternatives.Thisprocessallowsforstraightforwardcomparisons,usuallyintermsofatotallifetimecostoratotal
lifetimebenefits.ThekeyroleofthedecisionmakerinLCCAisdeterminingappropriateassumptionsandscopefor
thecomparison,aswellasinterpretingandactingonthequantifiedresults.
Forabasicexample,consideraroadwayprojectwithtwodesignalternatives;oneisathinpavementsectionand
theotherhasthickersection.Theinitialconstructioncostofthefirstalternativeislowerthanthesecond,butthe
firstalternativerequiresadditional,morefrequentexpendituresformaintenancethroughoutitslifetime.The
projectmanagercompletesanLCCAoneachalternative.Theresultsshowthatwhilefirstalternativeisless
expensiveforinitialconstruction,thesecondalternativeactuallyhasamuchlowerlongtermcost.Thesecond
alternativehasahigherupfrontcostforinitialconstruction,butsavestheprojectownermoremoneyovertime.
43
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Cost Analysis PR-2
Becausethiscomparisonisnotlimitedtoupfrontcostsalone,aprojectmanagercanbetterunderstandhowtheir
designandconstructionchoicescontributetotheoveralleconomicimpactoftheproject.
LifecycleCosting,RoadwaysandSustainability
ThereissubstantialwritingtosuggestthatLCCAcontributestosustainability.Mosteffortsarecenteredon
buildings;however,theFHWAdoescontributesomeusefulinformation.Consideringbuildings,theFederal
FacilitiesCouncilrecognizedtherelationshipbetweenlifecyclecostingandsustainabledevelopmentbystating:
Guidancerelatedtolifecyclecostingandvalueengineeringwasrecognizedasbeingsupportiveof
sustainabledevelopment,inparticularwhenusedintheconceptualplanninganddesignphasesof
acquisition,wheredecisionsaremadethatsubstantiallyaffecttheultimateperformanceofa
buildingoveritslifecycle(FederalFacilitiesCouncil,2001).
Inessence,theywereconcernedthatfeaturesthatenhancedsustainabilitywouldbeexcludedtosaveoninitial
costswithoutconsideringlifecyclecoststhatcouldshowsuchfeaturestobewarranted.TheFHWAbelievesLCCA
shouldbeusedbecausetransportationinvestmentdecisionsshouldconsiderallofthecostsincurredduringthe
periodoverwhichalternativesarecompared(FHWA,2002).Thismeansconsideringthetotalcosttotheowner,
usersandexternalitiesratherthanjustthefirst,orconstruction,cost.
x Initialconstruction.Costsincurredduringtheinitialdesignandconstruction.
x Preservation.Coststomaintainandrehabilitateanasset.
x Users.Thosewhousethefacilityincurcostsduringnormaloperationandduringconstructionperiods(e.g.,
time,safety,fuelandothervehicleoperatingcosts).
x Externalities.Coststhatindirectlyimpacttheusersortheenvironmentdueto,forexample,airemissionsora
naturalhazard.
PrevalenceofLCCAandBLCCA
Accordingtothecomprehensivestateofthepracticereviewoftheapplicationsoflifecyclecostinginpracticeby
zbayetal.(2004),LCCAhasbeeninusetosomeextentforalmost40yearsforpavementselection.Theauthors
completedathreeyearstudythatsurveyedthedivisionat39statedepartmentsoftransportation(DOTs)which
usedLCCAthemost.ThemajorityofrespondentsinthesurveyindicatedthatLCCAisappliedby:
x Researchanddesigndivision(68%)
x Materialsandpavementsdivision(37.5%)
x Bridgeoffices(12.5%)
Additionally,theauthorsfoundthatallagenciessurveyeduseLCCAonsomeformofpavementprojects.Infact,
60%oftherespondingagencieshaveadoptedformalguidelinesforpavementLCCA.However,only25%ofthose
surveyedbyOzbayetal.(2004)indicatedthatBLCCAmightbeusedonbridgeprojectsattheirstateagencieswhile
100%indicatedthatitmightbeusedonpavementprojects.
StateofthePracticePavements
AmorerecentstudyfortheSouthCarolinaDepartmentofTransportation(Rangarajuetal.,2008)foundthat
moststates(i.e.statedepartmentsoftransportation)conductLCCAbuttovaryingdegrees.Theirsurvey,
completedin2005,hadresponsesfrom33statesand2CanadianProvincesandfound:
x 94%(33of35)oftheagenciesuseLCCAaspartoftheirdecisionmakingprocess.Thisappearstobean
increaseinpercentageoveranearlierlimited2001surveythatfound8of16respondingstatesusedLCCA.
x 69%(24of35)ofrespondentsincludeorareplanningtoincludeusercostsinLCCA.Typicallythisisdoneby
quantifyinguserdelaycostsduringconstructiononly.
x Few(only2outof32)usedafullyprobabilisticapproachtocalculatinglifecyclecostswhileothersdid
conductsensitivityanalysestodeterminehowchangesinassumedparametersaffectedanalysisoutcome.
44
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-2 Lifecycle Cost Analysis
StateofthePracticeBridges
Ehlen(1997)providesastrong,practicalargumentfortheutilityofsystematicapplicationofBLCCAand
Thompson(2004)alsoprovidesagoodsummaryofthestateofBLCCAinbridgepractice.Henotesthat
streamlinedtoolswillexpandapplicationopportunitiesforBLCCA,especiallyintermsofnetworklevelbridge
managementsystems,butmuchmorerefinementmaybenecessaryforuncertaintiesandassumptionstobe
unifiedfromprojecttoproject.Muchofthelifecycleliteratureforbridgesappearstoberelevantto
optimizationoftheprojectandnetworklevelbridgemanagementsystems.Thesereferencesarediscussedin
moredetailinPR9PavementManagementSystem.
However,todate,themostcomprehensiveworkonBLCCAwascompletedaspartoftheNationalCooperative
HighwayResearchProgramReport483:BridgeLifecycleCostAnalysis(Hawk,2003).Thisreportcontains
detailsonspecificmethodologiesthatmayberelevanttobridgedesigners,aswellaslimitations,assumptions,
examples,andasoftwaretoolcalledBLCCA.
SomeofthemostrecentworkthatisrelevanttosustainabilityincludesearlyBLCCAworkbyEhlen(1999),who
attemptstoaccountforthirdpartycosts(whichhedefinesascostsofenvironmentaldamages)duetothe
lifecycleofbridgeprojects.However,valuesofzerowereusedforthesecostsinhismodel.Lately,BLCCA
literaturehasfocusedmoreonreliabilitystudiesforcatastrophicandlongtermenvironmentalstressors
includingworkbyLee,Cho,andCha(2006),Hosseretal.(2008)andPadgett,Dennemann,andGhosh(2010).
ThelatterauthorsappliedLCCAprinciplesusingariskbasedanalysisofseveralbridgeretrofitoptionssubject
toseismichazards.Thestudymaybeparticularlyrelevanttopractitionerstryingtomodeltheirbridgeto
determineanappropriateretrofitsolutionandmaintenanceschedule.
ImpactofLCCA
GiventhatmoststatesuseLCCAinsomeformalreadythiscreditmayhavethelargesteffectinthreeareas:
1. LocalagenciesorotherownerswhodonottypicallyconductLCCAs.RealCostandBLCCAarefairly
straightforwardfreesoftwaretoolsthatshouldbeabletoprovideanswerswithreasonableeffort.
2. StateorfederalprojectsconsideredtoosmallforLCCA.Someprojects(e.g.,overlaysorotherpreservation
efforts)aregenerallydeemedtoosmallforLCCAandhavehistoricallyomittedthisprocessindecisionmaking.
3. Nonpavementprojects.Thiscreditmayencouragethewideradoptionoflifecyclecostingonnonpavement
projectssuchasbridgesandothermajorstructures,intelligenttransportationsystems,orothertypesofassets
whereLCCAapplicationsarenotcommonpractice.
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
CaliforniaDepartmentofTransportation(Caltrans).(2007).LifeCycleCostAnalysisProceduresManual.Stateof
CaliforniaDepartmentofTransportation,PavementStandardsTeam&DivisionofDesign.
http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/Translab/ope/LCCA.html.Accessed11November2008.
Agencycost Acostincurredbytheagencyofaroadwaysuchasmaintenance,repair,
rehabilitation,improvement,andreplacement(Thompson,2004)
BLCCA BridgeLifeCycleCostAnalysis
Externality Anindirectcostincurredbyanypartyduetotheproject,suchasdamageto
theenvironment,whichishardtoquantifyusingtraditionalaccounting.
LCCA LifeCycleCostAnalysis
Salvagevalue Theestimatedmonetaryvalueofanassetattheendofitsusefullife.
Thirdpartycost SeeExternality.
Usercost Acostincurredbytheusersofaroadwaysuchascollisionrisk,detours,and
timedelay(Thompson,2004)
45
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Cost Analysis PR-2
Ehlen,M.A.(1997).LifeCycleCostsofNewConstructionMaterials.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.3(4),129
133.
Ehlen,M.A.(1999).Lifecyclecostsoffiberreinforcedpolymerbridgedecks.J.Mater.Civ.Eng.113,224230.
FederalFacilitiesCouncil.(2001).SustainableFederalFacilities:AGuidetoIntegratingValueEngineering,LifeCycle
Costing,andSustainableDevelopment.FederalFacilitiesCouncilTechnicalReportNo.142,NationalAcademy
Press,Washington,D.C.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2002).LifeCycleCostAnalysisPrimer.OfficeofAssetManagement,
FHWA,U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,WashingtonD.C.
FederalHighwayAdmnistration(n.d).FactSheetsonHighwayProvisions,SAFETEALUFactSheetsStewardship
andOversight.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/factsheets/stewardover.htmAccessed31
December31,2010.
Gransberg,D.D.&Molenaar,K.R.(2004).LifeCycleCostAwardAlgorithmsforDesign/BuildHighwayPavement
Projects.JournalofInfrastructureSystems,Vol.10,Issue4,pp.167175.
Hawk,H.(2003).Bridgelifecyclecostanalysis.NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramReport483.
Washington,D.C:TransportationResearchBoard,NationalResearchCouncil.
Hosser,D.,Klinzmann,C.,&Schnetgoke,R.(2008).Aframeworkforreliabilitybasedsystemassessmentbasedon
structuralhealthmonitoring.StructureandInfrastructureEngineering,4,4,271285.
Land,R.D.(2007).UseofLifeCycleCostAnalysisforPavements.MemorandumtoDistrictDirectorsfromtheState
ofCaliforniaDepartmentofTransportationChiefEngineer.Availableat
http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/Translab/ope/UseofLCCAforPavements.pdf.Accessed11November2008.
Lee,K.M.,Cho,H.N.,&Cha,C.J.(2006).Lifecyclecosteffectiveoptimumdesignofsteelbridgesconsidering
environmentalstressors.EngineeringStructures,28,9,12521265.
zbay,K.etal.(2004).Lifecyclecostanalysis:Stateofthepracticeversusstateoftheart.TransportationResearch
Record,1864,6270.
Padgett,J.E.,Dennemann,K.,&Ghosh,J.(2010).Riskbasedseismiclifecyclecostbenefit(LCCB)analysisfor
bridgeretrofitassessment.StructuralSafety.32(3),165.
Rangaraju,P.R.;Amirkhanian,S.&Zeynep,G.(2008).LifeCycleCostAnalysisforPavement.ReportbyClemson
UniversityfortheSouthCarolinaDepartmentofTransportation,Columbia,SC.Availableat
http://www.clemson.edu/t3s/scdot/pdf/projects/SPR656Final.pdf.Accessed17October2008.
Thompson,P.D.(2004).BridgelifecyclecostinginIntegratedEnvironmentofDesign,RatingandManagement.
TransportationResearchRecord.
Walls,J.&Smith,M.R.(1998).LifeCycleCostAnalysisinPavementDesign.InterimTechnicalBulletin.ReportNo.
FHWASA98079.FHWA,U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,Washington,D.C.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2005).PavementTypeSelectionProtocol.
EnvironmentalandEngineeringProgramsDivision,MaterialsLaboratory,WSDOT,Olympia,WA.
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/biz/mats/Pavement/Technotes/PTSP_Jan2005.pdf.Accessed11November2008.

46
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
LIFECYCLE INVENTORY
GOAL
Incorporateenergyandemissionsinformationintothedecisionmakingprocessfor
pavementdesignalternatives.
REQUIREMENTS
Completealifecycleinventoryforthefinalpavementdesignalternativefortheproject
usingthesoftwaretool,PaLATEv2.2asmodifiedforGreenroads,orapprovedequal.
Reportonlyresultsfortotalenergyuseandglobalwarmingpotential(GWP)(incarbon
dioxideequivalentemissions,CO
2
e)forthefinalpavementdesignalternative.The
followinginputvaluesarerequiredforPaLATEv2.2:
x Totalweightandtypesofvirginmaterials.Thisincludesaggregates,binders,base
materials,andstructures.Theseamountscanbedesignestimatesorconstructed
totals.
x Totalweightandtypesofrecycledmaterials.PaLATEv2.2modelsemissionsand
energyforseveraltypesofmaterials.
x Expectedtransportationdistancesforallmaterials.Thismeansdistancesfrom
sourcetoproductionaswellasfromproductiontosite.Transportationofwasteto
disposalisalsoincluded.
x Expectedconstructionvehicletypes.Theseinclude,butarenotlimitedto,pavers,
mixers,haulingvehicles,excavators,rollers,andfinishingequipment.
x Estimateddesignlife.UsethesameinputdataasusedinthePR2LifecycleCost
Analysis.
x Scheduledyearsandexpectedtypeofmaintenance.Usethesameinputdataas
usedinthePR2LifecycleCostAnalysis.Thisinformationshouldalsomatchthe
projectspecificationsprovidedtomeettherequirementsforPR9Pavement
MaintenancePlanandPR10SiteMaintenancePlan.
Details
ThereareseveralbuiltinlimitationstothePaLATEtool,whicharediscussedin
detailinthemodifiedtooldocumentation.Werecommenduseofthistoolbecause
weareawareoftheselimitations,wehavechecked(ormodified)thedatasources,
weknowthatthesoftwarereportsthetworequestedpiecesofinformationreliably
forbothasphaltandconcretepavements(evenwithavarietyofrecycled
materials),wefinditrelativelyeasytouse,andwehavemodifiedthetooltomeet
Greenroadsinformationalneeds.ThetoolisavailableontheGreenroadswebsite
(http://www.greenroads.us)fordownload.
Thereareafewothersoftwaretoolsthatareavailablefordevelopinglifecycle
inventories,bothfreeandproprietary.Thesetoolsarealsoacceptableiftheyare
abletoproduceenergyuseandGWPoutputsanduseatransparentinterfacethat
clearlyreferencesdatasourcesusedtocomputethesevalues.
DOCUMENTATION
x Acopyoftheinput/outputpageforPaLATEv2.2forGreenroads.Ifothersoftware
isused,providealistofdatasourcesinadditiontotheinputlistandoutputvalues
fortotalenergyuseandGWP.
PR-3
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR2LifecycleCost
Analysis
9 PR9Pavement
ManagementSystem
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 MR1Lifecycle
Assessment
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 CreatesNew
Information
47
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Inventory PR-3
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x UsePaLATEv2.2forGreenroadsasmodifiedbytheUniversityofWashington.ThetoolisavailableinMicrosoft
Excel2003and2007formatontheGreenroadswebsiteat:http://www.greenroads.us.Alllimitationsand
modificationsmadebyGreenroadshavebeendetailedinthesupportingworksheetswithinthetoolitself.
x ProvidealistofdatasourcesifnotusingPaLATEv2.2asmodifiedforGreenroads.
x DownloadacopyoftheoriginalversionofPaLATEandmodifyitforuseonyourprojectandfutureprojects.
TheoriginalPaLATEtool,createdin2003bytheConsortiumofGreenDesignattheUniversityofCalifornia,
Berkeley,isavailableinMicrosoft2003formatfromtheRecycledMaterialsResourceCenterattheUniversity
ofNewHampshirehere:http://www.recycledmaterials.org/Resources/CD/PaLATE/PaLATE.xls.Weknowthe
limitationsofthistoolandknowhowitworks,andmaybeabletoassistyouinmodifyingthetooltocorrect
someoftheknownerrorsthatcouldimpacttheoutcomeofyourprojectLCI(suchasdoublecountingand
materialdensities).
x UseprocessbaseddatafromthefreeNationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory(NREL)LCIdatabase,emissions
factorandfuelusedatafromtheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)andtheDepartmentofEnergy(DOE),
andfollowtheLCIprocessmethodologyoutlinedbytheInternationalStandardsOrganization(ISO)14040and
14044tocompleteaprocessbasedLCIforthefinalpavementsection.
x Useeconomicinputoutputdatainthecustomizable,freetoolforEconomicInput/OutputLifeCycle
Assessment(EIOLCA)fromtheGreenDesignInstituteatCarnegieMellonUniversity.However,thistooldoes
notallowforinclusionofprojectspecificprocessdata.TheEIOLCAtool,includingguidanceonhowtousethe
tool,isavailableathttp://www.eiolca.net.EIOLCAisthebasisofthePaLATEtool,sotheguidancedocument
maybehelpfulindevelopinganinitialunderstandingofhowthemodelworks.
x UsenewsoftwaretoolCHANGER(CalculatorforHarmonisedAssessmentandNormalisationofGreenhousegas
EmissionsforRoads),whichhasbeenspecificallydesignedforroadwaysbytheInternationalRoadFederation
(IRF).Thissoftwareisnotfree,butisavailablefordownloadfromtheIRFat:http://www.irfnet.org/.
x DonotuselifecycleassessmenttoolsthatareavailableforbuildingstoconstructtheprojectLCImodelforthe
roadwayproject.Thereareseveralofthesetoolsavailable,howevertheydonotincludeenoughprocessdata
aboutroadwaymaterialsorassociatedconstructionequipmenttopresentresultsthataremeaningfulto
roadwaysandareoftenofquestionablevalidityandrelevance.
x Considerhiringaconsultantwithexperienceinlifecycleassessment(LCA)andinvolvetheminproject
development.ThisapproachmaybeusefulinsimultaneouslymeetingthecreditrequirementsforCreditMR1
LifecycleAssessment.Thebenefitsofthisapproachincludeafull,projectspecificreviewofenvironmental
emissionsimpactsthatextendsthescopepastreportingCO2eandenergy,allofwhichmaybeusedtomakea
moreinformeddecisionaboutprojectdesignalternatives.LCAexpertsorfirmsmayalsohaveaccessto
proprietarydataandsoftwarewhichmayproduceamoreaccurate,comprehensive,andprojectbasedmodels
duetohigheroveralldataqualityandfewerdatagaps.Additionally,thereislesslikelihoodofdoublecounting.
Example: Sample PaLATE v2.2 Results
Thisexamplerepresentsafictitious12inch,12footwidelaneofasphaltpavementsectionwitha12inchdeep
and14footwidegravelsubbase,comprised(byvolume)of80%graveland20%sandwithanassumeddesign
lifeof15years.Thisexampleusestypicalproductionprocessandconstructionequipmentandthedefault
densitiesforallmaterials.Itisalsoassumedthatasphaltis5%byweightofthefinalHMAmixture.Notethat
thisisanunrealisticexampleofanLCIbecauseitdoesnotincludetransportation,maintenanceordemolition
forsimplicity.Itisonlyrepresentativeoftheconstructionphaseoftheroadway.
TablePR3.1showstheinputvaluesusedforPaLATEv2.2ontheConstructionworksheetpage.Output
values,fromtheResultsworksheetpage,areshowninTablePR3.2.
48
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
TablePR3.1:PaLATEv2.2forGreenroadsinputfrom"Construction"worksheetpage.

TablePR3.2:PaLATEv2.2outputtablefrom"Results"worksheetpage.Zerovaluesmeannotcomputed.

NotesonthePaLATEv2.2DataSources
PaLATEv2.2forGreenroadsusesdatafrom2002EIOLCAproducerdatasetandupdatedenergydatafor
transportationmodesfromthe2009TransportationEnergyDataBook,availablefromtheU.S.Departmentof
Energy.However,thisexampleishighlyoversimplifiedandonlyintendedtodemonstratetheamountof
informationneededtodocumentthisProjectRequirement.Thetransportationinputdataandmaintenance
datahasbeenleftoutofthisexamplemodel,andtheinputcellsandrowsformanyofthematerialoptionsand
transportationmodeshavebeenhiddenforsimplicityandtolimitimagesize.Theoutputresultsshow0for
thesephasesandmaterials,anddoesnotrepresentanyemissionfromvehicleemissionsintransportation,
exceptasbuiltintothesectordataused.
PaLATEv2.2usestheEIOLCAdata(http://www.eiolca.net)tomakeanasphaltpavementmodel.Themodelis
builtassumingthefollowingmaterialsarerequiredtomakeasphalt:bitumen,virginaggregate,gravel,and
sand.ThefirstisrepresentedbytheEIOLCAsectorcalledasphaltpavingmixtureandblockmanufacture,
whilethelastthreearefromthesand,gravelandclayrefractoryminingsector.Thedifferencesbetweenthe
lastthreearethedensities.Basicemissionsdataforthesethreeparticulartypesofmaterialisassumedtobe
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
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thesameeventhoughtheamountofprocessing(andthusenergyandemissions)requiredtomakethese
materialsisrealisticallyslightlydifferent.Also,HMAplantproductionprocessdatahasbeenmodifiedfromthe
originalPaLATEtobeprocessbasedondatafromtheEPAAP42.
TheEIOLCAdatabaseappearstousetheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)2
nd
Assessment
Report(SAR)in1996tocomputetheindexforGlobalWarmingPotentialbasedonCO
2
e,thoughthisisnot
explicitlystated.NotethattheIPCCpublishedrevisedvaluesforgreenhousegasemissionsin2007(see
Solomonetal.).ItisunclearifandwhenthesenewvalueswillbeincorporatedintotheEIOLCAdatabase;
however,thisdetailisirrelevanttotheintentofthisProjectRequirementandislikelytobeonlyslightlyhigher
orlowerthanthevaluecomputed.
Additionally,thereareseverallimitationsbuiltintoamodelthatusesapreexistingframework.Ofparticular
importanceisthepotentialformissingdatawhereCO
2
eorenergyuseisnotrecordedorotherwisemeasured,
especiallywhentakenasrepresentativeofanentireeconomicsector,becausethesemissingdataarehiddenin
theaggregatedtotalsandaredifficulttoidentifyonaprocesslevel.TheEIOLCAassumptionsandlimitations
regardingtheeconomicsectorenergyandemissionsmodelarecitedindetailat:
x EIOLCAAssumptionsandUncertainty:http://www.eiolca.net/Method/assumptionsanduncertainty.html
x EIOLCAModelLimitations:http://www.eiolca.net/Method/Limitations.html
ReferencesusedfortheoriginalPaLATEdatasources,aswellasthedataandmodificationsthathavebeen
madetothetoolbytheUniversityofWashington,aredocumentedinthetoolitself.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. AsimplifiedLCI,suchastheonerequiredhere,isnotintendedtodictatefinalprojectdecisionsmade.Instead,
itisintendedtoinformthedecisionmakingprocessthroughuseofbasicenvironmentalaccounting.
2. ThisProjectRequirementrequiresreportingonlytwovaluesforonlyonedesignalternative.Thereasonforthis
isthatthesetwovaluesarenotgenerallyconsideredintraditionalroadwayprojectplanningordecision
making.However,ingeneral,morethanonealternativemaybeconsidered(andcompared),andseveraltypes
ofemissionsmayalsobepertinenttothedecisionmakingprocess.Wefeelthatrequiringonlythefinaldesign
optionisasasmallsteptowardthiscomparisonprocess,butcouldleadtomorethoughtfulaccountingfor
multipledecisionoptionsinthefuture.
3. PaLATEinvestigationsarelimitedtothepavementsectionandstructuresonly.Thisincludesbaseandsubbase
materials,andalsorecycledmaterialoptions,butdoesnotincludeotherelementsoftheroadway
environment.
4. OperationalemissionsduetovehiculartrafficarealsonotconsideredineitherversionofPaLATE.Theseare,
however,addressedelsewhereinGreenroads,becauseadifferentsoftwaretoolisrecommendedforthis
modeling.SeeCreditAE4TrafficEmissionsReduction.
5. WebelievethattheEIOLCAsectormodelusedinthemodifiedPaLATEv2.2forGreenroadsreportsGWPbased
onoutdatedvaluesassignedbytheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)in1996,insteadofthe
morecurrent2007values.Documentationregardingthisissueisunclear.Thismeansvaluesoutputfrom
PaLATEv2.2canonlybecomparedtoothervaluesoutputfromPaLATEv2.2.Directcomparisonstoother
softwaretools,withoutathoroughinvestigationorreviewoftheirunderlyingassumptionsoruncertainties,are
thereforenotvalid.
6. SectoremissionsandenergyreportedfortheEIOLCAdatausedinthemodifiedversionofPaLATEinclude
feedstockemissionsandenergyfromtheextractionprocessofpetroleumproductsandcementproducts
(representedasapercentageofthetotalcontributiontothecostforthestreamlinedprocessesmodeled).
7. Technically,afulllifecycleassessment(LCA)isamuchmoreinvolvedanddetailedprocessthanasimple
softwarebasedlifecycleinventory(LCI)modelcaninclude.LCAinvolvesadditionalconsiderationsoutsidethe
pavementsectionaloneandishighlydependentonquality,availabilityandrelevanceofdata.Additionally,an
impactassessmentstepisincludedinLCAwhichisnotnecessaryforLCI.Impactassessmentinvolvesassigning
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
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valuationsandweightstocertainoutputsfromtheLCI.Forthisreason,creditisawardedforafullLCAinCredit
MR1LifecycleAssessment.
8. Economiclifecycleassessmentmodelsbasedoncapitalandlifetimemaintenancecostsdonottypicallyinclude
considerationsofenergyoremissions.However,lifecyclecostmodelsareequallyimportantandarecovered
underProjectRequirementPR2LifecycleCostAnalysis.
9. Similarly,socialimpactscanbemeasuredusingcertaincommonmetricsandindicesthatareintendedto
representqualityoflife,health,orotherequityrelated,humancentricissues(suchasbirthanddeathratesor
productivityrates).Thesearenotwellresearchedandfewsystematicapproacheshavebeenrefinedwell
enoughforincorporationintothelifecycledecisionmakingprocessrequirementsforGreenroadsprojects.The
utilityofapplyingtheseglobalmetricsandindicesonaprojectlevelarealsonotwellunderstoodor
documented.However,theenvironmentalreviewprocess(seePR1EnvironmentalReviewProcess)addresses
socialimpactsonaprojectlevel.
10. Theexampleleavesouttransportationandmaintenanceonpurpose.Itshouldbeunderstoodthatitssimplicity
ismeanttodemonstrateaprocesstask;itisclearlynotmeanttobescaledbysimplemultiplicationbythetotal
mileageoftheproject.Eachprojectwill,andshouldbe,differentandnonewillmatchthisexample.Thisisalso
whyboththeinputandoutputvaluesarerequiredforreview.
RESEARCH
Lifecycleassessment(LCA)canbeausefuldecisionmakingtoolforbenchmarkingroadwayenvironmental
performance(Schenck,2000;Keoleian&Spitzley,2006;Cooper&Fava,2006)andasamethodofenvironmental
accountingforroadwaysystems.ThisparticularrequirementisthelastpartofaseriesofthreerelatedProject
Requirements,whichalsoincludePR1EnvironmentalReviewProcessandPR2LifecycleCostAnalysis.This
requirementfocusesondevelopingaprojectspecificenvironmentalaccountinginventory(alifecycleinventory:
LCI)toaidinthedecisionmakingprocessandalsoestablishesbaselineenvironmentalperformance(specifically
energyuseandcarbondioxideemissions)fortheroadwaypavementsection.Projectcostsandsocialimplications
areaddressedinpriorrequirementsPR1andPR2.Adiagramofthemainprocessesinagenericpavement
lifecycleisprovidedinFigurePR3.1(nextpage).
AmoredetaileddiscussionofsomeofthefinerdetailsandtypesofLCAmethodologyisprovidedintheResearch
sectionofCreditMR1LifecycleAssessment.ThissectionintroducesLCAandLCIandprovidesareviewofexisting
literatureforroads.
WhatisLifecycleAssessment?
Lifecycleassessment(LCA)isastandardized,comprehensivetoolthatcanbeusedforanalyzingandquantifying
theenvironmentalimpactsandsustainabilityofaproduct,system,and/orprocess.TheInternationalStandards
Organization(ISO:2006a)statesthatLCAisaprocessthataddressestheenvironmentalaspectsandpotential
environmentalimpacts(e.g.useofresourcesandtheenvironmentalconsequencesofreleases)throughouta
productslifecyclefromrawmaterialacquisition,throughproduction,use,endoflifetreatment,recyclingand
finaldisposal(i.e.cradletograve).Effectively,theproductforthisGreenroadsrequirementistheentire
roadwayprojectsystem.
LCAisatoolthatcanprovideperspectiveonmanyelementsofasystem,effectivelylinkingtheproductionofa
materialtoitsuse(Keoleian&Spitzley,2006).Inengineeringapplications,LCAoffersaholistic,systemsbased
approachtoprojectdevelopmentandprojectmanagement.Itisoftenemployedasamethodofdeveloping
processalternatives.Alifecycleperspectivenecessitatesaunique,andoftenunconventional,management
strategytooptimizeperformanceofmaterials,supplychains,andtominimizeoreliminatepollutingactivities.
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FigurePR3.1:Basiclifecycleactivitiesandsystemdiagramfortypicalpavements.(Weiland,2008)

Lifecycleassessmentshavefourstages(orphases)whichareofteniterative.TheseareshowngraphicallyinFigure
PR3.2anddescribedbelow.

FigurePR3.2:StagesofLifecycleAssessment(AdaptedfromISO,2006a;ISO,2006b)

x GoalandScope.SpecifyingthegoaloftheprojectLCAdocumentstheintendedapplication,referenced
literaturefortheproject,intendedaudience(heretheGreenroadsreviewteam),andproprietarystatusoffinal
results.Italsodefineswhatthingorprocesswillbestudiedandhowmuchwillbeproducedbythemodel.The
mostimportantpartofthisstepcomeswithdefiningthesystemboundariesandidentifyingtheprocessesand
emissionstobeincludedinthefinaloutcome.Additionally,thissectionidentifiessomekeylimitationsand
assumptionsofthemodel(specifically,whatwasscopedout,whatprocessesweresimplifiedandhowthey
wereestimated).SincetheLCAprocessisiterative,itiscrucialfortheprojectteamtodevelopawelldefined
goalandscopeinordertohaveameaningfulendproduct.
x LifecycleInventoryAnalysis(LCI).The2006ISO14044StandardSection4.3providesthebasicbackgroundand
proceduresrequiredforlifecycleinventoryanalysesbasedonthefunctionalunitsandreferenceflowsdefined
intheGoalandScope.Afunctionalunitisdefinedasthequantifiedperformanceofaproductsystemforuse
asareferenceunit.Areferenceflowisthemeasureoftheoutputsfromprocessesinagivenproductsystem
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requiredtofulfil[sic]thefunctionexpressedbythefunctionalunit.Thealternativesundercomparisonforthe
inventoryanalysesarethendescribedwithreferencetotheirspecificunitprocessesandfunctionalunits.Each
alternativewilllikelybecomprisedofslightlydifferentprocesses.Thepurposeoftheinventoryanalysisisto
producebothqualitativeandquantitativeinformationandrefineddefinitionsoftheunitprocesseswithinthe
systemboundaries.Theinventoryanalysisprocedureconsistsofdatacollection,dataprocessingand
calculations,andallocationofenvironmentalflowsandreleases,suchasemissions,energyuse,water,fuels,
andothermaterialsorbyproductsthatwerespecifiedintheGoal&Scopefortheproject.
x LifecycleImpactAssessment(LCIA).The2006ISO14044StandardSection4.4providesthebasicbackground
andproceduresrequiredforlifecycleimpactassessments(LCIA)basedonthefunctionalunitsandreference
flowsdefinedintheGoalandScope.Impactassessmentusestheresultsoftheinventoryanalysistoidentify
impactsassociatedwiththeemissionsandmaterialflows.Impactsmustbeclassifiedandcharacterized
accordingtotheISO14044Standard(2006b).Usuallythisinvolvesassigningequivalencyfactorstothe
inventorydata(e.g.aconversionfactor)toproduceanaggregateindicatorvaluethatcanbecomparedto
anotherimpactindex,knownmetricorindustryaverage.LCIAistypicallyusedforcomparingtwoormore
productswiththesamefunctionalunit.
x Interpretation.ThelastphaseoftheLCAisinterpretationandpresentationoftheresults.Thefirststepin
decisionanalysisistoidentifyallimportantobjectivesandattributes.Whilethisstepmayseemobvious,itis
necessarytoensurethatthevaluationfocusesontherightproblem.(EPA,2000)TheFREDdocumentation
providesadditionalguidanceandsuggestionsfordecisionmakingbasedonLCIandLCIAresults,suchas:
x Adoptinganexistingdecisionmakingweightingscheme.
x UsingtheAnalyticalHierarchyProcess(AHP).
x UsingtheModifiedDelphiTechnique.
x UsingaMultiAttributeUtilityTheory.
However,forthisProjectRequirement,neithertheLCIAnortheinterpretationstepsarerequired.ThisProject
RequirementfocusesononecomponentoftheLCA,thelifecycleinventory(LCI)analysis.Thepurposeofthe
inventoryanalysisistocollectvariousdataoninputsandoutputsofthesystemrelevanttothegoalsofthestudy
andwithinthedefinedboundariesofthestudy(ISO,2006a)Thusbydefault,theLCIwillalsorequireawellrefined
andcleargoalstatementandscopeofassessment.Approachestorefiningthegoalandscopearenotdiscussed
here.PleaseseetheresearchsectionofCreditMR1LifecycleAssessment.BothLCIandLCAcanbeusedinamore
informeddecisionmakingprocess(ISO,2006a;Schenck,2000).
LCIandLCAstudiesaresimilar,butcannotbecomparedunlessthecontextofassessmentisthesame.ISO(2006a)
states,LCIstudiesarenottobeconfusedwiththeLCIphaseofanLCAstudy.Similarly,LCAandLCIarenottobe
confusedwithconventionallifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA).LCCAsarefrequentlymistakenfortheprocessbasedand
streamlinedmethodsoflifecycleassessment.LCCAisactuallyanapproachusedinwhatistypicallytermed
engineeringeconomics(amisnomer,forthereisverylittleofeitherengineeringoreconomicsinvolved)which
allowsdeterminationofpast,presentandfuturevaluesofavarietyofinitialcapitalandlongterminputsand
outputsbasedoncostalone,compoundedovertime.Additionally,LCCAsrarelysystematicallyaccountforendof
lifecosts,suchasdisposalfeesorrecyclingcosts,becausethesearedifficulttoestimate.Whileallmethodsare
basedonasimilartimelines(thewholelifecycle),theyeachhavefundamentallydifferentoutputsandresulting
implicationsforthedesignprocess,andthereforedifferentutilityindecisionmaking.PR2discussesLCCAindetail.
LCAandSustainabilityBenefits
Keoleian&Spitzley(2006)suggestthatLifecyclebasedsustainabilitymodelsandmetricsplayakeyrolein
guidingthetransformationoftechnology,consumptionpatterns,andcorporateandgovernmentalpoliciesfor
achievingamoresustainablesociety.AnLCAapproachcanbeusedinmanyapplications.Someofthemost
oftencitedarenotedbelow:
x Lifecyclemodelspromoteanawarenessofproductioneffectsandconnectthemtouseorconsumptionofa
systemorprocess.
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x Settinglifecycleboundariesatasystemlevelallowsforcomprehensiveenvironmental,socialandeconomic
accountingmetricstobeusedinameaningfulwaytomeasureandmonitorperformance.
x Lifecyclemetricsinformdecisionmakersandcanbeusedbystakeholderstomanageandassessthesystem
orproduct(Keoleian&Spitzey,2006).
x LCAcanhelpidentifyopportunitiestoimproveenvironmentalperformanceofproductsatvariouspoints
intheirlifecycle.(ISO,2006a)
x LCAcanhelpinformtheindustrydecisionmakers,governmentagenciesandpolicymakersforstrategic
planning,performancebenchmarking,orproductdevelopmentandredesign.(ISO,2006a)
x LCAcanhelpevaluatetherelevanceofvariousindicatorsforenvironmentalperformance(ISO,2006a).
x LCAprovidesamarketingopportunitysuchasecolabelinganddeclarationsofenvironmentalperformance
(ISO,2006a).
AsurveycompletedbyCooperandFavain2006showsthatLCAiswidelyusedforanumberofapplications.
TablePR3.3summarizestheresults,bypercentageofrespondents.
TablePR3.3:PrevalenceLCAUsebyPractioners(AdaptedfromCooper&Fava,2006)
UseofLCA Response
Businessstrategyandplanning 63%
Productandsystemresearchanddevelopment 62%
Inputsfordesign(productsorprocesses) 52%
Education 46%
Policydevelopment 43%
Marketingschemes(labeling,environmentaldeclarations) 37%
Sales 26%
Procurement 20%
Other(includingbiddingortenderpackages) 8%
TypesofLCAs
Ingeneral,therearethreeorfourtypesofLCAmodelsdependingonthesourceofinformation.Onetypeisthe
EconomicInputOutputmodel(EIO)forLifeCycleAssessment(EIOLCA).Forexample,thisProjectRequirement
isbasedonanEIOLCAmodel(http://www.eiolca.net).SecondisaprocessbasedLCA,whichfollowsa
standardmethodologysetforthbytheInternationalStandardsOrganization(ISO)14040and14044for
LifecycleAssessment.Thismethod,alsocalledISOLCA(Cooper&Fava,2006),oftenproducesmoredetailed
resultsthantheEIOLCAmodel(Hendrickson,Lave&Matthews,2006).ProcessbasedLCAsinvolveproject
specificprocessdataandgenerallyuseacomputationaltoolormatrixanalysistoformamodelandcomplete
theassessmentofdata,suchthemethodoutlinedbyHeijungsandSuh(2002).Therealsoisathirdmethodof
lifecycleassessment,whichisrecentlybecomingmoreprevalentcalledHybridLCA,whereanEIOmodelis
supplementedbyorintegratedwithprocessbaseddatatoproduceamorecomprehensiverepresentationof
theenvironmentaleffectsofthesystemprocesses.ThesearediscussedinfurtherdetailinCreditMR1
LifecycleAssessment.
ModifyinganyofthesethreeLCAmethodologiesmayresultinwhatiscalledastreamlinedLCA;whilenota
specificclassortypeofLCA,astreamlinedLCAstrategicallyomitsorsimplifiestheLCAmethodtomakeitless
computationallyintensive,suchasthroughthecreationofasoftwaretool(Weitz,Todd,Curran&Malkin,
1996)thatdeliberatelyleavesoutcollectionofsometypesofdataoraparticularimpactassessment.The
PaLATEv2.0forGreenroadsisanexampleofastreamlinedEIOLCAtool.Thereareanumberofdifferent
streamlinedtoolsavailableforroadswhichvaryinLCAmethodology(i.e.streamlinedISOLCAtools).In
additiontothePaLATEtoolsoriginallydevelopedbyHorvathetal.(2003):
x Huangetal.(2008,2009)hasdevelopedaMicrosoftExceltoolforstreamliningpavementLCAsandsystem
modeling(basedintheUnitedKingdom)
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x Birgisdr(2005),ChristensenandBirgisdr(2006),Birgisdretal.(2007)describethedevelopmentof
theDanishROADRESsoftwaretoolforthatincorporatesmunicipalsolidwasteincineratorresiduesin
pavementLCAs.
x Apuletal.(n.d.;Apul,2007)attheUniversityofToledodevelopedawebbasedtoolforLCAcalled
BenReModLCA(BeneficialReuseModules).Anextensionofthistool,asamulticriteriadecisionmaking
tool,BenReModMCDA,iscurrentlyunderdevelopmentbythesameauthors.Bothtoolsareavailableat:
http://benremod.eng.utoledo.edu/BenReMod/
x CHANGER(theCalculatorforHarmonisedAssessmentandNormalisationofGreenhousegasEmissionsfor
Roads),apaidsoftwaretool,recentlybecameavailableformodelinggreenhousegasemissionsfrom
pavementsforfromtheInternationalRoadFederation(IRF,2010).CHANGERincludesdatasourcesfor188
countriesandglobalandregionalincomegroups(IRF,2010).
Eachofthesestreamlinedtoolshasdrawbacksduetovariousbuiltinassumptionsandlimitations.Most
commonlythesetoolssufferfromdoublecountingerrors,poororverypoordataquality,lackoftransparency,
dataomissionsandgeneraluserunfriendliness.Thismeanstheymaynotproducereliableormeaningful
resultsthataccuratelyorpreciselyreflectroadwaylifecycleimpacts.
ItisunlikelyaprocessbasedLCIwillproduceresultsthatmatchofastreamlinedLCImodeloranEIOLCA
model.ThisisduetoissueswithdataqualityandthescopeoftheEIOmodelsandtheirgenerallackofprocess
specificitytoparticularprocesseswithinasystem.Thus,itisalsounlikelythattheinventorydataproducedfor
PR3willmatchtheresultsoftheProcessBasedLCAorHybridLCArequiredfortheCreditMR1.
ExistingRoadwayLCAs
TheweightofanyVoluntaryCreditinGreenroadsv1.5thatinvolvesmaterials,construction,transportationfrom
constructionandtrafficuse,wasdeterminedbyathoroughreviewofexistinglifecycleassessmentliteraturefor
roads.WeusedtheliteraturereviewprocessinattempttoidentifypatternsfortypicalLCAresultsforLCAsthat
usedatransparent,systematicapproachtoevaluatethepavementsectionandreportedthetotalenergyuseor
totalCO
2
(orCO
2
e).Eachdocumentreviewed(thereare,todate13paperswith45differentrealorhypothetical
roadtypes).(AthenaInstitute,2006;Carpenteretal.,2007;Chuietal.,2008;Horvath,2003;Huangetal.,2009a;
Huangetal.,2009b;Mrouehetal.,2001;Rajendran&Gambatese,2007;Schenck,2000;Stripple,2000;Stripple,
2001;Weiland,2008;Zapata&Gambatese,2005)Formoreinformationonhowtheweightingdecisionswere
made,pleaserefertotheintroductionofthismanualortoMuench&Anderson(submittedforpublication).We
usedasystematic,lifecyclebasedapproachtodeterminetheiroverallcreditweightonafivepointscale,with
someconcessions,whichareexplainedinMuench&Anderson.
TypesofInvestigations
FivepapersaddressedPCCpavements(10assessments),whileall13addressHMApavements(36
assessments).NotethatSchenck(2000)addressedresurfacingmaintenanceonly,andherresultsarenot
includedinthefollowingfiguresortables.FigurePR3.3(nextpage)showsthedescribedpavementstructure
foreachstudiedassessment(12papers,43total).Eachauthoruseddifferentdatasourcesanddefinedtheir
systemboundariesdifferently.However,abasicstatisticalanalysisshowsthattherearesomenoticeable
generaltrendsonaperlanekilometerbasisofthe43LCAstudies.Thesetrendsincludesimilaritiesinthescope
ofthestudy(pavementsectiononly),resultsonenergyuseandCO
2
production,andacontributionanalysisof
theenergyandCO
2
attributableaccordingtoeachlifecyclephaseoftheroadway.Weusedmedianvaluesto
limitinfluenceofextremeoutliersinthedata.
Thescopeandboundariesofmostpapers(10assessments)examineonlythepavementstructureandexclude
otherelementsoftheroadway.Stripple(2001),however,completedtheonlyfulllifecycleinventorythat
includedotherroadwayactivitiesandmaterialneeds,likelandclearing,electricutilities,andsigns.Thispaper
isdiscussedinfurtherdetailinCreditMR1.Thephasestypicallyconsideredinthescopeoftheassessments
areinitialconstructionandpavementrelatedmaintenanceactivitiesoverageneralrangeofassumeddesign
livesbetween40to50years.Twopapersalsoincludedvehicleemissionsfromtrafficduringtheoperationand
useofthecompletedroadway(Stripple,2001;Kennedy,2006).
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
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FigurePR3.3:LCAassessmentsandtheirstudiedpavementstructures.(Muench&Anderson,Submitted)


56
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
EnergyUse
Totalenergyusewasreportedby35assessments,andthedistributionin
rangesofterajoules(TJ)isshowninFigurePR3.4.Themedianresultis
approximately3.17TJperlanekm.ThestudybyHorvath(2003)
representedtheextremeoutlier,reportinganenergyuseof17.25TJper
lanekm(10.72TJperlanemile).ThisistheonlystudythatusestheEIO
LCAmodelandtheoriginalversionofthePaLATEsoftware,whichis
recommendedinmodifiedformforcompletingthisGreenroadsProject
Requirement.AreviewoftheoriginalPaLATEsoftwareindicatedthat
thereareseveralerrorsinkeycostandemissionsvalues,whichinour
opinionrendersthisnumber(butnotthemethod)suspect.Areasonable
approximationofthetotalenergyexpenditureattributabletoonetypical
lanekmofpavementis24TJ,whichvariesslightlydependinguponthe
pavementstructureandmaterial.In2005,theaverageannualAmerican
residentialhouseholdenergyusewas0.1TJ(94.9millionBTU:Energy
InformationAdministration,2009).Thismeansonelanekmofroadwayusesthesameenergyas2040
householdsdoinoneyear.ToputthisinmorefamiliarU.S.measuresofroads:themedianenergyuseofone
mileofroadrepresentstheaverageenergyuseof51homesinoneyear,withtherangeofenergyconsumption
representingthatusedbybetween3264homesayear.

FigurePR3.4.Distributionofenergyuseinpavementsfor34assessmentsin9pavementLCApapers.
Eachsymbolrepresentsoneassessment.(Muench,Anderson,Submitted)

CarbonDioxide(CO
2
)Emissions
SixpapersreportedtotalCO
2
emissionsfromatotalof19assessmentsandonepaperreportedglobalwarming
potential(expressedinCO
2
e)ratherthanCO
2
onlyemissionsonanother12assessments(31total).Itisunclear
ifthefirstsixpaperswerereportingCO
2
eoronlyCO
2
;however,thiswouldnotsignificantlyinfluencethe
statisticalresultseitherway.Theresultsshowamedianvalueof243metrictons(MT)perlanekm,thoughthe
distributionhadhighervariabilitythantheresultsforenergyuse.ThehistogramisshowninFigurePR3.5.The
highestvalueswerecitedinthepapersbyStripple(2000and2001)whichincludedaspectsofroad

DID YOU KNOW?
Themedianenergyusebyone
lane,onemilelong,ofroad
pavementrepresentsthesame
energyusethatabout51
averageU.S.householdsusein
onewholeyear.

Howmanyhouseholdsdoesit
takeyoutodrivetowork?

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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Inventory PR-3
constructionoutsidetheprimaryroadstructuralmaterialsandconstructionactivities.Therefore,areasonable
approximaterangeofthetotalCO
2
emissionsthatisattributabletoonetypicallanekmofpavementis100
500MT,whichvariesslightlydependinguponthepavementstructureandmaterial,andalsothescopeofthe
LCA.OnemetrictonneofCO
2
,atstandardtemperatureandpressure,hasavolumeofabout729cubicmeters
(FigurePR3.6).

FigurePR3.5.DistributionofCO
2
emissionsinpavementfor32assessmentsin7pavementLCApapers.Each
symbolrepresentsoneassessment.(Muench,Anderson,Submitted)

FigurePR3.6:Onemetricton(MT)ofCO
2
asmodeledbyaMassachusettshighschoolphysicsclass.Thecube
is27feetperside.(http://www.energyrace.com/images/uploads/commentary/co2cube4.jpg)
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
ContributionAnalysisofLifecycleStages
Severalpapers,asshowninTablePR3.4andTablePR3.5,analyzedenergyuseandCO
2
emissionsaccordingto
fourmajorlifecyclestagesoractivities:materialsproduction,pavementconstruction(initialandmaintenance),
andtransportationassociatedwithconstruction.Therelativecontributionsofeachstageoractivityare
reasonablyconsistentacrossthesmallnumberofstudies.Ingeneral,materialsproductionaccountsforabout
75%ofenergyuseand6070%ofCO
2
emissions;constructionaccountsforlessthan5%ofbothenergyuseand
CO
2
emissions;andtransportofmaterialsforproductionandduringconstructionaccountsforabout20%of
energyuseandabout10%ofCO
2
emissions.Maintenanceactivitiesseemtoaccountforabout25%ofenergy
useandabout1020%ofCO
2
emissionswhencomparedtoinitialconstruction.
TablePR3.4:RelativeEnergyContributionsofRoadConstructionLifecycleStages
(AdaptedfromMuench&Anderson,Submitted)
LifecycleStage No.Papers No. LCAs Average(%) Median (%) St.Dev(%) Range(%)
MaterialsProduction 5 14 74 73 13 6098
Construction 5 14 3 2 2 210
Transportation 4 12 21 21 11 738
InitialConstruction 4 8 74 73 21 4597
Maintenance 4 8 26 27 21 355

TablePR3.5:RelativeCO
2
EmissionContributionsofRoadConstructionLifecycleStages(ibid.)
LifecycleStage No.Papers No.LCAs Average(%) Median(%) St.Dev(%) Range(%)
MaterialsProduction 1 3 69 61 15 6087
Construction 1 3 4 4 2 16
Transportation 1 3 8 9 3 410
InitialConstruction 3 16 78 86 20 45100
Maintenance 3 16 22 14 20 055

Basedontheseresults,therearesomegeneralrulesofthumbwhichareshowninTablePR3.6.
TablePR3.6:Generalrulesofthumbforpavementenergyandemissions(ibid.)
Comparison EnergyUse CO
2
Emissions
MaterialsProductiontoConstructionProcesses 25to1 16to1
TransportationtoConstruction 8 to1 3to1
MaintenanceActivitiestoInitialConstruction 1to3 1to4

ANoteonDisposal,Use,andOperationsLifecycleStages
Notincludedinthefiguresortablesabovearethreeverycriticallifecyclestagesoractivities:use(vehiculartraffic),
operations(suchaslightingandsignals),andthewastedisposalprocessfromdemolishedpavements.Rajendran
andGambatese(2007)attemptedtoquantifywasteproductionprocessesthroughouttheroadwaylifecycle,
especiallyinconstruction.However,thisistheonlystudythathasdoneso.AsnotedinPR6ConstructionWaste
ManagementPlanandbyRajendranandGambetese(2007),thereisverylittleinformationavailableaboutthe
generationordisposalofroadwaywasteproducts.Also,severalauthorsinvestigatedeitherabyweightorby
volumeapproachtoreplacingpavementmaterialsinkindwithdifferentrecycledmaterials(suchascoalflyash
insteadofcement)inordertoreducethelifecycleenergyuseorCO
2
emissions.Theseassessments,ingeneral,are
complicatedtomodelbecauserecycledmaterialsgenerallycamefromanothersystemthatisoutsidethescopeor
theboundariesoftheassessment.Introducingrecycledmaterialsintoanewroadwayprojectsystemoreven
reusingwastematerialsgeneratedfromtheprojectitselfrepresentsafeedbackloop,becausethematerialsare
reintroducedsomewhereintoapreviouslifecyclestagealongthesystemsupplychain.Itisthereforeoftendifficult
todisaggregatetheenvironmentalaccountabilityandassignittoaresponsiblepartywhenusingrecycledmaterial.
Thereareavarietyofmethodsused,andagain,eachhasitsownassumptions,limitations,uncertainties,
advantagesanddisadvantages.
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Inventory PR-3
Further,onlyonestudy(Stripple,2001)investigatedoperations.Ingeneral,electricalequipmentsuchasthatused
forsignalsandlightingcontributedthemosttoenergyuseandCO2emissionsofalltheoperationalcomponents
studied,(1)forruralenvironments,operationscontributedalmostnegligiblyforbothenergyandCO2,and(2)the
energymixusedwasbasedonSwedishpowersources,whicharemostlyhydropowerandnuclearenergy.
Trafficuseisrarelyconsideredinpavementbasedlifecycleassessments.However,twostudies(Stripple,2001and
Kennedy,2006)modeltheimpactsduetotrafficuse.IftrafficisconsideredinthescopeoftheLCA,thenvehicular
emissionsdominatethetotalenergyconsumptionandcarbondioxideemissions.However,thisiswidelyvariable
anddependsanumberoffactorsincluding(butnotlimitedto)vehiclemix,modalaccess,fuelefficiencyandtype
offuel.Generally,theenergyexpendedinconstructionisaboutthesameasthatexpendedbyroadwayusersin
thefirsttwoyearsofservice.Typicalpavementmaintenanceactivities(overlays)generallyuselowervolumesof
materialsandthiswouldrepresentashortertimelinethanonetotwoyears.
CaveatsofLCIs
Clearly,existingroadwayLCIsandLCAsvaryinmethod.Sometimesthisvarietylendstoreportingcontradictoryor
mixedresults,whichcanbeconfusing,especiallyinadecisionmakingcontext.TheeffectivenessofLCIorLCA
studiesarehighlydependentonthegoalandscopedefinition,datasourcesandquality,modellimitationsand
uncertainties.Additionally,manypubliclyavailabledatabasesorcompletedLCIsoftenuseorcontainaverage
informationthatcannotbeeasilyappliedinprojectspecificcontexts.Theconverseisalsotrue;projectspecific
LCIsshouldnotnecessarilybecomebaselinemodelsforotherprojectswithoutthoroughreviewofthevariables
thatwereconsidered.Thusresultsoftheinventoryarebestusedasatoolorabenchmarkingmethod,butnotasa
baselinevalue.Anotherpointthatmustbemadeexpresslyclear:completingalifecycleinventoryoralifecycle
assessmentofyourprojectdoesnot,byvirtueoftheprocessormethodalone,makeaprojectmoreorless
sustainablethananotherproject.
AdditionalResources
x TheCarnegieMellonGreenDesignInstitutedatabaseispubliclyavailableandfreetousenoncommercially.It
alsoprovidesaverythoroughexplanationofthefinerpointsoftheEIOLCAmethodologyaswellasdiscussion
andexamplesofthemethodology.EIOLCAisavailableathttp://www.eiolca.net.
x TheSocietyofEnvironmentalToxicologyandChemistry(SETAC)providesathoroughandconcisedescriptionof
theISOLCAmethodologyaswellaslinkstootherprofessionalLCAresourcesandorganizations.More
informationisavailableathttp://www.setac.org/.
GLOSSARY
BenReMod BeneficialReuseModule
CHANGER CalculatorforHarmonisedAssessmentandNormalisationofGreenhousegas
EmissionsforRoads
CO2 Carbondioxide
CO2e Carbondioxideequivalentemission
EIO EconomicInputOutput
EIOLCA EconomicInputOutputforLifeCycleAssessment
EOL Endoflife
Feedbackloop Aprocesswithinasystemwhereoutputsofaprocessarereintroducedas
inputsintoapreviouslifecyclestagesomewherealongthesamesystem
supplychain
Functionalunit Thequantifiedperformanceofaproductsystemforuseasareferenceunit
(ISO,2006a)
ISO InternationalStandardsOrganization
ISOLCA ProcessbasedLCA
LCA Lifecycleassessment
LCCA Lifecyclecostanalysis
60
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
LCI Lifecycleinventoryanalysis
LCIA Lifecycleimpactassessment
Lifecycle consecutiveandinterlinkedstagesofaproduct[orproject]system,fromraw
materialacquisitionorgenerationfromnaturalresourcestofinaldisposalor
[endoflife:EOL](ISO,2006a)
Lifecycleassessment Compilationandevaluationoftheinputs,outputsandthepotential
environmentalimpactsofaproductsystemthroughoutitslifecycle(ISO,
2006a)
Maintenance Routineconstructionactivitieswhicharepreservativeinnature,suchas
patchingandrepair.Typicallymaintenanceinvolvesadditionalproductionof
materialaswellasadditionaltransportandconstructionactivities.Seealso
operations.
MCDA MultiCriteriaDecisionAnalysis
Operations Equipment,componentsoractivitiesthatareneededonaroutinebasisto
ensurepropersafetyduringuseofaroad,e.g.luminaires,signals,deicing,
striping,sanding,drawbridgemechanicalequipment,tollbooths,etc.
(Muench&Anderson,submitted)Seealsomaintenance.
PaLATE PavementLifecycleAssessmentToolforEnvironmentalandEconomicEffects
Referenceflow Themeasureoftheoutputsfromprocessesinagivenproductsystem
requiredtofulfil[sic]thefunctionexpressedbythefunctionalunit(ISO,
2006a)
SETAC SocietyofEnviornmentalToxicologyandChemistry
Systemboundary Setofcriteriadefiningwhichunitprocessesarepartofasystem(ISO,2006a)
Unitprocess Smallestunitconsideredinthelifecycleinventoryanalysisforwhichinput
andoutputdataarequantified(ISO,2006a)

REFERENCES
Apul,D.S.etal.(n.d.).MCDABenReMod.AccessedJanuary6,2010.Availableat
http://benremod.eng.utoledo.edu/BenReMod/
Apul,D.S.(2007)DevelopmentofaBeneficialReuseToolforManagingIndustrialByproducts:BenReModLCAand
BenReModMCDAWebBasedTools,FinalreportsubmittedtoUSEPA'sOfficeofSolidWasteandEmergency
Response(OSWER).
AthenaInstitute.(2006)ALifeCyclePerspectiveonConcreteandAsphaltRoadways:EmbodiedPrimaryEnergyand
GlobalWarmingPotential.ReporttotheCementAssociationofCanada.Availableat
http://www.cement.ca/index.php/en/Newsroom/A_Life_Cycle_Perspective_on_Concrete_and_Asphalt_Road
ways.html
Birgisdr,H.(2005).Lifecycleassessmentmodelforroadconstructionanduseofresiduesfromwaste
incineration.Dissertation.TechnicalUniversityofDenmark.InstituteofEnvironment&Resources.Kongens
Lyngby,Denmark.
Birgisdr,H.,Bhander,G.,Hauschild,M.Z.,&Christensen,T.H.(2007).Lifecycleassessmentofdisposalof
residuesfrommunicipalsolidwasteincineration:recyclingofbottomashinroadconstructionorlandfillingin
DenmarkevaluatedintheROADRESmodel.WasteManagement.27(8),7584.
CarnegieMellonGreenDesignInstitute.(2008).EconomicInputOutputLifeCycleAssessmentCarnegieMellon
University(EIOLCA).US2002IndustryBenchmarkmodel[Internet].AccessedJanuary2,2010.Availableat
http://www.eiolca.net/.
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Lifecycle Inventory PR-3
Carpenter,A.C.,Gardner,K.H.,Fopiano,J.,Benson,C.H.,&Edil,T.B.(2007).LifeCyclebasedriskassessmentof
recycledmaterialsinroadwayconstruction.WasteManagement27,14581464.
Christensen,T.H.&Birgisdottir,H.(2006).Lifecycleassessmentofresidueuseinroadconstruction(ROADRES).In
Ilic,M.(2006).Environmentalandtechnicalimplicationsofconstructionwithalternativematerials.
[Proceedings].6
th
AnnualWASCONConference:Scienceandengineeringofrecyclingforenvironmental
protection.May,2006.Belgrade.
Cooper,J.S.&Fava,J.A.(2006).LifeCycleAssessmentPractitionerSurvey:SummaryofResults.Journalof
IndustrialEcology.10(4),1214.
Chui,CT.,Hsu,TH.,&Yang,WF.(2008).Lifecycleassessmentonusingrecycledmaterialsforrehabilitating
asphaltpavements.Resources,ConservationandRecycling52,545556.
EnergyInformationAdministration.(2009,January).2005ResidentialEnergyConsumptionSurveyDetailed
Tables.SummaryStatistics(revisedJanuary2009).TotalEnergyConsumption,Expenditures,andIntensities.
HousingUnitCharacteristicsandEnergyUsageIndicators(US1:Part1).AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/c&e/detailed_tables2005c&e.html
Heijungs,R.&Suh,S.(2002).Thecomputationalstructureoflifecycleassessment.Dordrecht;Boston:Kluwer
AcademicPublishers.
Hendrickson,C.T.,Lave,L.B.,&Matthews,H.S.(2006).EnvironmentalLifeCycleAssessmentofGoodsand
Services:AnInputOutputApproach.ResourcesfortheFuturePress.
Horvath,A.&UniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeley.(2007,5June)PaLATE:PavementLifeCycleTool.RetrievedMay
20,2008fromhttp://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~horvath/palate.html.
Horvath,A.(2003).Lifecycleenvironmentalandeconomicassessmentofusingrecycledmaterialsforasphalt
pavements.Berkeley,Calif:UniversityofCaliforniaTransportationCenter.http://www.uctc.net/papers/683.pdf
Huang,Y.,Bird,R.,&Bell,M.(2009a).Acomparativestudyoftheemissionsbyroadmaintenanceworksandthe
disruptedtrafficusinglifecycleassessmentandmicrosimulation.TransportationResearch.PartD,Transport
andEnvironment.14(3),197.
Huang,Y.,Bird,R.,&Heidrich,O.(2009b).Developmentofalifecycleassessmenttoolforconstructionand
maintenanceofasphaltpavements.JournalofCleanerProduction.17(2),283296.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization.(2006a).ISO14040:2006(E)EnvironmentalManagementLife
CycleAssessmentPrinciplesandFramework.2nded.2006:IHS.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization.(2006b).ISO14044:2006(E)EnvironmentalManagementLife
CycleAssessmentRequirementsandGuidelines.1sted.2006:IHS.
InternationalRoadFederation.(2010).FeaturesofCHANGERGreenHouseGasCalculatorInternationalRoad
Federation.AccessedDecember15,2009.Availableathttp://www.irfghg.org/features.php
Kennedy,E.(2006).IntegrationoftheMeasurementofEnergyUsageintoRoadDesign,FinalReport.Commission
oftheEuropeanCommunitiesDirectorateGeneralforEnergyandTransport.(ContractNo.:4.1031/Z/02
091/2002).
Keoleian,G.A.&Spitzley,D.V.(2006).LifeCycleBasedSustainabilityMetrics.InAbraham,M.A.(2006).
SustainabilityScienceandEngineering:DefiningPrinciples.pp.127159.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-3 Lifecycle Inventory
Mroueh,U.M.,Eskola,P.,&LaineYlijoki,J.(2001).Lifecycleimpactsoftheuseofindustrialbyproductsinroad
andearthconstruction.WasteManagement.21(3),271.
Muench,S.T.&Anderson,J.L.(n.d).Weightingasustainabilityperformancemetricforroadways:Greenroads.
JournalofGreenBuilding.Submittedforpublication.
Rajendran,S.&Gambatese,J.A.(2007).SolidWasteGenerationinAsphaltandReinforcedConcreteRoadwayLife
Cycles.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.13(2),88.
Schenck,R.(2000).UsingLCAforProcurementDecisions:ACaseStudyPerformedfortheU.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.EnvironmentalProgress.19,110116.
Solomon,S.etal.(2007)SynthesisReport.ClimateChange2007:SynthesisReport.FourthAssessmentReportof
theIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Stripple,H.(2000).LifeCycleInventoryofAsphaltPavements.IVLSwedishEnvironmentalResearchInstituteLtd.
ReportfortheEuropeanAsphaltPavementAssociation(EAPA)andEurobitume.
Stripple,H.,(2001).LifeCycleAssessmentofRoad:APilotStudyforInventoryAnalysis,SecondRevisedEdition.IVL
SwedishEnvironmentalResearchInstituteLtd.ReportfortheSwedishNationalRoadAdministration.
Weiland,C.D.(2008).LifecycleassessmentofPortlandcementconcreteinterstatehighwayrehabilitationand
replacement.Thesis(M.S.C.E.)UniversityofWashington,2008.
Weitz,K.,Todd,J.A.,Curran,M.A.,&Malkin,M.(1996).StreamliningLifeCycleAssessmentConsiderationsanda
reportontheStateofthePractice.InternationalJournalofLifeCycleAssessment.1(2):7985.
Zapata,P.&Gambatese,J.A.(2005).EnergyConsumptionofAsphaltandReinforcedConcretePavementMaterials
andConstruction.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.11(1),920.

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64
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-4 Quality Control Plan
QUALITY CONTROL PLAN
GOAL
Haveaprocessinplacetomonitorandimproveconstructionquality.
REQUIREMENTS
Theprimecontractorshallestablish,implement,andmaintainaformalconstruction
QualityControlPlan(QCP).TheQCPmustaddressthefollowingqualitycontrol
elements:
1. Keyqualitycontrolpersonnel,theirresponsibilitiesandtheirqualifications
(rsums,certifications,etc.).
2. Proceduresusedtocontrolqualityduringconstructionincluding(asaminimum):
a. Itemstobemonitored(includingpavementmixdesigns)
b. Testingtobedone(includingtestingstandardsandfrequency)
c. Whencorrectiveactionisrequired(actionlimits)
d. Procedurestoimplementcorrectiveaction
e. ProcedurestomodifyQCPifineffectiveorwhenmodificationsarenecessary
Details
Somestateandlocalowneragenciesalreadyhaverequirementsforsuchplans
writtenintotheirstandardspecifications.Suchexistingrequirementsshouldbe
abletomeettherequirementsabove,howeversomeonlyaddressconstruction
qualityforhotmixasphalt(HMA)orPortlandcementconcrete(PCC)pavingand
notconstructionoftheoverallproject.Testingfrequencyandtestprocedures
shouldnotbebasedonminimumownerrequirementsforacceptance.
Somestatehighwayagenciesusecontractortestingintheiracceptanceprocess.In
thesecasestheindependentassurancetestsmustbeperformedonsamplesthat
aretakenindependentlyofqualitycontrolsamples.Qualitycontrolplansare
requiredinthesecases,asdefinedinCFR637,Title23.
TheQualityControlPlanshouldcoverallprojectconstruction;notjustthe
pavement.Subcontractorsneedtobeincludedinthisplan,whichtypicallymeans
identifyingaresponsiblepartyandobtainingaqualitycontrolprocedurefromthe
subcontractor.
Alargedocumentthatrepeatslanguagefromthecontractspecificationsshouldnot
begeneratedforthisProjectRequirement.Rather,thedocumentshouldclearly
identifythemajoraspectsoftheprimecontractorsplantocontrolproject
constructionqualityandwhoisresponsibleforimplementingthoseaspects.A
reasonableQualityControlPlanforatypicalroadwayproject(i.e.,lessthan$10
millioncontractprice)canbewritteninabout6to12pages(FLHD,1998).AQuality
ControlPlanshouldbeapprovedbytheownerbeforeconstructionbegins.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyofthecontractorQualityControlPlan.
PR-4
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 CA1Quality
ManagementSystem
9 CA8Contractor
Warranty
9 PT1LongLife
Pavement
9 PT6Pavement
Performance
Tracking
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesServiceLife
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 Improves
Accountability

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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Quality Control Plan PR-4
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x WriteaQualityControlPlan.Oftenthiscanbeaccomplishedbyhavingaprimecontractorwithanestablished
qualitycontrolmanualandthenwritingaplanthatreferstothatmanualforproceduresandidentifieskey
personnel,materialsandprocessesassociatedwiththeparticularprojectinquestion.
Example: Agencies with Quality Control Plans
ManyownersalreadyrequireQCPsintheirstandardspecifications.Followingareexamplesofboth
comprehensiveQCPsthatcoverallofconstructionandsomethatjustrefertopavingoperations.
QCPsCoveringAllofConstruction
TheseplansdomeettherequirementsforPR4.
x FederalLandsHighwayDivision.ThisdocumentdiscussesaQCPthatcoversallconstructionaspectsand
providesafictitiousexample:http://www.wfl.fhwa.dot.gov/resources/construction/field
notes/documents/d0215.pdf.
x FloridaDepartmentofTransportation(FDOT).FDOTsConstructionProjectAdministrationManual(2007)
describesFDOTrequirementsandhowtouseacontractorsqualitycontrolmanualtosupplementaQCPin
Section3.3.Section68oftheFDOT2007StandardSpecificationsforRoadandBridgeConstructionrequires
acontractorqualitycontrolprogram:
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/construction/manuals/cpam/CPAMManual.shtm
x SaskatchewanHighwaysandTransportation:TheStandardTestProcedureManual(1994)StandardTest
400(lastupdatedin1994)describeswhataqualitycontrolplandoesanditsminimumelements:
http://www.highways.gov.sk.ca/standardtest
QCPsCoveringPavingOperationsOnly
TheseplansdonotmeettherequirementsforPR4.
x AlabamaDOT(ALDOT)ALDOT37591:http://www.dot.state.al.us/NR/rdonlyres/A1E8B299F51841BF
B0A92326C1177C91/0/ALDOT375ApprovedFHWAOctober202008_.pdf
x IllinoisDOTHMAQCPtemplate:
http://www.dot.state.il.us/aero/PDF/HMA%20QC%20plan%20template.pdf
x NorthCarolinaDOTSection609oftheStandardSpecifications:
http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/ps/specifications/english/s609.html
x UnifiedFacilitiesGuideSpecifications,Section3.10:
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS%2032%2012%2016.pdf
ManyotherorganizationsalsohaveguidesandspecificationsforcontractorQualityControlPlans.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. ItisnotpossibletodeterminefromthecontentoftheQCPwhetherqualityconstructionwillresult.Therefore,
thiscreditdoesnotguaranteequalityconstructioninanyway.
2. AcontractorQualityControlPlanthatonlyaddressespavingoperationsisnotsufficienttomeettheintentof
thiscredit.Forsomeowners,standardspecificationlanguagemayonlyrequireaQualityControlPlanforthe
pavingoperation.WhilepavingneedstobecoveredintheQualityControlPlan,allothermajorcomponentsof
construction(e.g.,structures,earthwork,drainage,trafficcontrolitems,etc.)mustalsobecovered.
3. TheQualityControlPlanshouldnotbearepeatofthetechnicalspecifications.Rather,theplanshouldaddress
whoisresponsibleforqualitycontrolforaparticularitemorprocess,whenkeyinspectionsaremade,when
correctiveactionsaretobetakenandhowtheyaretobetaken.
4. Aformalprocessformonitoringandimprovingconstructionqualityshouldnotconflictwithminimumquality
standardsthataremaintainedbytheroadwayowner.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-4 Quality Control Plan
RESEARCH
Constructionqualitycansignificantlyinfluencefinalprojectqualityandperformance.Poorconstructioncanleadto
earlyandexcessivemaintenanceand/orearlyreplacement.Thiscostsmoremoneyandusesmoreresources
leadingtoalesssustainableproject.Unfortunately,thereisagenerallackofempiricalevidencetodocument
theseitemsastheyareoftentakentobeintuitivelyobvious.Thissection,therefore,presentsadiscussionof
severalpavementitemssincefortheseitemsthereissubstantialevidencethatconstructionqualityimpacts
performanceandcost.
SubgradeandBaseCompaction
Subgradeorbasematerialthatisnotadequatelycompactedmaysettleovertime,whichinturncausesthe
overlyingpavementtosettleandcrack.Thiscanleadtoroughnessandearlypavementfailure.Oftenadequate
subgradedensityisdescribedintermsofrelativedensity(e.g.,90or95percentofmaximumdensity).
HotMixAsphalt(HMA)Density
Compactionisthegreatestdeterminingfactorindensegradedhotmixasphaltperformance(Scherocman&
Martenson,1984;Scherocman,1984;Geller,1984;Brown,1984;Bellet.al.,1984;Hughes,1984;Hughes,1989).
Inadequatecompactionresultsinapavementwithdecreasedstiffness,reducedfatiguelife,accelerated
aging/decreaseddurability,rutting,raveling,andmoisturedamage(Hughes,1984;Hughes,1989).
HMAAggregateSegregation
Basedonseveralarticles(Kennedyetal.,1987;Brown&Brownfield,1988;Williamsetal.,1996aand1996b;
Khedaywi&White,1996;AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials:AASHTO,1997)the
commonlyacceptedqualitativedefinitionofaggregatesegregationisthenonuniformdistributionofcoarseand
fineaggregatecomponentswithintheasphaltmixture.ThechiefdetrimentaleffectsofsegregationonHMA
performanceare:reducedfatiguelife,rutting,raveling,andmoisturedamage.Theseeffectscancauseasevere
reductioninpavementlife.MoreinformationonsegregationcausesandcurescanbefoundinSegregationCauses
andCuresforHotMixAsphalt(QIP110)byAASHTOandtheNationalAsphaltPavementAssociation(NAPA).
HMATemperatureDifferentials
HMAtemperaturedifferentialsarelargemattemperaturedifferencesresultingfromplacementofasignificantly
coolerportionofHMAmassintothemat.Thiscoolermasscomesfromthesurfacelayer(orcrust)typically
developedduringHMAtransportfromthemixingplanttothejobsite.Thesecoolerareaswillreachcessation
temperaturemorequicklythanthesurroundingmat.Rollerpatternsdevelopedbasedongeneralmat
temperaturesmaynotbeadequatetocompactthesecoolerareasbeforetheycooltocessationtemperature
resultinginisolatedspotsofinadequatecompaction.Thus,temperaturedifferentialscancauseisolatedareasof
inadequatecompactionresultingindecreasedstrength,reducedfatiguelife,acceleratedaging/decreased
durability,rutting,raveling,andmoisturedamage(Hughes,1984;Hughes,1989).
PortlandCementConcrete(PCC)Consolidation
ConsolidationistheprocessofmakingthefreshlyplacedPCCintoamoreuniformandcompactmassby
eliminatingundesirableairvoidsandcausingittomovearoundpotentialobstructions(suchasreinforcingsteel).
Thisisusuallyaccomplishedusingvibrators.Inadequateconsolidationcanleadtoundesirableairvoidsthatcan
weakenPCCorbeunsightly.
PavementRoughness
Pavementroughnessisanexpressionofirregularitiesinthepavementsurfacethatadverselyaffecttheride
qualityofavehicle(andthustheuser).Roughnessaffectsnotonlyridequalitybutalsovehicledelaycosts,fuel
consumptionandmaintenancecosts.TheWorldBankfoundroadroughnesstobeaprimaryfactorintheanalyses
andtradeoffsinvolvingroadqualityvs.usercost(UMTRI,1998).Otherstudies(e.g.,Papagiannakis&Delwar,
2001;Barnes&Langworthy,2003)haveattemptedtoquantifythecostofvehicleoperationinrelationto
pavementroughness.
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Quality Control Plan PR-4
GLOSSARY
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
Aggregatesegregation thenonuniformdistributionofcoarseandfineaggregatecomponentswithin
theasphaltmixture(Kennedyet.al.,1987;BrownandBrownfield,1988;
Williamset.al.,1996aand1996b;KhedaywiandWhite,1996;American
AssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials:AASHTO,1997)
Consolidation theprocessofmakingthefreshlyplacedportlandcementconcreteintoa
moreuniformandcompactmassbyeliminatingundesirableairvoids
HMA Hotmixasphalt
NAPA NationalAsphalt PavingAssociation
Pavementroughness anexpressionofirregularitiesinthepavementsurfacethatadverselyaffect
theridequalityofavehicle(andthustheuser)
PCC Portlandcementconcrete

REFERENCES
AlabamaDepartmentofTransportation(ALDOT).(2008).ALDOT37591:ContractorQualityControlSystemfor
HotMixAsphalt.Revision10/20/2008.FromtheALDOTBureauofMaterialsandTestsTestingManual.
Accessed11November2008.Availableathttp://www.dot.state.al.us/NR/rdonlyres/A1E8B299F51841BF
B0A92326C1177C91/0/ALDOT375ApprovedFHWAOctober202008_.pdf.
FederalLandsHighwayDivision(FLHD).(1998).ContractorQualityControlPlans:ContractorGuidelinesand
ExampleQualityControlPlan.FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA),FederalLandsHighwayOffice,
EngineeringandOperationsDivision(HFL20),Washington,D.C.Accessed11November2008.Availableat
http://www.cflhd.gov/resources/construction/documents/qc_plans.pdf.
FloridaDepartmentofTransportation(FDOT).(2007).ConstructionProjectAdministrationManual(CPAM).700
000000.OfficeofConstruction,FDOT.Accessed11November2008.Availableat
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/construction/manuals/cpam/CPAMManual.shtm.
FloridaDepartmentofTransportation(FDOT).(2007).StandardSpecificationsforRoadandBridgeConstruction
2007.Accessed11November2008.Availableat
http://www2.dot.state.fl.us/SpecificationsEstimates/Implemented/CurrentBK/Default.aspx.
IllinoisDepartmentofTransportation(IDOT).(nodate).HotMixAsphalt(HMA)QualityControlPlantemplate.
IDOTDivisionofAeronautics.Accessed11November2008.Availableat
http://www.dot.state.il.us/aero/PDF/HMA%20QC%20plan%20template.pdf.
SaskatchewanHighwaysandTransportation.(1994).ContractorQualityControlPlan.StandardTestProcedure400
fromtheStandardTestProceduresManual,QualityAssurancesection.Accessed11November2008.Available
athttp://www.highways.gov.sk.ca/standardtest.
U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers(USACE).(2008).UnifiedFacilitiesGuideSpecifications.UFGS321216.Accessed11
November2008.Availableathttp://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFGS/UFGS%2032%2012%2016.pdf.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-5 Noise Mitigation Plan
NOISE MITIGATION PLAN
GOAL
Reduceoreliminateannoyanceordisturbancetosurroundingneighborhoodsand
environmentsfromroadconstructionnoise.
REQUIREMENTS
Establish,implement,andmaintainaformalNoiseMitigationPlan(NMP)during
constructionfortheprimecontractor.TheNMPmustaddress,atminimum,the
followingelements:
1. Responsiblepartyfornoisemitigationactivities,contactinformation,their
responsibilitiesandtheirqualifications.IncludeinformationforNMPpreparer,if
applicableorcompletedbyanoutsideparty.
2. Projectlocationanddistancetoclosestreceptorofnoise.Includeadescriptionof
thesurroundingzoningandparcelinformation(i.e.,commercial,residential,
hospitals,schools,parks,sensitivehabitat).
3. Alistofproposedconstructionactivities(e.g.demolition,excavation,paving,bridge
foundations,finishing).
4. Datesandworkinghoursofproposedconstructionactivities.
5. Alistofnoisegeneratingdevicesusedduringeachconstructionactivitylistedin#3.
6. Alistofnoisemitigatingdevicesusedduringeachconstructionactivitylistedin#3,
includingpersonalsafetyequipmentrequirementsforallsiteemployees.
7. Noisepermitnumbers,agencyorlocalauthoritypoliciesassociatedwith
constructionwork,asapplicable.
8. Descriptionofnoisemonitoringstandards,methods,andacceptablelevels.
9. Descriptionofcorrectionproceduresfornoncompliantnoiselevels.
10. Signatureofresponsibleparty.
Details
TheNMPshouldcoverallofconstruction,includingsubcontractorworkactivities.
Somestateandlocalowneragenciesalreadyhaverequirementsforsuchplans
writtenintheirstandardspecifications.However,awrittenspecificationrequiring
theprimecontractortohaveaNoiseMitigationPlanisinsufficient,especially
becausemanylocalauthoritiesandowneragenciesoffercertainexemptionsto
theirpolicies,suchasdaylightworkschedulesorprojectswithminimalareasof
landdisturbingactivities.
Alargedocumentneednotbegeneratedforthisrequirement.Forprojectsthatare
deemedlocallyexempt(asnotedabove),showthattheprimecontractorhas
completedareviewofnoiseaspartofprojectplanning.TheNewYorkDepartment
ofEnvironmentalProtection(NYDEP2008)offersa4pagecheckliststyleNMPthat
addressesalloftheelementsabove,exceptforitems9and10,whichcanbeeasily
addressedin1page:http://nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/noise_mitigation.pdf.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyoftheNoiseMitigationPlan.
x Acopyofanyapplicablenoisepermits,oragencyorlocalauthoritynoisepolicies(a
livehyperlinktoanylargepolicydocumentsissufficient).
PR-5
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 PT5QuietPavement
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Noise Mitigation Plan PR-5
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x ReadtheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)HighwayConstructionNoiseHandbook(Knaueretal.,2006)
tounderstandtheaspectsofconstructionnoisethatcouldberelevanttoyourproject.TheHighway
ConstructionNoiseHandbookisavailableasawebdocumentat:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/handbook/index.htm.TheHandbookisarelativelyshortread
Chapters58maybeespeciallyhelpfulforprimecontractorsorprojectleadsnotfamiliarwithNMPs.
x CompletetheNMPduringtheenvironmentalreviewprocess,whentheenvironmentaldocumentationisbeing
generated.Mostenvironmentalreviewregulationsatfederalandstatelevels,includingtheNational
EnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA),includeaninvestigationofnoiserelatedprojectimpactstosurrounding
communities,andtheseimpactsoftencanbeaddressedinshortnarrativeform(Knaueretal.,2006).
x UsethecheckliststyleNMPavailablefromtheNYDEPasatemplatetocreateandassemblecustomowner
agencyNMPsforuseonfutureprojects.TheNYDEPchecklistisavailablehere:
http://nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/noise_mitigation.pdf
x EstimatenoiselevelsfromyourconstructionprojectbyusingtheRoadwayConstructionNoiseModel(RCNM)
softwareavailablefromtheFHWA(Rehemanetal.,2006).Ausersguideforthesoftwareprogramisalso
availableaspartoftheHighwayConstructionNoiseHandbookasanAppendix.Mostprojectswillnotneed
comprehensiveordetailednoisemodelingandsimplifiedmanualnoiseanalysiswillbeadequate(Knaueretal.,
2006).However,localnoiseordinancesmaybemorestringentthanwhatiscalledforintheenvironmental
reviewrequirementsandmayneedmoredetailedanalysis.(Knaueretal.,2006)TheRCNMsoftwaretoolis
availableforfreedownloadhere:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/cnstr_ns.htm.
x Communicatetostakeholdersthatnoisemitigationisactivelybeinginvestigatedonyourprojectandthata
planisbeingdeveloped.Thismayhelpquellthepotentialpoliticalnoisethatoftenstemsfromtoomuch
constructionnoise(Thalheimer,2000),especiallyforhighimpact,highdollar,orsensitivepublicprojects.
x HireanacousticalengineeringfirmorotherqualifiedprofessionaltocompletetheNMP.
x Delivernoiseawarenesstrainingregardingthenoisemitigationstrategiesandnoisesafetyeffortsemployedon
theprojecttoallconstructionprojectemployees,includingsubcontractoremployees.Thistrainingwillhelp
ensurethattheNMPisimplementedeffectively.
x Reviewindividualstateandlocaljurisdictionnoiseordinancesandanypermitsoragencycoordinationefforts
duringtheprojectdevelopmentprocess.Sometimestheseordinancescontainrestrictionsassociatedwith
constructionnoiselevels,eventhoughtherearecurrentlynofederalregulationsfornoiselevels.
x Identifynoiseabatementopportunitiesduringprojectdesign.Suchthingsaslocatingstorageareas,stationary
equipment,haulroadsanddetoursawayfromsensitivereceivers,planningforconcurrentconstruction,
maintainingexistingnoisebarriersforuseduringconstructionandschedulingtheconstructionofnewnoise
barriersearlyonintheproject,canreducenoiseimpacts.
x Achievemitigationofnoiseatthesourcebyspecifyinguseoflessnoisyequipment,requiringmufflersystems
onequipment,employingshieldsandmodifyingvehiclesandequipmenttoreducenoiselevels.
x Achievepathmitigationbybuildingnoisebarriers,usingtieredorlayeredvegetativebarriers(Anderson,
Mulligan&Goodman,1984),orusingexistingbarrierswhereappropriate.
x Achievereceivermitigationbysealingintakesofsensitivereceivers,acousticwindowtreatments(Thalheimer,
2000)or,wherefeasible,bytemporarilyrelocatingresidents.
Example: Noise Mitigation Plan Sample Forms City of New York, NY
TheNewYorkCityDepartmentoftheEnvironmentalProtection(NYDEP,2008)enactednewnoiserulesin2007
forconstructionactivitiesrequiringthatuniquenoisemitigationplansareadopted,posted,applied,and
monitoredonconstructionprojectswhenspecificdevicesareusedorcertainactivitiesareperformedwithin
citylimits.Theirmunicipalcoderuleslisttypicalequipment,activities,andotherdevicesthatproducenoise,
andalsoestablishminimumnoiselevelsallowedforconstructionactivities.Theintentofthenoise
requirementsistoinformtheuseroftherequiredplanelementsthataresponsiblepartymustincludewhen
thelisteddevicesarebeingusedonsite,andthemitigationstrategiesandbestmanagementpracticesthatare
beingemployed(NYDEP,2008).Alternativenoisemitigationplans(ANMPs)mayalsobefilediftheproject
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cannotcomplywiththesoundlevelcriteriawithoutunduehardshipandcanreduceorexemptcertainactivities
fromnoncompliancepenalties.
x TheNYDEPSampleNoiseMitigationPlanisavailablehere:http://nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/noise_mitigation.pdf
x TheNYDEPSampleAlternativeNoiseMitigationPlanisavailablehere:
http://nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/noise_alternative_mitigation.pdf
AdditionalinformationaboutNYDEPsnoisecodeandnoisemitigationplanningrulesforconstructionprojectsare
availableat:http://nyc.gov/html/dep/html/noise/index.shtml
Example: Case Study Central Artery/Tunnel (The Big Dig) in Boston, MA
ThiscasestudysummarizesthearticlebyThalheimer(2000),whichdescribesthenoisecontrolprogramforthe
CentralArtery/Tunnel(CA/T)projectinBoston,Massachusetts.TheCA/Tmaybemorecommonlyrecognized
bythepublicastheBigDig,anditwasanengineeringmegaprojectwiththemostcomprehensiveand
stringentconstructionnoisecontrolspecificationofanypublicworksprojectinthecountry.Thesheersize
anddurationofitsconstructionimpactsontheBostonsresidentsandbusinessesmadenoisemitigationa
crucialaspectoftheproject.Notethatmostprojectswillnotneedtoprovidenearlythelevelofdetailasthat
requiredfornoisemitigationontheCentralArtery/Tunnel(CA/T),howevertheapproachesandstrategiesused
forthisprojecthelpeddevelopmanyoftheguidancedocumentsthatareavailableonconstructionnoise,such
astheFHWAHighwayConstructionNoiseHandbook(Knaueretal.,2006).
TheprojectwaschampionedbytheformerMassachusettsTurnpikeAuthority(MTA),whichiscurrently
managedbytheMassachusettsDepartmentofTransportation(MassDOT)HighwayDivision.Construction
beganin1991andwasconsideredcompletein2006,withamultibilliondollarpricetag.Moreinformation
abouttheBigDigprojectcanbefoundatthefollowingsite:
http://www.massdot.state.ma.us/Highway/bigdig/bigdigmain.aspx.
Theprojectsnoisecontrolprogramhadtwomaingoals:1)meetthecommitmentsformitigating
environmentalnoiseasstatedintheenvironmentalimpactreportand2)controlconstructionnoisewithout
posinghardshiptolocalcommunities,projectbudgetorconstructionscheduletothemaximumextent
feasible.Meetingthesegoalsposedasignificantchallengebecauseconstructionactivityoccurredatalltimes
ofdayinmanyareasofBoston,andsometimesinverycloseproximity(with10feet)ofresidencesand
sensitivelocations.Additionally,theprojectwascriticalpolitically:functionofBostonscoreinfrastructure
dependedontheoutcomeandthelevelofstakeholderinvolvementwasextraordinarilyhigh.
TheNoiseMitigationProgramfortheCA/Tinvolvedestablishinglotlineandequipmentemissionnoisecriteria
limits,definingoperationaland/orequipmentrestrictionsandalsorequiredthesubmissionofnoisecontrol
andmonitoringplans,baselineandcompliancenoisedata,equipmentnoisecertificationtests,anddesignsfor
proposednoisemitigationmeasures.Mitigationmeasureswereimplementedonlywhenjustifiedbasedon
carefulconsiderationofallrelevanttechnical,costandpolicyissues.
TheNMPprioritizedmitigationmeasuresasfollows:sourcecontrol,pathcontrol,andfinallyreceptorcontrol.
Sourcecontrolwasmosteffectiveandeasiesttomonitor,butwherethiswasnotpossible,pathcontrol
measureswereimplementedtoblocksounddirectedatreceptors.Pathcontroloptionswereconsideredcost
effectiveonlyiftheycouldpreventnoiseatmultiplereceptors.Receptorcontrolwasalsousedinsomecases,
suchaswindowtreatmentsonbuildings,andthesuccessofthisprogramwasduelargelytoaneffectivepublic
involvementprocessaswellaspartnershipsdevelopedduringprojectdesignandplanning.
NoisecontrollessonslearnedfromtheCA/Tprojectthatmaybeapplicabletoprojectsdevelopingtheirown
noisemitigationplansinclude:
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x Upholdingnoisepolicycommitmentsandgoals.Tobeeffective,itiscrucialthatnoisepoliciesare
communicatedfromthetoplayersoftheprojectteamandappliedprojectwide.
x Engagingthepublicforactivefeedback.Informingthepubliciscriticaltotheoverallsuccessoftheproject
noisemitigationplan,anda24hourhotlineforcommunicationwasusedsuccessfullyontheCA/Tproject.
x Establishinganambientlevelandmonitoringconstructionnoise.Equitablenoisepoliciescannotbe
createdwithoutfirstestablishingabaselinenoiselevel.Noisecontrolsarenotaseffectiveifnotmonitored
onacontinuousbasis.
x Engagingprofessionals.Noisetechnicianscanoftenpreemptnoiseproblemsandcanquicklyrespondto
complaintsgivenproperauthority.
x Addressingthebiggestcomplaints.Thebiggestpubliccomplaintwasvehiclebackupalarmsduringnight
work,whichwasaddressedbymandatinginstallationofinvehiclecontrolsthatweremanuallyadjustable
orambientsensitiveandprohibitingalarmuseinespeciallysensitiveareasatnightwithadditional
supervisionfromsafetypersonnel.
x Implementingcomprehensiveandconcisespecifications.Contractspecificationlanguageforcontractors
thatisclearandunambiguousisessentialformanagementofcontractorsandforimplementationofa
noisecontrolplan.
x Usingmultiplecontrols.Noisemitigationmeasuresmustbeflexibleandincludemanyalternativesand
combinationsofmethodstomeetnoisepolicygoals.
x Targetingreceptorcontrols.Preventionofnoiseatthereceptor,suchasacousticaltreatmentsfor
windows,canbecosteffectivesolutions.
x Usingsoundbarriersasvisualbarriers.Publicperceptionsofconstructionnoiseandlevelofnuisanceor
annoyancedependonsoundlevelsoftheactivityaswellasvisibilityoftheactivity.Thalheimer(2000)
statesthatnoisebarrierswereeffectiveinreducingthelevelofannoyanceperceivedontheCA/Tproject.
However,AylorandMarks(1976)andAnderson,MulliganandGoodman(1984)demonstratethatthis
perceptionisextremelyvariablewithlocale,typicalambientnoiselevels,typeofbarrier,howmuchofthe
activityisobscuredbythebarrier,familiarityofsound,andpublicexpectations.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Itisnotfeasibletoeliminateallconstructionnoise,butitisoftenfeasibletocontrolmostorallofit.
2. Multipleworksitesmayrequireavarietyorcombinationofdifferentcontrols.Somespecialareasofworksites
mayrequirecloseranalysisormodeling,whichmaybecostandtimeintensive.
3. Noisemitigationplansandprojectpoliciesapplytoallcontractorsandsubcontractorsonaconstructionsite.
Trainingmaybenecessaryforsomepartieswhoareotherwiseunfamiliarwithnoisemitigationorpolicies.
4. Thesubjectivityinvolvedwithperceptionsofsoundandnoisepresentsanissueformanagingpublicopinion
andexpectations.
5. Mostjurisdictionsprovideanexemptionfromnoiseassociatedwithdaytimeconstructionactivities.For
GreenroadsallprojectsmustcreateanNMP,evenifexemptfromnoisepoliciesandlocalordinances.
RESEARCH
Noiseissuesonmostroadwayprojectsareinitiallyaddressedduringtheprojectenvironmentalreview(seePR1
EnvironmentalReviewProcess).ThisProjectRequirement(PR)focusesonplanningforandmanagementofnoise
generatedbytheroadwayprojectthroughoutitsconstructionandoperationphases.
WhatisNoise?
Noiseisdefinedasunwantedsound(EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,1973).Soundispartofthescienceof
acoustics,whichisacomplexfielddealingwithsoundgeneration,propagationandreception.Thiscreditdoesnot
gointodetailonsoundphysics.However,someterminologyisusefulforabasicunderstandingofnoise.
Asourceisthepointwhereasoundisgenerated.Sourcescanbemobileorstationary.Forexample,trafficnoise
sourcesaremobile,whileconstructionnoiseisgenerallyamixtureofstationaryandmobilesources.Thereceptor
(also,receiver)istheendpointwheresoundisobserved.Theroutealongwhichsoundpassesfromthesourceto
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thereceptorisknownasthepath.Thelengthofthepathisimportant,asistherateofchangeinlengthofthe
path.Generally,perceptionofsoundchangesalongapathaccordingtotheinversesquarelaw:asthedistance
betweensourceandreceiverincreases,thesounddecreasesinproportiontotheinversesquareofthepath
length.(NewYorkDivisionofEnvironmentalPermits,2001)Thepathlengthofsoundfrommobilesourceschanges
withtime(thisisperceivedbythehumanearaswhatiscommonlyknownastheDopplerEffect).
Thefollowingsoundtermsarebrieflydescribed(Sandberg&Ejsmont,2002):
x Soundpressure.Soundtravelsthroughthesurroundingmedium(oftenair)aspressurewaves.Measuring
soundinvolvesmeasuringthepressureofthesewaves.Thusacommonmeasureofsoundisinunitsof
pressure.Theperceivedloudnessofsoundvarieswithpressure.Higherpressuresaregenerallyassociatedwith
soundsweperceiveofaslouder.
x Soundpressurelevelandthedecibel(dB).Soundpressurevariesoversuchawiderangethatitiscommonly
measuredinalogarithmicunitcalledthedecibel(dB)soreportednumbersareeasiertoworkwith.Usingthe
dBscale,adifferencein10dBroughlycorrespondstoadoublingorhalvingofourhearingperceptionofthat
sound.Also,1dBisaboutthesmallestdifferenceinsoundpressurethathumanscanperceive.Finally,iftwo
incoherentsoundsofequalsoundpressurelevel(e.g.,70dB)areaddedtogether,theresultingoverallsoundis
3dBgreater.Thus,70dB+70dB=73dB.
x Frequencyweighting.Soundcanoccuroverawiderangeoffrequencies.Thehumaneardoesnotperceiveall
ofthesefrequenciesequally.Generally,forsoundatagivenpressurelevel,lowandveryhighfrequenciesare
interpretedasquieterthanmidrangefrequencies.Therefore,forsoundmeasurementstobemostmeaningful
tohumanhearing,thefrequenciesofsoundneedtobefilteredsuchthatthesoundpressurelevelsoflowand
veryhighfrequenciescountlessthanthesoundpressurelevelsofmidrangefrequencies.Agood
approximationtohumanhearingistheAfilter,thussoundisoftenreportedasanAweightedsound
pressurelevel,dB(A)ordBA.
Itisimportanttoemphasizethecomplexityinanalyzingsoundandthedifferenceofsoundperceptioninhumans
tothephysicalmeasurementsofsoundpressure.Theresponsetoanysoundisasubjectiveexperienceandcan
dependonage,health,familiarity,timeofdayandmoreinadditiontothecharacteristicofthesounditself.This
complexitymakesitsomewhatdifficulttoexpressandcomparesoundlevelsusingsimplifiednumbersoraverages
suchastheAweighteddecibelscale(dBA)thatistypicallyusedtodescribetransportationnoise.
UndesirableConsequencesofNoise
Noisecanhaveaneffectonhumanhealthandalsoonthegeneraldesirabilityofalocationbasedonitsexposure
tonoise.Noiseimpactshumanhealthandwellbeingbyincreasingstress,causinghearingloss(inthecaseofloud
noise),disruptingsleep,causingfatigue,hindersworkefficiency,interruptingactivities,andinterferingwith
speechcommunication(PasschierVermeer&Passchier,2000;EPA,1978).Noisecanalsoproduceunwanted
vibrationsthatmaycausehumandiscomfort(sonicfatigue)ordisturbactivities(EPA,1973).Inadditiontothe
physiologicalandemotionalresponsesofnoise,transportationnoiseinparticularcanalsoimpactrealestate
valueshenceimpactingacommunityssocial,economicalanddevelopmentstatus.
Noiseimpactsfromhumanactivitiesdonotonlyaffecthumanpopulations.KaselooandTyson(2004)synthesized
theecologicalinformationonnoiseimpactstowildlifepopulationslivingnearroadwaysanddeterminedthereis
sufficientevidencethatnoiseeffectspopulations,breedinghabits,andbiodiversity.However,thereisverylittle
conclusivedatarelativetoroadnoiseandpopulationsoffish,amphibians,reptiles,andinvertebrates.Burrowing
speciesmaybeimpactedduetoroadnoiseandnoisevibrations,butthisareaalsorequiresfurtherstudy.Bird
populationsappeartobethemostnegativelyimpacted,withimpactsproportionaltothelevelsoftrafficnoiseand
volume.Inmanylocationsthereisclearevidenceofdecreasedbirdbreedingactivityandpopulationdeclinesnear
rightsofway(however,thismayberelatedtodisplacementofpreyorvegetationchange).Largeandsmall
mammalsmayalsoberepelledbyroadwaynoise.
Wildlifecanexperiencesimilaradversehealtheffectsandstressesbecausethestructureandfunctionofmost
animalearsissimilartothehumanear(EPA,1978).Notonlydosoundlevelrangesheardbyanimalsdifferfrom
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whatisheardbyhumans(EPA,1978),buttheirsensitivitytoandcorrespondinghealthimpactsfromsoundalso
vary.Physiologicaleffectsofnoiseonwildlifeincludestressestoendocrine,digestive,cardiovascular,andimmune
systemsaswellasreproductivefunction(Kaseloo&Tyson,2004).Roadwaynoisecanalsoimpactvocalizationand
communicationbetweenwildlifespecies,especiallywhereroadwaynoisemaycausebackgroundnoiseacross
distances(Kaseloo&Tyson,2004).
ConstructionNoise
Constructionnoiseistemporarybutmayadverselyaffectnearbypropertyowners,residentsandwildlife.The
FHWAprovidesguidanceinitsHighwayConstructionNoiseHandbook(Knaueretal.,2006).Manyofthe
recommendationsforthisguidancedocumentweregeneratedbytheCentralArtery/TunnelprojectinBoston
(featuredintheExamplessectionabove),andweredocumentedbyThalheimer(2000)priortobeingpublishedby
theFHWA.
Roadconstructionnoiseistypicallygeneratedbythreesourcetypes:mobileequipment,stationaryequipmentand
blastingactivity.Noiselevelsforindividualequipmenttypicallyusedonroadconstructionprojectsarepresentedin
TablePR5.1.
TablePR5.1:MaximumSoundLevelofConstructionEquipmentActivityMeasuredat50feet.(Adaptedfrom
Thalheimer,2000;Knaueretal.,2006)
Equipment dBA Equipment dBA Equipment dBA
AugerDrillRig 85 FlatBedTruck 84 Rivetbuster/Chippinggun 85
Backhoe 80 FrontEndLoader 80 RockDrill 85
BarBender 80 Generator 82 Roller 85
Blasting 94 Gradall 85 SandBlasting(SingleNozzle) 85
BoringJackPowerUnit 80 Grader 85 Scraper 85
ChainSaw 85 Grapple(onbackhoe) 85 Shears(onbackhoe) 85
ClamShovel(dropping) 93 HorizontalBoringHydraulicJack 80 SlurryPlant 78
Compactor(ground) 80 HydraBreakRam 90 SlurryTrenchingMachine 82
Compressor(air) 80 ImpactPileDriver 95 SoilMixDrillRig 80
ConcreteBatchPlant 83 Jackhammer 85 Tractor 84
ConcreteMixerTruck 85 ManLift 85 VacuumExcavator 85
ConcreteSaw 90 MountedImpactHammer(hoeram) 90 VacuumStreetSweeper 80
Crane 85 PavementScarifier 85 VentilationFan 85
Dozer 85 Paver 85 VibratingHopper 85
DrillRigTruck 84 PickupTruck 55 VibratoryConcreteMixer 80
DrumMixer 80 PneumaticTools 85 VibratoryPileDriver 95
DumpTruck 84 Pumps 77 WarningHorn 85
Excavator 85 RefrigeratorUnit 82 Welder/Torch 73

TherelativeAweightednoiselevelsofcommonsoundsmeasuredintheenvironmentandindustryforvarious
qualitativesoundlevelsareprovidedinFigurePR5.1.
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NoiseSource(GivenDistance) SoundLevel(dbA) Qualitative Response Description
Carrierdeckjetoperation
Jettakeoff(200feet)
Danceclub
Autohorn(3feet)
Rivetingmachine
Jettakeoff(2000feet)
Shout(0.5feet)
NewYorksubwaystation
Heavytruck(50feet)
Pneumaticdrill(50feet)
Freighttrain(50feet)
Freewaytraffic(50feet)
Airconditioningunit(20feet)
Lightautotraffic(50feet)
Livingroom
Bedroom
Library
Softwhisper(5feet)
Recordingstudio
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Painfullyloud
Limitofamplifiedspeech
Maximumvocaleffort
Veryannoying
Hearingdamage(8hr,continuousexposure)
Annoying
Telephoneusedifficult
Intrusive
Quiet
Veryquiet
Justaudible
Hearingthreshold
FigurePR5.1:TypicalSoundLevelsMeasuredintheEnvironmentandIndustry
(AdaptedfromBarksdale,1991).
TrafficNoise
AdiscussionontrafficnoisesourcesisprovidedinCreditPT5QuietPavement.
RegulationofNoise
In1981,theEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)OfficeofNoiseAbatementandControl(ONAC)wasabolished
andnoisemanagementauthoritywasgrantedtoindividualstatesandmunicipalities.However,the1972NoiseAct
andthe1978QuietCommunitiesActarestillvalidbutunfunded(EPA,2009).PriortothedisintegrationofONAC,
EPAdidestablishbaselineguidancedBAlevelsforbothindoorandoutdoorreceiversandexposuretimecriteria
forpreventingorlimitinghearingloss(EPA,2009).Theselawswereprimarilyputinplacetoprotectnoisesensitive
receivers.Anoisesensitivereceiverisalocationwherepeopleorendangeredwildliferesideorwherethe
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presenceofunwantedsoundcouldadverselyaffectthedesignateduseofthelandorhabitat(Knaueretal.,2006).
Typically,noisesensitivereceiversincluderesidences,hospitals,placesofworship,libraries,schools,andmay
includenatureandwildlifepreservesandparks.Forexample,Levelsof45decibelsareassociatedwithindoor
residentialareas,hospitalsandschools,whereas55decibelsisidentifiedforcertainoutdoorareaswherehuman
activitytakesplace.Thelevelof70decibelsisidentifiedforallareasinordertopreventhearingloss.(EPA,2009).
Roadwayprojectsneartheselocationsmayberestrictedbymorestringentnoisepoliciesduringbothconstruction
andoperation(Knaueretal.,2006).
Therearecurrentlynofederallyregulatedlevelsofconstructionnoise;howevertheFHWAhassetsomestandards
fortrafficnoiselevels.Theregulations[23CFR772]containnoiseabatementcriteriawhichrepresenttheupper
limitofacceptablehighwaytrafficnoisefordifferenttypesoflandusesandhumanactivities.Theregulationsdo
notrequirethattheabatementcriteriabemetineveryinstance.Rather,theyrequirethateveryreasonableand
feasibleeffortbemadetoprovidenoisemitigationwhenthecriteriaareapproachedorexceeded.(2006).In
general,federallyfundedhighwayprojectsarerequiredtofollowathreestepprocessduringprojectdevelopment
fornoiseabatementinvolvingidentificationandmitigationofnoiseimpacts,aswellaslanduseplanning
coordinationwithlocalofficials.Longtermnoisecontrolandmitigationmeasuresfortrafficnoisearecurrently
assessedviatheenvironmentalreviewprocessandassociateddocumentationfortheNationalEnvironmental
PolicyAct(NEPA)of1969under23CFR772.However,inSeptember2009,theFHWApublishedaNoticeof
ProposedRulemaking(NPRM)toamendthecurrentfederalnoisepolicycontainedin23CFR772whichcould
meanhighwayagencieswillneedtoreviewtheirexistingnoisepolicies,revisethem,andobtainapprovalbythe
FHWA.(USDOT&FHWA,2009)
OccupationalexposurestonoiseforconstructionworkersarecloselyregulatedbytheOccupationalHealthand
SafetyAdministration(OSHA).FormoreinformationonOSHAnoiseandhearingsafetystandards,visit:
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/noisehearingconservation/
ConsiderationsforMitigatingNoise
Manydesignandprojectplanningmethodscanreduceengineorblastrelatednoisefromconstructionprojects.
Also,certaintechniquesandroadwaysurfacingmaterialscanbeusedtoreducetirepavementnoise.TheFHWA
HighwayConstructionNoiseHandbook(Knaueretal.,2006)describesthefollowingelementsforeffectivecontrol
ofhighwayconstructionandoperationalnoisewhichareapplicabletoallroadwayprojects.
x Alternativedesignoptions.Avoidgenerationofnoisealtogether.Examplesaredesignatedconstructiontraffic
routes,speciallylocatingstorageareas,orpossiblyevenselectionofanentirelydifferentroadwayalignment.
Anotherdesignoptionwouldbeconsideringalternativeconstructionapproaches,suchasvibratorypiledriving
insteadofimpactpiledriving.Alternativedesignsareusuallyveryeffectiveapproaches,buttheyarenotalways
costeffectiveorpractical.
x Mitigationatthesource.Reduce,minimizeoreliminateinitialnoisegeneration.Anexamplewouldbe
installingmufflersorbafflesonconstructionequipmentoronamotorvehicleusingtheroadway.Contract
specificationsandspecialprovisionsareanexcellentmeansofsourcemitigation,suchasrequiringcontractors
tousequieterequipmentorsettingstrictnoiselimitsforspecifictypesofequipment.Additionally,
constructionemployeetrainingisconsideredasourcemitigationtechnique.Quietpavements,wheretire
pavementnoiseisreducedatthesource,maybeaviablestrategyformitigatingoperationaltrafficnoise(see
CreditPT5QuietPavement).Sourcereductionisthemosteffectiveandoftenalsomostcosteffectivetypeof
mitigationstrategy,becauseitiseasiesttoobserveandinspect(Thalheimer,2000).
x Mitigationalongthepath.Reduceorminimizenoisepropagation.Noisebarriersandshieldscanbenatural
suchasgradechangesorpermanentsuchassoundwalls.Pathmitigationistheleasteffectivemitigation
strategy,andhasanumberofdisadvantages,especiallyifmanmade.Pathmitigationmethods,suchassound
barrierstructures,areonlyeffectiveatcertaindistancesandgeometriesinrelationtotheroadway.Commonly,
thesearepermanentmanmadestructuresthattendtoreducevisualquality,arehighcost,energyintensive,
materialsintensive,andmaypotentiallyfragmentorobstructnaturalhabitatsdependingontheirplacementin
therightofway.
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x Mitigationatthereceiver.Reduce,minimizeoravoidnoisereception.Someexamplesarenoisemasking
whereunpleasantsoundiscovereduporinterferedbyamorepleasantsound,buildingenvelope
improvements,andtemporaryrelocationofresidents.Dependingonthescaleandlocationoftheproject,as
wellasthelevelofpublicandstakeholderinvolvementandprojectacceptability,receivermitigationmethods
varyincost.However,thesemethodsaremoreeffectiveatreducingnoisereceivedbythehumanearthan
pathmitigation,especiallyintargetedsensitivereceptors(Thalheimer,2000).
Mostnoisemitigationplanscreatedforroadwayprojectswillincludeacombinationofmanyofthesestrategies.
GLOSSARY
ANMP AlternativeNoiseMitigationPlan
CA/T CentralArtery/Tunnelproject.AlsoknownastheBigDig.
CFR CodeofFederalRegulations
dB Decibel
dBA Aweighteddecibels
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
HMA Hotmixasphalt
Masking usingacousticaltechniquestocoveruporinterferewithunpleasantsound
MassDOT MassachusettsDepartmentofTransportation
MTA MassachusettsTurnpikeAuthority
NMP NoiseMitigationPlan
Noise Unwantedsound,undesirablesound
Noisesensitivereceiver Alocationwherepeople orendangeredwildlife resideorwherethepresence
ofunwantedsoundcouldadverselyaffectthedesignateduseofthelandor
habitat(Knaueretal.,2006)
NYDEP NewYorkCityDepartmentofEnvironmentalProtection
Path Theroutealongwhichsoundpassesfromthesourcetothereceptor
PCC Portlandcementconcrete
Receptor(receiver) Anendpointwheresoundisobserved
Source Apointwhereasoundisgenerated
USDOT UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation

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January2,2010.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/mem_nois.htm
Kaseloo,P.A.&Tyson,K.O.(2004)SynthesisofNoiseEffectsonWildlifePopulations.(FHWAHEP06016)
Washington,DC:U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.AccessedNovember25,
2008.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/effects/index.htm
Knauer,H.S.etal.(2006).FHWAhighwayconstructionnoisehandbook.(FHWAHEP06015)Washington,DC:U.S.
DepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.AccessedNovember25,2008.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/handbook/index.htm
PasschierVermeer,W.&Passchier,W.F.(2000).Noiseexposureandpublichealth.EnvironmentalHealth
Perspectives.108,12331.
Reherman,C.N.etal.(2006).FHWARoadwayConstructionNoiseModel,Version1.0UsersGuide.(FHWAHEP05
054)Washington,DC:U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.Accessed
November25,2008.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/noise/rcnm/rcnm.pdf
Sandberg,U.andEjsmont,J.A.(2002).Tyre/RoadNoiseReferenceBook.InformexEjsmont&Sandberg
Handelsbolag,Sweden.
Thalheimer,E.(2000).ConstructionnoisecontrolprogramandmitigationstrategyattheCentralArtery/Tunnel
Project.NoiseControlEngineeringJournal.48(5),157165.
78
Greenroads
PR-6
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79
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Waste Management Plan PR-6
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
IntegratetheCWMPwithaSiteRecyclingPlantoearncreditCA3SiteRecyclingPlan.
Modify,asappropriateforroads,versionsofwastemanagementplanspecificationsdevelopedforbuilding
contractorsbytheConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation(CMRA).TheCaliforniaIntegratedWaste
ManagementBoard(CIWMB)providesConstructionSpecificationsInstitute(CSI)MasterFormattemplatesfor
Sections01151(NewConstruction)and02060(Demolition)forbuildingsconstructiondebris.Thesetoolswere
developedbytheCMRAwithfundingfromtheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyandareavailableforfree
downloadandprojectspecificuseat:http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/conDemo/specs/CMRA.htm.
Keepaccuraterecordsandretainallwastehandlinginvoicesandreceipts.Thesitelistedabovealsoincludes
spreadsheettemplatesthatcontractorsmayusefortrackingwasteduringconstruction.
Specifyaprojectdiversionrategoalthatmayhelpestablishappropriatewastehandlingprocedures.
TheConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation(CMRA)provideslinkstoavarietyoflocalitiesthatoffer
constructionanddemolitionwasterecyclingservices.Thelistcanbeaccessedathttp://www.cdrecycling.org/.
IncludetheWasteManagementPlaninagencycontractdocuments,bidpackages,and/orspecifications.
SetwastereductiongoalsandexplicitlystatethemintheWasteManagementPlan
Locatereceptaclesineasilyaccessibleorhighlyfrequentedlocationsonthejobsite.Receptaclesshouldnotbe
placedinareaswheretheymaycauseharmtoworkersorthelocalenvironment.SeePollutionPreventionPlan
formoreinformation.
HireacontractorwithanEnvironmentalManagementSystem(EMS)inplace.SeeCreditEW1Environmental
ManagementSystem.Theseemployersalreadyhaveinternalofficeproceduresestablishedtoreduceoffice
relatedpollutionandmaybefamiliarwithlocalagencywastemanagementefforts.
Developanddelivertrainingtoworkerstoeducatethemonwasterecoveryeffortsbeingimplementedonsite
andcompliancewiththegeneralCWMP.Thisstepwillbecriticaltoallprojects.SeeCreditCA2Environmental
AwarenessTrainingformoreapproachesandstrategiesforeducationprograms.
Hireanexperiencedwastetransportcompanytomanagesitewasteandmonitorwastestreamsfor
unacceptablematerials.
Identifylocalfacilitiesthatacceptrecyclablesorsalvagedmaterials.Thisisimportantindesignatingtypeof
wastetoseparate,andinmakingarrangementsfordropoffordeliveryofmaterials.
The2007ContractorsGuidebytheKingCountySolidWasteDivisionandSeattlePublicUtilitiesprovidesmany
helpfulwastemanagementandreductionstrategiesfortheentireproject.Asamplewastemanagementplan
adaptedfromthisguideisprovidedintheexamplesbelow.
Example: Sample CWMP Template with Materials Recovery
Thefollowingexamplecontenthasbeenadaptedfromthe2007Seattle/KingCountyContractorsGuide,which
isavailablehere:http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/documents/ConGuide.pdf.Project
teamsshouldconsidercustomizingtheCWMPinformationbasedonprojectgoalsandownerexpectations.
80
Greenroads
PR-6
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82
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-6 Waste Management Plan
unitsofmeasurethanmass.Someingenuitymayberequiredtodetermineanappropriatesolutiontoaccount
foronsitesolidwaste.
4. Carelessbehaviororlackofstewardshipmaybeanissuethatcanresultinrecyclablesbeingdisposedinwaste
onlyreceptacles,orviceversa,especiallyifobjectivesofaWMParenotmeaningfulorcommunicatedwellto
workers.Thisbehaviorcancontaminatetherecyclablesstreamandmakeanentirereceptacleunsuitablefor
reprocessingorsalvage,oraccidentallysendrecyclablestoalandfill.
5. Properhandlingofrecyclablematerialsisakeysafetyissuefornewandunfamiliarrecyclingactivities.
Communicationandtrainingiscriticaltominimizeriskandpreservesafety.
6. Safetyandsecurityconsiderationsshouldbetakenintoaccountrelativetostorageonsiteofrecoverable
materialsofhighvalue.Opportunitiesfortheftmaybeincreased,especiallyforsometypesofmetalsthatare
commonlyusedininfrastructureorelectricalutilitieslikecopperwire.
7. Atthistime,pointsarenotavailableforachievingwastereductionbasedonpercentageoftotalwaste.Thisis
duetolackofdataregardingwastemanagementforroadwayconstructionactivities.
RESEARCH
Solidmaterialwastegenerationisoneofthemanyenvironmentalburdensassociatedwiththeroadwaylife
cycle.(Rajendran&Gambatese,2007,p.88).Wastemanagement,especiallyasrecycling,minimizationorreuse,
isoneofthecornerstoneprinciplesofsustainabledevelopmentandpollutionpreventionprograms.Both
municipalsolidwaste(MSW)andbuildingindustryconstructionanddemolition(C&D)wastearewell
characterized.ThesetypesofwastearemonitoredandmeasuredbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)
andmanystateagencies.Remarkablylittleisknownaboutquantitiesandtypesofsolidwastegeneratedbythe
transportationindustryduringroadandbridgeconstructionandrehabilitationactivities(EPA,2009a;Rajendran&
Gambetese,2007;Rajendran&Gambetese,2005;Aquino,2003;NortheastWasteManagementOfficials
Association,2009).Akeycomponentisalsoveryunclear:wherethewasteactuallyendsup.
Thismaybepartlyduetotherelativeeasewithwhichhotmixasphalt,concrete,soilandcobblewasteis
recoveredandreprocessed.FacilitiesthatmanageC&Dwastearerelativelyunregulatedpartsofthewaste
managementindustry,eventhoughtheymayreceiveaverylargevolumeofmaterialsfromroadandbridge
construction.Bloomquistetal.(1993;citedinRajendran&Gambatese,2007)stateintheirreporttotheU.S.
DepartmentofTransportation(USDOT)andtheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)thatapproximately75%
ofhighwaypavementmaterialsarerecovered.Notethatthisdataisnearly20yearsold(ormore)andno
significantprogressoncharacterizingroadconstructionwastehasbeenmade,exceptatveryfewlocalagencies
(seeExamplesnotedabove)wherethefocusisoncostreductionandthesavingsassociatedwithincorporating
recycledmaterialsintodesignstandards.
WhatisConstructionandDemolition(C&D)Waste?
Thedefinitionofwhatisconsideredconstructionanddemolition(C&D)wastevariesbystateandlocaljurisdiction.
TheEPAdefinitionisjustasbroad:materialsthatconsistofdebrisgeneratedduringtheconstruction,renovation,
anddemolitionofbuildings,roads,andbridges(EPA,2009e).Constructiondebrisisconsideredtobeaspecific
typeofsolidwaste,whichisclearlydefinedunderthe1984HazardousandSolidWasteAmendments(HSWA)to
theUnitedStates1972ResourceConservationandRecoveryAct(RCRA)Title40CFR261.2(EPA,2009d;ICF,
1995b).Itisalsoconsideredindustrialwastetodifferentiateitsorigininthecommercialandinstitutionalsectors
fromMSW,whichismostlyresidentialinorigin(EPA,2009b).Mostofthewasteisperceivedasinert,however,
somecanbeconsideredhazardous,suchasstructuralelementswithleadbasedpaint.
C&Dwasteisgeneratedfromconstruction,renovation,repair,anddemolitionofstructuressuchasresidential
andcommercialbuildings,roads,andbridgesandingeneraliscomprisedofavarietyofmaterials(ICF,1995b).
ThemostcommonmaterialinbuildingC&Dlandfilledwastestreamsiswastewood,hotmixasphalt(fromparking
lots),drywallandmasonry(ICF,1995b);clearlythewastestreamfromroadsandbridgeshasadifferent
composition.Forexample,inVancouver,BritishColumbia,earthenmaterialscomposedoverhalfofthe
infrastructuredemolitionofthewastestream,followedbyconcreteandhotmixasphaltpavementmaterialsin
lesserquantities(Bremner,2006).FranklinAssociates(1998)justifiesomittingroadwayconstructionand
83
Project Requirements Greenroads Manual v1.5
Waste Management Plan PR-6
demolitiondebrisfromtheirreporttotheEPAonC&Dwastebecauseitwasnoteasilycharacterizedandnopoint
sourcedatawasavailablefortheirstudy.Generally,dataforpercentcompositionofroadwaywastestream
materialsisnotavailablefromanyreliablesourceanditisclearlyrarelytrackedinameaningfulway.Thewaste
streamforeveryroadwayprojectwillbeuniqueinbothvolumeandcompositionandendpoint,duetomany
factorssuchas:projectsize,location,materialtype,constructionordemolitionmeans,schedule,contractorsite
wastemanagementpractices(ICF,1995b).
HowMuchC&DWasteIsThere?
InMarch2009,theEPAreleased2003dataonconstructionanddemolitionwastefromthebuildingindustry,
whichgeneratedanestimated170milliontons(EPA,2009a),upfrom136milliontonsstatedin1996(Franklin
Associates,1998;EPA,2008b)TheEPAnotesthatSignificantadditionalquantitiesofC&Dmaterialsaregenerated
fromtheconstructionofroadsandbridges,fromlandclearingatconstructionsites,andatmilitaryinstallations
(EPA,2008b).ThemostrecentwastestreamcharacterizationstudyfundedbytheEPAandconductedbythe
NortheastWasteManagementOfficialsAssociation(NEWMOA,2009)characterizedthe2006C&Dwastestream
forseveralNewEnglandstates.Interestingly,thisstudyspecificallyexcludedaggregateddatarelevanttothehot
mixasphalt,brickandconcrete(ABC)wastegeneratedfromroad,bridgeandlandclearingprojectsbecausethe
quantityofABCmaterialgeneratedbyroadandbridgeprojectsoftendwarfsthequantitygeneratedfromother
sourcesandcansignificantlybiasthedataonoverallmanagementofC&Dwastes.(p.2).Thisis,inpart,dueto
thevariationsbetweenC&Dfacilitiesrelativetowastehandlingpracticesandtypesandquantitiesofmaterials
thattheyreceive,andthetendencytoclassifyroadABCwasteasaggregateinthewastestreamreports.In
addition,thereportjustifiesitsexclusionoftransportationwastebecauseroadwayprojectmaterialisoften
recycledintonewaggregateforroadbaseorpavementsectionsandprocessingoftenoccursonsiteorat
specializedfacility(NEWMOA,2009).
GambeteseandRajendran(2005)notethatlittleresearchisavailableonlifecycleimpactsofroadwaywaste
material,especiallyatendoflifeofthepavementsections,andhaveattemptedtomodelthisroadwaste.These
sameauthors(2007)provideagoodsummaryofroadC&Dwasteestimatesfromvariousagenciesandauthors,
andincludewhatisknownaboutwastequantitiesandpercentagesthroughouttheworldforroadways.However,
importantly,theynotethatnoexactestimatesofC&Dwastefromthetransportationindustryareavailableand
thatexistingliteratureindicatesroadandbridgewastecontributessignificantlytothewastestream,moresothan
thebuildingindustry.WilliamTurley,ExecutiveDirectoroftheConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation
(CMRA)estimatedin2003thattheannualC&DwastegeneratedintheUnitedStateswasroughly320milliontons
(Aquino,2003).FollowingthepublishingoftheEPA2009reporton2003buildingindustrywaste,Turleynoted
(Johnson,2009)thatthetotalwastestreamismorerealisticallyestimatedat325to350milliontons(for2003)
afterinfrastructurewasteisaccountedinthetotal.Thiswouldmeantransportationrelatedconstruction,
demolition,andrehabilitationactivitiesgenerateanddisposeofC&Dwasteatapproximatelythesamerateasthe
buildingindustry.
Basedonavailablelifecycleprocessdataandtheircollectedendoflifewastestatisticsforroadwaste,Rajendran
andGambetese(2007)conductedaquantitativelifecycleinventory(LCI)modeloftypicalhotmixasphaltand
concretepavementsectionsfromextractionofmaterialstoendoflifetoestimatethewastecontributionsfrom
eachpavementtype.Theirmodelshowedthatover50%ofthelifecyclewastewasgeneratedfromendoflife
wastedisposalpracticesforbothpavementmodels.However,theirmodelsdidnotincludeanyrecyclingor
reprocessingactivitiesbecausetheseprocessesarenotwellcharacterized.Wastegenerationratesatendoflife,
andduringconstruction(scrapsandrefuse)areshowninTablePR6.1.

84
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-6 Waste Management Plan
TablePR6.1:RoadwayMaterialWasteRatesatEndofLifeandConstruction
(AdaptedfromRajendran&Gambetese,2007)
PavementMaterialType
WasteRateatEndofLife
(%ofMaterial)
WasteRateduringPlacementofNewRoad
(%ofMaterial)
ConcretePavement 25 2.5
ConcretePavementCement 2.45
ConcretePavementAggregates 3.0
SteelRebar 55 1.79
AsphaltPavement 18 0.102
AsphaltPavementAsphalt 0.86
CrushedStoneBase 17.1 0.88
CrushedGravelBase 18.5 0.88
GranularSubbase 23 0.80
Subgrade 12.8

TheEPA(2009c)notesthatIndustrialprocessescontributedtoatotalof7.6billiontonsofnonhazardoussolid
wastegeneratedintheU.S.in2006.Theseprocessesincludepavementmaterialproductionsuchasasphaltand
cementmanufacturing.ThesewastesareoutsidethescopeofGreenroads(atthistime)becausetheyoccurearlier
inthesupplychainthanmaterialsproduced(mixed)aftergroundbreakingfortheroadwayproject.However,
agenciesandcontractorsareencouragedtoworkwithindustriesthatdemonstrateresponsiblewaste
managementpractices.
WhereDoesItGo?
Mostroadway,bridgeandlandclearingdebrisismanagedbythesameC&Dlandfillsandreprocessingfacilitiesas
thebuildingindustryandrepresentaverylargeportionofthetotalC&Dwastereceivedbythesefacilities(Franklin
Associates,1998).Approximately1,500C&DlandfillswereoperationalintheUnitedStatesin2004(EPA,2009a).
However,whilebuildingC&Dwastecompositionandvolumeismonitored,theEPAadmitsthatcommercially
generatedC&Dwaste,suchasfromtransportationandindustry,isnotbecauseitistypicallycollectedand
disposedbytheprivatesector.Thismakesmanagingtheseprocessesmoredifficultformunicipalities,whohave
beenslowtotargetthiswastestream(EPA,2009b).Also,theEPAreportsthatUnknownamountsofC&D
materialsarealsobelievedtogotocombustionfacilitiesorunpermittedlandfills.(2008c).
Manystatesalsoacceptexportedwastesfromotherstates,whichcomplicatestrackingrecoveryactivities
(NEWMOA,2009).Statesalsodifferinwastemanagementpractices:insomecasesthemajorityofC&Dwasteis
sentdirectlytolandfillwhileotherstateswillpreprocessthewastebeforeitgetslandfilled.Thereisnocommon
standardastohowC&Dwastesareprocessedatfacilitiesindifferentstatesorevenwithinasinglestate.
(NEWMOA,2009).ThetypeofreceivingfacilityvariesandcanbeC&Donlylandfills,C&Drecoveryfacilities(which
stilldisposeunrecoverablematerialsintolandfillseventually),municipalsolidwaste(MSW)landfills,orcombined
C&DandMSWfacilities(EPA,2008a;EPA,2008c).ThetypeoflandfillwhereC&Dwastemightbereceivedforyour
projectdependsonlocalopportunity,andnofederalregulationspecificallydictateswhereitmustgo.Facilitiesin
theU.S.thatacceptC&Dwaste,sortedbyEPARegions,areprovidedbytheConstructionIndustryCompliance
AssistanceCenter(CICA):http://www.cicacenter.org/.
CostsofRoadwayWaste
Generally,roadwastematerials,likeaggregate,asphaltandconcrete,areheavyand,therefore,costlyto
transport.Reprocessedinertwasteproductsareoftencostcompetitivewithvirginaggregatebecausemanywaste
recoveryfacilitieswillcrushandresellthesewastestoavoidtransporttolandfill(NEWMOA,2009),butthismay
notbethecasewherethereisopenlandfillspace,lowtippingfees,orotherlowcostorvirtuallyfreedisposal
optionsavailable(WilliamTurleyqtd.inAquino,2003).Essentially,thislikelymakeswastemanagement
commonplaceinthetransportationindustry,becauseitisacosteffectivebestpractice.
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In1995,theEPAissuedareport(ICF,1995a)onenvironmentaldamagesassociatedwithC&Dlandfills,specifically
tocollectavailabledataongroundwaterorsurfacewaterpollutionandecosystemorhabitatimpacts,andto
determineiftheseimpactscanbeattributedtospecifictypesofC&Dwaste,landfilloperationsandenvironmental
location.Thestudyfoundthatminimaldatawasavailable,manysiteslackedbasicenvironmentalcontrols(like
liners),andfocusedononly11C&Dlandfillsites.Onsitegroundwatercontaminationwaspresentatseveralof
thesesitesthatexceededacceptablelevelsofinorganiccontaminantsforstatesecondarygroundwaterquality
standards(i.e.taste).Additionally,severalsiteswerefoundtohaveinorganicsurfacewatercontaminationthat
exceededeitherstatelevelsorEPAAmbientWaterQualityCriteriaforfreshwateraquaticlife.Someofthese
impactswereattributedtocharacteristicsofthelandfilllocationsuchasshallowgroundwaterorpermeablesoils
(ICF,1995a).Notably,therearemanyotherimpactsassociatedwithlongtermenvironmentaldegradation,using
openspaceorhabitatforlandfills,andsocialandeconomicimpactsthatarenoteasilyquantifiable.Currentdata
onexistingC&DlandfillcapacityintheUnitedStatesisnotavailablefromanyreliablesource.Also,duetothehigh
variabilityofsize,location,capacities,andfacilitytypeslumpedinindustrycensusstatisticsforwastemanagement
doesnotadequatelycharacterizethecostsoflandfillinglargevolumesofroadwaywaste.
HowisC&DWasteRegulated?
WhileMSWregulationsareacorepartoftheRCRAandgovernedatafederallevelbytheEPA,mostofthe
regulationsregardingC&Dwastearegenerallynonspecificandmanagedbystatesandlocaljurisdictions.
However,the1995draftreportcreatedfortheEPAOfficeofSolidWaste,indicatesthatall50stateshavesome
regulationsfortheC&Dlandfillfacilitiesnotlocatedonprivateproperty,thoughmanyarenotasstrictasthosefor
MSWfacilities,whicharecoveredunderRCRATitle40CFR257and258.Additionally,ExecutiveOrder13423
requiresallfederalconstruction,renovation,anddemolitionprojectstoachievea50%recyclingratewhere
marketsoronsiterecyclingopportunitiesexist.(EPA,2009a).ThemostdetailedreviewfortheEPAregardingthe
variabilityoflandfillregulatoryrequirementsisgiveninthe1995draftreportfromICFIncorporated.
InDepartmentsofTransportationacrosstheU.S.,thestoryissimilar:regulationsarevariedandoftenvagueor
nonexistent.Infact,mostDepartmentsofTransportation(DOTs)donothaveanymanagementcontroloverthe
wasteandtypically,roadrelatedwasteishandledbyadifferentstateagency(environmentalorecology,for
example).Thelackofconsistencyincharacterizingandregulatingthismassivewastestreamfundamentally
demonstratesalargeopportunityforbothsourcereductionandwasteminimizationmanagementprotocolsfor
roadwayC&Dwaste.
WasteManagementPlanning
Wastemanagementplanningmaybeanunfamiliarconsiderationforroadwaydesignagencies,engineersor
contractorsbecausetraditionallythisisnotoneoftheirprofessionalresponsibilities.However,Kibert(2005)notes
thatproperplanningandqualityassuranceplansareimperativetothesuccessfulconstructionandcontinued
performanceofbuildingindustryprojects,andthesamemaybesaidforroadwayprojects.Poorlydefined
parametersforC&Dwaste,includingwhatitisandwhatitisnot,arenecessaryforaneffectivewaste
managementplan.Anotherkeypartofwastemanagementismeasurement.Consistencyinanymeasurement
programshouldincludeclearidentificationofwherethewasteistobemeasured(i.e.leavingtheconstruction
site)andbywhatunitofmeasure(volumeormass)(ICF,1995b).Responsibletreatmentofwastematerials,ifthe
wastefulpracticesthemselvescannotbeeliminated,isanecessityforreducingthelongtermneedforlandfill
spacefilledwithinert,reusablematerials.
Kibert(2005)alsonotesthatwiththoughtfulplanningandengineering,finalcontractdocumentscanoften
anticipatesourcesofconstructionwasteandgenerallygeneratelessofit(aswellashavingfewererrorsand
changeordersthroughouttheprocess).SpecificationswillalsorequireacleardefinitionofwhatC&Dwastemeans
fortheproject.Hestatesthatsourcereduction(reducedneedformaterials)ismosteffectiveinminimizingwaste,
especiallyfornewprojects.SuchsuccesswasdemonstratedbytheExamplesfromTxDOTandtheCityof
Vancouver(Bremner,2006),whichwereachievedlargelythroughcontractlanguage(includingspecificinstructions
forrecyclability,salvagabilityandspecialhandling)andassignmentofwastemanagementresponsibilitiesto
variousparties.Sincethepavementengineerisresponsibleforthemainmaterialcomponentsproject,i.e.the
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largestportionofthemass,thereisanindirectresponsibilitytohandletheselectionprocessforthesematerialsby
keepingtheendofthedesignlifeinmind.
AdditionalResources
ThereportfromtheEPAcalledRCRAinFocus:Construction,DemolitionandRenovationisafreelyavailable
reportthatprovidessuggestedstrategiesforinclusioninawastemanagementplanwithoutviolating
regulatoryrequirementsanddiscussesspecialmaterialshandlingissuesinC&Dwaste.Itisavailablehere:
http://www.epa.gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/infocus/rifc&d.pdf
Twoorganizationsthatcompileinformationforwastemanagementactivitiesrelevanttoroadwaydesignand
constructionaretheConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation(http://www.cdrecycling.org)andtheGreen
HighwaysPartnership(http://www.greenhighwayspartnership.org/).
GLOSSARY
C&D Constructionanddemolition
CFR CodeofFederalRegulations
CMRA ConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation
Construction&demolitionwaste Materialthatmustbehauledoffsitefordisposalorreprocessing,or,if
disposedwithintheprojectROW,isnotintendedforengineereduseonsite
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
HSWA HazardousandSolidWasteAmendmentsof1984toRCRA
MSW Municipalsolidwaste
MT Metricton(tonne)
NEWMOA NortheastWasteManagementOfficialsAssociation
RCRA ResourceConservationandRecoveryAct(1972)
ROW RightofWay
TxDOT TexasDepartmentofTransportation
USDOT UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation

REFERENCES
Aquino,J.T.(2003).C&DWaste:ASometimesBumpyRoadtoMoreAttention.MSWManagement.JulyAugust
2003.AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.mswmanagement.com/julyaugust2003/cd
wasterecycle.aspx
Bloomquist,D.,Diamond,G.,Oden,M.,Ruth,B.,&Tia,M.(1993).EngineeringandEnvironmentalAspectsof
RecycledMaterialsforHighwayConstruction.FHWARD93088,FederalHighwayAdministration,McLean,VA
andU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Cincinnati,OH.
Bremner,P.&CityofVancouverEngineeringServices.(2006)Roadconstructionwaste:tolandfillorrecycle?There
isnoquestion.InproceedingsofTransportationAssociationofCanada2006AnnualConferenceandExhibition.
Session:2005TACEnvironmentalAchievementAwardNominations.AccessedOctober22,2008.Availableat
http://www.tacatc.ca/english/resourcecentre/readingroom/conference/conf2006/docs/s007/bremner.pdf
CaliforniaIntegratedWasteManagementBoard(CIWMB).(2009,October27).Recycle:CIWMB.Accessed
December21,2009.Availableat:http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Recycle/
CaliforniaIntegratedWasteManagementBoard.(2009,June22)C&DRecycling:CMRAMasterSpecifications.
AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/conDemo/specs/CMRA.htm.
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Waste Management Plan PR-6
ConstructionIndustryResearchandInformationAssociation.(2004,April28).CIRIA:ConstructionWasteand
Resources.DesignandConstructionGoodPracticePointers.AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableat:
http://www.ciria.org.uk/cwr/good_practice_pointers.htm
ConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation.(2009a).CMRA:Home.AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableat
http://www.cdrecycling.org/
ConstructionMaterialsRecyclingAssociation.(2009b).2009C&DRecyclingExcellenceHonoredByCMRA[Press
Release].April6,2009.AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.cdrecycling.org/news
Davio,R.UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.(2000)LessonsLearned:
TxDOTsEffortstoIncreasetheUseofRecycledMaterials.PublicRoads.64(1).AccessedDecember16,2009.
Availableathttp://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/julaug00/recyctx.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2008,October2)Landfills|C&DMaterials|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/industrial/cd/cdlandfill.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2008a,September11)Landfills|MunicipalSolidWaste|Wastes|US
EPA.AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/landfill.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2008b,October2)BasicInformation|C&DMaterials|Wastes|USEPA.
AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/industrial/cd/basic.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2009b,March13)IndustrialWastes|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/industrial/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2009c,March13)NonHazardousWastes|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2009d,July1)DefinitionofSolidWaste|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/dsw/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2009e,November16)C&DMaterials|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2004,September)RCRAinFocus:Construction,Demolition,andRenovation.
(EPA530K04005).AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableat:
http://www.epa.gov/waste/inforesources/pubs/infocus/rifc&d.pdf
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008b,September30).ClimateChangeandMunicipalSolidWasteFactSheet|
PayAsYouThrow|USEPA.AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/tools/payt/tools/factfin.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008c,November13).MunicipalSolidWaste|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December21,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008e,December3).P2ResourceExchange|PollutionPrevention|USEPA.
AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/p2/pubs/p2rx.html.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009a,March)Estimating2003BuildingRelatedConstructionandDemolition
MaterialsAmounts.(EPA530R09002).AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableat:
http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/pubs/cdmeas.pdf
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PR-6 Waste Management Plan
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009a,September14).WasteHome|GeneralInformationontheLink
BetweenSolidWasteandClimateChange|ClimateChangeWhatYouCanDo|USEPA.AccessedDecember
21,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/climate/climatechange/wycd/waste/generalinfo.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009c,November)MunicipalSolidWasteGeneration,Recycling,andDisposal
intheUnitedStates:FactsandFiguresfor2008.(EPA530F009021)Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt.pdf
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.OfficeofResourceConservationandRecovery.(2009b,November).Municipal
SolidWasteGeneration,Recycling,andDisposalintheUnitedStates:DetailedTablesandFiguresfor2008.
Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008data.pdf
FranklinAssociates,Inc.(1998,June).CharacterizationofBuildingRelatedConstructionandDemolitionDebrisin
theUnitedStates.ReportpreparedforEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyMunicipalandIndustrialSolidWaste
Division,OfficeofSolidWaste.(EPA530R98010).PrairieVillage,KS:TechLaw,Inc.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/generation/sqg/c&drpt.pdf
Gambatese,J.A.,&Rajendran,S.(2005).SustainableRoadwayConstruction:EnergyConsumptionandMaterial
WasteGenerationofRoadways.InProceedingsoftheASCEConstructionResearchCongress2005:Broadening
perspectives,April57,2005(SanDiego,Ca).Reston,Va:AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.
GreenHighwaysPartnership,GlobalEnvironment&TechnologyFund.(2008).GreenHighwaysPartnership.
AccessedDecember16,2009.Availableathttp://www.greenhighwayspartnership.org/
ICFIncorporated.(1995a,May18).EnvironmentalDamagesCasesfromConstructionandDemolitionWaste
Landfills[DRAFT].ReportpreparedforEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/generation/sqg/damages/dampdf/damage.pdf
ICFIncorporated.(1995b,May18).ReportonConstructionandDemolitionWasteLandfills[DRAFT].Report
preparedforEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/waste/hazard/generation/sqg/const/cdrpt.pdf
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC).(2007)Pachauri,R.K&Reisinger,A.eds.ClimateChange2007:
SynthesisReport.ContributionofWorkingGroupsI,IIandIIItotheFourthAssessment.Reportofthe
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.IPCC:Switzerland,2007.104pp.
Johnson,J.(2009,March30).EPAestimatesC&Ddebrisup25%.WasteRecyclingNews.AccessedDecember16,
2009.Availableathttp://wastenews.texterity.com/wastenews/20090330//Print_su#pg1
Kibert,C.(2005).Sustainableconstruction:greenbuildingdesignanddelivery(1sted.).HobokenN.J.:JohnWiley&
Sons.
KingCountySolidWasteDivision&SeattlePublicUtilties.(2007).2007ContractorsGuideKingCountySolid
WasteDivision.Availableat:http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/documents/ConGuide.pdf
KingCountySolidWasteDivision.(2008,October2).Designspecificationsandwastemanagementplansforgreen
buildingprojectsinKingCounty,WA.AccessedDecember20,2009.Availableat:
http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/constructionrecycling/specificationsplans.asp
KingCountySolidWasteDivision.(2009,October20)GreenBuildingKingCountySolidWasteDivision.Accessed
December20,2009.Availableat:http://www.greentools.us
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Kourmpanis,B.,Papadopoulos,A.,Moustakas,K.,Stylianou,M.,Haralambous,K.,&Loizidou,M.(2008).
Preliminarystudyforthemanagementofconstructionanddemolitionwaste.WasteManagement&Research.
26(3),267275.
McDonough,W.&Braungart,M.(2002).Cradletocradle:Remakingthewaywemakethings.NewYork:North
PointPress.
NortheastWasteManagementOfficialsAssociation(NEWMOA).(2009,June30).Construction&Demolition
WasteManagementintheNortheastin2006.Boston,Ma:NEWMOA.Availableat
http://www.newmoa.org/solidwaste/CDReport2006DataFinalJune302009.pdf
Poon,C.S.,Yu,A.T.W.&Ng,L.H.(2001).OnsitesortingofconstructionanddemolitionwasteinHongKong.
Resources,Conservation,andRecycling.32(2),157.
Rajendran,S.&Gambatese,J.A.(2007).SolidWasteGenerationinAsphaltandReinforcedConcreteRoadwayLife
Cycles.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.13(2),88.
Schultmann,F.&Sunke,N.(2007).Energyorienteddeconstructionandrecoveryplanning.BuildingResearch&;
Information.35(6),602615.
Seydel,A.,Wilson,O.D.&Skitmore,R.M.(2002).FinancialEvaluationofWasteManagementMethods.Journalof
ConstructionResearch.3(1),167179.
SustainableSitesInitiative.(2009)TheSustainableSitesInitiative:GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks2009.
Availableathttp://www.sustainablesites.org/report/
UnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC).(2009)LEED2009forNewConstructionandMajorRenovations
RatingSystem.Availableathttp://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=220
WasteCapResourceSolutions.WasteCapResourceSolutionsConstruction&Demolition.AccessedDecember21,
2009.Availableathttp://www.wastecapwi.org/resources/constructiondemolition/
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POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN
GOAL
Reducepollutionandassociatedeffectsfromconstructionactivities.
REQUIREMENTS
CreateandimplementacomprehensiveStormwaterPollutionPreventionPlan
(SWPPP)orTemporaryErosionandSedimentationControl(TESC)planthatconforms
totherequirementsofthecurrentEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)
ConstructionGeneralPermitORthelocalorstateConstructionGeneralPermitinareas
thatmanagetheirownpermittingplan,whicheverismorestringent.TheSWPPP/TESC
mustaddresswaterqualitycontrolanddustcontrolactivitiesusedduringconstruction
oftheroadwayproject.
Details
Note:ASWPPPforconstructionactivitiesisalsosometimescalledaTemporary
ErosionandSedimentationControl(TESC)PlanorPollutionPreventionPlan(PPP)
dependingonlocaljurisdictions.
ThisrequirementappliestoALLGreenroadsprojects,regardlessofsize.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyoftheStormwaterPollutionPreventionPlan(SWPPP)orTemporaryErosion
andSedimentationControlPlan(TESC)signedbythecertifiedErosionand
SedimentControlinspectororauthorizedspecialistfortheprojectupon
completionofconstruction.
PR-7
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR4QualityControl
Plan
9 PR6Waste
ManagementPlan
9 PR8LowImpact
Development
9 EW1Environmental
ManagementSystem
9 EW2RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW3RunoffQuality
9 CA1Quality
ManagementSystem
9 CA2Environmental
Training
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Expectations
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Evaluatefederal,stateandlocalrequirementsformoststringentpollutionpreventionstandards
x Identifyanyhighriskpollutionrelatedelementsoftheprojectearlyindesign.
x Usedesignandconstructionstaffproperlytrainedinpollutionprevention.
x Considersitetopographycarefullyduringplanningforconstructionstagingareasandstorageareasfor
aggregates,wastesandothermaterials.
x Createthepollutionpreventionplanduringprojectdevelopment.(USGBC,2009)
x Usemorethanonestrategytopreventpollutiononyourprojectsuchas(SustainableSitesInitiative,2009;
USGBC,2009):
x Temporaryandpermanentseeding
x Mulching
x Earthdikes
x Sedimenttraps
x Sedimentbasins
x Filtersocks
x Compostbermsandblankets
x Secondarycontainment
x Spillcontrolequipment
x Hazardouswastemanifests,and
x Overfillalarms.
x Siltfencing
x Sealpavementonlywhenweatherisnotrainy.(SustainableSitesInitiative,2009).
x Donotconductmassgradingoperationsbeforelargestormsareforecast(SustainableSitesInitiative,2009).
x Coordinatestagingactivitieswithacontractorduringdesignwherepossible.
x Usecarewhensequencingconstructionactivities,especiallyforinstallationoflowimpactdevelopment(LID)
infiltrationsystems(SustainableSitesInitiative,2009).
x HaveanenvironmentalmonitoronsitetomakesurethattherequirementsoftheSWPPParebeingfollowed.
Example: EPA SWPPP Templates and Guidance
TheEPAprovidesasignificantamountofguidancetoaidindevelopingstormwaterpollutionpreventionplan
forconstructionactivities.Anumberoftoolsareavailable,suchas:
x SWPPPTemplateforstatesauthorizedtoimplementNPDES:
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/sw_swppp_template_authstates.doc
x SWPPPTemplateforjurisdictionsnotauthorizedtoimplementNPDES(Alaska,Massachusetts,Idaho,New
Mexico,NewHampshire,theDistrictofColumbia,U.S.Territories,andIndianland):
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/sw_swppp_template_unauthstates.doc
x HelpfulguidanceondevelopingSWPPPsforyourconstructionsite,DevelopingYourStormwaterPollution
PreventionPlan:aGuideforConstructionSites:http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/sw_swppp_guide.pdf.
Moretools,sampleplans,inspectiontemplatesandotherhelpfulinformationareavailableat
http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/Stormwater/swppp.cfm.(EPA,2008)
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. TheEPAonlyrequiresConstructionGeneralPermitsforlanddisturbingactivitiesgreaterthanoneacreinsize.
However,everyGreenroadsprojectmusthaveaplanforcontrollingconstructionstormwaterrunoff,
regardlessofsize,becausesizedoesnotdictategoodpracticeorinsignificanceofpollutiongeneratedbythese
constructionactivities.Theprecedenceforthisrequirementhasbeenestablishedbyothersustainabilityrating
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systems,suchasthe2009SustainableSitesInitiative(seePrerequisite7.1Controlandretainconstruction
pollutants)andtheLEED2009GreenBuildingRatingSystem(seePrerequisite1ConstructionActivity
PollutionPreventionintheSustainableSitescreditcategory).
2. ForsmallprojectsthatdonotnormallyneedtocompleteaSWPPP,aSWPPPwillneedtobegenerated.This
couldrequireadditionalmanhoursfortheproject,especiallyiftheSWPPPdevelopmentprocessisunfamiliar.
3. SomejurisdictionsmayhavestormwaterrequirementsinplacethataresimilarbutnotidenticaltotheNPDES
requirements.Insuchcases,additionalsupportingdocumentationmayberequestedtodemonstratethatthe
projectSWPPPinplaceisequaltoormorestringenttherequirementsfortheEPAConstructionGeneral
Permit.However,thisrequirementdoesnotintendtogenerateextrapaperwork,sowherepossible,linksto
currentagencypoliciesmaybeprovidedinsupportofthisProjectRequirement.
RESEARCH
Providinganerosionandsedimentcontrolplanduringtheconstructionofinfrastructureholdsbothcontractors
andownersaccountabletoprotectthesurroundingenvironmentfromnegativeeffectsofexcesssedimentand
pollutioninstormwater.
Providingerosionandsedimentationcontrolduringconstructionofroadwayinfrastructureprevents:
x Degradationofaquatichabitatsoffishandinsects(EPA,1999)aswellasotherwildlifecommunities.
x Increasedsedimentloadinginnearbystreamsandoutfalls(EPA,1999).
Theincreaseinsedimentfoundinrunoffonconstructionsitescanbeattributedtolandthathasbeenclearedof
vegetationleavingexposedsoil.Increasedsedimentloadinginriversandstreamsisthemostcommonproblemfor
waterquality(EPA,2009b).Ifraineventsoccur,thiscancauseerosion,andiferosionisnotcontainedusingthe
stormwaterbestmanagementpracticesoutlinedintheNPDES,sedimentcanthenbemixedwithstormwater.At
constructionsites,thesehaveoftenbeenfoundtocontainmetalsandorganicmaterial,whichcancausedamage
towetlandhabitats(EPA,1999).Furthermore,excessivesedimentationdegradeshabitatsandcausesignificant
decreasestothefishandinsectpopulationsofawatershed.
TheUnitedStatesEPArecommendskeepingcurrentwaterhabitatstothesamequalityastheywerebefore
constructiontakesplace.Theintentofthisistoensurethewaterqualitypreconstructionisthesameasthewater
qualitypostconstruction,meaningitisimportanttoensurethesamevolumesofwaterarebeingdischarged
naturallybeforeandafterdevelopment(EPA,1999).IntheEPAsreporttocongressin1999theagencyshowsa
clearmessagethattheintentofthesepermitsistopreventanyandallnegativeimpactstostreams:
Inmanycases,considerationoftheincreasedflowrate,velocityandenergyofstormwater
dischargesfollowingdevelopmentunavoidablymustbetakenintoconsiderationinordertoreduce
thedischargeofpollutants,tomeetwaterqualitystandardsandtopreventdegradationofreceiving
streams.(EPA,1999)
TheNPDESconstructiongeneralpermitisthegoverningpermitsetforthbytheUnitedStatesEPAforthe
dischargeofconstructionstormwater.Thispermitregulatestheeffluentlimitsforbothsedimentandpollution
andisavailableathttp://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/cgp2008_finalpermit.pdf.However,localorstateregulations
mayincludemorestringentrequirements.MoststatesareauthorizedbytheEPAtomanagetheirownstormwater
pollutioncontrolactivities(allbutfiveandtheDistrictofColumbia:Massachusetts,NewHampshire,NewMexico,
AlaskaandIdaho).TheEPAalsogovernstheseactivitiesinterritoriesandIndianCountry(EPA,2009a).
TheUnitedStatesEPAoutlinestheprovisionsnecessarytocomplywithPhaseIandPhaseIIoftheNational
PollutantDischargeEliminationSystem(NPDES)program.Themajordifferencebetweenthetwophasesisinthe
sizeofthefootprint.ThePhaseIIpermitappliestoallsitesinwhichbetweenoneandfiveacresoflanddisturbing
activityoccur(IllinoisEPA).WhilePhaseIencompassesallconstructionsitesdisturbingfiveacresormore(Illinois
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EPA).InformationontheEPAsNPDESprogramisavailableathttp://cfpub2.epa.gov/npdes/index.cfm(EPA,
2009b).
GLOSSARY
Effluent Outflowingwater
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
Erosion Aphysicalprocessthatremovessolidmaterialsfromtheirsourceand
transportsthemtoanotherlocation
NPDES NationalPollutionDischargeEliminationSystem
Sedimentation Theaccumulationofsoilparticlesinwaterbodies
Stormwater Waterfromrainfallevents
SWPPP StormwaterPollutionPreventionPlan
TESC TemporaryErosionandSedimentationControlPlan

REFERENCES
IllinoisEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,(2002).WhatisPhaseIIoftheNPDESstormwatermanagement
program?Springfield,IL.Availableathttp://www.epa.state.il.us/smallbusiness/phasetwo/
SustainableSitesInitiative.(2009)TheSustainableSitesInitiative:GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks2009.
Availableathttp://www.sustainablesites.org/report/
UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,(2008,November4).EPA|StormwaterPollutionPreventionfor
ConstructionActivities.Availableathttp://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/Stormwater/swppp.cfm
UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,(2009a,February26).EPA|AuthorizationStatusforEPAs
StormwaterConstructionProgram.Availableat
http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/authorizationstatus.cfm
UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,(2009b,November4).EPA|GeneralConstructionPermit.
Availableathttp://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/cgp.cfm
UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,(1999).Nationalpollutantdischargeeliminationsystem
regulationsforrevisionofthewaterpollutioncontrolprogramaddressingstormwaterdischarges(FRL6470
8).Washington,DC:FederalRegister.Availableat
http://yosemite.epa.gov/OPEI/Sbrefa.nsf/0728e3a1cc2339df85256cf4005020db/9762f1aedc3fbe4585256cef0
07b0599/$FILE/pnl03f.pdf
UnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC).(2009)LEED2009forNewConstructionandMajorRenovations
RatingSystem.Availableathttp://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=220
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LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT
GOAL
Uselowimpactdevelopment(LID)stormwatermanagementsolutionswhere
appropriatetobettermimicpredevelopmenthydrologicalconditions.
REQUIREMENTS
DeterminethefeasibilityofLIDbestmanagementpractices(BMPs)forstormwater
managementintherightofway(ROW).CompleteabasicLIDhydrologicevaluation
accordingtothestepsoutlinedinChapter3,LIDHydrologicAnalysis,ofthe1999
LowImpactDevelopmentDesignStrategies:AnIntegratedApproach(LIDManual)by
thePrinceGeorgesCounty,Maryland,DepartmentofEnvironmentalResources,
ProgramsandPlanningDivision(PGC).Ifanalternativeapproachisusedtoinvestigate
LID,showthatitmeetsthegeneralstepsprovidedinthereferencedguideline.The
PGCguidelineisavailablehere:
http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/pubs/LID_Hydrology_National_Manual.pdf.
Details
Lowimpactdevelopment(LID)isatermthatdescribesabroadcollectionof
engineeredcontrols,stormwatermanagementfacilities,andotherland
developmentBMPsthatattempttomimicpredevelopmenthydrologicconditions
byemphasizinginfiltration,evapotranspiration,orstormwaterreuseforlongterm
flowcontrolandrunofftreatment.Hydrologicanalysisisasystematicwayto
evaluateexistingstormwatercontrolsandnewstormwatermanagementor
improvementopportunities.TheLIDManualstates:
Thepurposeofthehydrologicevaluationistodeterminethelevelofcontrol
requiredtoachievethestormwatermanagementgoalsforLIDsites.The
requiredlevelofcontrolmaybeachievedthroughapplicationofthevarious
hydrologictoolsduringthesiteplanningprocess,theuseofIMPs,and
supplementalcontrols.Thehydrologicevaluationisperformedusinghydrologic
modelingandanalysistechniques.Theoutputofthehydrologicanalysis
providesthebasisforcomparisonwiththefourevaluationmeasures(i.e.,runoff
volume,peakrunoff,frequency,andwaterqualitycontrol).(PGC,1999)
Note:ThisProjectRequirementdoesnotmandatetheuseofLIDtechniquesonthe
roadwayproject.Instead,itisintendedtoinformthedecisionmakingprocess.
Therefore,anypreexistingprocedurethatmeetsthestatedobjectiveswillsuffice.
Projectsthatarenotchangingthetotalexistingsurfaceareaoftheroadwayfacility
(i.e.mostrehabilitationorresurfacingprojects)mustalsocompletethis
requirement.ThisisdiscussedinfurtherdetailinlatersectionsofthisProject
Requirement.Also,forprojectswithonlyminorstormwaterimprovements,the
hydrologicanalysisorLIDevaluationmaybescaledaccordingly(i.e.simplified).
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyofthecompletedLIDhydrologicevaluation.Scopesofstandarddrainageor
geotechnicalreportsmayalreadymeettheseevaluationrequirementsorneedonly
minorchangestoincludeLID.AseparatedocumentisNOTrequiredinthiscase.
PR-8
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR7Pollution
PreventionPlan
9 EW2RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW3RunoffQuality
9 EW4Stormwater
CostAnalysis
9 EW5SiteVegetation
9 EW6Habitat
Restoration
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
9 IncreasesAwareness
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
MeetingthisProjectRequirement
x EvaluatetheopportunitiesonsiteforusingLIDtechniques.Chancesarethattherearemanyopportunities
availableforeveryproject.Thisingeneralmeansthatfourstepsarecompletedaspartoftheevaluation:
a. Topographicalassessment(i.e.forests,floodplains,etc.)
b. Soilsassessment
c. Hydrologyassessment
d. Existingvegetationandwaterfeatures(i.e.wetlands,riparianareas,etc.)
x Followthestatedguideline,orfollowanyotherguidelinethatusesasystematicsiteassessmenttoevaluate
geologicalandhydrologicalconditionsandmeetsthegoalofthisProjectRequirement.Forexample,thePrince
GeorgesCountyrecommendationshavebeenspecifiedinmoretechnicaldetailforthePugetSoundregionof
WashingtoninthePugetSoundPartnershipsLowImpactDevelopmentTechnicalGuidanceManualforPuget
Sound(Hinman,2005).ThisProjectRequirementreliesontheformerbecauseLIDwaspioneeredinpracticeby
PrinceGeorgesCountyandtheirLIDManualisthedefaultguideformanyorganizations(EPA,2000).
x Evaluatethesiteforpotentialstormwaterimprovementseveniftheprojectinvolvesbasicsurface
maintenanceactivitiesorisotherwiseconsideredtobecategoricallyexcludedfromstormwaterconsiderations.
Itmaybethataparticularprojectcannotfeasiblyimplementanystormwaterimprovements,eitherbycost,
existingregulations,etc.Theintenthereisthat(1)stormwaterimprovementsareconsideredsystematicallyas
anopportunityforallroadwayprojectsand(2)thatanydecisionsmadenottoimplementstormwater
managementaredocumented.Allprojectshavesomeimpact,eveniftheyaredeterminedtobeinsignificant
orcategoricallyexcludedfromenvironmentalreview,orlocalpoliciesareconsiderednotapplicableto
certainprojecttypes.Itmaybecosteffectiveforowneragenciestoimproveexistinginfrastructurein
conjunctionwiththeroadwayproject,evenifstormwatermanagementisnotintheinitialscope.
x UsedesignandconstructionstaffproperlytrainedinstormwaterLIDdesign.
x IdentifyopportunitiesforstormwaterrelatedBMPselementsearlyinprojectdevelopment.
SomePotentialLIDOpportunities
x Minimizeimpacttoexistingundisturbedsoilandvegetationthroughavoidance,reducedprojectfootprints
elements(e.g.lanewidths,shoulderwidths,slopes).
x Usepermeablehardsurfaces(e.g.porousasphalt,porouspavers,porousconcrete)insteadofconventional
impervioussurfaces.
x Useamendedorengineeredsoilsinsteadofconventionalcompactedsoils.
x Incorporatedispersed,evapotranspiration(ET)andinfiltrationbasedpractices(e.g.dispersion,bioretention)
insteadofencloseddrainagesystems.
x TheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA),EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA),theAmerican
AssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)CenterforEnvironmentalExcellence,and
theNationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)aswellasmanystateagenciesoutlineavariety
ofprovisionsincorporatingLIDmeasuresintoroadways.Avarietyofresourcesarelistedattheendofthis
creditforreference.
Example: Case Study High Point Subdivision, Seattle, WA
TheHighPointsubdivisionintheWestSeattleneighborhoodofSeattle,Washingtonisoneofthefirst
comprehensiveinstallationsofaNaturalDrainageSystemsschemeforstormwatermanagementinalarge
scaleurbanenvironment.(InSeattle,streetsideLIDisreferredtoasNaturalDrainageSystemstodistinguish
thesefacilitiesfrominlotinstallations.)HighPointwasajointeffortofSeattlePublicUtilitiesandtheSeattle
HousingAuthority(SPU,2009)andwasalargescalelowincomedevelopmentcommunitythatredeveloped
landfromaformermilitarybase.
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HighPointincorporatesasuiteofLIDtechniquesincludingbioswales,infiltrationbasinsandpermeable
pavements(sidewalksandheavilytraveledresidentialstreets).SeeFigurePR8.1.TheseLIDtechniqueshelped
theCityofSeattleachievesomeofitsstormwatermanagementgoals.Somehighlightsoftheprojectinclude:
x 10percentofthewatershedforLongfellowCreek(aprioritywatershedforCohosalmon)isaccommodated
bycontrolsinHighPoint.
x Predevelopmentconditionsweremimickedthroughbioswalesandlandscapedpondsthatbecame
amenitiestothecommunity.
x Whilestandarddetentionbasinswerestillrequiredforemergencyandfirepurposesforthesubdivision,the
sizeofthedetentionfacilitywasscaleddownto25%ofwhatwouldhavebeenneededbyconventionally
designedcontrols.
x HighPointstormwaterfunctionssimilartothepredevelopedconditionsofaforestmeadow.

FigurePR8.1:ThreeLIDtechniquesarefeaturedinthisphototakenatHighPointSubdivisioninSeattle,WA.
Thegrassyarea(farleft)isactuallyturfplacedoveralargeinfiltrationbasin.Abioswale(center)isfeatured,
andstillinearlygrowth.Also,thesidewalk(left)andthestreet(right)arepavedwithpermeableconcrete.
(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

MoreinformationaboutHighPointLIDtechniquesareavailableat:
http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterInfrastructure/Natural
DrainageProjects/HighPointNaturalDrainageSystem/index.htm
Example: Case Study SEA Street, Seattle, Washington
AnotherexamplefromSeattle,SEAStreet,wasactuallyoneofthefirstpilotprojectsforlowimpact
developmentinfrastructureinSeattle.(Here,SEAstandsforStreetEdgeAlternatives)(SPU,2009).TheSEA
streetprogramfocusedonimprovingnaturaldrainageofexistingresidentialstreetareasthroughthreemain
LIDtechniques:
x Narrowerstreets(whichalsoprovideatrafficcalmingeffect).SeeFigurePR8.2.(Notethatnarrowstreets
aretypicallyconsideredtobeanapproachinconservationdesign)(EPA,2000).
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x Addedvegetation(forincreasedinfiltrationandpublicamenities).
x Vegetatedfilterstrips.Comparetheconventionalasphaltlinedchannel(FigurePR8.3)withthenew
vegetatedfiltersstripsinstalledalongthesidewalks(FigurePR8.4).

FigurePR8.2:Thisstreetwasdesignedtobenarrowerinordertoproduceatrafficcalmingeffectforthis
residentialarea.(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

FigurePR8.3:Aconventionalasphaltlinedchannel
nearSEAStreet.(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

FigurePR8.4:AbioswaleonSEAStreetbetweenthe
sidewalkandstreet.(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

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MoreinformationaboutSEAStreetisavailablefromSeattlePublicUtilitiesat:
http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterInfrastructure/Natural
DrainageProjects/StreetEdgeAlternatives/index.htm
Example: City of Kirkland, Washington Surface Water Low Impact Development
TheCityofKirklandrequirestheuseofsurfacewaterlowimpactdevelopment(LID)techniquesasfeasibleon
newdevelopment.TheCityhasadoptedtheKingCountySurfaceWaterDesignManual(KCSWDM),which
requiresthatdevelopmentprojectsperformasurfacewaterLIDfeasibilitystudyandinstallstormwaterLIDto
themaximumextentfeasibleandtoinstallatleastoneelementforsurfacewaterrunoffinallsituations(City
ofKirkland,2010).TheKCSWDMcanbefoundhere:
http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/waterandland/stormwater/documents/surfacewaterdesign
manual.aspx.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. MostsiteswillbeabletoincorporatesomeLIDtechniques;however,soilconditionsineveryprojectwillbe
different.Ingeneral,therewillbeatradeoffbetweenfunctionandcostforimplementingLID.
2. Somesiteshaveexistingsoilorwaterpollutionissueswhereinfiltrationthroughsoilsandintogroundwater
tablesorotheraquifersmaynotbeallowedorisnotadvisable.
3. Someregulationsorurbanplanningpoliciesmaybeinplaceinsomeareasthatdictateanumberofurban
improvements,suchaswideningsidewalksoraddingwidthtolanes.Theseaddimpervioussurface,anddonot
allowmuchroomforLIDintherightofway.Oftentheseregulatoryimplicationswillbedifficulttoovercome
(EPA,2000).Ingeneral,areviewofexistingpolicyshouldbepartoftheLIDevaluation.
4. TheLIDManualreferencedinthiscreditreferstotheHydrologicAnalysisbyPrinceGeorgesCounty,
Maryland.Asitturnsout,thisparticularprocessisoutlinedintwodifferentdocumentsbyPGC.Eitheris
acceptableforthisProjectRequirementbecausetheyareequivalent.TheLowImpactDevelopmentHydrologic
AnalysisisanabridgedversionoftheonespecifiedhereanditisavailablefromtheAASHTOviatheEPAat:
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lid_hydr.pdf.
5. ThisProjectRequirementappliestoallprojects,eventhosethattypicallydonotconsiderstormwaterasoneof
theirmainprojectobjectives.Thereisdocumentedevidencethatshowsconsiderationofstormwaterinproject
planningforurbanroadscanoftenresultinstrategicbenefitsforurbanenvironmentswherestormwater
managementisincreasinglyaproblem(CityofSeattle,2009).Additionally,whereroadwaysarelocatedin
watershedswithtotalmaximumdailyload(TMDL)requirements,LIDtechniquesarebecomingonewaythata
roadwaystormwatermanagementsystemcanhelpreducethenonpointsourcewaterpollutionimpactonthe
receivingwatersfromstormwatergeneratedontheimpervioussurface(EPA,2008).Inessence,thisProject
RequirementisnotrequiringthatLIDisimplemented;instead,itisrequiringthatitisconsidered.Some
projectswillspecificallyavoidstormwaterissuesjusttosavecost,butthispracticedoesnotultimatelyagree
withthegoalsandintentsofGreenroads.
RESEARCH
Lowimpactdevelopment(LID)isawelldocumentedapproachtostormwatermanagement.Thebestwayto
describeLIDisasacollectionofdecentralized,smallscale,engineeredstormwatercontrolsthatcollectandtreat
stormwateratthesourceasitisgenerated(EPA,2000;Huberetal.,2006;Hinman,2005;CityofSeattle,2009).A
numberofhydrologicalobjectivesareachievedbythisapproach,becauseitreliesheavilyonthenatural
ecosystemprocessesinfiltration(IF)andevapotranspiration(ET).Surfaceflowsarereducedandalsoattenuated,
somelevelofwaterqualitytreatmentisoftenprovided,andgroundwatertablescanberecharged,whichhelp
maintainstreamflows:allofthesethingshelpanunnatural(i.e.manmade)systemsuchasabuildingora
roadwaymoreeffectivelymimicthenaturalecosystemspreexistinghydrology(relativetoitsundeveloped
condition).LIDstrategiesthuscombinetobecomeaneffectiveandefficientstormwatermanagementschemethat
resultsinanoverallsmallerecosystemfootprint.
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Generally,thisiscontrarytothephilosophybehindmostconventionalstructuralstormwatersystems,which
collectandconveystormwatertomeetonlyanefficiencyobjective,i.e.removeitfromthesiteandtreatit
elsewhere(anendofpipeapproach)oftenusingalotofmaterialalongthewaytoconstructtheneeded
infrastructuretoperformthesetasks(EPA,2000).
Sometimes,LIDisalsocalledgreeninfrastructureorGI(EPA,2009),oralsoNaturalDrainageSystems(SPU,
2009)andalsousuallyincludessomeelementsofanotherdevelopmentapproachknownasConservationDesign
orCD(EPA,2000).
HowDoLIDTechniquesWork?
Putsimply,LIDworksbyminimizingtheamountofimperviousareaonasite,sometimescalledtheeffective
imperviousarea(EIA)thoughthisnomenclaturevaries(EPA,2000).Animpervioussurfaceisahardsurfacearea
thateitherpreventsorretardstheentryofwaterintothesoilmantleorcauseswatertorunoffthesurfacein
greaterquantitiesoratanincreasedrate(Tilley&Slonecker,2006).Developedareashavehighlevelsof
impervioussurfacescomparedtotheirotherwiseundevelopedconditions(i.e.predevelopment).Accordingtoa
recentstudyforFederalHighwayAdministrationbytheUnitedStatesGeologicalService(Tilley&Slonecker,2006),
roadsandsidewalksaccountedforanaverageofabout31.5percentofthetotalimpervioussurfaceinsixstudied
urbanandsuburbanwatersheds.
Becauseincreasedimpervioussurfacesleadtohighervolumesofsurfacerunoff(athighervelocitiesandfaster
timestopeakflows),streamsandwatershedscanbedamagedwitherosionproducingflows.Erosiveflowsare
characterizedbyhighersedimentloadsthatdegradeaquatichabitats.Conventionalstormwatercontrol
techniquestendtodecoupletherainfalleventfromoneofitsmainhydrologicalfunctions:groundwaterrecharge
(EPA,2000).FigurePR8.5showsthisphenomenongraphically.

FigurePR8.5:Comparisonofpredevelopmenthydrologyanddevelopedhydrology.(FromSchuler,1987)

Stormwatermanagement,then,inanyenvironment(ruralandurban),playsanenormousroleinsustainabilityor
maintainingexistinghydrology.LIDtechniquescanhelprestorethepredevelopmenthydrologicalbalanceinareas
thathavebeenultraurbanized(CityofSeattle,2009;EPA,2009)andcanalsohelpmaintainaclosematchfor
existinghydrologicalfunctioninareasthathavenotbeendeveloped.
Ingeneral,LIDtechniqueshavethefollowingcommonfeatures(Hinman,2005):
x Infiltrationandevapotranspirationaretheprimarymodesofrunoffcontrols
(Schueler, 1992) (Schueler, 1992)
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x Impermeablesurfacesareavoidedorsignificantlydecreased
x Naturalsoilsareused,oftenwithorganiccompositions(organics)insteadofengineeredoroffsitefill
x Nativevegetationisused(forsomeselecttechniques)
x Usuallytheyareusedincombination.
x Usuallynotallofthemareappropriateforeverysite.
Dependingonflowcontrolobjectives,thereareavarietyofLIDdesigntechniquestoincreaseretention,increase
timeofconcentrationandreducetotalvolume(primarilythroughIFandET).Consequently,beforeLIDisusedon
anysite,thatsitemustbeassessedforsuchthingsassoilproperties,existinghydrologicalInordertodetermineif
LIDisappropriate(PGC,1999).
WhatarethebenefitsofLID?
ThereisalaundrylistofbenefitsassociatedwithLID,includinghumanhealthandaestheticbenefitsthatgohand
inhandwithanumberofenvironmentalbenefits.
x Flowcontrolforvolumeandtimeofconcentration(reducederosiveflows,andreducedloadonmunicipal
stormwaterfacilitiestoo)(EPA,2009)
x Groundwaterrechargethroughinfiltration(ibid.)
x Improvedwaterquality(ibid.)
x Reducedseweroverflow(ibid.)
x Increasedcarbonsequestrationthroughincreasedvegetation(ibid.)
x UrbanHeatIslandmitigationandreducedenergydemandsincitiesanddevelopedareas(ibid.)
x Improvedairqualityprimarilythroughincreaseduseofvegetation,alsoincludesacoolingeffect(ibid.)
x Creationofhabitatandrecreationalspace(ibid.)
x Improvedhumanhealththroughconnectiontoplaceandthenaturalenvironment(ibid.)
x Increasedpropertyvaluesduetoaddedaestheticsandperformance(ibid.)
x Reducedcostandsizeforsupplementalconventionalstormwaterinfrastructure(EPA,2000)
x Easilyincorporatedintoanumberofurbanizedfeatures,suchasparkingspacesandstreetsides(EPA,2000)
LIDLimitations
WhileLIDisabestmanagementpractice,itisthemeanstoanendforeverystormwatermanagementissue.Like
anypracticeortechnology,therearecertainlimitationstoLIDtechniquesthatmustbeunderstoodpriorto
implementingthemonaroadwayproject.
1. Someespeciallysensitivewatershedsmayhaveobjectives(i.e.qualityandflowcontrol)thatcannotbe
achievedviaLIDalone.Somelargerstructuralmeasuresmaybenecessaryforsomeprojects(EPA,2000).
2. TheoverallperformanceofLIDelementsonaprojectisverysitespecific(EPA,2000).Thismeansthata
comprehensivesiteevaluationisanextremelyimportantstepinaneffectivestormwatermanagementscheme.
3. LongtermmaintenanceofLIDelementscanbeanissue,usuallybecauseofcontractorunfamiliarity.Also
frequencyofmaintenanceactivitiesusuallyishigherthanforconventionalcontrols,whichcancauselongterm
fundingissues(EPA,2000).
4. LackofmaintenancecanoftenbeverydetrimentaltoLIDperformanceandfunction(Hinman,2005).
5. ConstructionofLIDelementsrequiresspecialcareforsomefacilities.Forexample,overcompactionof
infiltrationbasinsoilsoramendedsoilscanleadtopoorperformanceforflowcontrol(Hinman,2005).
6. SomesitesmaybeidealcandidatesforLIDBMPs,butregulatorystandardsdisallowthemandrequirethat
impervioussurfacesareinstalledinstead.Thesecouldbesubdivisioncodes,zoningrules,parkingandstreet
widthsandsidewalkrequirements,andotherdevelopmentstandardsthatcanessentiallytrumpgood
stormwaterdesignopportunities(EPA,2000;Hinman,2005).
7. LIDtechniquesarenotthebestforhandlinglargestormevents.Usually,theybehavemuchthesameasnatural
hydrologicalfeaturesinthesesituations.Sometimes,LIDmeasureswillneedtobesupplementedby
conventionalconveyanceasacontingency(Hinman,2005).
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8. Huberetal.(2006)notethattheroadrightofwaycanrestricttheabilityoftheengineertoincorporateLID
practicesdue,simply,tolackofspace.
WhyisaLIDevaluationarequirementforGreenroads?
Theenvironmentalimpactsofstormwatergeneratedfromroadwayfacilitiesarenottobeignored.The
decentralizednatureofLIDtechniquesfitswellwiththeenvironmentofmanyroads,eveninurbanenvironments.
However,manyroadwayfacilitiesdonottakeadvantageofthehydrologicalbenefitsofIFandETinstandard
designpractice.ItistheintentofthisProjectRequirementtoprovideanopportunitytoevaluatethesedesign
approaches,whichrepresentahigherlevelofpracticeformanagingstormwater.
WhatHappensIfInfiltrationIsNotAppropriateForMyProject?
ForthisProjectRequirement(PGC,1999),themainstepsrequiredinthisstudyare:
a. Identifytheprojectwatershedandmicrowatershedareas
b. Definedesignstormsorlongtermperformancerequirements
c. Definemodelingtechniquestobeemployed
d. Compileinformationforpredevelopmentconditions
e. Evaluatepredevelopmentconditionsanddevelopbaselinemeasures
f. Evaluatesiteplanningbenefitsandcomparewithbaseline
g. EvaluateBMPs
h. Evaluatesupplementalneeds
IfinfiltrationandETarenotappropriatefortheproject,orcannotbeusedinaneffectivecomprehensive
manner,thenclearlyconventionalstructuralstormwatercontrolswilllikelyrequireconsiderationfor
stormwatermanagement.ThisrequirementdoesnotdictatethatLIDmustbeused.However,othercreditsin
Greenroadsmaybecomemoredifficulttoearn,suchasEW2RunoffFlowControl,EW3RunoffQualityand
EW4StormwaterCostAnalysis.
HowMuchDoesLIDCost?
Ingeneral,costscanvaryforLIDstormwatercontrols.SeethediscussionincludedinCreditEW4StormwaterCost
Analysis.Manyprojectshavebeenshowntobecheaperconventionalconveyanceandtreatmentsystems.
However,thereislittlereliablecostinformationregardingperformanceofsuchLIDsystemsinahighway
environment.WhiletheideaofusingLIDiswelldocumentedforhighwayenvironments(seeHuberetal.,2006),
thelongtermperformanceofLIDonhighways,ifpracticed,isnot.However,manylocalagenciesinurbanareas
havefoundthatroadmaintenanceandrehabilitationprojectsofferauniqueopportunitytoimprovestormwater
infrastructureinthesecities(e.g.Seattle,Washington;PrinceGeorgesCountyMaryland).
SomeExamplesofLIDTechniques
ThereareanumberofLIDTechniquesthatarebecomingmorecommonplace.Manyofthem,however,aremore
appropriateforbuildingsoronparcelsinsteadofinroadways(i.e.greenroofsandrainwatercisterns).Thereare
stillseveraltechnologiesthatcaneasilybeimplementedinmostrightofwaysforroads.Also,theselectionof
BMPultimatelymustalignwithprojectobjectives,i.e.flowcontrol,waterqualitytreatment,aesthetics,thermal
effects,orairquality(Hinman,2005).Ashortlistisprovidedbelowwithabriefdescription(thislistisnot
exhaustive).
x Bioretentionswalesorponds.Thesefacilitiescanalsobeknownasraingardens(smallscale)or
constructedwetlands(verylargescale);sometimesbioinfiltrationorbioswaleisalsoused.Generally,the
purposeofbioretentionfacilitiesistoincorporateanumberofrunoffcontrolsintooneengineeredfacilityby
providingamixofvegetation,amendedsoils,anddifferentdrainageconfigurationstoachieveflowcontroland
qualityperformance(CityofSeattle,2009).
x Vegetatedorgrassedwetanddryswales.Wetanddryswalesarebasicallylinearizedbioretentionfacilities,
commonlybioswalesasnotedaboveorfilterstrips(EPA,1995b).Thewetordrynotationindicatesthe
typeofplantlifethatisincorporated(CityofSeattle,2009).Theyarenotquitethesameasaroadsideditch,as
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theyareusuallycomposedofamendedsoilsandaselectvarietyofplantstoachieveaspecificlevelof
infiltration.Theycanalsobedesignedtohaveweirsforaddedretentiononsomesteepergradesandslopes.
SeeEW2foraphoto.
x Permeablepavements.Thereareanumberofdifferentkindsofpermeablepavements.Thesearediscussedin
detailinCreditPT2PermeablePavement.
x Infiltrationbasins.Thesecanbefoundinanumberofforms,includingtrenches,fields,ordepressions.In
generaltheruleofthumbisthatthelargerthearea,themoreinfiltrationcantakeplace.InfiltrationbasedLID
BMPsoftensufferfromconstructabilityissuessuchasovercompaction(CityofSeattle,2009).
x Trees.Treesfunctionasastormwatercontrolbyincreasinginfiltrationdemand.Theyalsoprovidetranspiration
andparticipateactivelyinthehydrologiccycle.Theymayalsobeanaestheticamenity,especiallyinurban
environments.Generally,preservationoftreedareasisagoodpractice(CityofSeattle,2009).
x Dispersion.Someexamplesaresplashblocksorgraveltrenches.Generally,theseareameansofdistributing
theenergyinrunoffflowintoavegetatedinfiltrationarea(CityofSeattle,2009).Dependingontheirdesign
andlevelofattenuation,checkdamsandterracingeffortsalsofithere(EPA,1995b).
BriefReviewofExistingRegulatoryRequirements
WhiletherearenospecificmandatesforusingLIDinroads,highwaysandbridges,thereareanumberoffederal
regulationsandpoliciesinplacetoaddressthenonpointsourcepollutiongeneratedbytheseentities(mostly
waterqualityrelated).Theseare,inbrief,theCoastalZoneManagementActof1972,theSafe,Accountable,
Flexible,EfficientTransportationEquityAct:ALegacyforUsers(SAFETEALU,currentlyexpiredandnotreplaced
legislativelyasofthiswriting),andseveralsectionsoftheCleanWaterAct.Additionally,boththeFederalHighway
Administration(FHWA)andtheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)have
policiesinplaceformanagingstormwaterrunoffandprovideguidancedocuments(EPA,1995b;Strecker,Mayo,
Quigley&Howell,2001;AASHTO,2009).TheAASHTOguidancedocumentprovidesabriefreviewofstateswith
existingBMPmanualsforstormwaterrunoffandrecommendstheLIDhydrologicalevaluationfromPrince
GeorgesCountythatisspecifiedinthisProjectRequirement(AASHTO,2009).
AdditionalResources
ThereisawidebodyofliteratureonLIDforstormwatermanagement.Afewselectdocumentsarehighlighted
here.MorespecifictechniquesforstormwatermanagementareaddressedinCreditsEW2RunoffFlowControl
andEW3RunoffQuality.
x FHWA(Shoemaker,Lahlou,Doll&Cazenas,2002)providesguidanceonultraurbanBMPselectionand
monitoringavailableat:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs10.htm
x AASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellencesEnvironmentalIssueConstructionandMaintenancePractices
Compendium,Chapter3,Section7providessomedesignguidanceonLIDavailableat:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/construct_maint_prac/compendium/manual/3_
7.aspx
x Huberetal.(2006)compiledacomprehensivereviewofhighwayrunoffcontrolprogramsaspartofthe
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)Report565:EvaluationofBestPracticesforHighway
RunoffControl.ThisreportisavailableinPDFformat,withsupplementalappendices,at:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_565.pdf
x TheCityofSeattlerecentlypublishedaBAS(BestAvailableScience)Reviewaspartoftheupdatestotheir
stormwatercode.ThisisavailableinWordFormatat
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/static/BAS%20Review_FINAL_30JUN09_LatestReleased_DPDP017711.doc
x TheLowImpactDevelopmentTechnicalGuidanceManual(Hinman,2005)forPugetSoundisavailableand
offersasomewhatmorestructuredapproachtohydrologicanalysisthanthePrinceGeorgesCountyLID
Manual,andincludesmanydifferentsiteconsiderations,primarilyusefulinurbanareasandforlot
development:www.psp.wa.gov/downloads/LID/LID_manual2005.pdf
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Low Impact Development PR-8
GLOSSARY
BMP Bestmanagementpractice
CD Conservationdesign
EIA Effectiveimperviousarea
Evapotranspiration thecombinedeffectsofevaporationandtranspirationinreducingthe
volumeofwaterinavegetatedareaduringaspecificperiodoftime(Huber
etal.2006)
GI Greeninfrastructure
Impervioussurface ahardsurfaceareathateitherpreventsorretardstheentryofwaterintothe
soilmantleorcauseswatertorunoffthesurfaceingreaterquantitiesorat
anincreasedrate(TilleyandSlonecker,2006)
Infiltration thedownwardmovementofwaterintothesoilaftersurficialentryand
percolationthroughporespaces(Huberetal.2006)
Lowimpactdevelopment abroadcollectionofengineeredcontrols,stormwatermanagementfacilities,
andotherlanddevelopmentBMPsthatattempttomimicpredevelopment
hydrologicconditionsbyemphasizinginfiltration,evapotranspiration,or
stormwaterreuseforlongtermflowcontrolandrunofftreatment
NDS Naturaldrainagesystems
SEA StreetEdgeAlternatives

REFERENCES
AASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellence.(2009).CenterforEnvironmentalExcellencebyAASHTO
EnvironmentalIssueConstructionandMaintenancePracticesCompendium.AccessedJanuary13,2010.
Availableat
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/construct_maint_prac/compendium/manual/
CityofKirkland,Washington.(2010).SurfaceWaterLowImpactDevelopment.Availableat
http://www.ci.kirkland.wa.us/depart/Public_Works/Storm___Surface_Water/Surface_Water_Low_Impact_De
velopment.htm
CityofSeattle,SeattlePublicUtilities,DepartmentofPlanningandDevelopment.(2009,June30).Environmentally
CriticalAreas:BestAvailableScienceReview.AccessedNovember14,2009.Availableat
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/static/BAS%20Review_FINAL_30JUN09_LatestReleased_DPDP017711.doc
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(1995,November).Erosion,SedimentandRunoffControlforRoadsand
Highways.(EPA841F95008d).OfficeofWater.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Available
athttp://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/education/runoff.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(1995,November).PollutionControlProgramsforRoads,Highwaysand
Bridges.(EPA841F95008c).OfficeofWater.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/education/control.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2000,October).LowImpactDevelopment(LID):ALiteratureReview.(EPA841
B00005).OfficeofWater.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008,March7).NPSCategories|Roads,HighwaysandBridges|Polluted
Runoff(NonpointSourcePollution)|USEPA.AccessedJanuary13,2010.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/roadshwys.html
104
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PR-8 Low Impact Development
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009,April1).ManagingWetWeatherwithGreenInfrastructure|NPDES|US
EPA.AccessedJanuary13,2010.Availableathttp://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=298
Hinman,C.(2005).Lowimpactdevelopment:TechnicalguidancemanualforPugetSound.Olympia,WA:Puget
SoundActionTeam.Availableat
http://www.psparchives.com/publications/our_work/stormwater/lid/LID_manual2005.pdf
Huberetal.(2006).NCHRPSynthesis565:Evaluationofbestmanagementpracticesforhighwayrunoffcontrol.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP).Washington,D.C.:TransportationResearchBoard.
Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_565.pdf
KingCounty.(2010).2009KingCountyStormWaterDesignManual(SWDM).Availableat
http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/waterandland/stormwater/documents/surfacewaterdesign
manual.aspx
PrinceGeorgesCounty,Maryland,DepartmentofEnvironmentalResources.(1999,July).LowImpact
DevelopmentHydrologicAnalysis.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lid_hydr.pdf
PrinceGeorgesCounty,Maryland,DepartmentofEnvironmentalResources.(1999,June).LowImpact
DevelopmentDesignStrategies:AnIntegratedApproach.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lidnatl.pdf
Schueler,T.R.1987.ControllingUrbanRunoff:APracticalManualforPlanningandDesigningUrbanBest
ManagementPractices.MetropolitanWashingtonCouncilofGovernments,WashingtonD.C.
SeattlePublicUtilities.(2009).SeattlePublicUtilitiesNaturalDrainageProjects.AccessedJanuary13,2010.
Availableat
http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterInfrastructure/
Shoemaker,L.,Lahlou,M.,Doll,A.&Cazenas,P.USDepartmentofTransportation.FederalHighway
Administration.(2002).StormwaterBestManagementPracticesinanUltraUrbanSetting:Selectionand
Monitoring.AccessedNovember30,2009.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs10.htm
Strecker,E.,Mayo,L.,Quigley,M.&Howell,J.(2001,June).GuidanceManualforMonitoringWaterQuality.
(FHWAEP01022).UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.Officeof
NaturalEnvironment.Washington,DC:UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation.
Tilley,J.S.&Slonecker,E.T.(2006).Quantifyingthecomponentsofimpervioussurfaces.Reston,Va:U.S.
GeologicalSurvey.

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PR-9 Pavement Management System
PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
GOAL
Makeroadwaycapitalassetslastlongerandperformbetterbypreservingand
maintainingthem.
REQUIREMENTS
Haveassetmanagementsystemsineffectthatincludethepavementandcritical
structuralfeaturesonaproject,suchasbridges.Assetmanagementsystem(s)must
servetheroadwayprojectandinclude,atminimum,theseactivities:
1. Measureconditionsofpavementstructureandbridgestructuresatleastonce
everytwoyears.
2. Possessdocumenteddecisioncriteriafortimingpreservationactions.
3. Recordwhenpreservationeffortsoccur.
4. Storeinformationfrom#13inaretrievableformat.
5. Displayinformationfrom#13totheroadwayuser.
Generally,thismeanstheowneragencyoftheroadwayshouldhavepavement
managementsystems(PMS)andbridgemanagementsystems(BMS)inplaceforthe
extentoftheirroadwaynetwork.Projectswithbothpavementsandmajorstructures
mustdemonstratethatbothtypesofassetmanagementsystemsareinplaceand
operationalforallsuchfeatures.
Details
Anassetmanagementsystemisaformalsystematicprocessofmaintaining,
upgradingandoperatingaparticularstructureornetworkofstructures.Asset
managementsystemstypicallyinvolvetheuseofoneormoredecisionsupport
tools(oftencomputerbased)toorganizethefiveactivitiesdetailedabove.For
purposesofthiscredit,wereferprimarilytopavementmanagementsystems(PMS)
andbridgemanagementsystems(BMS).Preservationreferstoasetof
maintenanceandrehabilitationpracticesusedtoimproveroadwayconditionand
extendroadwaylifeandalsoappliestobothpavementsandbridges.
Theoretically,anyassetonaroadwayprojectcanbemanagedusingthe
principlesoutlinedhere.Whiletherearealsoseparateassetmanagementsystems
andtoolsforsiteinfrastructure,trafficcontrols,standaloneretainingwallsand
vegetation,forpurposesofthisProjectRequirementsuchmanagementsystems
arenotrequired.Projectsthathavesuchsystemsinplaceshoulddetermineifthe
systemsmeetthefivecriteriaaboveandapplyforaGreenroadsCustomCredit.
DOCUMENTATION
x Asignedletterfromanownersrepresentativestatingthefollowing:
1. APMSandBMS(whereappropriate)iseitherinplaceorwillbeputinplaceforthe
projectpavementand/orbridges.
2. Theagencywillmanagetheprojectpavement(s)and/orbridge(s).
3. Theproposedmeansofaccomplishingthefiveactivities(e.g.thenamesofthe
consultantorsoftwaresysteminuse).
PR-9
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR2LifecycleCost
Analysis
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 MR2Pavement
Reuse
9 PT1LongLife
Pavement
9 PT6Pavement
Performance
Tracking
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesServiceLife
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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Pavement Management System PR-9
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Ensurethattheprojectroadwayispartofaneworexistingmanagementsystem.Itislikelythatthereis
alreadyasysteminusebytheroadwayowner,whichmeansthatprovisionsfortheprojectpavementtobe
includedneedtobemade.
x Forpavements,adoptapavementmanagementsystemthatincorporatestheprojectpavement.Thisis
generallynotpracticalunlessthepavementmanagementsystemincorporatesotherpavementsalsomanaged
bytheowner.
Example: Pavement Management Systems
All50stateshavesomeformofpavementmanagementprograminplace(Finn,1998).Manylocalpavement
owneragenciesalsohavepavementmanagementsystemsthatvaryincomplexity.Whilethereisno
requirementthattheybecomputerbased,mostcurrentsystemsare.Afewexamplesfollow.
x DynatestPavementManagementSystem.Anexampleofacommerciallyavailableproduct(thereare
many),thissystemisintegratedwiththeconditionassessmentequipmentthatDynatestalso
manufactures.
x StreetSaver.AnewonlineprogramdevelopedbytheBayAreaMetropolitanTransportationCommission
(MTC)forusebylocalgovernments.Itisusedbyanumberofowneragencies,manyofwhicharein
CaliforniaandOregon.TheinterfaceiswebbasedandhasbeenintegratedwithArcGISbyFarallon
Geographics,Inc.AnexampleisChulaVista,CA:
http://www.chulavistaca.gov/city_Services/Development_Services/engineering/pavementmgmtsystem.asp
x MicroPAVER.AdesktoppavementmanagementsystemfromtheU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers.Itis
availableforfreeandiswidelyusedbytheU.S.militaryandotheragencyowners.Informationat:
http://owww.cecer.army.mil/paver/Paver.htm.
Example: Case Study Washington State Pavement Management System (WSPMS)
TheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)pavementmanagementsystem(WSPMS)isan
exampleofaninternallybuiltsystemandisoneoftheoldestsystemsintheU.S.WSDOTbegancollectingdata
in1963(Muenchetal.,2004)anddevelopedamanagementsystemin1982(FHWA,2008).Moredetailsare
giveninthecasestudyexamplebelow.Adescriptionofthesystemcanbefoundat:
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Research/Reports/300/315.2.htm.
ArecentFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)casestudy(2008)highlightedtheWashingtonState
PavementManagementSystem(WSPMS)anditscontributiontooverallconditionandlifecyclecostsof
pavementsmanagedbytheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).Whilethecasestudy
doesnotseparatetheleveloffundingfromtheuseofWSPMS,itmakesacasethatWSPMShascontributedto
amarkedshifttowardspavementsingoodconditionsince1971(FigurePR9.1).
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PR-9 Pavement Management System
WSDOTusesWSPMStonotonlytrackpavementconditionbutalsotochoosewhenandbywhatmeansthe
pavementshouldbepreservedand/orrehabilitated.WSPMShassimplebuiltinmodelsthatpredictfuture
pavementconditionbasedoncurrentandpastcondition.Thisway,WSDOTisabletopredictwithreasonable
accuracywhenpreservation/rehabilitationneedtooccur.In1993WSDOTreceivedlegislativemandatethat
theirprojectselectioncriteriashouldbebasedonlowestlifecyclecost,whichfurtherreinforcedtheir
pavementmanagementapproach.Overall,FigurePT9.2showstheconditionofWSDOTpavementsfrom1969
2005andgivesclearevidencethatpavementconditionhasimprovedmarkedlyoverthis36yearstretch.

FigurePR9.1:TrendsinpoorandgoodpavementconditionofWashingtonStatehighways,
19712005,followingadoptionofapavementconditionsurveyin1969andapavement
managementsystemin1982(FHWA,2008).

FigurePR9.2:TrendsinWashingtonStatepavementstructuralcondition,19692006(FHWA,2008).
Datasource:WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportationMaterialsLaboratory.
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Pavement Management System PR-9
Example: Michigan DOT Bridge Management System
MichiganDOT(MDOT)hasdevelopedaBridgeManagementSystem(BMS),oneofsixcomponentsoftheir
TransportationManagementSystem.TheBMSisthedecisionsupporttoolresponsibleformanagingthe
inspection,analysisandmaintenanceofthenumerouscomponentsthatmakeupabridge.MDOTutilizes
softwareAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)hasdevelopedcalled
PontistoaidtheirBMS.Adescriptionofthesystemcanbefoundat:
http://michigan.gov/documents/bridge_16549_7.pdf
Example: Virtis and Opis Bridge Management System Tools
AASHTOsBRIDGEWare,asoftwaredesignsystem,developedcomprehensivebridgeratinganddesigntools
calledVirtisandOpis.TheOpisbridgedesignpackageandtheVirtisbridgeloadratingpackagesharea
detaileddatabaseofstructuredescriptionsthatisintegratedwiththedatabaseofthePontisbridge
managementdata(Thompson,2004).Moreinformationisavailableat:
http://aashto.bakerprojects.com/virtis/VirtisOpisBrochure0303.pdf
POTENTIAL ISSUES
ThisProjectRequirementasksforassetmanagementsystemsbutdoesnotverifyexecutionofthatmanagement
system.Therefore,thepossibilityexiststhatamanagementsystemcouldbepresentedandthennotexecuted.
RESEARCH
PavementManagementSystems
TheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)definespavementmanagement
astheeffectiveandefficientdirectingofthevariousactivitiesinvolvedinprovidingandsustainingpavementsin
aconditionacceptabletothetravelingpublicattheleastlifecyclecost(AASHTO,1985).Pavementmanagement
consistsof3majorcomponents(PavementManagement,2007):
1. Pavementlifecycle.Thisincludeshowpavementsarebuilt,howtheirconditionchangesovertime,andhow
thisprocesscanbeaffectedbydifferentformsofmaintenance,rehabilitationandreconstruction.
2. Costsassociatedwiththepavementlifecycle.Thisincludesthecostsofinitialconstruction,maintenanceand
rehabilitation,assessingendoflifepavementsalvagevalue,anddeterminingusercostsincurredthroughout
thelifecycle.
3. Pavementmanagementsystems.Thisincludesallthedifferentsystemsusedtodeterminethemost
appropriatetimetorehabilitatepavement,whatthemostcosteffectivemethodis,andhowmanydollarsit
willtaketomaintainaroadwaysystematadesirableconditionlevel(WSDOT,1994).
Thefundamentalideaisthatpavementmanagementwillleadtoloweroveralllifecyclecostsforapavementor
networkofpavementsandthusbeamoresustainableapproach.Thisideahasbeentheoreticallyshownmany
times(e.g.,Scrivneretal.,1968;Hudsonetal.,1979;MAPC,1986;Kayetal.,1993;Pierceetal.,2001)buthasnot
beenshownbydirectcomparisonofamanagedsystemandonethatisnot.Acorollary,thatsomebelieveistrue
buthasyettobeshownbyempiricalevidence,isthatpavementmanagementwillalsoleadtoloweruseofnatural
resources,lessenergyinputandfeweremissionsassociatedwithapavementnetwork.
Abasicassetmanagementsystemshouldincludethefollowing5components(Peterson,1987):
1. Roadwayconditionsurveys.Asurveyoftheroadwaystructuretoassesscurrentconditionandstrength
2. Databasecontainingallrelatedroadwaystructureinformation.Informationaboutotheraspectsofeach
roadwaysectionincludingthingslikelocation,pavementthickness,ownership,datelastconstructed,etc.
3. Analysisscheme.Algorithmsusedtointerpretroadwayconditionandotherdatainameaningfulwayand
produceinformationsuchascostanddeteriorationmodelsthatassistinprogrammingroadway
preservation/rehabilitation/maintenanceefforts.Recentsoftwarecancombinethedatabase,analysisscheme
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anddecisioncriteriainonepackage.Recentresearchhasfocusedonadvancingorrefininglifecyclecosting
analysis,optimizationalgorithmsandperformanceprediction.
4. Decisioncriteria.Rulesdevelopedtoguideassetmanagementdecisions.Asassetmanagementsystemshave
evolved,decisioncriteriahavebecomemorecomplexandnowaccountforitemssuchasuserdelay,vehicle
operatingcostsand,inlimitedcases,environmentaleffects.Forbridges,thiswouldincludeoptimizationand
analysismodels.
5. Implementationprocedures.Methodsusedtoapplymanagementdecisionstoroadwaysections.
Implementationisapolitical,budgetaryorproceduralissue.
PavementManagementLeadstoLowerLifeCycleCosts
Choosingtheoptimaltimingofpreservationeffortscanleadtolowerlifecyclecosts.Inturn,lowerlifecyclecosts
canbeoneoftheoutputsofamoresustainableroadway.Thus,thereisanindirectrelationshipbetweena
pavementmanagementsystem,whichcanhelpindeterminingthebesttimingofpreservationefforts,and
sustainability.
Ingeneral,pavementdeterioratesaspicturedinFigurePR9.3.Deteriorationisslowatfirstandthenincreasesat
anincreasingrate.Preservationeffortsprovideastepincreaseinpavementconditionandessentiallyresetthe
deteriorationprocess.Preservationeffortsappliedtoosoondonotachievemuchimprovementinconditionfor
theircostwhilethoseappliedtoolate(FigurePR9.4)achieveanimprovementinconditionatsubstantialcost
(Stevens,1985;FHWA,2008).

FigurePR9.3:Pavementconditionillustration.

FigurePR9.4:Rehabilitationtimevs.cost(basedonanillustrationinStevens,1985).
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BridgeManagementSystems
TheFederalHighwayAdministrationrecognizestheimportanceofmaintenanceandpreservationofbridge
sturcturestoo.Forroadways,bridgesareconsideredcriticalpointsornodesalonganotherwisecontinuous
networkofpavements.However,similartopavementmanagementsystems,agenciesusuallydevelopaBMSthat
istailoredtotheirorganizational,financial,managerial,political,andtechnicalmodesofoperation.
Currently,allstateDOTshaveabridgemanagementsystem(zbayetal.,2004).EachBMSmayvarydueto
(Markow&Hyman,2009):
1. Differentphilosophiesofbridgemanagement;
2. Differentapproachestoplanning,programming,andbudgeting;
3. thecharacteristicsofeachagencystransportationsystemanditsinfrastructures;and
4. Thepolicy,financial,technical,andinstitutionalenvironmentinwhicheachagencyoperates.
AstudybytheTransportationResearchBoard(TRB)in1994,foundthatonly6of33statesrespondingtoasurvey
saidtheyweresatisfiedwiththecostdatatheyhadavailabletoprovidetotheirbridgemanagementsystems
(Thompson,2004).Thismaysuggestthatagenciesconsidertheaccuracyandavailabilityofcostandmanagement
dataandotherinformationrequiredtodevelopacomprehensiveassetmanagementsystemtobeinadequate.
In1994,a20pagequestionnairewasdistributedto52departmentsoftransportation(DOT)inthe50states,the
DistrictofColumbia,andPuertoRico(Thompson&Markow,1996).Atotalof33stateDOTsprovidedusable
responses.
x 76%(25of33)oftheagenciesusePontisaspartoftheirbridgemanagementsystem;
x 12%(4of33)aredevelopingtheirownsystem;and
x 10%(3of33)areundecided.
ThepercentageofthoseusingPontisisdecreasingasnewtechnologiesemergeandbecomemoreaccurateand
reliable.Morerecentstudiesshowthatanincreasingnumberofagenciesareresortingtodevelopingtheirown
systeminconjunctionwithcurrentdesignsoftware.
In2009,MarkowandHymanpreparedadetailedsynthesisreportonBMSfortheNationalCooperativeHighway
ResearchProgram(NCHRP),Report397.Currently,thisisthemostuptodateandcomprehensiveinformationon
thestateofthepracticeofbridgemanagementsystemsandtheneed,utility,levelofimplementationandcost
implicationsatvariousstateagencies.ItalsoincludesasurveyofDOTsforprevalenceofuseofBMS,butthere
weresimilarresultstothe1994studymentionedaboveandfewerrespondentstothesurvey.
BridgeManagementSoftware
Duringtheearly1990s,FHWAandCambridgeSystematicsandOptima,Inc.developedabridgemanagement
systemcalledPontis.CambridgeSystematicsandOptima,Inc.(2010)describePontisasadecisionsupport
softwaretoolthatincludesastructuralinventoryforuseinpreservationandmaintenanceactivities.Pontis
providesawayforbridgemanagerstodocumentinspectionsbystructuralelementanddevelopcosteffective
plansformaintenanceactivitiesinanexistingbridgenetwork.NewersoftwaresuiteslikeAASHTOs
BridgeWARElineofproductsincorporateadditionaltoolslikeVirtisandOpiswhichcanassistinloadratingand
designthatutilizethePontisdatabase(TransportationResearchBoard,CommitteeonBridgeManagement
Systems,2003;Thompson,2004).
BridgeManagementSystemsandLifecycleCostAnalysis
Bridgemanagementsystemsandlifecyclecostanalysis(seePR2LifecycleCostAnalysis)arecomplementary
toolsforlongtermdecisionmakinginbridgemaintenance,preservationandoperation.Muchofthecurrent
literatureoverlapsatoptimizationmodelsforintegratinglifecyclecostingintonetworklevelBMSaswellasat
theprojectlevel(Morcous,2007;Frangopol&Liu,2007;Estes&Frangopol,2001;Frangopol,2004;Hegazy,
Elbeltagi,&ElBehairy,2004;Okasha&Frangopol,2009)aswellasforpreservationandmaintenancedecisions
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(List,2007;Straussetal.2007;Naus&Johnston,2001).Morerecentresearchhasbeenintheareaofreliability
andriskanalysisforlifetimeweatheringandotherhazards,(Lee,Cho,&Cha,2006;Hosseretal.2008;Padgett,
Dennemann,&Ghosh,2010).Foracomprehensivereviewofbridgelifecyclecostanalysis(BLCCA)andits
potentialapplicationsatprojectandnetworklevelBMS,thereaderisreferredtoNCHRPReport483(Hawk,
2003),whichprovidesthemostcomprehensiveinformationonintegrativelifecyclethinkingforbridges.
OtherTypesofAssetManagementSystems
Ancillarystructures.Currently,theFederalHighwayAdministrationisinvestigatingdevelopmentofdecision
supporttoolsfordatamanagementandpreservationeffortsforancillarystructuressuchasluminares,sign
trusses,andothernonbridgeandnonpavementfeatures.ThecurrentprogrameffortisledbytheOfficeofBridge
Technology,whichprovidesafreehelpfulguidancemanualforthesefeaturescalledGuidelinesfortheInstallation,
Inspection,MaintenanceandRepairofStructuralSupportsforHighwaySigns,Luminaires,andTrafficSignals
(FHWA,2005).
Tunnelsandretainingwallstructures.Tunnelandwallstructuresareaverysmallpercentageofstructural
roadwayfeatures.Muchoftheresearchontunnelmaintenanceandpreservationismanagedunderthepurview
oftheFederalHighwayAdministrationsOfficeofBridgeTechnologyandintegrateswithhighwayandrailtransitin
theirwebbasedguidancedocumentfromthe2005Highway&RailTransitTunnelMaintenance&Rehabilitation
Manual(FHWA,2007).
Vegetation.Additionally,thereisawealthofinformationavailableonvegetationmanagementpracticessuchas
streettrees,nativevegetation,pesticideandherbicideuse,andmaintenanceofotherlandscapingfeatures,
especiallywithregardtomanagementofaboveandbelowgroundutilities.However,aconsensusdoesnotappear
toexistoncomputerizedtoolsforsystematicimplementationofsuchvegetationmanagementstrategiesand
practices.AASHTOsCenteronEnvironmentalExcellenceprovidessomeguidanceonmanagementofthesetypes
oflivingassetsonroadsidesatthislinkunderIntegratedRoadsideVegetationManagement:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/invasive_species(AASHTO,2011).
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(1985).GuidelinesonPavement
Management,AASHTOJointTaskForceonPavements,AASHTO,Washington,D.C.,1985.
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(2011).CenterforEnvironmental
ExcellencebyAASHTO:InvasiveSpecies/VegetationManagement.Availableat:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/invasive_species/AccessedJanuary31,2011.
CambridgeSystematics,Inc.(2010).PontisBridgeManagementSystemVersion4.4.Availableat
http://www.camsys.com/pro_inframan_pontis.htm.AccessedMay26,2010.
Estes,A.C.,andFrangopol,D.M.2001.Minimumexpectedcostorientedoptimalmaintenanceplanningfor
deterioratingstructures:Applicationtoconcretebridgedecks.Reliab.Eng.Syst.Saf.,73,281291.
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2008).PavementManagementSystems:TheWashingtonStateExperience.
TransportationAssetManagementCaseStudies.FHWA,U.S.DOT.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/if08010/index.cfm.
Assetmanagementsystem aformalsystematicprocessofmaintaining,upgradingandoperatinga
particularassetornetworkofassets,suchaspavementsandbridges
Preservation asetofmaintenanceandrehabilitationpracticesusedtoimprovecondition
andextendlifeofastructure(s)
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FederalHighwayAdministration.(2010).MoreAboutPontis.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/pontmore.cfm.AccessedMay26,2010.
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2005).GuidelinesfortheInstallation,Inspection,MaintenanceandRepairof
StructuralSupportsforHighwaySigns,Luminaires,andTrafficSignals.[FHWANHI05036].FederalHighway
Administration.U.S.DOT.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/signinspection.pdf
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2007,June7).HighwayandRailTransitTunnelMaintenanceandRehabilitation
Manual:2005Edition.U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/tunnel/maintman00.cfm.AccessedJune5,2010.
Finn,F.(1998).PavementManagementSystemsPast,Present,andFuture.PublicRoads,Vol.62,No.1.Available
athttp://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/julaug98/pavement.htm.
Frangopol,D.M.,&AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.(2004).Lifecycleperformanceofdeterioratingstructures:
Assessment,design,andmanagement.Reston,VA:AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.
Frangopol,D.M.,&Liu,M.(January01,2007).Maintenanceandmanagementofcivilinfrastructurebasedon
condition,safety,optimization,andlifecyclecost.Structure&InfrastructureEngineering:Maintenance,
Management,LifeCycleDesign&Performance,3,1,2941.
Hawk,H.(2003).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram.NCHRPReport483:Bridgelifecyclecost
analysis.Washington,D.C:TransportationResearchBoard,NationalResearchCouncil.
Hegazy,T.,Elbeltagi,E.andElBehairy,H.(2004).BridgeDeckManagementSystemwithIntegratedLifeCycleCost
Optimization.TransportationResearchRecord,1866,TransportationResearchBoard,NationalResearch
Council,4450.
Hosser,D.,Klinzmann,C.,&Schnetgoke,R.(2008).Aframeworkforreliabilitybasedsystemassessmentbasedon
structuralhealthmonitoring.StructureandInfrastructureEngineering,4,4,271285.
Hudson,W.R.;Haas,R.andPedigo,R.D.(1979).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramReport215:
PavementManagementSystemDevelopment.TRB,NationalResearchCouncil,Washington,D.C.
Kay,R.K.;Mahoney,J.P.andJackson,N.C.(1993).TheWSDOTPavementManagementSystemA1993Update.
ReportNo.WARD274.1.WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation,Olympia,WA.
Lee,K.M.,Cho,H.N.,&Cha,C.J.(July01,2006).Lifecyclecosteffectiveoptimumdesignofsteelbridges
consideringenvironmentalstressors.EngineeringStructures,28,9,12521265.
List,G.(2007).Amodelforlifecycleevaluationofhighwayinvestments.Structure&InfrastructureEngineering:
Maintenance,Management,LifeCycleDesign&Performance,3,2,95101.
Markow,M.J.&Hyman,W.A.(2009).BridgeManagementSystemsforTransportationAgencyDecisionMaking.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram.NCHRPSynthesis397.TransportationResearchBoard,
NationalAcademyofSciences,WashingtonD.C.
MetropolitanAreaPlanningCouncil(MAPC).(1986).PavementManagement:AManualforCommunities.Contract
numberMDPW23892.FederalHighwayAdministrationandtheMassachusettsDepartmentofPublicWorks.
Availableathttp://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/pave.html.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-9 Pavement Management System
Morcous,G.(2007)ParetoAnalysisforMulticriteriaOptimizationofBridgePreservationDecisionsTransportation
ResearchRecord:JournaloftheTransportationResearchBoard,1991,TransportationResearchBoardofthe
NationalAcademies,Washington,D.C.,6268
Naus,D.J.andJohnston,M.W.(2001,October).InternationalRILEMWorkshoponLifePredictionandAging
ManagementofConcreteStructures.ProceedingsoftheInternationalRILEMWorkshopTechnicalCommittees,
Cannes,France,1617,October2000.MaterialsandStructures,RILEM,34,458466.
Okasha,N.M.,&Frangopol,D.M.(January01,2009).Lifetimeorientedmultiobjectiveoptimizationofstructural
maintenanceconsideringsystemreliability,redundancyandlifecyclecostusingGA.StructuralSafety,31,6,
460.
Ozbay,K.(2004).Lifecyclecostanalysis:Stateofthepracticeversusstateoftheart.TransportationResearch
Record,1864,6270.
Padgett,J.E.,Dennemann,K.,&Ghosh,J.(2010).Riskbasedseismiclifecyclecostbenefit(LCCB)analysisfor
bridgeretrofitassessment.StructuralSafety,32,3,165.
PavementManagement.(2007,August16).PavementInteractive.Availableat
http://pavementinteractive.org/index.php?title=Pavement_Management&oldid=11444.
Peterson,D.E.(1987).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramSynthesisofHighwayPractice135:
PavementManagementPractices.NCHRP,TRB,NationalResearchCouncil.Washington,D.C.
Pierce,L.M.,Mahoney,J.P.,&Sivaneswaran,N.(2001).AnAssessmentoftheBenefitsoftheWashingtonState
PavementManagementSystem.PaperpresentedattheFifthInternationalConferenceonManaging
Pavements,Seattle,Washington,August1114,2001.
Scrivner,F.H.;McFarland,W.F.andCarey,G.R.(1968).ASystemsApproachtotheFlexiblePavementDesign
Problem.ResearchReport13211.TexasTransportationInstitute,TexasA&MUniversity.
Stevens,L.B.(1985).RoadSurfaceManagementforLocalGovernmentsResourceNotebook.PublicationNo.DOT
I8537.FederalHighwayAdministration.Washington,D.C.
Strauss,A.,Bergmeister,K.,Hoffmann,S.,Pukl,R.,&Novak,D.(January01,2008).AdvancedLifeCycleAnalysisof
ExistingConcreteBridges.JournalofMaterialsinCivilEngineering,20,1,9.
Thompson,P.D.&Markow,M.J.(1996).CollectingandManagingCostDataforBridgeManagementSystems.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram,NationalResearchCouncil(U.S.).TransportationResearch
Board,AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials.
Thompson,P.D.(2004).BridgeLifeCycleCostinginIntegratedEnvironmentofDesign,Rating,andManagement.
TransportationResearchRecord:JournaloftheTransportationResearchBoard,No.1866,5158.
TransportationResearchBoard,CommitteeonBridgeManagementSystems.(2003).IntegrationofAASHTOS
BridgeWAREProducts.TransportationResearchCircularNumberEC049.9thInternationalBridgeManagement
Conference,OrlandoAirportMarriottOrlando,FloridaApril2830,2003.Availableat
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec049.pdf.

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PR-10 Site Maintenance Plan
SITE MAINTENANCE PLAN
GOAL
Maintainenvironmentalqualityandaestheticsoftheroadwayprojectduringuse.
REQUIREMENTS
Haveandimplementacomprehensiveongoingsitemaintenanceplanthataddresses
(ataminimum)responsibleparties/organizations,standards,schedule,methodstobe
usedandfundingsource(s)forthefollowingitems(listedbymajortopics):
x Roadwaymaintenance
x Pavementpatching,repairandcracksealing
x Shoulder/sidewalkmaintenanceandrepair
x Stormwatersystemcleaningandrepair
x Roadsidevegetation
x Landscaping
x Controlofnoxiousweedsandnuisanceplants
x Snowandicecontrol
x Trafficcontrolinfrastructure
x Pavementmarkingmaintenanceandrepair
x Signmaintenanceandrepair
x Safetydevicemaintenanceandrepair
x Trafficsignalmaintenanceandrepair
x Roadwaylightingmaintenanceandrepair
x Intelligenttransportationsystemmaintenanceandrepair
x Cleaning
x Pavementsweepingandcleaning
x Littercontrol
x Trashcollection
Ifanyitemsarenotapplicabletheyshouldbelistedassuchandaccompaniedwitha
shortreasonforthenotapplicablelisting.Thesitemaintenanceplanshouldcover
theexpectedlifetimeoftheroadwayfacility.
Details
Itislikelythatsomeoralloftherequiredactivitiesareaddressedbydifferent
documentsorbydifferentorganizations.Aseparatestandalonesitemaintenance
planisnotrequired;referencestorelevantexistingdocumentsaresufficient.
DOCUMENTATION
x Acopyofthestandalonesitemaintenanceplanorcopiesofexisting
documentationorplansthataddresstheitemsnotedabove.
OR
x Alistofeachitemthataddressesresponsibleparties/organizations,schedule,
methodsandfundingsource(s).
PR-10
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR9Pavement
ManagementSystem
9 EW2RunoffQuality
9 EW3RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW4Stormwater
CostAnalysis
9 EW5SiteVegetation
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ReducesLifecycle
Cost
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAesthetics

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Site Maintenance Plan PR-10
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Usestandardagencymaintenanceguidelinesandspecifications.
x Seekalongtermmaintenancecontractorpartnership.Longtermmaintenanceagreementscanbeaneffective
maintenancesolutionandimprovecostefficiencyoverthelifetimeofthefacility.
x Initiatediscussionsanddocumentthepublicinvolvementprocessofoutliningdesignelementsinrelationto
maintenancerequirementsduringprojectplanning.Discusshowmaintenancepartnershipsareformedand
explorethebenefitsofsuccessfulmaintenanceguidelines.(Thismayincludeinitiationofapublic
involvement/volunteerprogram.)
x Establishapublicinvolvementprogramandmarketingstrategy.Forexample,communitysupportedand
volunteerprogramslikeAdoptaHighwaycanbeaneffectiveapproachtolitterandgraffiticontroland
increasecommunityownershipoftheinfrastructure.
Example: Documentation
Thisisanexampleofdocumentationthatmeetstheintentofthisrequirement.Theexampleisforafictional2
laneroadbeingexpandedintoamultimodalfacility(e.g.,bicycles,pedestrians,newtwowayleftturnlane)in
thegreaterSeattle,WAareafortheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).Thissite
maintenancerequirementismetbyexistingprogramswithinWSDOT.Therefore,documentationneedonlycite
theseprogramsandtheirrelevantmanualsandprocedures.NotethatFiguresPR10.1andPR10.2showmore
thantherequiredinformationoffundingsource(s)becausetheybreakdownallfundingsourcesforthe
entireWashingtonStateTransportationbudget(notjustthefundingsourceforsitemaintenance)andthe
entiredistributionofstatecollectedtransportationrevenuesandfunds(notrequired).
Documentation
Forthisparticularproject,WSDOTistheowneragencyandisresponsibleforsitemaintenance(asdefinedby
thisrequirement).Thisistrueinmanyjurisdictionsbutnotall.Insomejurisdictions,theowneragency
contractsouttoprivatecompaniesforportionsofsitemaintenance.Theoverarchingdocumentthatdescribes
WSDOTsitemaintenanceresponsibleparties,scheduleandmethodsistheWSDOTMaintenanceManual(M
5101)(http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Publications/Manuals/M5101.htm).TheWSDOTMaintenancePerformance
Measureswebsite(http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Maintenance/Accountability/default.htm)describesthe
standardsandtargetsforcurrentandpastyears.Additionalguidanceonroadsidevegetationisgiveninthe
NorthwestRegion,Area5:IntegratedRoadsideVegetationManagementPlan
(http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Maintenance/Roadside/mgmt_plans.htm).Additionalguidanceonsnowandice
controlisgivenintheStatewideSnowandIcePlan:20092010
(http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/winter/SnowIcePlan.htm).InWSDOTs20092011transportationbudget,Highway
Maintenanceisfundedat$355.4million(about6.1%ofthetotalWSDOTbudget).FiguresPR10.1andPR10.2
describethecollectionanddistributionoffunds.
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PR-10 Site Maintenance Plan

FigurePR10.1:TransportationRevenuesandFundsCollectedbytheState(WSDOT,2009).

FigurePR10.2:DistributionofStateCollectedTransportationRevenuesandFunds(WSDOT,2009).

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Site Maintenance Plan PR-10
MoreabouttheWSDOTMaintenanceAccountabilityProgram(MAP)
TheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)hasdevelopedaMaintenanceAccountability
Program(MAP)designedtotrack,measure,andcommunicatetheresultsofmaintenanceactivitiesonstate
roadways(http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Maintenance/Accountability).Theprogramwasdevelopedin1996out
ofnecessityasaresponsetoimpendingbudgetcutsbytheWashingtonStatelegislatureforroadmaintenance.
TheMAPexiststocomprehensivelymeasuretheperformanceofroadmaintenancewithinthestateby
providingtoolsthatlinkstrategicplanning,thebudgetanddeliveryofservice,andanalyzingtheresults
quantitatively.TodothistheMAPisdividedinto33distinctcategoriesthataimtocomprehensivelycoverthe
scopeofroadmaintenance.Analysisisderivedfromdatacollectedbyrandomlysamplingroadwaystwicea
yearviacomprehensivesamplingprocedures,andfromrecordsofaccomplishedwork.Thedataisthen
comparedwiththeestablishedstandardstoarriveatalevelofservice(LOS)designationforeachcategory.
TheseLOSdesignationsarethencomparedwithWSDOTgoalsandtargetstoresponsiblytrackprogressand
maintainaccountabilityinallfacetsofmaintenanceoperations.
ThesuccessoftheMAPhasbeentothebenefitofWSDOTandtheirmaintenancedivisionasthemaintenance
budgetisnowperformancebased.ThoroughanalysisofprogramsuccessesandfailuresallowsWSDOTto
analyzebudgetproposalsandaccuratelyprojecttheconsequencesofbudgetdecisionsonroadmaintenance
performance,fromwhichtheycanlobbythelegislaturetosecureadequatefunding.Thus,bybeingcareful,
logical,anddoingtheirresearch,WSDOTisabletosecurethemoneynecessarytokeeptheirroadway
investmentsingoodworkingcondition,obviouslytothebenefitofallresidentsofthestate.Furthermore,ifthe
finalbudgetfallsshortoffundingeverythingthatWSDOTdesires,theycaneffectivelyscalebacktheirgoals
andtargetstoproduceonesthatmaximizetheproductivityoftheroadinfrastructureandaccuratelyevaluate
theperformanceofmaintenancebasedonthefundingprovided.
TheMAPisconsideredtobeasuccessfulprogram.Ithasbeenheavilyborrowedforuseinotherstates,andits
measurementtechniquesweresosuccessfulthatpartoftheprogramwasusedasthepilotforperformance
basedbudgetinginWashingtonState.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Someresponsibilities,standards,schedules,methodsandfundingsourcesmaynotbeknownorarenot
documented.Suchdocumentationmayneedtobecreatedabovetheindividualprojectlevel.
2. Fundingforsitemaintenancemaynotbesecuredlongterm.Whilethisiscertainlyrecommended,listingthe
currentfundingsourceisadequateforthisrequirement.
3. Thisrequirementonlyspecifiesthatasitemaintenanceplanexist.Itdoesnotensurethatsitemaintenanceis
actuallydone.
4. Thisrequirementonlyspecifiesbroadcategoriesofsitemaintenance.Itdoesnotspecifyeffectiveness,costsor
utilityofindividualefforts.
RESEARCH
Maintenancecanincreasetheusefullifeofmostinfrastructurecomponents,promotespublicsafety,andbenefits
bothpublicandecosystemhealth.Thefollowingisaseriesofbriefdiscussionsonthevalueandnatureof
infrastructuremaintenancebrokendownbygeneralcategory.
StreetCleaning&LitterRemoval
Streetcleaningandlitterremovalretainthevalueoftheroadwaybysustainingtheenvironmentalandaesthetic
benefitsoveritslifespan.Duringitsoperatingcycletheroadwaywill,duetouseandnature,necessarily
accumulatevariousdebristhat,leftalone,willnegativelyimpacttheroadwaysrelationshipwithitsenvironment.
Bothdirtanddangerouspollutants(e.g.phosphorus,nitrogen,lead)willcollectontheroadwayovertimeand
posealegitimatethreattovegetationandwaterqualityinthearea(Hyman,1999).Streetsweepinghas
traditionallybeenviewedaseffectiveagainstdirtanddustcontrolonly,butadvancementsinsweepertechnology
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PR-10 Site Maintenance Plan
haveshownittobeveryeffectiveinremovingsmallpollutantsaswell(James,1997).Removalofdirtanddust
fromtheroadwayalsoimprovessafetybymaximizingthesurfaceareaoftiresthemeettheroadsurfaceand
enhancestheaestheticsofthesiteforitsusers(Hyman,1999).Similarly,litteronthesitecanbeaneyesoreanda
gatewaytopollutionofearthandwater.Volunteerlitterremovalprograms,suchasAdoptahighway,havebeen
showntobethemosteffectivemethodofcombatinglitteraccumulation(Hyman,1999).
VegetationMaintenance
Nativevegetationgrowthneartheroadwayisnecessaryfortheroadwaytomaintainagoodrelationshipwithits
environment,butuncheckedvegetationgrowthcannegativelyaffecttheperformanceandsafetyoftheroadway.
Maintainingvegetationlimitsimprovesafetyandtrafficflowbymaximizingsightdistancefordrivers,providing
moreaccessibleshouldersforemergencies,andpreventingdamagetoandinterferencewithroadsidestructures
andsigns(WSDOT,2009;MassTran,2003).Furthermore,keepingvegetationgrowthclearoftheedgeofthe
roadwayhelpspreventthepoolingofwater,prolongingthelifeofthepavement(WSDOT,2009).Thekeyisto
maintainvegetation,sincerootsystemscanprovidenecessarysupportandstabilizationofembankments
supportingtheroad(MassTran,2003).Foranexamplediscussionofthemethodsofvegetationmaintenance
includingimportantsustainabilityaspects,seetheIntegratedRoadsideVegetationManagementProgramof
MassHighway(2003).
PavementRepair
Despiteourbestefforts,useoftheroadwayoveritslifetimewillcauseittobegintobreakdown,resultinginsmall
pavementfailuresthatcannegativelyimpacttheperformanceofaroadway.Maintenanceontheroadwayhas
twomaineffects:itimmediatelyimprovestheconditionofthepavementandslowstherateoffuture
deterioration(Deighton,1997).Theseeffectsmaintainlifeoftheroadforalongerperiodoftime,maximizingthe
capitalinvestment.
Asidefromeconomicconcerns,unmaintainedpavedsurfacescanalsobecomeverydangeroussafetyrisksto
drivers,passengers,andpedestriansbydamagingvehiclesandrequiringadditionaldriverattention.Whilebest
managementpracticesforpavementmaintenancearewidespread,comprehensivesupportingresearchisnot.
However,theprocessofretainingthevalueandfunctionoftheroadwayovertimerepresentsasignificantportion
ofthatroadwayssustainabilitybenefit,sowelldesignedmaintenanceproceduresmustbeconsidered(Wei,
2004).Foracomprehensivediscussionofpavementmaintenancebenefits,definitions,costs,methods,and
referencesseePavementInteractiveathttp://www.pavementinteractive.org.
StormDrainMaintenanceandCleaning
Drainagestructures,essentialforanenvironmentallysensitiveandfunctioningroadway,requireperiodic
maintenancetomaintainefficiency.Withoutmaintenance,significantdeclinesinperformanceandflowrateshave
beenwelldocumented(Hyman,1999).Bestmanagementpracticesarealsowelldocumented,andincluderoutine
maintenance(especiallyrightbeforearainyseason)anddatacollectiontotrackwhenandwherestormdrains
tendtofailinanefforttocleanand/orfixthembeforefailureoccurs.Hyman(1999)hasagoodbaselinesampling
ofsomeeffectivebestmanagementpractices.
CostAnalysis
Whilethebenefitsofsitemaintenanceonaroadwayhavebeenrelativelywelldocumented,costanalysesofthese
proceduresaremuchlessso.Sinceroadmaintenancecostsvaryconsiderablybyroadwaytype,roadusepatterns,
regionalweatherfactors,andchosenbestmanagementpracticesbylocalagencies,thereisnoeasydefinitionfor
themaintenancecostofanyspecificroadway.However,therearesomecommonlycitedcostsofsitemaintenance
thatcanprovideanunderstandingoftheresourcesrequiredtomaintaintheasset.
TheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)has$355.4millionallocatedinthe20092011
budgetforhighwaymaintenanceofroughly7,000centerlinemilesofroadway.Furthermore,theirMaintenance
AccountabilityProgramdividesthatmoneyinto33distinctactivitieswithinsitemaintenancetomeasureresource
distributionmoreaccurately.Subbudgetsinclude$137millionforroadwaymaintenance,includingpavement
patching&repair,shoulderrepair,andcleaning&sweeping;$27millionfordrainagemaintenanceandslope
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Site Maintenance Plan PR-10
repair;and$35millionforroadsideandvegetationmanagement,includinglitterpickupandcontrolofintrusive
andinterferingvegetation(WSDOT,2008).
REFERENCES
Deighton.(1997).PavementCondition,vol.3.VideotapefromthedTV(DeightonTelevision)Libraryvideoserieson
pavementmanagementsystemtopics.DeightonAssociated,Ltd.Bowmanville,Ontario.
Hyman,W.A.&Vary,D.(1999).NCHRPSynthesis272:BestManagementPracticesforEnvironmentalIssues
RelatedtoHighwayandStreetMaintenance.TransportationResearchBoard,Washington,D.C.
James,W.(Ed.).(1997).AdvancesinModelingtheManagementofStormwaterImpacts,Volume5.CRCPress.
MassachusettsHighwayDepartment(MassTran).(2003).VegetationManagementPlan20032007.Accessed15
December2009.Availableathttp://www.mhd.state.ma.us/downloads/vmp/appendixE.pdf.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2008).MaintenanceManual.M5101.WSDOT,
Olympia,WA.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2008).WSDOTMaintenancePerformanceMeasures.
Accessed30December2009.Availableathttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Maintenance/Accountability/default.htm.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2009).NorthwestRegion,Area5:IntegratedRoadside
VegetationManagementPlan.Accessed30December2009.Availableat
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Maintenance/Roadside/mgmt_plans.htm.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2009).Washingtons0911TransportationBudget.
Accessed30December2009.Availableathttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Finance/budget/BudgetPieCharts.htm.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2009).WSDOTMaintenanceOperations.Accessed30
December2009.Availableathttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/maintenance.
Wei,C.andTighe,S.(2004).DevelopmentofPreventativeMaintenanceDecisionTreesbasedonCostEffectiveness
Analysis:AnOntarioCaseStudy.TransportationResearchBoard,Washington,D.C.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Project Requirements
PR-11 Educational Outreach
EDUCATIONAL OUTREACH
GOAL
Increasepublic,agencyandstakeholderawarenessofroadwaysustainabilityactivities.
REQUIREMENTS
Incorporateacomprehensivepubliceducationaloutreachprogramintothe
operationalphaseoftheroadwayfacilityproject.
Aminimumofthreeoutofthefollowingeighteducationalelements,tobeinstalled
withintheroadwayprojectlimitsorwithinthepurviewoftheleadagency,mustbe
completedtomeettheintentofthisprojectrequirement:
1. Installandmaintainapermanentprojectorientedsignageprogramalongthe
roadwayrightofway.Duringconstructionregisteredprojectsmayusetemporary
signstodisplayfactualinformationabouttheGreenroadscertificationlevelbeing
pursued,asnotedintheGreenroadstrademarkpolicy(availableonthewebsite).
2. Installandmaintainatleastoneoffroad,permanentpointofinterestkioskthat
displaystheGreenroadscertificationlevelpursued,projectinformation,andthe
certificationlevelactuallyachieved.
3. Provideapubliclyavailableandmaintainedinformationalprojectwebsitewith
capacityforsubmittingfeedbackandcomments.
4. Developanagencyand/orstakeholderguide,specification,orpolicythat
incorporatesorotherwiseclearlyreferencesandreflectstheidealsandintentsof
Greenroads.
5. Instituteaninternalagencycontinuingprofessionaleducationandtrainingprogram
relatedtoGreenroads.
6. Performatleasttwopresentationsabouttheprojectforprimaryandsecondary
schools.
7. Performoneprofessionaltechnicalpresentation.
8. DocumenttheprojectexperienceusingGreenroads(i.e.conductadetailedcase
studyfortheroadwayproject).
Details
NotethattheofficialGreenroadslogomayonlybeusedonprojectsigns,public
installationsorprojectdocumentsbypermissionofGreenroads.
DOCUMENTATION
Thefollowingcorrespondtothenumberedsequenceintheprecedingsection.
1. Providephotosoftemporaryandpermanentsignsinstalledintherightofway.
2. Provideatextorprintedcopyoftheinformationofferedatthekiosk(i.e.brochure
orstaticinstallation)ANDaphotoofthekioskstructureandlocationasinstalled.
3. Providethewebsiteaddress.(Note:hyperlinksmustbelive.)
4. Provideacopyoftheagencyguide,manualorspecification.
5. Provideacopyofthelearningobjectivesandscheduleforthetrainingprogram.
6. Provideacopyofeachpresentationandthetimeanddateofthepresentation.
7. Provideacopyoftheabstractalongwiththetechnicalpaperand/orpresentation.
8. Provideacopyofthecompletedcasestudy.
PR-11
REQUIRED
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 CA2Environmental
Training
9 AE8ScenicViews
9 AE9Cultural
Outreach
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesAwareness
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Educational Outreach PR-11
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Usetheenvironmentalreviewprocess(seePR1)asastartingpointforestablishingpublicawarenessneeds.
x Involvebusinessdevelopmentpersonnel,marketingprofessionals,andpublicrelationsofficersearlyinthe
projectplanningprocess.
x ExpandconstructionteamhealthandsafetytrainingmeetingstoincorporateGreenroadsgoalsfortheproject
(seeCA2).
x Identifypeoplewithintheprojectteam,agencyorcompanywhomaybeinterestedinleadingexternaland
internaleducationaleffortsrelativetoincorporatingGreenroadsandsustainabilityintheorganization.
x Considercollaborationwithprofessionalwebsitedevelopers.
x ContacttheGreenroadsTeamifinterestedinparticipatinginacasestudy.Resources,suchasreporttemplates
andscorecards,areavailablebyrequest.
x Followtheguidelinesforactiveoutreach(andrelatedpublicinteractiontopics)outlinedinthePublic
InvolvementTechniquesforTransportationDecisionmaking(FHWAPD96031).Thisdocumentcontainsa
numberofpotentialactivitiesthatcouldbeusedaloneorincombinationtomeettheintentofthisProject
Requirement,aswellasseveraladditionalusefulreferencesandresources.
Example: Kickinghorse Canyon Project British Columbia Ministry of Transportation
TheKickinghorseCanyonProjectontheTransCanadaHighway(Highway1)bytheBritishColumbiaMinistryof
Transportationoffersanexcellentexampleofacomprehensivepubliceducationaloutreachprogram.
Thisprojecthasadetailedwebsite(http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/kickinghorse/index.htm),aprintablefactsheet
(availablehttp://www.th.gov.bc.ca/kickinghorse/updates/KHCP_Fact_Sheet.pdf),andhascompletedacase
study(availablebywrittenrequest).Additionally,thecompletedprojectincludesimprovementstoarestarea
whichwillincorporateprojectandhistoricalinformationforthesite.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Graffitioninstalledsignsorpublicinformationkiosks.
2. Potentiallyinflammatoryoroffensivecommentsorspamonprojectwebsites.
RESEARCH
AttheheartoftheGreenroadsprogramisencouragementofbroadsustainabilityeducationforpeoplewhouse,
design,andbuildtransportationinfrastructure.Publicoutreachprogramsareencouragedatmosttransportation
agenciesandoftenrequiredonmanyprojectsaspartoftheinitialplanningprocess(suchasduringenvironmental
review).However,mostoftheseopencommunicationorientedinitiativesarerelevantonlyduringthedecision
makingprocessandarenotdeliberatelyeducationaloverthelongtermlifeoftheproject.Greenroadsseeksto
supportroadwayprojectsthatofferbuiltineducationalresourcesforthebenefitofpublicinterestand
professionallearninganddevelopment.
Need&Opportunity
TheBrundtlandReportnotesthechangesinattitudes,insocialvalues,andinaspirations.willdependonvast
campaignsofeducation,debateandpublicparticipation(WCED,1987,p.16).Sustainabilityhascertainlybecome
apopularliteraturetopic,butthevolumeofresearchoneducationistoovasttosummarizehere.Manyauthors
onsustainabilityaswellasotherenvironmentalorganizationssuggestorexplicitlystresstheimportanceof
sustainabilityeducation(Edwards,2005;Benyus,2002;WCED,1987;USGBC,2009;Wilson,2002;Daly,2005;
Robrt,1997,2002;Kibert,2005),butfewofferactionablesolutionsorimplementation.Inmostcases,current
educationaleffortsoccurinternallywithincompaniesoragencies,oraredirectedtowardchildrenandyoung
adultsinelementaryschoolsthroughcollege.Specificacademicresearchoneitherthesuccessorfailureof
implementingroadwaybasedpublicoutreachprogramsforsustainabilityeducationisdifficulttofind(or,more
likely,itsimplydoesnotexistyet).
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PR-11 Educational Outreach
Roadwayspresentauniqueopportunitytointeractwiththeirmainstakeholder,thepublic,throughoutthelifeof
theproject.Over100hoursperpersonperyeararespentcommutingtoworkintheUnitedStates(Buckner&
Gonzales,2005).Thisexceedstheamountofpersonalvacationtimeformosttraditionalsalariedpositions,istwice
aslongasspringbreaksformostschools,andistwotofivetimestheamountoftimethatmoststatesrequirefor
ContinuingEducationUnits(CEU)forlicensedprofessionalslikeengineers,doctors,andlawyers.Clearly,time
spentonaroadwayprovidesampleopportunityforExposuretodifferentsustainabilitytopics,aswellastimefor
reflection,repetitionandreinforcementonanearlydailybasisformostcommuters.However,whentheproject
ownershipchangesintothepublichands,oftenanylearningopportunitiespertainingtotheproject(suchashowa
newpavementtechnologywasimplemented,howenergyusewasreducedinthelighting,orwhattypesof
stormwatertreatmentswereused)arelost.
Inadditiontoinstitutionallearning,professionalandtechnicalorganizationsalsoplayavitalroleinfurthering
knowledgeofsustainabilitythroughouttheirmembership.OrganizationsliketheTransportationResearchBoard
(TRB),whosemissionstatementisorientedtowardpromotinginformationexchangeandinterdisciplinaryresearch
(TRB,2009),andothergovernmentbodiespromotecontinuingeducationofthetransportationprofessional
community.Conferencepresentations,technicalpapers,andpresentationstolocalschoolsareallconsideredtobe
worthwhileeffortsmadetoforwardsustainabilityeducationthroughoutreach.
Finally,ratingsystemslikeGreenroadsofferuniqueopportunitiesforagenciesandorganizationstotrackand
measureinternalprocesses.Usingasustainabilityratingsystemisasimplewaytomeasureprogressand
improvementsoverthelongtermandstimulateinnovationwithinanagency.Casestudiescanprovidevaluable
snapshotsofoverallperformanceontheprojectandbeusedtodevelopagencyspecificbenchmarksfor
sustainabilityforfutureprojects.
PrecedenceinBuildings
TheLEEDGreenBuildingRatingSystemawardsonepointinallofitsratingsystemprogramsforinstitutinga
projectorientedEducationalOutreachprogramthatmeetstheintentofthecreditcategorycalledInnovationin
Design,whichrewardssuperiorperformanceandcreativeimplementationofideasortechnologies(USGBC,2008).
Thiscreditawardedforthebuiltenvironmentestablishesprecedencefortheneed,validityandacceptanceofsuch
educationalprogramsandpublicawarenessprograms.Transportationandinfrastructurehaveasimilarneedfor
suchprecedence.
Further,thoughusingabuildingasamodelforcostofroadwaysisnotideal,theavailabilityofaneducational
opportunitysuchasaroadsidepointofinterestorsignsliningthestreetmaybeperceivedasalargevalueadded
benefitforthepublicataveryminimaladdedcosttothedesignbudget.Acostanalysisofsucheducational
programs,signageand/ordisplaysincorporatedinLEEDratedbuildings(usingagenericbuildingmodel)showed
onlyminoraddedcostsforimplementationtotheprojectbottomline(StevenWinterAssociates,2004).
Additionally,thisstudyshowedthatmostofthesecostsaresoftcoststhataretypicallyadministrativeinnature.
Theprimarymodeofestablishingandcommunicatingpublicvaluesintransportationandinfrastructureis
consensusbasedpoliticalmandateorotherregulatoryrulings.Also,afederalmandatewasrecentlyinstitutedfor
highperformanceandgreenbuildingsasExecutiveOrder(EO)13423:StrengtheningFederalEnvironmental,
Energy,andTransportationManagement(2007).EOSection3(c)makesfederalagencyleadsaccountablefor
establishmentofinternalagencyprogramsforenvironmentaltraining,includingmanagement,complianceand
audit,andleadershiprecognition.Thiscouldbeconsideredapremonitionformandatedsustainabilitytrainingand
educationinroadwaysystemprojectsandforinternalprogramsintransportationagenciesandorganizations.
Ongoingsustainabilityeducationprogramscanteachpeopletounderstandtheconsequencesoftheiractions,
suchastheimpactofpersonalresourceuse,andtorelatetheirvaluesandbehaviorstocurrentpoliticaland
environmentalconditions(Palmer,1998).Roadsarehighlyaccessibletothepublic;thus,roadscanofferacreative
meansofexposuretosustainabilityconceptswhichcanhelpusersmakemoreinformeddecisionsregarding
sustainabilityintheirdailylives,communitiesandcultures.Greenroadsaddseducationasanothersteptoward
establishingaconnectionbetweenpeopleandtheplacesthattheylive,travel,workandrecreate.
125
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Educational Outreach PR-11
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
Buckner,S.&Gonzales,J.UnitedStatesCensusBureauPublicInformationOffice.(2005,March30).Americans
spendmorethan100hourscommutingtoworkeachyear,CensusBureaureports.U.S.CensusNews[Press
Release].RetrievedSeptember29,2010from
http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/american_community_survey_acs/cb05ac02.html
Daly,H.E.(2005).Economicsinafullworld.ScientificAmerican.293(3),1007.
Edwards,A.R.(2005).Thesustainabilityrevolution:Portraitofaparadigmshift.Gabriola,BC:NewSociety.
Exec.OrderNo.13,42372Fed.Reg.(2007).(tobecodifiedat3C.F.R.102)
Howard/SteinHudsonAssociates,Inc.andParsonsBrinckerhoffQuadeandDouglas.(1996,September).Public
involvementfortransportationdecisionmaking.(FHWAPD96031)Washington,DC:U.S.Dept.of
Transportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.PostedDecember1996.RetrievedOctober12,2009from
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/REPORTS/PITTD/contents.htm.
Kibert,C.(2005).Sustainableconstruction:greenbuildingdesignanddelivery(1sted.).HobokenN.J.:JohnWiley&
Sons.
Palmer,J.(1998).Environmentaleducationinthe21stcentury:theory,practice,progressandpromise.London,UK;
NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Robrt,K.H.(2002).Thenaturalstepstory:seedingaquietrevolution.GabriolaIsland,BC:NewSociety
Publishers.
StevenWinterAssociates,Inc.(2004,October).GSALEEDCostStudy:FinalReport.U.S.GeneralServices
AdministrationDoc.No.GS11P99MAD0565/P0002CY0065.Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrinting
Office.RetrievedOctober12,2009fromhttp://www.wbdg.org/ccb/GSAMAN/gsaleed.pdf
TransportationResearchBoard.(2009).EducationandTrainingResearchatTRB.EducationandTraining.Retrieved
October15,2009fromhttp://www.trb.org/EducationTraining/Public/EducationandTraining1.aspx
U.S.GreenBuildingCouncil.(2008b,March21).USGBC:LEEDReferenceDocuments.LEEDIDCreditCatalog.
RetrievedDecember11,2008,fromhttp://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=3569
UnitedNationsGeneralAssembly,42ndSession.(1987,August4).ReportoftheWorldCommissionon
EnvironmentandDevelopment(WCED):OurCommonFuture.(A/42/427).AnnextoOfficialRecord.Geneva,
Switzerland,1987.(Masthead).RetrievedNovember2,2008,from
http://www.worldinbalance.net/agreements/1987brundtland.php
Wilson,E.O.(2002).Thefutureoflife(1sted.).NewYork:AlfredA.Knopf.
EO UnitedStatesExecutiveOrder
Kiosk Asmallstructurethatcanbeusedtoaccessinformation,suchasanewsstand
orcomputerterminal
LEED LeadershipinEnergy&EnvironmentalDesign,aratingsystemforgreen
buildingsbytheUnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil
TRB TransportationResearchBoard
USGBC UnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil
126

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ENVIRONMENT & WATER


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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-1 Environmental Management System
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
GOAL
Improveenvironmentalstewardshipbyusingacontractorthathasaformal
environmentalmanagementprocess.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Theprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirmshallhavea
documentedenvironmentalmanagementsystem(EMS)fortheentirecompanyorat
leasttheportion(s)ofthecompanyparticipatingintheproject.TheEMSmustbein
placeforthedurationofprojectconstruction.Asaminimum,theEMSandits
documentationshallmeettherequirementsofInternationalStandardsOrganization
(ISO)14001:2004.
Details
Theprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirmis
consideredtohaveadocumentedEMSifithas:
x ISO14001:2004certification.
x AnEMSthatmeetsISO14001:2004requirementsbutisnotformallycertified.
DOCUMENTATION
Submitone(1)ofthefollowingitems:
1. DocumentationoftheISO14001:2004certificationfortheprimecontractor,
designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirm.
2. Acopyoftheprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirms
EMSdocumentationtoinclude:
x Environmentalpolicy
x Environmentalobjectivesandtargets
x Identifiedregulatoryrequirementsandcompliancewithrequirements
x Definedrolesandresponsibilities
x Employeetrainingplan
x Listingofdocumentedprocesses
x Preventiveactions
x Correctiveactions
x Emergencyprocedures
EW-1
2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 CA1Quality
ManagementSystem
9 CA2Environmental
Training
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesWaterUse
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesRaw
Materials
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x HaveaprimecontractorwithISO14001:2004.
x HaveaprimecontractorwithadocumentedEMSthatmeetstherequirementsofISO14001:2004.
Example: Environmental Management System (EMS) Manuals
WhileitisnotpossibletopresentanentireEMS,therearemanyexamplesofkeyEMSdocumentsavailableon
theWebincludingthefollowingEMSmanuals:
x U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,PhiladelphiaOffice:
http://www.epa.gov/region03/ems/philly_manual.htm
x RobinsAirForceBase:http://205.153.241.230/ems/basics/emsrobins.pdf
x TheCityofSanDiego(containsPowerPointpresentationsonkeyISO14001facets):
http://www.sandiego.gov/environmentalservices/ems/emp_manual.shtml
x MassHighway:http://www.mhd.state.ma.us/downloads/projdev/emsmanual.pdf
x NorthCarolinaDepartmentofEnvironmentandNaturalResources(theyhaveagenericguideEMSmanual
forusebythosewishingtocreateone):http://www.p2pays.org/ref/08/07378/0737829.pdf
x TheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)maintainsanEMS
implementationguidewebsiteat:
http://environment.transportation.org/documents/ems_implementation_guide.asp.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. SmallerfirmsmaynotbeabletoaffordtheISOcertificationprocess.
2. DocumentationofanEMSisnotthesamehashavinganeffectiveEMS;howevercollectionofdocumentation
(inlieuofanactualaudit)isanefficientwayofgatheringevidenceofaneffectiveEMS.
RESEARCH
AccordingtoISO(2009)anEMSisamanagementtoolthatprovidesaframeworkforaholistic,strategic
approachtotheorganization'senvironmentalpolicy,plansandactions.Oneofthemorecomprehensive
descriptionsofsuchasystemcomesfromISOintheir14000familyofstandards.
ISO14000
TheISO14000familyofdocumentsaddressesvariousaspectsofenvironmentalmanagement.ISO14001andISO
14004specificallyaddressEMSrequirementsandguidelinesrespectively.Essentially,itisaformaldescriptionof
anEMSandallthatisinvolvedinitscreation,implementationanduse.TheISOisastandardpublishingbody
similartoASTMInternationalortheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).
Certification:ISO14001
TherequirementsforcertificationarecontainedinISO14001.Therefore,organizationsarecertifiedin
accordancewithISO14001;thenumberisappendedwiththeyearofthestandardthatappliedwhenthe
organizationwascertified.ThemostcurrentversionisISO14001:2004.
ISOdoesnotcertifyorganizationsitself.Mostcountrieshaveformedformalgroupsorcertificationbodies,
whichauditorganizationsapplyingforISO14001certification.Throughmutualagreementsthesebodies
ensurethatcertificationauditstandardsarerelativelythesameworldwide.Certification,oncegranted,must
berenewedatstandardintervals,oftenthreeyears.
ISOdoesnotrequirecertificationandmanyorganizationsjustchoosetofollowISO14000requirementsbut
foregocertification.However,itiscommonpracticeinmanypartsoftheworld(e.g.,WesternEurope,China,
India,etc.)torequireISOcertificationasaprerequisitefordoingbusiness.Therefore,countriesthatrequire
thisusuallyseethehighestcertificationrates.
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EW-1 Environmental Management System
ArgumentsforCertification
Argumentsforcertificationtypicallycitethegeneralideathatproperandactivemanagementofacompanys
impactontheenvironmentcanresultinbetterregulatorycompliance,betterbusinessopportunities,less
impactontheenvironmentandimprovedsafety.Typicallytheseitemsaremeasuredbycountingregulatory
violations,marketshare,salesgrowth,reducedinjuriesandothermetrics.
ArgumentsagainstCertification
Opponentsofcertificationarguethattheactualactofcertificationandexistenceofdocumentationdonot,in
andofthemselves,guaranteeimprovedenvironmentalimpacts.Further,theypointoutthatISO14001
certificationcanbeanexpensiveandburdensomeprocessthatdoesnotnecessarilyproduceresults.
CertificationCost
AccordingtoChristinietal.(2004),itcostonemajorU.S.constructionfirmabout$1milliontoachieve
certification.Mostresearch(e.g.,Zengetal.2003;Oforietal.;2000)tendstoinvestigatereasonsforISO14000
adoptionandnottheactualcost.
WorldwideISO14001Certification
Datafrom2006showworldwideISO14001certificationsat129,199in140differentcountriesandgrowing(Figure
EW1.1).InDecember2006theU.S.had5,585certifications,whichrankedseventhworldwide(FigureEW1.2).ISO
14001certificationisfarmorecommoninEuropeandEasternAsiawith44%and41%ofworldwidecertifications
respectively.NorthAmerica(consistingofonlytheU.S.,CanadaandMexico)comprisedalmost6%ofthe
worldwidetotal.

FigureEW1.1:ISO14001certificationworldwidegrowth20052006(datafromISO2006).

111,162
129,199
100,000
105,000
110,000
115,000
120,000
125,000
130,000
135,000
2005 2006
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

I
S
O

1
4
0
0
1

C
e
r
t
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

W
o
r
l
d
w
i
d
e
Year
131
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Environmental Management System EW-1

FigureEW1.2:Top10countriesintermsofnumberofISO14001certificationsin2006(datafromISO2006).

ISO14001CertificationintheU.S.ConstructionIndustry
ISO14000enjoysgrowingworldwidepopularity,howeverrelativelyfewU.S.constructionfirmsarecertified
(Christinietal.2004).ReasonsforthelowpopularityintheU.S.aresomewhatnonspecificbutperhapscanbe
attributedtoalackofanygovernmentrequirement,noinsistencebyclients,implementationcosts,anda
subcontractingsystemthatmakesitdifficulttouseanEMSonaparticularjob(Tse2001).
EvidencetosupportthepositiveoutcomesofISO14001certificationgenerallycomesfromsurveysorcasestudies
ofcontractorsthatarelargelyalreadyISOcertified(e.g.,Christinietal.2004;ValdezandChini2002;Oforietal.
2000)orsegregatethecertifiedfirmsandthenaskthemwhatthebenefitsweretheywereseekingincertification
(Zengetal.2003).ItisnotsurprisingthatresultsindicateageneralbenefittoISO14001certification.Evenso,
thereisevidencetosuggestthatISO14000canreducelandfilledwasteandproducefinancialsavings(Christiniet
al.2004).
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
Christini,G.,Fetsko,M.,andHendrickson,C.(2004).EnvironmentalManagementSystemsandISO14001
CertificationforConstructionFirms.JournalofConstructionEngineeringandManagement,130(3),330336.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO).(2004).ISO14001:2004Environmentalmanagementsystems
Requirementswithguidanceforuse.ISO,Geneva,Switzerland.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO).(2009).ISO14000essentials.ISOwebsite.
http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_14000_essentials.Accessed11January2010.
22,593
18,842
11,125
9,825
6,070
5,893
5,585
5,415
4,411
3,047
5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Japan
China
Spain
Italy
UK
SouthKorea
USA
Germany
Sweden
France
NumberofISO14001Certifications inDecember2006
ISO InternationalStandardsOrganization
EMS environmental managementsystem
132
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-1 Environmental Management System
Ofori,G.,Briffett,C.,Gang,G.,andRanasinghe,M.(2000).ImpactofISO14000onconstructionenterprisesin
Singapore.ConstructionManagementandEconomics,18,935947.
Tse,R.Y.C.(2001).TheimplementationofEMSinconstructionfirms:casestudyinHongKong.J.Environ.
AssessmentPolicyManagement,3(2),177194.
Valdez,H.E.andChini,A.R.(2002).ISO14000StandardsandtheUSConstructionIndustry.Commentary.
EnvironmentalPractice,4,10219.
Zeng,S.X.,Tam,C.M.,Deng,Z.M.andTam,V.W.Y.(2003).ISO14000andtheConstructionIndustry:Surveyin
China.JournalofManagementinEngineering,19(3),107115.

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-2 Runoff Flow Control
RUNOFF FLOW CONTROL
GOAL
Mimicpredevelopmenthydrologicalconditionsintherightofway(ROW)andminimize
offsitestormwatercontrols.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
1. Developastormwatermanagementplanforthesiteusingstormwaterbest
managementpractices(BMPs)forflowcontrol.Explicitlystatethegoalsofthisplan
andhowperformancewillbemeasured.
2. Uselowimpactdevelopment(LID)BMPstothemaximumextentfeasibleas
determinedinProjectRequirementPR8byalicensedprofessional.
3. Computethe90
th
percentileaverageannualrainfalleventvaluesforthefollowing
predevelopmentandpostconstructionconditions:
x V
preROW
=insideROWpredevelopmentvolumeofrunoff
x V
preout
=outsideROWpredevelopmentvolumeofrunon
x V
totalpre
=V
preROW
+V
preout
=totalpredevelopmentvolume
x Q
pre
=predevelopmentflowratemeasuredatwaterbodyreceivingeffluent
fromthesite,basedonV
totalpre

x V
postROW
=insideROWpostconstructionvolumeofrunoff
x V
postout
=outsideROWpostconstructionvolumeofrunon
x V
totalpost
=V
postROW
+V
postout
=totalpostconstructionvolume
x Q
post
=postconstructionflowratemeasuredatthesamelocationasQ
pre,
based
onV
totalpost

4. ProvideBMPsforstormwaterflowcontrol.Listthetypes,manufacturers,total
volumesandflowratescontrolledbyBMPswithintheROWoroutsideoftheROW.
5. DemonstratethattheplannedBMPsmeetthefollowingflowcontrolcriteria:
x BMPsconformtoallapplicableminimumflowcontrolstandardsforall
effluentleavingtheROWsetbythegoverningjurisdictionforvolume,flow
controlandtimeofconcentration.Statetheminimumrequirements,including
criticalerosiveflowcriteria,andprovidereferenceddocumentorpolicy.
x R
V
=RatioofVolumeAchieved=V
totalpost/
V
totalpre
1.20
x R
F
=RatioofFlowRateAchieved=Q
post
/Q
pre
1.20
x PointsareawardedperTableEW2.1basedontypeofalignment,locationof
BMPsandlevelofcontrolachieved.UseR
V
andR
F
,whicheverishigher,to
determineifpointshavebeenearned.
TableEW2.1:PointsforFlowControlAchievement
Typeof
Alignment
Locationof
BMPs
V
totalpost
Includes
Runon?
HigherofR
V
orR
F
1.20 1.10 1.10 1.00 1.00
New WithinROW No 0 0 2
Yes 0 0 3
OutofROW No 0 0 1
Yes 0 0 2
Existing WithinROW No 0 1 2
Yes 1 2 3
OutofROW No 0 0 1
Yes 0 1 2

EW-2
1-3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR8LowImpact
Development
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW3RunoffQuality
9 EW4Stormwater
CostAnalysis
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Extent
BENEFITS
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
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Runoff Flow Control EW-2
Details
Stormwaterflowsaremeasuredbyflowrate,timeofconcentration,andvolume.Predevelopmentconditions
aretheestimatedvaluesofthesethreevariablesthatexistedintheROWatapriortimerelativetoregional
historic,naturalorundevelopedconditionsasdefinedbythegoverninglocalwatershedauthority.Ifnolocal
authorityornoexistingdefinition,usethedefinitionforgreen,grayandbrownfieldsprovidedinthe2009
SustainableSitesInitiative(SSI)Credit3.5Managestormwateronsite.Whilecontinuousstormwater
simulationmodelsaremostappropriateforthiscredit,themodifiedcurvenumbersprovidedinSSICredit3.5
maybeusedtosimplifycalculations.Postconstructionmeanstheexpectedperformanceofthedesigned
BMPsinthestormwatermanagementplan.
DOCUMENTATION
Acopyoftheexecutivesummaryoftheprojectdrainagedesignreportthatincludes,atminimum,thefollowing:
x Shortnarrativethataddresseseachofthecreditrequirements.
Asneeded,supportingcalculationsforrunoffareas,runoffvolume(outputfromanyrainfallmodelingsoftware
usedisadequate),andtreatmentlevelsmayberequested.
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x TheSustainableSitesInitiative(2009)modifiedcurvenumber(CN)approachisacceptableandmaybeusedto
achievethiscredit.Newalignmentsandrehabilitation(orwidening)ofruralroadswillfallundergreenfield"
CNswhilealmostallotherprojectswillusegrayfieldCNs.(SeeadditionalnotesinthePotentialIssues
section.)TheguidelinesforSustainableSitesareavailablehere:http://www.sustainablesites.org/report/
x Preservenativevegetation.
x Protectsoilswithgoodinfiltrationcapacity.
x Minimizecompactionofsoilstopreservenaturalinfiltrationcapacity.
x Distributestormwatercontrolsthroughouttheprojectareainsteadofusingafewrelativelylargecentralized
facilities.
x Assessthefeasibilityofinfiltrationandevapotranspirationtoreducetheneedfordetentionpondsoutsidethe
rightofway.
x Reducelandareaimpactsbyavoidingtheuseoftraditionaldetentionponds.
Example: Northshore Drive, Bellingham, WA - Case Study
TheNorthshoreDriveprojectislocatedintheSilverBeachareaoftheCityofBellingham,Washingtononthe
northshoreofLakeWhatcom.TheprojectincludesallofNorthshoreDrivefromtheDakinStreetintersection
totheBrittonRoadintersection.ThedesignwaslooselybasedonarecentprojectbytheCityofOlympiacalled
RWJohnsonBoulevardthatusedporousbikelanesandsidewalksalongatraditionalroadway.Northshore
Drivereceivedanasphaltoverlayaftersurfacegrindingtheexistingroadwayandmakingminoralignment
modifications.Lanewidthswerereducedto11feettoaccommodatenewbikelanesandsidewalks.Anew
stormwaterdrainagesystemwasalsoinstalled.
1. CalculatePerviousandImperviousArea
AlabamaAvetoSilverBeachStore
Totalsegmentlength=2450ft
Totalwidthofcrosssection=37.5ft
Existing: 29ftimpervioushotmixasphalt(HMA) Area1=29ftx2,450ft=71,050sf
8.5ftofperviousgrass/gravel Area2=8.5ftx2,450ft=20,825sf

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EW-2 Runoff Flow Control
Proposed: 22.5ftimperviousHMA,intersections,aprons,curb Area3=22.5ftx2,450ft=55,125sf
15ftperviousHMA Area4=15ftx2,450ft=36,750sf

Totalnewandreplacedimpervioussurfaceforsegment=Area3=55,125sf
Decreaseinimpervioussurfaceforsegment=Area1Area3=15,925sf
SilverBeachStoretoBrittonRoad
Totalsegmentlength=1,550ft
Totalwidthofcrosssection=29ft(excludesexistinggutterpan)
Existing: 27ftimperviousHMA Area5=29ftx1,550ft=41,850sf
2ftofperviousgrass/gravel Area6=2ftx1,550ft=3,100sf

Proposed: 29ftimperviousHMA Area7=29ftx1,550ft=44,950sf

Totalnewandreplacedimpervioussurfaceforsegment=Area7=44,950sf
Increaseinimpervioussurfaceforsegment=Area7Area5=Area6=3,100sf
ProjectTotals
TotalExistingImperviousSurface=Area1+Area5=112,900sf
TotalNewandReplacedImperviousSurface=Area3+Area7=100,075sf
9 NetChangeinImperviousSurface=112,900sf100,075sf=12,825sf(Decrease)
TotalExistingPerviousSurface=23,925sf
TotalNewPerviousSurface=36,750sf
9 NetChangeinPerviousSurface=36,750sf23,925sf=12,825sf(Increase)
2. MinimumRequirementsfrom2008WSDOTHighwayRunoffManual(HRM)
Figures3.1,3.2,and3.3oftheHRMareusedtodeterminetheminimumrequirementsapplicablefora
project.*Section32.2oftheHRMlistspossibleexceptionsforthisproject.**Nospecialexceptionsapplybut
theprojectdischargesdirectlyintoanexemptwaterbody(LakeWhatcom)whichdoesnothaveflowcontrol
requirements.However,WSDOTrequiresthatregardlessofanexemption,onsiteBMPsneedtobeusedto
infiltrateasmuchrunoffasreasonablypossible.
3. DetermineFlowControlValues
Timeofconcentration,flowratesandrunoffvolumeswerenotrequiredtobecomputedforexemptprojects
forflowcontrol,norweretheycomputedforqualitytreatmentpurposesbecauseanetdecreaseinimpervious
surfaceoccurred.
4. ApplyStormwaterBestManagementPractices
Thisprojectusedpermeablepavementswithunderdrainsforbikelanesandsidewalks.Infiltrationratesare
showninTableEW2.2fromtheprojectgeotechnicalreport.
TableEW2.2:Estimatedlongtermdesigninfiltrationrates(NorthshoreGeotechnicalreport)
SampleDepth
USDATextural
Classification
InfiltrationRate
(in/hr)***
T.P.1@2.03.0 Loam 0.13
T.P.4@1.52.5 SandyLoam 0.25
5. DetermineFlowControlAchieved
SincetotalimpervioussurfaceontheprojectwasreducedfromexistingsurfaceareasandBMPs,greaterthan
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Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
Runoff Flow Control EW-2
100%ofpredevelopmentflowcontrolratesandvolumeswereachieved.Theprojectearns3points.
Notes:
*Thesefiguresmakeupadecisiontreeusedtoguidetheengineerintheapplicableminimumrequirementswhendesigningastormwater
managementfacilitybasedonknownsurfaceareas,relativeperviousness,andpollutiongeneratingcapacity.
**Generally,iftheamountofimpervioussurfacesisgreaterthanaspecifiedminimumvalue,certainrequirementsmustbeappliedtothat
impervioussurface.Thesevaluesarecalledminimumrequirements.
***IncludestherecommendedcorrectionfactorspresentedintheSWMM.

Figure1:NorthshoreDriveinBellingham,Washington.Cyclistsusingpermeablepavementbikelanesadjacentto
permeablesidewalk.PhotobyC.Weiland

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-2 Runoff Flow Control
Example: Bioswale with Flow Control Weirs
FigureEW2.2showsasetofstreetsideflowcontrolweirsinabioswaleBMP.Thisswaleprovidesflowcontrol
benefitsofincreasedinfiltration,increasedretention,andflowattenuation.

FigureEW2.2:Abioswalewithflowcontrolweirs.(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

Example: Continuous Modeling Scenarios
Theeffectoflowimpactdevelopment(LID)stormwatercontrolstowardrestoringtheoriginalhydrologycanbe
illustratedanalyzingtheerosivepotentialofflowsundervariousscenarios.Streamerosioniscausedby
excessiveshearstressappliedbytheflowonthestreambanksandbed.Forthisexample,asuiteofLID
methodsweremodeledaspartofanalternativesstudyforroadwayrealignmentandassociatedstormwater
managementoptionsfortheInterstate70expansionproject.
FigureEW2.3onthefollowingpageshowstheaveragedistributionofshearstressinastreamnearColumbia,
Missouri.Ideally,thedistributionafterdevelopmentshouldremainclosetothepredevelopmentcurve.The
graphicshowsseveralkeythings:
x Detentionbasinsdesignedtocontrolextremeevents(e.g.,thosewithreturnperiodsof2to100years)do
littletorestoretheshearstressdistributionwhencomparedwiththepostdevelopedscenario.
x Basinsdesignedtocontrolwaterqualityandprotectchannels(i.e.,designedforthe1yearstorm)dolower
theshearstressbutnotablychangethedistributionovertime.
x Inthisspecificcase,LIDcontrols,althoughstillnotexactlyreplicatingthepredevelopmentcondition,
affordtheclosestmatch.
FigureEW2.3wascreatedwithCH2MHILLsLIFEcontinuousmodelingsoftwareforLIDrunoffcontrols.
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Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
Runoff Flow Control EW-2 140
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-2 Runoff Flow Control
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Therearenumerousmethodstocalculaterunoffvolume.Manyareapplicabletostormsoflargemagnitude
andunderestimatetherunoffgeneratedbysmallstorms,whichoccurmorefrequentlyandrepresentmostof
theannualrunoffvolume.Averageannualrunoffvolumeshavebeenspecifiedforuseinallofthestormwater
relatedcreditsinGreenroadstoprovideconsistencybetweencredits.
2. TheLIDevaluationprocessthatisrequiredtomeetProjectRequirementPR8doesnotrequireanaverage
annualrunoffmodel.Infact,itrecommendstheuseofdesignstormstomodelpeakflow.Thispracticeisnow
outdatedandthepreferredapproachtorunoffquantitymanagementisthroughflowcontrolmethods.(Cityof
Seattle,2009)
3. Continuousmodelingcanbetimeintensiveandcostlyandthiscanvarygreatlybetweenprojectsandbysizeof
project.The2009SustainableSitesInitiative(SSI)providesanalternativemodelthatcanbeusedtomeetthe
intentofthiscredit.ItisbasedontheoldTR55softwaremodelfromtheNationalResourceConservation
Service(NRCS)incombinationwithacontinuousmodelingprogrambasedontheStormwaterManagement
Model(SWMM)softwarebytheEPA.The2009SSIcreditprovideschartsandtargetcurvenumbersfor
achievingcertainpointsinthatratingsystem.(Ingeneral,probablyagoodruleofthumbisthatpointsforthe
SSIcreditareworth5,7,and10pointswhichprobablycorrespondto1,2,and3pointsinGreenroads,
respectively.However,Greenroadsalsorequiressupportingcalculationstoshowthatflowcontrol
performanceguidelineshavebeenmetaccordingtothiscreditandtodatenoprojectshaveattemptedthis
creditortheSSIapproach.)
4. Anymodelsthatareusedinherentlyhavesomelimitationsandassumptions.Somearebetterthanothers
dependingonprojectlocation.Thiscreditdefaultstotheintegrityofthedesignertochoosetheappropriate
modelingsoftware.
RESEARCH
Alteringtheimperviousnessofthelandtomakewayforroadscanhavemajorimpactsonthephysicaland
chemicalintegrityofawatershed(Southerland,1994;FormanandAlexander,1998;EnvironmentalProtection
Agency:EPA,2007).ThisGreenroadscreditprimarilyaddresseschangestophysicalintegrityofwatershedsbased
onphysicalquantitiesofrunoffgeneratedbyaroadway;however,manyofthetopicsareinherentlytiedtowater
qualityissuesbecauseallbestmanagementpracticesthataddressflowcontrolalsoaddresswaterquality(Quigley
etal.,2009).CreditEW3RunoffQualityaddresseschemicalrunoffcharacteristics(waterquality)whileanoften
ignoredcomponentofwatershedhealth,biologicalintegrity,isaddressedbyCreditEW6HabitatRestoration.
PhysicalImpactsfromStormwaterRunoff
Thegeneralrelationshipbetweenvolumeofwaterandvelocityofflowsonstreambedsseemsintuitivemore
waterandfasterflowsmeansmoreerosionandthushighersedimentloadshowever,therelationshipbetween
volume,pollutant(sediment)transport,andaquaticbiologicalintegrityisactuallyquitecomplex.Muchofthis
complexitystemsfromthescaleoftheproblem.Toillustratethisissue,in2007,therewereactuallymoremilesof
roadwayintheUnitedStates(almost4.1million)thanthereweredocumentedriverandcoastalandlakeshoreline
miles(about3.6million)(FederalHighwayAdministration:FHWA,2008;EPA,2010).TheEPAnotes(2007):
Theeffectthataroadnetworkhasonstreamnetworkslargelydependsontheextenttowhichthe
networksareinterconnected.Roadnetworkscanbehydrologicallyconnectedtostreamnetworks
whereroadsurfacerunoffisdelivereddirectlytostreamchannels(atstreamcrossingsorviaditches
orgulliesthatdirectflowofftheroadintoastream)andwhereroadcutstransformsubsurfaceflow
intosurfaceflow(inroadditchesoronroadsurfacesthatdeliversedimentandwatertostreams
muchmorequicklythanwithoutaroadpresent).Thecombinedeffectsofthesedrainagenetwork
connectionsareincreasedsedimentationandpeakflowsthatarehigherandarrivemorequickly
afterstorms.Thiscanleadtoincreasedinstreamerosionandstreamchannelchanges,especiallyin
smallwatersheds.
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FigureEW2.3belowshowshowinterconnectedbothofthesesystemsactuallyareintheUnitedStates.Notethat
thescaleofthisimageonlyallowsalevelofdetailthatshowsmajorInterstatesandmajorwatershedstreams;
localorarterialroadsandsmallerwatershedsarenotshown:thesesmallerwatershedsaremostsensitiveto
nearbyroadwayprojectimpacts.

FigureEW2.3:UnitedStatesstreams(blue)andtheInterstatehighwaysystem(lightred).(Enviromapper,n.d.)

FigureEW2.3suggeststhatasignificantamountofhydromodificationisattributabletoroadways.
HydromodificationisatermusedbytheEPAtomeanalterationofthehydrologiccharacteristicsofcoastaland
noncoastalwaters,whichinturncouldcausedegradationofwaterresources.(EPA,2007)Hydromodification
encompassesriverengineeringactivitiesforimprovingriverchannels(i.e.dredging)andalsobuildingdams.Italso
includesforestrypractices,recreationandindustrialuse,constructionsitesandotherpointsourceactivities,anda
plethoraofurbanrunoffissuesincludingstreamrestorationpractices(EPA,2010).Roadsareinnatelytiedtoeach
oftheseactivities.
Theprimaryconcernswithhydromodificationare:
x Pollutantgenerationandtransport
x Habitatdegradationandlossofhabitat
x Speciesloss
x Streambankslopestability
x Erosionofchannelsorchangesinflowpathofstreams
x Flooding
Amajorityoftheliteratureregardingstormwatermanagementandroadsandbridgesaddressestheissuesof
waterpollution(waterquality)andcontrollingpollutanttransport.Importantly,sedimentisconsideredtobeone
oftheprimarypollutantsforwaterbodiesthatthreatenaquatichabitatsandspecies(EPA,2008).Together,these
issuescanbroadlybetermedwatershedhealth."(Pollutantsandimpactsassociatedwithpollutionarediscussed
furtherinCreditEW3.Itisimportanttonotethataneffectiveflowcontrolmeasurealsohasthecobenefitof
reducingpollutantloadsduetothehierarchicalnatureofphysicalprocesses.Additionally,notethatsomebest
managementpracticesappliedforflowcontroloffermoreeffectivemitigationofpollutantsthanothers.)
Watershedhealthisdirectlyrelatedtonearbyeffectiveimpervioussurface.(EPA,2008;TilleyandSlonecker,2007;
CityofSeattle,2009;EPA,2010)Itfollowsthatwatershedhealthisdirectlyrelatedtomanagementofstormwater
runoffquantitiesgeneratedbythoseimpervioussurfaces.
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Bankstability,erosionandflooding,however,areprimarilyflowcontrolconcernsassociatedwithphysicalimpacts
ofrunoff,notquality.Theseareoftenconsidereddrainageissuesandhavehistoricallybeentheprimary
applicationofstormwatermanagementgovernedbyEPApermitsupuntil1987,whenrunoffqualitycametobe
addressedaswell.(PittandMaestre,2005)Thesephysicalattributesofrunoffcanimpactsensitivewatershed
habitatsandaquaticlifeinbothurbanandruralenvironments(Southerland,1994;CityofSeattle,2009).For
example,Whenastreamchangesitsphysicalconfigurationandsubstrateduetoincreasedflows,habitatsare
altered.Thebiologicalcommunitiesinwetlandsarealsoseverelyimpactedandalteredbythehydrological
changes.Relativelysmallchangesinthenaturalwaterelevationfluctuationscancausedramaticshiftsin
vegetativeandanimalspeciescomposition(CityofSeattle,2009).Furthermore,in2007,approximately73%of
theroadsintheUnitedStatesweredesignatedasruralbytheFHWA(2008);43%ofruralroadsareunpaved.
TheEPA(2007)states:
Roadsbuiltinruralareas,suchasforestandrecreationalroads,alterthenaturallandscapeandcan
destroyriparianhabitat.Ifnotproperlyinstalledandmaintained,thesetypesofroadserodeand
supplyincreasedsedimentandpollutantstoadjacentstreams.Additionally,roadsmayincrease
imperviousness,whichleadstoflashierrunoffevents.Streamcrossingsassociatedwithruralroads
canblockfishpassage,trapdebrisduringstorms,andleadtoincreasedstreambankerosionin
nearbyareas.
Inurbanenvironments,theproblemissometimesworse.Morewaterandfasterflowsinthiscasemeanthatan
aginginfrastructuresysteminanalreadydegradedwatershedcaneasilybecomeoverloadedwithincreasing
developmentinsurroundingareas.Muchofthestormwaterinfrastructureincitiesisbuiltintandemwithroadsin
thepublicrightofway.Thismeansthat(1)manystormwaterinfrastructureprojectsalsobecomeroadway
projects,andmoreimportantlyforGreenroads,(2)flowcontrolclearlypresentsbothachallengeanda
stormwatermanagementopportunitytoroadwayprojects.
HydromodificationandRoads:TheSmokingGun
TheEPAsdefinitionofhydromodificationisquitebroadwhileitisimpossibletoisolatehydromodification
impactswithroadwaysaloneforanumberofreasons,itisalsodifficulttoarguethattheydonotcause
hydromodification.Whichiscorrectseemstobeamatterofphilosophicaldebate(FHWA,1990;EPA,2008).
Watercoursesaredynamicbynatureandrespondtostressors,changingpathsanderodingnaturally.
(Wilcock,PitlickandCui,2009)Thebehaviorofriversandstreamsisultimatelygovernedbyprinciplesof
geomorphologyandhydraulics,notbyhumans.Itappearsthatthecoreissueisoneofvaluesandhowone
definessomethingasnatural.Forexample,itistruethatmorewaterandfasterflowsaregeneratedfrom
higherlevelsofimpervioussurfaces(MaestreandPitt,2005),whichcanpreventorimpedenatural
groundwaterrechargeandhaveanumberofthusunnaturaleffectsonstreamflowsinlocalizedareasof
watersheds(EPA,2007;EPA,2008).Itisalsotruehowever,thatevenstreamrestorationactivitiesare
accountedforinthelistofhydromodificationimpactsassociatedwithdegradationofwatersheds(EPA,2008).
So,streampreservationviamanmadecontrolsintendedtorepairastreamtowhatisconsiderednaturalmay
actuallyhaveunintendedconsequencesoffurtherdegradation.Thereislittleevidencetoshowthatthestream
wouldnothaveactedthatwayonitsown,buttheconverseisalsotrue.
Thestressorsofconcern,then,arereallyhumanactivitiesthemselves.Inparticular,thestressiscausedby
urbanizationordevelopment(twomoreverybroadterms).Theinteractionbetweenhumanactivitiesandthe
hydrologiccycleisalsocomplex.Itisimportanttonotethatmanyimportantrelationshipsarenotwellenough
understoodtobeabletoquantifythetotalaccountabilityforroadsandbridgesforhydromodificationbeyond
indirectassociation.Manyuncertaintiesandvariabilityarise,forexample,duetolackofunderstandingof:
x Theamountofstreambankerodability(Morrissey,Rizzo,Ross,andYoung,2009)thatoccursdueto
upstreamchanges
x Thelevelofchangebetweensurfaceandbaseflowsassociatedwithdifferenthydrauliccontrols(i.e.storm
Sewers,catchbasinsandponds)(TilleyandSlonecker,2007)
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x Amountsofsedimentandsedimenttransportcapacityofdifferenttypesofriverandstreamflows(Wilcock,
PitlickandCui,2009)
x Inconsistenciesandvariabilityinmonitoringandassessmentofwatersheds(Strecker,Mayo,Quigley,and
Howell,2001)
x Thebiologicalintegrityofreceivingwatersheds(CityofSeattle,2009)
Urbanization,HydromodificationandRoads
Development,includingroads,changesthehydrologicprofileofasiteorareausuallybyincreasingthetotal
impervioussurfacearea.ThiscorrelationwasconfirmedinarecentstudybyMaestreandPitt(2005)anda
graphisshowninFigureEW2.4thatillustratestheclearrelationshipbetweenvolumetricrunoffcoefficients
andpercentimperviousnessofasurface.
TheUnitedStatesis5%developedwithrangesofimperviousbetween2080%insomeareas.(EPA,2008)
Thoughpreviouslyestimatedatmuchhigherpercentages,roadsandsidewalksmakeupabout33%ofthetotal
impervioussurfaceinaverageurbanandsuburbanareas(TilleyandSlonecker,2007).Inruralenvironments,up
to100%ofthetotalimpervioussurfaceareacanbeattributedtoroadsandhighwaysdependingonthescale
ofthewatershedbeingstudied.
Therefore,hydromodification(bankstability,erosion,flooding,andrelatedwaterqualityissues)canbedirectly
attributedtoincreasesinrunoffdischargesfromimpervioussurfacesduetourbanization.GregoryandChin
(2002)composedabrieflistthatprovidesagoodsummaryofhowquantitiesofstormwaterdischargeare
relatedtourbanizationandavarietyofhydromodificationhazards.Awarenessoftheseeffectscanassistin
developmentofappropriatestormwatermanagementplans.TheseareshowninFigureEW2.5.

FigureEW2.4:Dischargequantitiesaredirectlyproportionaltoimpervioussurfaces.(Maestre&Pitt,2005)

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FigureEW2.5:Urbanchannelhazardsrelatedtourbanizations.(Gregory&Chin,2002)
DesignAlternativesforRoadwayFlowControl
Hydrologicconditionsateachroadwaysitearehighlyvariable,evenwithinthesamesite.Granato,Zenone,and
Cazenas(2003)noteStormwaterflowsresponddifferentlytodifferenttypesofstormsandmayrespond
differentlytothesametypeofstormindifferentseasonsoftheyear.Justliketheinterconnectednessof
roadwaysandwatersheds,stormwaterflowcontroldesigncanbecomplexandeasilylendsitselfto
oversimplification.Thisisperhapsexemplifiedwiththefluctuationsforflowcontrolstandardsinthepastthirty
years(CityofSeattle,2009).Avarietyofapproacheshavebeenused,includingpeakflowdesignsthatlimitedflow
ratestocontrolerosiveflows,settingcertainpercentagesofthoseratestothosesupposedtobemore
representativeofpredevelopmentpeaks,andfinallyflowdurationstandards.Thisshiftinpracticerepresenteda
shiftfromeventbasedmethodsatamicroscaleleveltocontinuoussimulationmodelingatawatershedscale.
Typically,allowableregulatorylevelsforcertainflowsandcertaintypesofroadwayprojectsaresetandflow
controlreallymeansapredeterminedsuiteorrangeofallowableflowvolumes,ratesandtimestoconcentration
thatareconsideredtoposeanacceptableriskoferosionreceivingwaters.(CityofSeattle,2009)Thesethreshold
levelsareprimarilydeterminedbasedontheamountofnewandreplacedimpervioussurfaces,whichcanalso
bedependentonthetypeofproject,sizeofproject,andthedrainagebasininwhichtheprojectislocated.(City
ofSeattle,2009)Thereisamountingbodyofevidencehowevertosuggestthatsingleeventdesignapproaches
areinsufficienttomaintainstreambankandchannelintegrityandstructure.(CityofSeattle,2009;Bledsoe,2002;
Huberetal.2006).Bledsoe(2002)notes:
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Tofullyaddressthepotentialforchannelresponse,itisnecessarytoexpandstandarddesign
approachestoaddressthetemporaldistributionoferosiveforcesrelativetobothbedmaterialsand
bankconditions.Singleeventtechniquesformaintainingthecumulativebedloadtransportvolume,
unlessmodifiedtoaccountfordifferentialtransportbysizefractionsacrossabroaderrangeofflow
events,mayalterpredevelopmentfluvialprocessesandaffectchannelmorphologyandthequalityof
instreamhabitat.Giventhesensitivityoffinegrainedstreamstoinflowingbedmaterialload,
reproducingthepredevelopmenthydrographwillnotnecessarilyensurestabilityifthereisa
sufficientlongtermreductioninsedimentdelivery.Thus,stormwatermanagementstrategiesshould
becarefullyweighedintermsoftheirlongtermgeomorphicimplicationsinadditiontofloodcontrol
andpollutantremovalfunctions.
Eventbasedmethodsoftenresultinoverlyconservativedrainagedesigns(Huberetal.2006)andingeneraldonot
meetstreamchannelprotectionobjectives(Booth,1991;BoothandJackson,2007).Huberetal.(2006)notesthat
thoughmostofthehyetographs(graphsofrainfalldistributionsovertime)fromeventbaseddesignscanbe
appliedtomonitoredrainfalldata,theyaregenerallynot;andtheyarealsosensitivetoinitialconditionsand
assumptionsaswellasstoragecapacityandinfiltrationcapabilitiesofthesite.Theseimperfecttraitsand
limitationsthengetadoptedintowaterqualitydesigns,whichareconsequentlyalsooverlyconservative,orworse,
ineffective.Despitethedisadvantagestoeachoftheseapproachesandtheresearchtojustifythatsyntheticstorm
eventbasedmethodsareinefficienttomodelactualrainfallevents(CityofSeattle,2009;Huberetal;2006),
thesemethodsareembeddedinseveralversionsofcommercialsoftwareandareroutinelyacceptedbythe
hydrologicengineeringprofessioninspiteoftheissuesjustmentioned.(Huberetal.2006).FHWAandthe
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)andmoststatedepartmentsof
transportationstillrecommenduseofthetraditionaldesignstormsforhydrologicandhydraulicdesignof
roadways,presumablyduetothesingleevent,catastrophicnatureoffloodevents.(FHWA,2009;AASHTO,2005)
Someregulatoryagenciesnowrequire2,10and100yearsinsteadofoneorother(FHWA,2009;WSDOT,2008).
Currently,lowimpactdevelopment(LID)methodshavebecomethepreferredstandardofpracticeforthebuilt
environmentandforsitedevelopment(CityofSeattle,2009).Themostappropriatewaytoemulatethe
performanceofLIDmethodsisthroughcontinuousmodeling(CityofSeattle,2009;Huberetal.,2006).Continuous
hydrologicalmodelinghasitsowndisadvantages,primarilyintimeintensiveness(andthuscost)andunavailability
ofdata(Huberetal.,2006;CityofSeattle,2009).Ingeneral,theseLIDmethodsarebeingpushedmostlyinurban
areastohelpmanagetheincreasingimperviousnessandtheassociatedwaterqualityissuesincitiesas
populationsinthesecommunitiesgrowtorelievestressonexistinginfrastructureandattempttoachieve
naturalconditionsasabaselineforperformance.However,duetothehighconcernoffloodingimpactson
roadways,itmaybemostappropriatetouseacombinedapproach,whichmayrequireacombinationofbothLID
andconventionalmethodsinordertomeetfloodcontroldemandsandalsomaintainwaterqualitystandards.
(WashingtonDepartmentofTransportation:WSDOT,2008)
LowimpactDevelopmentforFlowControl
AbriefintroductiontoLIDtechniqueswasprovidedinProjectRequirementPR8.TherelevantconceptsforLID
methodsinflowcontrol(allofferqualitybenefitsunlessotherwisenoted)arebrieflydescribedbelow.(Cityof
Seattle,2009)MostLIDtechniquesincorporatemorethanone.
x Infiltration.Runoffispercolatedintoreceivingsoils.Theinfiltrationcapacityiscloselyrelatedtothehydraulic
conductivityandcapacityofthesoils.Evaporationisoftenalsopresentaswellastranspirationasthese
facilitiesareoftenvegetated.
x Evaporation.Runoffisvaporizedandabsorbedintotheair.
x Transpiration.Runoffisabsorbedbyplantsandthenreleasedasvapor.
x Dispersion.Runoffareaisincreasedtodelaytheflow.
x Interception.Rainfallistrappedbytheleavesofplants.
x Storageandrelease(retentionanddetention).Runoffiscollectedtemporarilyandreleasedviaacontrolled
outflow.(Trueretentionfacilitiesrelyoninfiltrationandevaporationandnooutflow.)
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x Storageandreuse.Runoffiscollectedandstoredforstoredforotheruses(commonlyharvestingrainwater).
Oftenstoragefacilitiesarevaultsbeneathroadwaysandtheirflowcontrolutilityisbasedontheirtotalvolume
andopeningsizes.
ThePrinceGeorgesCountyLIDManual(1999)presentsamoredetaileddescriptionoftheLIDmethods:the
readerisreferredtotheManualformoredetailedinformation.Asummaryoftheflowcontrolattributesofsome
commonLIDtechniquesisshowninFigureEW2.6.(Formostroadwayfacilities,storagewillbeunderground.)

FigureEW2.6ThesuiteofflowcontrolattributesforLIDmethods.(PrinceGeorgesCounty,1999)

FlowControlbyAvoidance
TheEPA(2007)suggeststhatthegeometricdesignofaroadcandomuchtoaidinflowcontrol,howeverthe
primaryobjectiveoftheirnonerodingroadwaydesignconceptistostabilizeandorienttheroadbedto
minimizeproductionofsedimentduetoerosionofslopes,basematerialsandsurfacecoursesandavoid
uncontrolleddrainageofpollutantsintosensitiveareas.Furtherdesignconsiderationsincludenotslopingthe
roadwaytowardwetlandareas(unlessthewetlandsarepartofthetreatmentscheme)orplanningalignments
tofallasfaraspossibleawayfromexistingwatercourses.Nevertheless,theshapeandsurfacecoursematerial
designisclearlytiedtotheamountofrunoffgeneratedbytheroadway.Thedesignapproachisespecially
criticalforunpavedroadswhereerosionandsedimentationoftheroaditselfisanimportantissue.(EPA,2007)
FlowControlbySoilAmendment
Soilamendmentisaprocessthatdescribesaddingorganiccontentsuchascompostormulchtonativeand
fillsoils.Theorganiccontentaidsinflowcontrolbyprovidingadditionalstoragethroughabsorption,higher
infiltrationandevapotranspirationfromincreasedsurfaceareaoffinersoilparticles,improvedgroundwater
rechargeandalsoimprovedaffinityforvegetation.Italsooffersseveralpollutantreducingbenefitsandcan
offerurbanbenefitssuchasreducedirrigationandfertilizerneeds.(CityofSeattle,2009)Timeof
concentrationisincreasedandpeakflowsareattenuatedandreducedthroughthismethod.Manyofthe
compostamendedsoilapproachesareoutlinedinsitedevelopmentguidancedocumentsforbuildings;
however,SwissengineersPiguet,ParriauxandBensimon(2008)offeraroadspecificdesignapproachcalled
infiltrationslopesthatallowsimplementationofsoilamendmentthatmaintaintheoverallimpermeabilityof
theroadwayforfastrunoffremovalwithoutpromotingwaterintrusioninroadwaysubbasematerials.Their
modelsofinfiltrationslopesareshowninFigureEW2.7withvariousslopeandmaterialconfigurationsusing
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differentsoilsandgeotechnicalreinforcments.Theauthorsfoundincreasedinfiltrationcapacity,improved
groundwaterrecharge,increasedevapotranspirationandimprovedflowcontrol.

FigureEW2.7:Infiltrationslopecrosssections.(Piguet,Parriaux&Bensimon2008)
ControversyofDetentionFacilities
Detentionfacilitiesusedasflowcontroldevicesareamatterofsomecontroversy.Toreceivethiscredit,landmay
notbeprocuredoutsideoftherightofwaytoserveasconventionaldetentionorstoragefacilities.Thiscriterion
attemptstomitigatetheoveralllandareaimpactofconventionaldetentionfacilitiesbyrestrictingconstructionof
suchfacilitieswithinROWlimitswithoutrestrictingtheuseofthiscommonBMP.However,thethoroughliterature
reviewfromtheCityofSeattle(2009)indicatesthatdetentionpondsmaynotbeeffectiveflowcontrolmeasures
formitigatinghydromodificationimpacts,otherflowcontrolmethodsoffermuchhigherpollutantremovalthan
detentionponds,andthepondshavelimitedhydrologicalbenefitsespeciallywhenmorethanoneispresentinthe
samewatershed.
Therearesomedocumentedbenefitsofdetentionandretentionfacilitiesofreducinglargedebrisdeliveredto
streamsandbedscour.Also,theyareeasilyunderstoodbyhydraulicdesignersandoffermuchcontroloverrunoff
releases.(FHWA,2009)CompletelydisallowingdetentionpondsinGreenroadswouldeffectivelyeliminatethe
mostcommonlyusedmethodofstormwatercontrolsavailabletomosthighway,streetandroadwayprojects
(FHWA,2009).However,LIDtechniqueshavebeenshowntobeabletoreducetheneededsizeofdetentionponds
oreliminatethemandconventionalconveyancealtogetherinsomecases(Hinman,2005;CityofSeattle,2009).
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ThepreferredalternativetoconventionaldetentionpondsinGreenroadsaremultifunctionalBMPssuchas
bioretentionorstormwaterstorageandreuse.
WhenLIDIsNotAppropriate
Ingeneral,LIDflowcontrolBMPsmaynotbeappropriateandshouldbeavoidedinareas(WSDOT,2008)
x Withhighorseasonallyhighwatertables
x Belowthe100yearfloodplain
x Withdistressedgroundwater
x Inintertidalareas
x Insensitivewatershedsorforests(thesehaveahighernetbenefitthanLID.)
However,asitespecificdesignbuiltonwatershedparametersandtopographywillbemosteffectivefor
controllingrunoffflowsandsomeofflowcontroltechniquesmaybeviableevenintheseconditions.
AdditionalResources
x Forfurtherdiscussiononthemeritsofdetentionfacilities,seetheEnvironmentallyCriticalAreas:Best
AvailableSciencereportbytheCityofSeattle(2009),availableat:
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/static/BAS%20Review_FINAL_30JUN09_LatestReleased_DPDP017711.doc
x CurrentperformancedataonflowcontrolforLIDBMPsisavailableattheInternationalBMPDatabase:
http://www.bmpdatabase.org.Theyalsotrackcostdataasitisvolunteeredalongwithsubmissions.
FormoreinformationandadditionalresourcesonspecificLIDtechniques,seethediscussioninProject
RequirementPR8LowImpactDevelopment.
GLOSSARY
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
Biodiversity Totalnumberofspeciespresent
Biologicalintegrity Theabilitytosupportandmaintainabalanced,integratedadaptive
assemblageoforganismshavingspeciescomposition,diversity,and
functionalorganizationcomparabletothatofnaturalhabitatoftheregion
(KarrandDudley,1981).
BMP Bestmanagementpractice
BMPDB InternationalBMPDatabase(http://www.bmpdatabase.org)
Channel Astreambed
Detention Theprocessofholdinganddelayingrunoffwithacontrolledrelease
EIA Effectiveimperviousarea
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
Erosion Surfacewearingduetophysicalprocessessuchaswater,windandheat
Evaporation Theprocessofwaterbecomingwatervapor
Evapotranspiration thecombinedeffectsofevaporationandtranspirationinreducingthe
volumeofwaterinavegetatedareaduringaspecificperiodoftime(Huber
etal.2006)
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
Flowcontrol Managementofrunoffvolumephysicalcharacteristicsincludingpeakflows
andtimeofconcentration
Hydromodification alterationofthehydrologiccharacteristicsofcoastalandnoncoastalwaters,
whichinturncouldcausedegradationofwaterresources(EPA,2007)
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Impervioussurface ahardsurfaceareathateitherpreventsorretardstheentryofwaterintothe
soilmantleorcauseswatertorunoffthesurfaceingreaterquantitiesorat
anincreasedrate(TilleyandSlonecker,2006)
Infiltration thedownwardmovementofwaterintothesoilaftersurficialentryand
percolationthroughporespaces(Huberetal.2006)
Interception Theprocessofleavesofplantspreventingrainfallfromhittingasurface
Lowimpactdevelopment abroadcollectionofengineeredcontrols,stormwatermanagementfacilities,
andotherlanddevelopmentBMPsthatattempttomimicpredevelopment
hydrologicconditionsbyemphasizinginfiltration,evapotranspiration,or
stormwaterreuseforlongtermflowcontrolandrunofftreatment
Reach Thelengthofariverorstreambetweenriverbends
Retention Theprocessofholdingrunoff,ideallynoreleaseoccursandallrunoffis
infiltratedorevaporated
TIA Totalimperviousarea
Transpiration Theprocessofwateruptakeinplants
Urbanization Theprocessofandactivitiesassociatedwithhumandevelopment

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PrinceGeorgesCounty,Maryland,DepartmentofEnvironmentalResources.(1999,June).LowImpact
DevelopmentDesignStrategies:AnIntegratedApproach.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lidnatl.pdf
Quigley,M.etal.(2009,October).UrbanStormwaterBMPPerformanceMonitoring.ReporttotheEnvironmental
ProtectionAgencyandtheFederalHighwayAdministrationbyGeosyntecConsultantsandWrightWater
Engineers.AvailableattheInternationalStormwaterBMPDatabase(BMPDB):http://www.bmpdatabase.org.
Southerland,M.(1994).Evaluationofecologicalimpactsfromhighwaydevelopment.[EPA300B94006]
DynamacCorporationfortheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Washington,DC:UnitedStatesEnvironmental
ProtectionAgency,OfficeofFederalActivities.
151
Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
Runoff Flow Control EW-2
Strecker,E.,Mayo,L.,Quigley,M.andHowell,J.(2001,June).GuidanceManualforMonitoringWaterQuality.
(FHWAEP01022).UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.Officeof
NaturalEnvironment.Washington,DC:UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation.
SustainableSitesInitiative.(2009).GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks.AmericanSocietyofLandscape
Architects,LadyBirdJohnsonWildflowerCenterattheUniversityofTexasatAustin,UnitedStatesBotanic
Garden.
Tilley,J.S.,&Slonecker,E.T.(2006).Quantifyingthecomponentsofimpervioussurfaces.Reston,Va:U.S.
GeologicalSurvey.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2008).HighwayRunoffManual.[M3116.01]
WashingtonDepartmentofTransportationEnvironmentalandEngineeringPrograms,DesignOffice.Olympia,
WA:WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation.Availableat
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/WaterQuality/Runoff/HighwayRunoffManual.htm
Wilcock,P.R.,Pitlick,J.,&Cui,Y.(2009).SedimenttransportprimerEstimatingbedmaterialtransportingravel
bedrivers.FortCollins,CO:U.S.Dept.ofAgriculture,ForestService,RockyMountainResearchStation.

152
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-3 Runoff Quality
RUNOFF QUALITY
GOAL
ImprovewaterqualityofstormwaterrunoffleavingtheroadwayRightofWay(ROW)
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
1. Developastormwatermanagementplanforthesiteusingstormwaterbest
managementpractices(BMPs)forwaterqualitytreatment.Explicitlystatethegoals
ofthisplanandhowperformancewillbemeasured.
2. Uselowimpactdevelopment(LID)BMPstothemaximumextentfeasibleas
determinedinProjectRequirementPR8byalicensedprofessional.
3. Computethe90
th
percentileaverageannualrainfalleventpostconstructionrunoff
volumes(V
total
)fortwoareasasfollows:
x V
runoff
:thetotalpollutiongeneratingsurface(PGS)areaoftheprojectROW
x V
runon
:ThetotalPGSareaoutsidetheROWthatmaygenerateuntreated
stormwaterwhichrunsintotheROWBMPs,ifany.
x V
total
=V
runoff
+V
runon

x V
treated
=V
runofftreated
+V
runontreated

x %ofTotalPostConstructionRunoffVolumeTreated=V
treated
/V
total
x100%
x Computeaweightedaverageofvolumestreatedforthetotalvolumemanaged
intheprojectwheremorethanoneBMPisused.
4. Providetreatmentforadesiredpercentageofthetotalcomputedrunoffvolume
foreitheroftheareasnotedinTableEW3.1.Listthetypes,manufacturers,
treatmentlevels,andtotalvolumestreatedinBMPs.
5. DemonstratethattheplannedBMPsmeetthefollowingqualitycriteria:
x BMPsreducesedimentloadstototalsuspendedsolids(TSS)concentrationsof
25mg/Lorless,asanindicatorofoveralltreatmentlevel.SeeTableEW3.2.
x BMPsconformtoallapplicableminimumwaterqualitystandardsforall
effluentleavingtheROWsetbythegoverningjurisdictionforcontaminants,
suchasheavymetals,hydrocarbons,pathogens,watertemperatureand
turbidity.Statetheminimumrequirements,includingcriticalerosiveflow
criteria,andprovidereferenceddocumentorpolicy.
TableEW3.1:Greenroadspointsfor%volumesoftreatedrunoff
TypeofRunoffVolume
VolumeTreated TreatmentLevel
Points
Pollutiongenerating
surfaces(PGS)from
withintheprojectROW
only(runoff)
80% Basic

Basic&Enhanced

Basic,Enhanced&Oil
1
90% Basic

Basic&Enhanced
1
Basic,Enhanced&Oil
2
Pollutiongenerating
surfaces(PGS)from
withintheprojectROW
andfromoutsideareas
(runonandrunoff)
80% Basic

Basic&Enhanced
1
Basic,Enhanced&Oil
2
90% Basic
1
Basic&Enhanced
2
Basic,Enhanced&Oil
3
EW-3
1-3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR8LowImpact
Development
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW2RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW4Stormwater
CostAnalysis
9 EW5SiteVegetation
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Extent
BENEFITS
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
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Runoff Quality EW-3
Details
Thiscreditisanadaptationofthe2009SustainableSitesInitiativeCredit3.6:Protectandenhancewater
qualityandtheLEEDGreenBuildingRatingSystemSustainableSitesCreditSS6.2StormwaterDesign:
QualityControl.ItalsodrawsheavilyonconceptsfromtheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation
HighwayRunoffManual.Continuousmodelingapproachesarerecommended(seeCreditEW2).
IfmorethanoneBMPisusedintheproject,calculateaweightedaverageofthe%totalvolumetreatedby
eachBMPanditsqualityachieved.NotethatBMPsshouldbesizedappropriatelyifconsideringanyrunoff
volumesgeneratedfromoutsidetheprojectROW.Basic,EnhancedandOiltreatmentcriteriaaredefined
bylocalgoverningagenciesorbytheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)Highway
RunoffManual,inabsenceofalocaldefinition.
DOCUMENTATION
Acopyoftheexecutivesummaryoftheprojectdrainagedesignreportthatincludes,atminimum,thefollowing:
x Shortnarrativethataddresseseachofthecreditrequirements.
Asneeded,supportingcalculationsforrunoffareas,runoffvolume(outputfromanyrainfallmodelingsoftware
usedisadequate),andtreatmentlevelsmayberequested.

TableEW3.2:Medianofaverageinfluentandeffluentconcentrations.(ReproducedfromtableinGeosyntec&
WrightWater,2008)
Constituents
Sample
Location
Detention
Pond
(n=25)
1
WetPond
(n=46)
1
Wetland
Basin
(n=19)
1
Biofilter
(n=57)
1
Media
Filter
(n=38)
1
Hydrodynamic
Device
(n=32)
1
Porous
Pavement
(n=6)
1
Suspended
Solids(mg/L)
Influent
72.65
(41.70
103.59)
34.13
(19.16
49.10)
37.76
(18.10
53.39)
52.15
(41.41
62.88)
43.27
(27.25
59.58)
39.61
(21.9576.27)

Effluent
31.04
(16.07
46.01)
13.37
(7.29
19.45)
17.77
(9.26
26.29)
23.92
(15.07
32.78)
15.86
(9.74
21.98)
37.67
(21.2854.02)
16.96
(5.90
48.72)
Total
Calcium
(g/L)
Influent
0.71(0.45
1.28)
0.49
(0.200.79)
0.36
(0.110.60)
0.54
(0.400.67)
0.25
(0.12
0.49)
0.74
(0.371.11)

Effluent
0.47(0.25
0.87)
0.27
(0.120.61)
0.24
(0.110.55)
0.30
(0.260.35)
0.19
(0.10.37)
0.57
(0.251.33)

Dissolved
Calcium
(g/L)
Influent
0.24(0.15
0.33)
0.19
(0.100.28)

0.25
(0.210.28)
0.16
(0.11
0.21)
0.33
(0.110.55)

Effluent
0.25(0.17
0.36)
0.11
(0.080.15)

0.21
(0.190.23)
0.13
(0.10
0.18)
0.31
(0.130.71)

TotalCopper
(g/L)
Influent
20.14
(8.4131.79)
8.91
(5.29
12.52)
5.65
(2.67
38.61)
31.93
(25.25
38.61)
14.57
(10.87
18.27)
15.42
(9.2021.63)

Effluent
12.10
(5.4118.80)
6.36
(4.708.01)
4.23
(0.627.83)
10.66
(7.68
13.68)
10.25
(8.21
12.29)
14.17
(8.3320.01)
2.78
(0.888.78)
Dissolved
Copper
(g/L)
Influent
6.66(0.73
12.59)
7.33
(5.409.26)

14.15
(10.14
18.16)
7.75
(4.55
10.96)
13.59
(9.8217.36)

Effluent
7.37
(3.2811.45)
4.37
(3.735.73)

8.40
(5.65
11.45)
9.00
(7.28
10.72)
13.92
(4.4023.44)

Total
Chromium
(g/L)
Influent
7.36
(5.499.88)
6.00
(3.58
10.08)

5.63
(4.497.05)
2.18
(1.66
2.86)
4.07
(2.396.91)

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-3 Runoff Quality
Constituents
Sample
Location
Detention
Pond
(n=25)
1
WetPond
(n=46)
1
Wetland
Basin
(n=19)
1
Biofilter
(n=57)
1
Media
Filter
(n=38)
1
Hydrodynamic
Device
(n=32)
1
Porous
Pavement
(n=6)
1
Effluent
3.18
(2.104.84)
1.44
(0.792.66)

4.64
(3.086.98)
1.48
(0.82
2.70)
3.52
(2.145.80)

TotalLead
(g/L)
Influent
25.01
(12.06
37.95)
14.36
(8.32
20.40)
4.62
(1.43
11.89)
19.53
(10.11
28.95)
11.32
(6.09
16.55)
18.12
(5.7030.53)

Effluent
15.77
(4.6726.87)
5.32
(1.639.01)
3.26
(2.314.22)
6.70
(2.81
10.59)
3.76
(1.08
6.44)
10.56
(4.2716.85)
7.88
(1.64
37.96)
Dissolved
Lead(g/L)
Influent
1.25
(0.332.17)
3.40
(1.125.68)
0.50
(0.330.67)
2.25
(0.773.74)
1.44
(1.05
1.82)
1.89
(0.832.95)

Effluent
2.06
(0.933.19)
2.48
(0.985.36)
0.87
(0.850.89)
1.96
(1.262.67)
1.18
(0.77
1.60)
3.34
(2.224.47)

TotalZinc
(g/L)
Influent
111.56
(51.50
171.63)
60.75
(45.23
76.27)
47.07
(24.47
90.51)
176.71
(128.28
225.15)
92.34
(52.29
132.40)
119.08(73.50
164.67)

Effluent
60.20
(20.70
99.70)
29.35
(21.13
37.66)
30.71
(12.80
66.69)
39.83
(28.01
51.56)
37.63
(16.80
58.46)
80.17
(52.72107.61)
16.60
(5.91
16.61)
Dissolved
Zinc(g/L)
Influent
26.11
(5.2075.10)
47.46
(37.65
57.27)

58.31
(32.46
79.16)
69.27
(37.97
100.58)
35.93
(4.9666.90)

Effluent
25.84
(10.75
40.93)
32.86
(17.70
48.01)

25.40
(18.71
32.09)
51.25
(29.04
73.46)
42.46
(10.3874.55)

Total
Phoshporus
(mg/L)
Influent
0.19
(0.170.22)
0.21
(0.130.29)
0.27
(0.110.43)
0.25
(0.220.28)
0.20
(0.15
0.26)
0.24
(0.010.46)

Effluent
0.19
(0.120.27)
0.12
(0.090.16)
0.14
(0.040.24)
0.34
(0.260.41)
0.14
(0.11
0.16)
0.26
(0.120.48)
0.09
(0.050.15)
Dissolved
Phosphorus
(mg/L)
Influent
0.09
(0.060.13)
0.09
(0.060.13)
0.10
(0.040.22)
0.09
(0.070.11)
0.09
(0.03
0.11)
0.06
(0.010.11)

Effluent
0.12
(0.070.18)
0.08
(0.040.11)
0.17
(0.030.31)
0.44
(0.210.67)
0.09
(0.07
0.11)
0.09
(0.040.13)

Total
Nitrogen
(mg/L)
Influent
1.25
(0.831.66)
1.64
(1.391.94)
2.12
(1.582.66)
0.94
(0.941.69)
1.31
(1.19
1.42)
1.25
(0.332.16)

Effluent
2.72
(1.813.63)
1.43
(1.171.68)
1.15
(0.821.62)
0.78
(0.531.03)
0.76
(0.62
0.89)
2.01
(1.372.65)

Nitrate
Nitrogen
(mg/L)
Influent
0.70
(0.351.05)
0.36
(0.210.51)
0.22
(0.010.47)
0.59
(0.440.73)
0.41
(0.30
0.51)
0.40
(0.060.73)

Effluent
0.58
(0.250.91)
0.23
(0.130.37)
0.13
(0.070.26)
0.60
(0.410.79)
0.82
(0.60
1.05)
0.51
(0.081.34)

TKN(mg/L)
Influent
1.45
(0.971.94)
1.26
(1.031.49)
1.15
(0.811.48)
1.80
(1.621.99)
1.52
(1.07
1.96)
1.09
(0.521.57)

Effluent
1.89
(1.582.19)
1.09
(0.871.31)
1.05
(0.821.34)
1.51
(1.241.78)
1.55
(1.22
1.83)
1.48
(0.872.47)
1.23
(0.443.44)

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Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Reduceordisconnectimperviouscover,suchasbetweenlaneswithavegetatedmedianorsidewalkswitha
bufferstrip.(SustainableSitesInitiative:SSI,2009)
x Providedepressionstorageinthelandscape(SSI,2009)
x Conveystormwaterinswalestopromoteinfiltration(SSI,2009)
x Usebiofiltrationtoprovidevegetatedandsoilfiltering(SSI,2009)
x Evapotranspire(e.g.,useengineeredsoilsandvegetationinbiofiltrationareas/landscapingtomaximize
evapotranspirationpotential)(SSI,2009)
x Infiltratestormwater(infiltrationbasinsandtrenches,permeablepavement,etc.)(SSI,2009)
x Developandimplementaspillresponseplan(SSI,2009)
x Minimizetheuseofsaltfordeicingandconsiderorganicdeicersorsandinstead(SSI,2009)
x UseatreatmenttrainofmanyBMPsinseries.(SSI,2009)
x UseastormwatertreatmentsystemorBMPsthathavebeendemonstratedtoachievethe25milligrams/liter
TSSdischarge.Someoftheseare(SSI,2009):
x Waterqualitywetponds
x Constructedstormwaterwetlands
x Bioretention
x Biofiltration(e.g.,raingardens)
x Vegetatedbufferstrips
x Sandfilters
x Bioswales(usuallymosteffectiveasthefirstinlineofatreatmenttrain)
x OtherBMPslikevaultsandpretreatmentormechanicalseparatorsmaynotbeabletoearnthiscreditalone
butcouldbeusedinatreatmenttraineffectively.
x Performregularinspectionsandmonitoringactivitiestoensurelongtermperformance.Thisincludesvisual
inspectionofcontrols.(EPA,1995)
x Cleanoutaccumulatedsedimentregularly.(EPA,1995)
x Replaceoldfabrics,filtersandothermaterialsastheydeterioratetomaintainBMPeffectiveness.(EPA,1995)
x RemovetemporaryBMPsusedinconstructionandreplacethemwithpermanentcontrols.(EPA,1995)
x Seedwithgrassandcompostamendedmulchorsoiltodevelopvegetationandprovidestabilizedslopes.(EPA,
1995)
x Usewildflowercovertoprovideerosioncontrolandaestheticbenefits.(EPA,1995)
x Useestablishedgrasssodblanketsonpreparedsoils.(EPA,1995)
x Designtheroadwayfacilityfortreatmentusinggrassedswales,checkdams,filterstrips,terracing,infiltration
trenchesand/orbasins.(EPA,1995)
x Considerconstructedwetlandsforincreasedqualityandnewprovisionofhabitat.(EPA,1995)
x Setperformancegoalsforbasictreatment(i.e.80%removalofTSS),enhancedtreatment(i.e.metalsremoval)
andoilorphosphorouscontrol.(WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation:WSDOT,2008)
x Considerinfiltrationslopes(Piguet,Parriaux&Bensimon2008)andEcologyditches(CityofSeattle,2009)
(thesearesimilarapproachesusingcompostamendedsoilsforpromotinginfiltrationandpollutantremoval).
x Considergeometricdesignforerosioncontrolandflowmoderation(EPA,2007)
Example: City of Kirkland 120
t h
Street Extension
TheCityofKirklandproposestoextendNE120thStreetonecityblockbetween124thAvenueNEtoSlater
AvenueNE.Improvementsincludetheapproximate0.16mileextensionofNE120thStreet,completewith
5footsidewalks,5footbicyclelanesineachdirection,4.5footplanterstrips,andcontinuoustwowayleft
turnlanesateachintersection.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-3 Runoff Quality
Theextendedroadwaywillhaveamaximum44footcurbtocurbsection.Anewtrafficsignalwillalsobe
constructedattheintersectionofNE120thStreetand124thAvenueNE.Partialacquisitionsofuptofour
commerciallyzonedpropertieswillberequiredtocompletetheproject.Associatedimprovementsinclude
utilitiesandstormwaterstructureinstallation.Theproposedmeasureswillenhancetrafficcirculationand
safetyinKirklandsTotemLakearea.Thedesignteamusedacontinuoushydrologicmodelingtooltocalculate
theirflowratesandrunoffvolumes.
TableEW3.3:SummaryofWaterQualityCalculations
TotalInflowtoProjectBMPs 5548.96acft
TotalAreaTreated 1.188ac
ProposedPGISAreaforProject 0.99ac
AmountofAdditionalTreatmentArea +0.198ac
TotalVolumeTreatedAsPercentofProjectPGS 120%
WeightedAverageAnnualTreatmentVolumeAchievedbyBMPs 93.1%
BasicTreatment(80%TSSremoval,<25mg/L) Yes
EnhancedTreatment(dissolvedmetals) Yes
EnhancedTreatment(oil) NotPursued
EnhancedTreatment(other) NotPursued
TotalPoints 2
SummaryofCreditCalculations
1. Postconstructionrunoffvolume:5548.96acrefeet.LIDtechniqueswereusedtotreataminimumof90%
oftheaverageannualpostconstructionrunoffvolume.
a. TheprojecttreatedrunonandrunoffintheROWBMPs.
b. Calculation:1.118acrestreated>0.99acresacresofpollutiongeneratingsurfacesintheROWonly
(120%treated).
c. NodetentionfacilitieswereusedoutsideoftheROW.
2. Calculation:93.1%averagevolumefiltered(seeDetailedCalculationsbelow).
3. Treatmentdefinitionsandprojectwaterqualitygoals:
a. BasicTreatment:80%TSSremoval(WSDOT,2008)
b. Enhancedtreatment:BMPsprovideahigherrateofremovalthanbasictreatmentfacilitiesfor
dissolvedcopperanddissolvedzinc(WSDOT,2008)
4. ConcentrationtestinginformationforthetreeboxfiltersusedwasprovidedbytheWashington
DepartmentofEcology(2010).Noexpectedeffluentvaluesexceedthestated25mg/LTSSlimit
(SustainableSites,2009)orspecialWashingtonStatestandardsforremovalofheavymetalsoroils
(enhancedtreatment).
5. ProductapprovalbytheWashingtonStateDepartmentofEcologyisavailablehere:
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/stormwater/newtech/use_designations/filterrauld111306.pdf
6. BasedonTable1,2pointsareearnedbythisprojectfortreatmentof93.1%ofthetotalrunonandrunoff
accordingtostatedstandardsforenhancedtreatment.
DetailedCalculations
1. ThresholdAnalysis
x Thethresholdanalysiscalculationsarerequiredtodeterminetheapplicableminimumrequirementsfor
theprojectandthresholddischargearea.
x Withintheprojectlimit,thereisonethresholddischargearea(TDA).Twodownstreampathsthatexitthe
projectlimitjointogetheratadistancethatisalittlemorethanaquartermiledownstreamfromthe
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Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
Runoff Quality EW-3
projectsite,atawetland.ThisflowdischargesintoaculverttoTotemLake. Thesetwosystemsare
hydraulicallyconnectedbecausethewaterlevelatthequartermilepointisthatthelevelofTotemLake.
2. Assumptions
x Allroadwayareasareconsideredpollutantgeneratingimpervioussurface(PGIS),sidewalksasnon
pollutiongeneratingimpervioussurface(NPGIS),andplanterstripandotherlandscapeasnonpollution
generatingpervioussurface(NPGPS).
x Rubblizedpavementleftinplaceandpavedoverisnotconsideredreplacedpavement.
3. Definitions(fromTable31ofthe2008WSDOTHighwayRunoffManual)
BasicTreatment
x Appliestoallprojectthresholddischargeareas(TDAs)whererunofftreatmentthresholdismet
(projectadds5000sformoreofPGIS)
PerformanceGoal:80%removaloftotalsuspendedsolids(TSS)
EnhancedTreatment(dissolvedmetals)
x Appliestoallprojectthresholddischargeareas(TDAs)whererunofftreatmentthresholdismet
(projectadds5000sformoreofPGIS)
x DoesnotdischargetoBasicTreatmentreceivingwaterbody
x AppliestoroadwayswithinUrbanGrowthAreas(UGAs)withAverageDailyTrip(ADT)7,500(Forthis
projectarea,ADTis8700)
PerformanceGoal:ProvideahigherrateofremovalofdissolvedmetalsthanBasicTreatmentfacilitiesfor
influentconcentrationsrangingfrom0.003to0.02mg/Lfordissolvedcopperand0.020.3mg/Lfor
dissolvedzinc.
4. PerviousandImperviousAreaCalculations
x TabulatedcalculationsareshowninTablesEW3.4andEW3.5.
TableEW3.4:Imperviousareasummary
Category Area(sf) Area(Acres)
ExistingImpervious 35,240 0.81
NewImpervious 22,140 0.51
ReplacedImpervious 9,735 0.22
RemovedImpervious 1,647 0.04
ProposedImpervious 55,733 1.28
EffectiveImpervious 31,875 0.73

TableEW3.5:PGISsummary
Category Area(sf) Area(Acres)
ExistingPGIS 34,201 0.79
NewPGIS 16,404 0.38
ReplacedPGIS 4,321 0.10
RemovedPGIS 7,646 0.18
ProposedPGIS 42,959 0.99
EffectivePGIS 16,404 0.38

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5. MinimumRequirementsfrom2008WSDOTHighwayRunoffManual(HRM)
Figures3.1,3.2,and3.3oftheHRMareusedtodeterminetheminimumrequirementsapplicablefora
project.*Section32.2oftheHRMlistspossibleexceptionsforthisproject.**Nospecialexceptionsapply,so
minimumrequirements19oftheHRMstatesthatnewpollutiongeneratingimpervioussurfacemustprovide
waterqualitytreatmentmeetingthestatedperformancegoalsforbasicandenhancedtreatment.
6. CalculatethePredevelopedandDevelopedRunoffAreas***
Acontinuousmodelingsoftwaretoolwasusedtocalculatethetotalareaintherightofway(ROW)andthe
tributaryareasprovidingrunonintoprojectstormwatertreatmentfacilities.SeeTableEW3.6.
TableEW3.6:Totalpredevelopedanddevelopedrunoffarea
SubbasinNumber TotalArea(Acres)
Predeveloped Developed
Subbasin1 0.770 23.850
Subbasin2 0.770 0.770

7. CalculatePredevelopmentFlowrate
Predevelopmentflowratewascomputedusinga2yearrecurrenceintervalforonsite(0.016cfs)andoffsite
flows(2.640cfs).
8. CalculatePostConstructionRunoffVolume
ThetotalinflowvolumetoprojectstormwatertreatmentfacilitiesfromSubbasin1wascomputedtobe5549
acrefeet.TherewasnochangeinrunoffareafromSubbasin2.
9. IdentifyTypesofStormwaterBestManagementPractices(BMPs)ToBeUsed
Fivesubsurfacebiorentionsystems(treeboxfilters)****wereselectedbytheprojectteamfortreating
stormwaterrunoffandrunon.SeeFigureEW3.1.
10. SelectLocationsBMPsandComputeTreatmentLevelsforStormwaterVolumes
Theweightedaverageannualtreatmentforwaterqualityontheprojectwas93.1%forrunoffandrunon.See
TableEW3.7forcomputations.
TableEW3.7:Runoffareatreatedbythetreeboxfilters
AreaExtents Area(ac) Infiltration*(%)
Station160+50to102+73(northhalf) 0.244 91.4
Station160+50to102+73(southhalf) 0.284 91.1
Station108+50to160+50(south) 0.183 94.9
Station102+73toStation100+00(south) 0.236 95.4
Station102+73toStation100+00(north) 0.241 93.5
WeightedAverage 93.1
Notes:
*Thesefiguresmakeupadecisiontreeusedtoguidetheengineerintheapplicableminimumrequirementswhendesigninga
stormwatermanagementfacilitybasedonknownsurfaceareas,relativeperviousness,andpollutiongeneratingcapacity.
**Generally,iftheamountofimpervioussurfacesisgreaterthanaspecifiedminimumvalue,certainrequirementsmustbeappliedto
thatimpervioussurface.Thesevaluesarecalledminimumrequirements.
***ThiscalculationandthefollowingcalculationswerecompletedusingtheWesternWashingtonHydrologyModel(WWHM),a
continuousmodelingsoftwaretool.
****Thesetreatmentsystemshaveunderdrainsinplacethatbypassexcessrunoffintoadetentionvaultduringhigherintensityevents.
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FigureEW3.1:Treeboxfilterschematic
(http://www.ladstudios.com/LADsites/Sustainability/Strategies/images/treeboxModel.jpg)

Example: Streetside Bioswale
InstalledaspartoftheStreetEdgeAlternatives(SEAStreet)ProjectbytheCityofSeattle,thebioswalepictured
belowinFigureEW3.2isanexampleofastructuralstormwatercontrolforwaterqualitytreatment.The
bioswalesonSEAStreetsuccessfullymitigate98%oftherainyseasonstormwaterand100%ofthedryseason
water.Thisdetentionbasedapproachachievesqualitytreatmentprimarilythroughcontrolofflowvolumes
andinfiltration.Additionally,therearesixdetentionfacilitieswhichallowforatreatmenttrainforany
stormwaterthatenterstheconventionalinfrastructure.Qualitytreatmentisprovidedbyplantuptakeand
compostamendedsoilsthathelptreatstreetrunoffandremoveheavymetals.AvirtualtourofSEAStreetis
availableathttp://www2.cityofseattle.net/util/tours/seastreet/slide1.htm.MoreinformationaboutSeattles
NaturalDrainageSystemprogram(includingotherprojects)isalsoavailableat:
http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterInfrastructure/Natural
DrainageProjects/index.htm
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FigureEW3.2:Awellestablishedvegetatedswale(bioswale)thatusescompostamendedsoilandnoflow
controldevicesorstructures.Residentialstreettoright.Seattle,WA.(PhotobyJ.Anderson)

POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Actualwaterqualitymaybedifficulttomodelandmaybedifferentthandesigned.Thiscreditdoesnotrequire
monitoringtobeinplacetoverifypollutantremovalsareachievedatthistime.
2. Longtermperformancedataformanylowimpactdevelopmentmethodsusedforqualitycontrolarenot
availableforroadwayprojectsorlackconsistency.Forexample,casestudiesofgrassedswalesinthelate1990s
performedbytheFederalHighwayAdministrationshowedqualityandquantitybenefitsbutdatawerenot
collectedconsistently.(EPA,2000)
3. Detentionpondsarenotallowedexceptwithintherightofway.Adiscussionofthereasoningforthisis
providedinCreditEW2.
4. Infiltrationpracticesarenotrecommendedwheregroundwatercontaminationisaconcern.
5. Heavyprecipitationandhighpeakfloweventscanwashpollutantsoutofsometreatmentsystems.
6. Maintenanceandmonitoringareimperativeforthesuccessofawaterqualitytreatmentprogram.
7. Continuousmodelingcanbetimeintensiveandexpensive.However,thereareavarietyofsoftwareprograms
availabletomodelpollutantloadings.
RESEARCH
ThisGreenroadscreditprimarilyaddresseschangestochemicalconcentrationsofwaterofwatershedsbasedon
chemicalscollectedonroadwaysandpassedintoreceivingwaterbodiesbystormwaterrunoff.Allbest
managementpracticesthataddressflowcontrolalsoaddresswaterquality(Quigleyetal.,2009);however,Credit
EW2RunoffFlowControladdressesphysicalrunoffmanagementpractices.Biologicalintegrityofreceivingwaters
isaddressedbyCreditEW6HabitatRestoration.
ExistingLiteratureforRoadwayStormwaterQuality
Therelationshipbetweenstormwaterrunoffqualityandroadwaysasapollutantgeneratoriswelldocumented
(MaestreandPitt,2005;Strecker,Mayo,Quigley,andHowell,2001;Clarkeetal.,2007;Huberet.al.,2006;
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency:EPA,2007;Shoemaker,Lahlou,DollandCazenas,2002;EPA,2000).Clarkeetal.
(2007)providesanannotatedbibliographyofallstormwaterliteraturebetween1996and2006foralltypesof
urbanrunoffpractices,includingabrief(fivepages)reviewofliteratureforhighwaysandotherroads.The
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NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)Report565(Huberetal.2006)providesanother
excellentreferencespecificallyrelevantforroadwaysusinglowimpactdevelopmentapproachesforstormwater
qualitymanagement(andflowcontrol)inahighwayenvironment.Thereaderisreferredtothesedocumentsfor
moredetailedinformation.Abriefintroductionofroadwaywaterqualityissuesispresentedbelow,includingan
overviewofstormwatertreatmentobjectives,terminology,impactsandtypesofpollutantsandsome
recommendedLIDcontrolsforrunofftreatment.
WhatisNonPointSourcePollution?
TheEPAidentifiesroadways,intheiroperationalphases,asnonpointsourcepollutiongenerators,whichmeans
thatthesourceofthepollutantsisdiffuse(EPA,2010a).Nonpointsourcerunoffcomesfromrainorsnowmelt
thatwashesoversurfaces,collectingandtransportingparticles,whichvaryinhumanandenvironmentaltoxicity,
intoreceivingbodiesofwater.Pollutantsarecollectedonimpervioussurfacesthroughavarietyofprocessessuch
astirewear,erosionofpavementsurfacesandembankments,atmosphericdepositionandroutinemaintenanceof
roadways.TheregulatoryframeworkthatgovernsnonpointsourcepollutionintheU.S.includes(Shoemaker,
Lahlou,Doll,andCazenas,2002):
x NationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)
x CleanWaterAct:NationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem(NPDES)
x CleanWaterAct:NonpointSourcePollutionControlProgram
x CoastalZoneActReauthorizationAmendments(CZARA)
x Otherstateandlocalregulatoryrequirements.
WaterQualityTreatmentObjectives
Theprimaryconcernswithnonpointsourcerunoffaregenerationandtransportofpollutants,habitat
degradation,habitatloss,lossofbiodiversity,andpreservationofbeneficialuse(suchasdrinkingwatersupplies)
(EPA,2010a;Southerland,1994)Federalguidanceisintendedtomeetthefollowingobjectives(EPA,2005)
x Protectsensitiveecosystems,includingwetlandsandestuaries,byminimizingroadandbridgerelated
impactsandwatercrossings,andbyestablishingprotectivemeasuresincludingsetbacksduring
construction
x Reducetherunoffofpollutantsthroughtheuseandpropermaintenanceofstructuralcontrols
x Reducethegenerationofpollutantsfrommaintenanceoperationsbyminimizingtheuseofpesticides,
herbicides,fertilizers,anddeicingsaltsandchemicals
x Reducethegenerationandrunoffofpollutantsduringhighwayandbridgerepairoperationsbydecreasing
theuseofhazardousmaterialsandincorporatingpracticestopreventspillageintosensitiveareas.
ManystateshavewaterqualityobjectivesthatalignwithfederalregulatorycompliancewiththeCleanWaterAct
andintendtoprotectstatewaterresources.SomeexamplesfromtheWashingtonStateDepartment(WSDOT)
HighwayRunoffManual(2008)are:
x Preventpollutionofstatewatersandprotectwaterquality,includingcompliancewithstatewaterquality
standards.
x Satisfystaterequirementsforallknownavailableandreasonablemethodsofprevention,control,and
treatmentofwastespriortodischargetowatersofthestate.
x Satisfythefederaltechnologybasedtreatmentrequirementsunder40CFRPart125.3.
WaterQualityTreatmentTerminology
Nonpointsourcepollutioncanbemanagedthroughavarietyofstructuralandnonstructuralcontrols.These
aretypicallyreferredtoasbestmanagementpractices(BMPs)orintegratedmanagementpractices(IMPs),
andsometimessimplyasstormwatercontrolsorstormwatercontrolmeasures(SCM)(Quigleyetal.2009).For
thepurposesofGreenroads,thetermBMPisused,asarethedefinitionsofstructuralandnonstructuralcontrols
providedbytheInternationalStormwaterBestManagementPracticesDatabase(ibid.)AstormwaterqualityBMP
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isadevice,practiceormethodforremoving,reducing,retardingorpreventingtargetedstormwaterrunoff
constituents,pollutantsandcontaminantsfromreachingreceivingwaters(ibid.)Therearefivetypesofstructural
controlsthataredefinedbasedontheirinflowandoutflowcharacteristics.Theyare(ibid.):
x TypeI.BMPswithwelldefinedinletsandoutlets(e.g.,detentionbasins,vegetatedswales,catchbasin
inserts).ThesearetheeasyBMPstomonitorwhereinflowandoutflowcantypicallybepairedtoassess
performance.Inthecaseofsystemssuchaswetpondswithsubstantialresidencetimesorstoragevolumes,
datamaybestraightforwardtocollect,butchallengingtoevaluateforindividualstorms.Insuchcases,a
seasonalmassbalanceapproachisoftenmoreappropriatethanastormbased,pairedinfluenteffluent
approachbecauseitislikelythattheeffluentsampleforsmallstormsisdisplacedwateroriginatingfrom
priorevents.
x TypeII.BMPswithwelldefinedinlets,butnotoutlets(e.g.,infiltrationbasins,infiltrationtrenches,
bioretentioncells).MonitoringstrategiesfortheseBMPsaremorecomplexandmayinvolvesamplingof
underdrains,vadose(unsaturated)zonemonitoring,groundwatermonitoring,measuringinfiltrationrates
andsurfaceoverflow.Ataminimum,theinfluentandsurfaceoverflowmustbequantified,sincethe
differencebetweenthetwoshouldrepresentthevolumeinfiltrated.Ifanunderdrainisusedtodirect
partiallytreatedwaterbacktothesurfacedrainage,thenitshouldalsobemonitored.Evaluationofdata
fromthesetypesofstudiesshouldfocusonmassbalanceapproaches.
x TypeIII.BMPswithwelldefinedoutlets,butnotinlets(e.g.,grassswaleswhereinflowisoverlandflow
alongthelengthoftheswale,bufferstrips,greenroofs).
x TypeIV.BMPswithoutanywelldefinedinletsoroutletsand/orinstitutionalBMPs(e.g.,bufferstrips,basin
widecatchbasinretrofits,educationprograms,sourcecontrolprograms,disconnectedimperviousarea
practices).
x TypeV.LowImpactDevelopment(LID)/DistributedControls/OverallSiteDesignswheresomedefined
monitoringlocationsareavailablethatmayincludemonitoringofindividualpracticeswithinadevelopment,
incombinationwithanoverallsitemonitoringmechanism.
Effectivecommunicationisnecessarytomeetstormwatermanagementqualityobjectives,soitisusefulto
compareotherdefinitionsofsometermsthatareavailableinsomerelatedguidancedocumentsandwithin
Greenroads.ThetermBMPisusedmorebroadlyinGreenroadsinreferencetomanyoftheactivitiesinvolvedin
meetingtheProjectRequirementsandVoluntaryCredits,anddoesnotnecessarilyalwaysrefertoawaterquality
objective.BMPscanbetemporary(suchaserosioncontrolduringconstruction)orpermanent,suchasthoseBMPs
addressedinthiscredit.Thiscreditaddressesstructuralcontrolsforqualitytreatment.Nonstructuralcontrolsfor
operationsandmaintenanceandtemporaryBMPsforconstructionarecoveredintheProjectRequirementsand
ConstructionActivitiescategories.
TableEW3.8comparesthedefinitionsusedinsomecurrentstormwatermanagementguidanceandother
sustainabilityratingsystemsthataresometimesappliedtoroadwaysandinfrastructure.Itisparticularlyimportant
tonotethediscrepanciesbetweenthe2009LEEDRatingSystem(LEED),twoseparatedocumentsfromthesame
agency(theFHWA),andtheguidancereferencedbyGreenroadsintheBMPDB(alsousedinHuberetal.2006).
Notably,LEEDappearstousethetermnonstructuraltomeanbiologicalorvegetated,whichmatchesthe
mostrecentguidancefromtheFHWA.However,theFHWAappearstousethetermstructuralcontrolto
describeBMPsthatprovidewhatisnormallycalledenhancedtreatmentfiltersoroilcontrolfacilitieswhich
areusuallysmallormoderatelysizedmechanicalfiltersorseparatorsthatparsesurfaceoilsandgreasefrom
settledsediments(CityofSeattle,2009).Furthermore,theFHWAconfusinglyusesthetermultraurbantorefer
towhatisequivalentinmostsitedevelopmentguidancedocumentstomeanLIDtechniques.(SeeProject
RequirementPR8LowImpactDevelopment).Thisisprobablyanattempttodistinguishstandardhighway
drainagepracticessuchas,forexample,grassedswales(whichgenerallymeanslong,vegetated,generallynon
engineeredoutsideofflowcontrolsizing,nonmaintenanceintensiveroadsideditches)frombioswales(which
generallymeanssmall,decentralized,engineeredanddeliberatelyvegetatedforwaterqualitytreatmentandflow
control,notnecessarilymaintenanceintensiveroadsideditches).GreenroadsusesthetermLIDforconsistency
acrosscreditsandrequirements.
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TableEW3.8:VaryingDefinitionsofStormwaterTreatmentControlsinSelectGuidanceDocuments
Source StructuralControl NonStructuralControl
2009LEEDRating
System(USGBC,2009)
Structuralmeasures,suchasrainwater
cisterns,manholetreatmentdevicesand
pondscanbeusedtoremovepollutants
fromrunofffromimperviousareasand
sometimesreusethewaterforirrigation
orbuildingflushfixtures.Structural
measuresarepreferredonurbanor
constrainedsitesandmakeitpossibleto
effectivelycleantherunoffwithminimal
spaceallocationandlanduse.For
existingsiteswithgreaterthan50%
imperviousness,structuraltechniques
mayincluderestorationandrepairof
deterioratedstormsewers,orseparation
ofcombinedsewers.
Nonstructuralstrategies,suchas
vegetatedswales,disconnectionof
imperviousareas,andpervious
pavement,canbeusedtoinfiltrateand
limitrunoff.Inthesecasesyouare
capturingandtreatingrunoffby
allowingittonaturallyfilterintothesoil
andvegetation.Pollutantsarebroken
downbymicroorganismsinthesoiland
theplants.Nonstructuralmethodsare
oftenpreferredbecausetheymaybeless
costlytoconstructandmaintainandthey
helprechargegroundwatersupplies.
2009SustainableSites
Initiative
Notexplicitlydefined Not explicitly defined
2009NationalHighway
Institute/FederalHighway
AdministrationUrban
DrainageManual
theseengineereddevicesaretypically
structuralandaremadeonaproduction
lineinafactory.
Vegetativepracticessuchasgrassed
swales,filterstripsandwetlandsare
nonstructuralBMPsandaresignificantly
lesscostlythanstructuralcontrols
2002FederalHighway
Administration
StormwaterBest
ManagementPracticesin
anUltraUrbanSetting
(Shoemaker,Lahlou,Doll
andCazenas)
Infiltrationtechnologies,including
bioretention,pondsandpond/wetland
combinations,enhancedtreatment
systems,filteringsystems,vegetated
swalesandfilterstrips,waterquality
inlets,porouspavements
Streetsweeping,sourcecontrols
2009StormwaterBMP
MonitoringManual
(Quigleyetal.2009),
Greenroads
StructuralBMPsincludeavarietyof
practicesthatrelyonawiderangeof
hydrologic,physical,biological,and
chemicalprocessestoimprovewater
qualityandmanagerunoff.
NonstructuralBMPssuchaseducation
andsourcecontrolordinancestypically
dependonacombinationofbehavioral
changeandenforcement.
ImpactsofPollutantsinRoadwayRunoff
Fewstormwaterqualitymanagementapproachesconsidertheaggregateandsystemicimpactstothefullreachof
awatercourse,letalonethewatershed(Wilcock,PitlickandCui,2009).AsdiscussedinCreditEW2RunoffFlow
Control,impervioussurfacesaredirectlyrelatedtorunoffvolumes.Thesevolumesofrunoffcarrypollutantsinto
receivingwaterbodies,suchasriversandstreams,bays,wetlandsandoceanenvironments.TilleyandSlonecker
(2006)determinedthatimperviousnessaslowasonepercentcancauseanaquaticecosystemareatobelabeled
asstressedandupto25%imperviousnesscancauseirreversibleenvironmentaldegradation.Theyalsoshow
thatroadsandsidewalkscompriseupto33%oftheimperviousareainaveragesuburbanandurbanenvironments,
whileinruralenvironments,nearlyalloftheimperviousareaisduetoroadways(MaestreandPitt,2005).The
pollutantsgeneratedfromroadwaysinareasofexistingwatershedimpairmentaremonitoredandmanagedby
waterqualityprogramsthroughtheEPAorauthorizedstateorlocalagencies.
TotalMaximumDailyLoadsandRoads
TheEPAgathersstatisticsonwaterqualityforavarietyofwaterbodiesaspartoftheongoingwaterquality
programcalledAssessmentTotalMaximumDailyLoad(TMDL)TrackingandImplementationSystem(ATTAINS),
whichisregulatedthroughsections305(b)and303(d)oftheCleanWaterAct(EPA,2009b).Reportingis
requiredfromstateswithnonattainmentwaterbodies(thoseexceedingtheirTMDLs)everytwoyearsuntil
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attainmentisreachedforeachassessedpollutant(EPA,2009a).RoadwaysarepartofTMDLcomputationsas
theyareconsideredtobenonpointcontributorsofpollution(theyarecountedaspartofthetotalload
allocationforeffluent)thecontributionisbasedontotalcontributingareaorlengthinawatershed.Table
EW3.9wasconstructedfromthecurrentTMDLstatisticslistedintheATTAINSdatabase.Forexample,ofthe
26%oftheassessedmileageofU.S.riversandstreamsreceivingroadwayrunoff,over50%areconsidered
impairedandthreatened.Impairedwaterbodiesarethosethathavenotmetthequalitycriteriaforoneor
moreofitsassessedbeneficialuses,whereasthreatenedwaterbodiesmeetallassessedbeneficialusesbut
demonstrateanapparentdeclineinwaterquality(EPA,2008).
AccordingtoATTAINS,somestateshavereportedroadwaysasadirectprobablecauseofimpairment(not
includingthreatenedwaters)forreceivingstreamsandrivers.Roadsandroadconstructionactivitiesare
probablydirectlyresponsibleforabout3.4%oftheassessedimpairedwaters.However,theimpactof
roadwaysismuchgreaterthanthisfigureindicates.Asdiscussedinthepreviouscredit(EW2RunoffFlow
Control),runoffgeneratedonimpervioussurfacessuchasroadwaysandbridgescancausedegradationof
habitat,lossofwetlandhabitat,clearingofvegetationandmanyotheractivitiesassociatedwith
hydromodification.Manyoftheseimpactsresultfromorareotherwiseindirectlyrelatedtoroadway
constructionanduse.WhilenotallriversandstreammilesintheU.S.wereassessed,theseindirecthabitatand
ecosystemchangesassociatedwithroadwaypotentiallyrepresentanadditional20%ofthetotalimpairments
inassessedriversandstreams.Thediffuseimpactsduetoroadwaydevelopmentcouldbeupto56%forbays
andestuaries.TheseTMDLstatisticslikelyincludeseveraldifferentnonpointsources;however,manydata
werealsonotreported(denotedasNAinTableEW3.9).Forexample,ATTAINSincludesadditional
informationoncoastalandnearcoastalwatersandshorelines,butthereisextremelylimiteddatafor
roadwaysandtheindirectactivitiesnoted;thesewereomittedfromthetable.
WhenPollutionisWorst
MaestreandPitt(2005)showedthatstreetsinurbanareasgenerateapproximately2050%oftheinitialrunoffup
tohalfaninch,whichisoftencalledthefirstflushevent.PrinceGeorgesCounty(PGC:1999)explainsthe
conceptofthefirstflush,whichisthefirsthalfinchofrunofffromanimpervioussurface[thatis]expectedto
carrywithmostofthepollutantloadassociatedwithstormwater.Intermsofatypicalstormhydrograph,thefirst
flushrepresentsasmallportionofastormstotaldischarge,butalargerpercentageofthetotalloadingfora
particularcontaminant.ThishypothesiswasinvestigatedbystatisticalanalysisoftheNationalStormwaterQuality
DatabasebyMaestreandPitt(2005),whoshowedthatwhilepeakpollutantconcentrationsoccuroftenwithpeak
flows,onsmallareasofpavementwithsmallorlocalizeddrainagefacilitiesitislikelythattherewillbeafirstflush
whereconcentrationspeakearlyduetothewashingawayofmostpollutantswithinitialrainfall.However,at
largerscalesandhigherrainfall,andwithmorecomplexdrainagesystems,thepollutantloadislesslikelytobe
detectedintermsofstatisticallysignificantconcentrationdifferences.ThissuggeststhatLIDmethods,whichare
small,decentralizedandefficientattreatingthefirsthalfinchofrunoff,maybeappropriateforroadsandmay
alsohelpagenciesmeetrequirementsforTMDLattainmentlevels(Huberetal.,2006,PGC,1999).

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TableEW3.9:NationalProbableSourceGroupsContributingtoWaterBodyImpairmentsDuetoRoadsand
BridgesBasedonwaterbodyassessmentdatafromtheNationalSummaryofStateInformation.(EPA,2010b)
WaterBody
Rivers&
Streams
Lakes,Reservoirs
&Ponds
Bays&
Estuaries
Wetlands
(unit) (mi) (ac) (mi
2
) (ac)
TotalU.S.Waters 3,533,205 41,666,049 87,791 107,700,000
TotalAssessedWaters 933,384 17,576,176 18,444 2,051,861
PercentofU.S.WatersAssessed 26.4% 42.2% 21.0% 1.9%
PercentofImpairedAssessedWaters 49.6% 66.0% 63.7% 36.4%
GoodWaters 464,428 5,928,815 6,687 1,304,892
ThreatenedWaters 6,355 47,330 17 805
ImpairedWaters 462,601 11,600,032 11,740 746,163
TotalAssessedImpairedWatersDirectlyor
IndirectlyAttributabletoRoads/Bridges/Highways
23.3% 5.8% 55.8% 14.6%
DIRECT CAUSESOFIMPAIRMENT
Urbanrelatedrunoffprobablesourcegroup
Highway/road/bridgerunoff(nonconstruction) 7,712 18,705 2 NA
Constructionprobablesourcegroup
Highway/road/bridgeinfrastructure 6,591 100,796 NA NA
Forestryprobablesourcegroup
Forest&loggingroads(constructionanduse) 1,273 NA NA NA
DirectlyAssessedProbableImpairmentfrom
Roads/Bridges/Highways
3.4% 1.0% 0% 0%
INDIRECT CAUSESOFIMPAIRMENT
Habitatalterations(notdirectlyrelatedtohydromodification)probablesourcegroup
Lossofriparianhabitat 11,028 4,506 2,091 NA
Removalofvegetation 389 NA NA NA
Hydromodificationprobablesourcegroup
Channelerosion/incisionfromupstream
hydromodifications
723 NA NA NA
Channelization(includinglinedchannels) 19,380 31,925 NA 220
Cleansediments 1,132 NA 1,916 NA
Erosion&siltation 12,520 2,300 2 NA
Flowalterationsfromwaterdiversions 3,038 27,510 NA 1,000
Flowregulation/modification 199 NA NA NA
Hydromodification 17,660 302,373 607 98,412
Postdevelopmenterosion&sedimentation 1,369 16,185 NA NA
Sedimentresuspension 563 101,420 1,918 965
Streambankmodifications/destabilization 10,227 63,721 NA 8,491
Transferofwaterfromanoutsidewatershed 252 73 NA NA
Upstreamimpoundment 8,122 7,647 13 NA
Waterdiversions 5,537 NA NA 75
IndirectlyAssessedProbableImpairmentfrom
Roads/Bridges/Highways
19.9% 4.8% 55.8% 14.6%
Notes:NAmeansNotAssessed,NotAvailableorNotApplicable.
NotallwatersinU.S.havebeenassessed.Coastalwaters,nearshorelines,andoceanshadnodataforroadwaysorlistedindirectcauses.
Forestclearing,wetlandalterations,andminingandresourceextractionactivitiesarenotincludedinthistable.
Someentrieshavebeenaggregatedwheremultipleentriesusedsametitleindatabaseundersameprobablesourcegroupheadings.
Indirectcausesofimpairmentrepresentaggregateddataforallpotentialsourcegroups.
Statisticsbasedonaggregateddatacollectedfromallreportingstates.
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CommonPollutantsandSources
Themostcommontypesofpollutantsfoundinroadwayrunoffaresediment(totalsuspendedsolids:TSSandtotal
dissolvedsolids:TDS),heavymetals,hydrocarbons(oilsandgrease),andpathogens.Concentrationsofthese
pollutantsvarywidelydependingontrafficloads,environmentalsettingandlanduse.Forexample,Huberetal.
(2006)showedthatTSSisgenerallygreaterforhigheraveragedailytraffic(ADT)loads.TSSconcentrations
averagedabout172mg/Landhadawidespreadrangefromaslowas2mg/L(Interstate205inVancouver,
Washington:17x10
3
ADT)toashighas8735mg/L(Interstate10inBatonRouge,Louisiana:78x10
3
ADT).
SomecommonroadwaypollutantsareshowninTableEW3.10andtheirpotentialconcentrationsinTableEW
3.11below.
TableEW3.10:Commonconstituentsandsourcesofroadrunoff(Shoemaker,Lahlou,Doll,andCazenas,2002)
Constituent Source
Particulates Pavementwear,vehicles,atmosphericdeposition,maintenanceactivities
Nitrogen,Phosphorus Atmosphericdepositionandfertilizerapplication
Lead Leadedgasolinefromautoexhaustsandtirewear
Zinc Tirewear,motoroil,andgrease
Iron Autobodyrust,steelhighwaystructuressuchasbridgesandguardrails,andmoving
engineparts
Copper Metalplating,bearingandbrushingwear,movingengineparts,brakeliningwear,
fungicidesandinsecticides
Cadmium Tirewearandinsecticideapplication
Chromium Metalplating,movingengineparts,andbrakeliningwear
Nickel Dieselfuelandgasoline,lubricatingoil,metalplating,bushingwear,brakelining
wear,andasphaltpaving
Manganese Movingengineparts
Cyanide Anticakingcompoundsusedtokeepdeicingsaltsgranular
Sodium,Calcium,Chloride Deicingsalts
Sulphates Roadwaybeds,fuel,anddeicingsalts
Petroleum Spill,leaks,antifreezeandhydraulicfluids,andasphaltsurfaceleachate

TableEW3.11:Commonconstituentsandsourcesofroadrunoff(Shoemaker,Lahlou,Doll,andCazenas,2002;
EPA,2005;adaptedinthesesourcesfromBarrettetal.1995)
Parameter Concentration(mg/L,unlessnoted)
TotalSuspendedSolids(TSS) 45798
VolatileSuspendedSolids(VSS) 4.379
TotalOrganicCarbon(TOC) 2477
ChemicalOxygenDemand(COD) 14.7272
BiochemicalOxygenDemand(BOD) 12.737
Nitrate+Nitrite(NO3+NO2) 0.151.636
TotalKjeldahlNitrogen(TKN) 0.33555.0
TotalPhosphorusasP 0.1130.998
Copper(Cu) 0.0227.033
Lead(Pb) 0.0731.78
Zinc(Zn) 0.0560.929
Fecalcoliform 50590 (organisms/100ml)

OtherQualityConcerns:TemperatureandTurbidity
Temperatureandturbidityaretwoothercommonmeasuresofwaterquality.Temperature,whichis
technicallyaphysicalcharacteristicofwater,isusuallyincludedinqualitymeasurementsasanindicatorof
biologicalimpacts,especiallyinsensitiveaquatichabitatssuchasriparianareas(Hinman,2005).Turbidity,or
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relativeclarityofthewater,isanotherphysicalmeasurethatisusedasanindicatorofsuspendedsediment
loads(EPA,2006).Differentjurisdictionsandmonitoringcriteriawilldictatewhetherthesewaterquality
parametersaremeasuredforawaterbody.
LowImpactDevelopmentforRunoffQualityControl
AbriefintroductiontoLIDtechniqueswasprovidedinProjectRequirementPR8.Therelevantmechanismsat
workthatprovidequalitytreatmentwithLIDmethodsbrieflydescribedbelow(Shoemaker,Lahlou,Dolland
Cazenas,2002;CityofSeattle,2009).MostLIDtechniquesincorporatemorethanoneofthesemethods.
Additionally,allflowcontrolmethodsprovidesomedegreeofmitigatingtreatmentorpreventionforpollutant
transportintoreceivingwaters(Huberetal.2006;Shoemaker,Lahlou,DollandCazenas,2002).
x Detention/Sedimentation.Runoffiscollectedtemporarilyandreleasedviaacontrolledoutflow.Theslow
releaseallowsforparticlestosettleoutbasedondensity.
x Flotation.Pollutantsarepulledoutofrunoffbyphysicalprocessesthatseparatethembasedondensity(e.g.
oil/waterseparators).
x Biologicalremovalmechanisms.Thisincludesvegetativeandbacterialprocessessuchasnutrientuptakeor
metabolizationoforganicorinorganiccompounds.
x Filtration/Sorption.Pollutantsaretrappedandstrainedthroughdifferentmaterials,suchasfinesand.
x Chemicaltreatment.Chemicalsareaddedtorunofftoremovepollutants.
x Proprietarytreatmentmethods.Mechanicalorotherwisefabricatedpollutantremovalequipment.
Huberetal.(2006)presentsamoredetaileddescriptionoftheLIDprocesses.TableEW3.2presentsthepollutant
removalperformanceforseveraldifferenttypesofLIDBMPsthathavebeenstatisticallyanalyzedandshownin
termsofinfluentandeffluentconcentrations(GeosyntecConsultantsandWrightWaterEngineers,2008).In
general,amixofallofthesemethodswillbemosteffectiveonasite.TreatmenttrainsorLIDBMPsarrangedin
seriescanalsobeusedtotreatparticularlypollutedeffluentinmanycases(Quigleyetal.2009;SSI,2009).
Concentration,ratherthanpercentremoval,isthepreferredreportingmethodforrunoffqualityperformancefor
anumberofreasons.AconcisediscussionofthisreasoningisgivenattheBMPDBbyWrightWaterEngineersand
GeosyntecConsultants(2007):http://www.bmpdatabase.org/Docs/FAQPercentRemoval.pdf.
Additionally,twoofthemethodsdescribedinCreditEW2RunoffFlowControl,compostamendedsoils(suchas
infiltrationslopes)anddesignbyavoidance(suchasnonerodingroadwaysorplanningalignmentsawayfrom
sensitivewatersheds)alsopresentsignificantwaterqualitybenefits.
AdditionalResources
x Foragood,briefsummaryofrecentwaterqualityliteratureforroadwaysthrough2006,seeClarkeet.al
(2007).Thediscussionofroadsandhighwaysbeginsonpage39andisavailableforfreeat:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.87.9494&rep=rep1&type=pdf
x EPAs2005NationalManagementMeasurestoControlNonpointSourcePollutionfromUrbanAreascovers
highwaysandbridgesinManagementMeasure7(Chapter7)andisavailablefordownloadhere:
http://www.epa.gov/nps/urbanmm/
x Huberet.al(2006)compiledacomprehensivereviewofhighwayrunoffcontrolprogramsaspartofthe
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)Report565:EvaluationofBestPracticesforHighway
RunoffControl.ThisreportisavailableinPDFformat,withsupplementalappendices,at:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_565.pdf
x AvarietyofguidancefromtheFHWAonwaterqualityandstormwatermanagementpublicationsareavailable
at:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/h2o_abs.htm
x FHWA(Shoemaker,Lahlou,DollandCazenas,2002)providesguidanceonultraurbanBMPselectionand
monitoringavailableat:http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs10.htm
x AASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellenceprovidesanoverviewofwaterqualityissuesandwetlands
availableat:http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/water_wetlands/
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EW-3 Runoff Quality
x CurrentperformancedataonqualitycontrolforLIDBMPsisavailableattheInternationalBMPDatabase:
http://www.bmpdatabase.org.Theyalsotrackcostdataasitisvolunteeredalongwithsubmissions.
GLOSSARY
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
ADT Averagedailytraffic
Biodiversity Totalnumberofspeciespresent
Biologicalintegrity Theabilitytosupportandmaintainabalanced,integratedadaptive
assemblageoforganismshavingspeciescomposition,diversity,and
functionalorganizationcomparabletothatofnaturalhabitatoftheregion
(KarrandDudley,1981).
BMP Bestmanagementpractice
BMPDB InternationalBMPDatabase(http://www.bmpdatabase.org)
Detention Theprocessofholdinganddelayingrunoffwithacontrolledrelease
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
Erosion Surfacewearingduetophysicalprocessessuchaswater,windandheat
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
Flowcontrol Managementofrunoffvolumephysicalcharacteristicsincludingpeakflows
andtimeofconcentration
Hydromodification alterationofthehydrologiccharacteristicsofcoastalandnoncoastalwaters,
whichinturncouldcausedegradationofwaterresources(EPA,2007)
IMP Integratedmanagementpractice
Impairedwaterbody Bodiesofwaterthathavenotmetthewaterqualitycriteriaforoneormore
ofitsassessedbeneficialusesbasedonTMDL(EPA,2008)
Impervioussurface ahardsurfaceareathateitherpreventsorretardstheentryofwaterintothe
soilmantleorcauseswatertorunoffthesurfaceingreaterquantitiesorat
anincreasedrate(TilleyandSlonecker,2006)
Infiltration thedownwardmovementofwaterintothesoilaftersurficialentryand
percolationthroughporespaces(Huberetal.2006)
LA Loadallocation(usedtocomputeTMDL),nonpointsources
LEED LeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign
Lowimpactdevelopment abroadcollectionofengineeredcontrols,stormwatermanagementfacilities,
andotherlanddevelopmentBMPsthatattempttomimicpredevelopment
hydrologicconditionsbyemphasizinginfiltration,evapotranspiration,or
stormwaterreuseforlongtermflowcontrolandrunofftreatment
Nonpointsource Adiffusegeneratorofpollutionorcontaminants
Nonstructuralcontrol BMPsthatdependonbehavioralchangeandenforcement(Quigleyetal.,
2009)
Reach Thelengthofariverorstreambetweenriverbends
Retention Theprocessofholdingrunoff,ideallynoreleaseoccursandallrunoffis
infiltratedorevaporated
SSI SustainableSitesInitiative
Structuralcontrol BMPsthatuseawiderangeofhydrologic,physical,biological,andchemical
processestoimprovewaterqualityandmanagerunoff.
TDS Totaldissolvedsolids
Threatenedwaterbody Bodiesofwaterthathavemetallrelevantwaterqualitycriteriaforits
assessedbeneficialusesbasedonTMDLbutdemonstrateanapparent
declineinwaterquality(EPA,2008)
TMDL Totalmaximumdailyload
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Runoff Quality EW-3
TSS Totalsuspendedsolids
Turbidity Relativeclarityofwater
WLA Wasteloadallocation(usedtocomputeTMDL),pointsources

REFERENCES
AASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellence(2009).CenterforEnvironmentalExcellencebyAASHTO:Water
Quality/Wetlands.AccessedJanuary18,2010.Availableat:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/water_wetlands/
CityofSeattle,SeattlePublicUtilities,DepartmentofPlanningandDevelopment.(2009,June30).Environmentally
CriticalAreas:BestAvailableScienceReview.AccessedNovember14,2009.Availableat
http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/static/BAS%20Review_FINAL_30JUN09_LatestReleased_DPDP017711.doc
Clarket.al.(2007).AnnotatedBibliographyofUrbanWetWeatherFlowLiteraturefrom1996through2006
Middleton,PA:PennsylvaniaStateUniversityHarrisburg.Availableat:
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.87.9494&rep=rep1&type=pdf
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(1995,November).Erosion,SedimentandRunoffControlforRoadsand
Highways.(EPA841F95008d).OfficeofWater.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Available
athttp://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/education/runoff.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2000,October).LowImpactDevelopment(LID):ALiteratureReview.(EPA841
B00005).OfficeofWater.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2005,November).Nationalmanagementmeasurestocontrolnonpointsource
pollutionfromurbanareas.[EPA841B05004].Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Officeof
Water.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/urbanmm/index.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2006,November30).EPA>OWOW>MonitoringandAssessingWaterQuality
>VolunteerStreamMonitoring:AMethodsManual>Chapter5>5.5Turbidity.AccessedJanuary18,2010.
Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/volunteer/stream/vms55.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2007).Nationalmanagementmeasurestocontrolnonpointsourcepollution
fromhydromodification.[EPA841B07002]Washington,DC:NonpointSourceControlBranch,Officeof
Wetlands,Oceans,andWatersheds,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,OfficeofWater.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/hydromod/pdf/Hydromod_all_web.pdf
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008,October16).Overview|ImpairedWatersandTMDL|USEPA.Accessed
January18,2010.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/intro.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009a,April29).WaterQualityAssessmentandTMDLInformation(ATTAINS).
AccessedJanuary18,2010.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waters/ir/
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009b,September24).CleanWatersActSection319|PollutedRunoff
(NonpointSourcePollution)|EPA.AccessedJanuary18,2010.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/cwact.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2010a,January13).WhatisNPSPollution?QuestionsandAnswers|Polluted
Runoff(NonpointSourcePollution)|USEPA.AccessedJanuary18,2010.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/qa.html
170
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EW-3 Runoff Quality
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2010b,January15).NationalSummaryofStateInformation|WATERS|US
EPA.AccessedJanuary15,2010.Availableathttp://iaspub.epa.gov/waters10/attains_nation_cy.control
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2009).UrbanDrainageDesignManual.3
rd
ed.[NHI10009].Washington,DC:
FederalHighwayAdministration,HydraulicsEngineering.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/hydraulics/pubs/10009/index.cfm
Hinman,C.(2005).Lowimpactdevelopment:TechnicalguidancemanualforPugetSound.Olympia,WA:Puget
SoundActionTeam.Availableat
http://www.psparchives.com/publications/our_work/stormwater/lid/LID_manual2005.pdf
Huberetal.(2006).NCHRPSynthesis565:Evaluationofbestmanagementpracticesforhighwayrunoffcontrol.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP).Washington,D.C.:TransportationResearchBoard.
Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_565.pdf
GeosyntecConsultantsandWrightWaterEngineers,Inc.(2008)OverviewofPerformancebyBMPCategoryand
CommonPollutantType:InternationalStormwaterBestManagementPractices(BMP)Database[19992008].
Availableat
http://www.bmpdatabase.org/Docs/Performance%20Summary%20Cut%20Sheet%20June%202008.pdf
InternationalBMPDatabase.(BMPDB)BMPDBHome.Availableathttp://www.bmpdatabase.org
Maestre,A,&Pitt,R.(2005).TheNationalStormwaterQualityDatabase,Version1.1:ACompilationandAnalysis
ofNPDESStormwaterMonitoringInformation.PreparedbyUniversityofAlabamaandCenterforWatershed
Protection.Washington,DC:EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,OfficeofWater.
PiguetP,ParriauxA,&BensimonM.(2008).Thediffuseinfiltrationofroadrunoff:anenvironmentalimprovement.
TheScienceoftheTotalEnvironment.397(13),13.
PrinceGeorgesCounty,Maryland,DepartmentofEnvironmentalResources.(1999,June).LowImpact
DevelopmentDesignStrategies:AnIntegratedApproach.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lidnatl.pdf
Quigley,M.etal.(2009,October).UrbanStormwaterBMPPerformanceMonitoring.ReporttotheEnvironmental
ProtectionAgencyandtheFederalHighwayAdministrationbyGeosyntecConsultantsandWrightWater
Engineers.AvailableattheInternationalStormwaterBMPDatabase(BMPDB):http://www.bmpdatabase.org.
SeattlePublicUtilities.(2009)SeattlePublicUtilitiesNaturalDrainageProjects.AccessedJanuary13,2010.
Availableat:
http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterInfrastructure/
Shoemaker,L.,Lahlou,M.,Doll,A.andCazenas,P.USDepartmentofTransportation.FederalHighway
Administration.(2002).StormwaterBestManagementPracticesinanUltraUrbanSetting:Selectionand
Monitoring.AccessedNovember30,2009.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/3fs10.htm
Southerland,M.(1994).Evaluationofecologicalimpactsfromhighwaydevelopment.[EPA300B94006]
DynamacCorporationfortheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Washington,DC:UnitedStatesEnvironmental
ProtectionAgency,OfficeofFederalActivities.
Strecker,E.,Mayo,L.,Quigley,M.andHowell,J.(2001,June).GuidanceManualforMonitoringWaterQuality.
(FHWAEP01022).UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.Officeof
NaturalEnvironment.Washington,DC:UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation.
171
Environment & Water Greenroads Manual v1.5
Runoff Quality EW-3
SustainableSitesInitiative.(2009).GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks.AmericanSocietyofLandscape
Architects,LadyBirdJohnsonWildflowerCenterattheUniversityofTexasatAustin,UnitedStatesBotanic
Garden.
Tilley,J.S.,&Slonecker,E.T.(2006).Quantifyingthecomponentsofimpervioussurfaces.Reston,Va:U.S.
GeologicalSurvey.
UnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC).(2009)LEED2009forNewConstructionandMajorRenovations
RatingSystem.Availableathttp://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2202009
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).(2008).HighwayRunoffManual.[M3116.01]
WashingtonDepartmentofTransportationEnvironmentalandEngineeringPrograms,DesignOffice.Olympia,
WA:WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation.Availableat
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/WaterQuality/Runoff/HighwayRunoffManual.htm
Wilcock,P.R.,Pitlick,J.,&Cui,Y.(2009).SedimenttransportprimerEstimatingbedmaterialtransportingravel
bedrivers.FortCollins,CO:U.S.Dept.ofAgriculture,ForestService,RockyMountainResearchStation.
WrightWaterEngineersandGeosyntecConsultants(2007).FrequentlyAskedQuestionsFactSheetforthe
InternationalStormwaterBMPDatabase:WhydoestheInternationalStormwaterBMPDatabaseProjectomit
percentremovalasameasureofBMPperformance?AccessedJanuary15,2010.Availableat
http://www.bmpdatabase.org

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EW-4 Stormwater Cost Analysis
STORMWATER COST ANALYSIS
GOAL
Determinelifecyclecostsandsavingsassociatedwithlowimpactdevelopment
techniquesandbestmanagementpracticesforstormwaterutilities.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Conductalifecyclecostanalysis(LCCA)forstormwaterutilitiesaccordingtothe
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)Report565:Evaluationof
BestManagementPracticesforHighwayRunoffControlGuidelinesManual.
NCHRPReport565canbeaccessedatthefollowinglink:
http://144.171.11.107/Main/Blurbs/Evaluation_of_Best_Management_Practices_for_
Highwa_158397.aspx
TheGuidelinesManualisavailabletodownloadasaCDimagefile(*.iso).Thisfilecan
beburnedtoaCDandthenviewedasaPDF.
Details
Note:ThiscreditisapplicableonlyforprojectswherePR8hasidentifiedthatlow
impactdevelopmenttechnologiesareappropriateforimplementationfor
stormwatermanagement.
DOCUMENTATION
ProvideacopyoftheLCCAspreadsheetshowingthefinalresultsofthecostanalysis
andhighlightingthefinalalternativechosen.Theresultsmustshow,atminimum,that
thefollowingcriteriahavebeenaddressed:
x Expectedservicelife
x Constructioncosts
x Maintenancecosts
x Interestrate
x Salvagevalue
x Estimatedannualcostofthestormwatermanagementsystem

EW-4
1 POINT
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR2LifecycleCost
Analysis
9 PR7Pollution
PreventionPlan
9 PR8LowImpact
Development
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW2RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW3RunoffQuality
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 Improves
Accountability
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 CreatesNew
Information
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Stormwater Cost Analysis EW-4
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Useafinancialapproach(strictlymonetarycostsandbenefits)fortheLCCA.
x Evaluatedesignalternativesbasedonthegoalsofthestormwatermanagementplan.
x Setupaspreadsheettocomputecostsbasedonbudgetinputs.
x UseestimatedcostsforLIDBMPsavailablefromtheBMPDatabase(BMPDB)availableat:
http://www.bmpdatabase.org.
x Consideravoidedcostsofstormwatertreatmentatoffsitelocations,oravoidedpermittingcosts.
x Includeseveraldifferentmethodsandalternativesintheevaluationofthestormwatersystemwhen
performingtheLCCA.Investigatebothstructuralandnonstructuralcontrols,includingconventionalcontrols
suchasdetentionorinfiltration(Huberet.al.,2006).
Example: LCCA Calculation
ThefollowingexampleusestheNCHRPReportoutlinetoperformanLCCAforapotentialstormwatersystem.
Thesystembeinganalyzedconsistsof150linearfeetof12inchportlandcementconcretepipeconnectedto
two48manholes.
TableEW4.1showstheinitialconstructioncostsassociatedwiththepotentialstormwatersystem.
TableEW4.1:Initialconstructioncosts.
Costof150LFof12"ConcretePipe $1,200.00
Costof248"Manholes $4,800.00
RightofWayCost $100.00
TotalInitialConstructionCost $6,100.00

TableEW4.2showssomeoftheothercostsassociatedwiththestormwatersystem,includingsalvagevalue,
interestrate,anddesignlife.
TableEW4.2:IncidentalCosts
AnnualMaintenanceCost $300.00
SalvageValue $750.00
InterestRate 4.00%
DesignLife(Years) 30

Tobeginthelifecyclecostanalysis,allofthefutureandannualcostsassociatedwiththesystemmustbe
convertedintoapresentworthvalue.
First,theannualmaintenancecostisconvertedintoapresentworthusingEquationEW4.1:
EquationEW4.1:


Secondly,thesalvagevalueisconvertedintoapresentworthusingEquationEW4.2:
EquationEW4.2:



Thetotalinitialcostisthenfoundbyaddingthetotalconstructioncoststothetwocalculatedpresentworth
values.Thismakesthetotalcostassociatedwiththisstormwatersystem$11,518.85.
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EW-4 Stormwater Cost Analysis
Next,byannualizingthisvalueusingEquationEW4.3,itcanbeshownthattheannualcostforthenew
stormwatersystemwillbe$666.14peryearfora30yearlifetime.
EquationEW4.3:



POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Complexityofthecostanalysiswillbeproportionaltotheextentandlaborinvolvedininstallingthe
stormwaterutilitiessystem.
2. LCCAdoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheactualcostorfunctionalityofthefinishedstormwatersystem.
RESEARCH
Manyagenciesprojectevaluationprocessconsidersonlytheinitialcapitalcostsofprojectswithoutconsidering
longtermoperationsandmaintenance.Focusingonlyoncapitalcostsmakesitlesslikelythatprojectswilladopt
stormwatercontrolsthatmayhavehigherinitialcosts,butarelessexpensivetooperateandmaintaininthelong
term.Therearealsononmonetaryrisksandcostsassociatedwithstormwatersystemsthatarerelevantto
decisionmakingsuchaspermanentlandusechangesassociatedwithdetentionponds,acommonfeatureof
conventionalstormwaterinfrastructure.
Overallcapitalandmaintenancecostsarenottheonlycoststhatshouldbeinvolvedinthelifecyclecost
assessment.Thecostofactuallytreatingthestormwatershouldbeincludedaswell.Preliminaryestimatesin
NCHRPReport565showthatthecostoftreatingstormwatercanvaryfrom$0.10to$3.00pergallonbasedonthe
treatmentmethodology(Huberet.al,2006).
Drasticchangestostormwatersystemscanaffectbothwaterqualityandflowrates.Evaluatingbothinalifecycle
costanalysisaswellasawaterqualityanalysiscanbeaneffectivemethodofdesignevaluation.Thedesignteam
shouldensurethattheoverallgoalsofthestormwatersystemarenotgeneratedspecificallyoncost,but
functionalityaswell(Huberet.al.,2006).Otherpossiblefactorstoconsiderindesignevaluationincludeexisting
infrastructure,propertyownership,healthandsafety,andvolumereduction(Huberet.al,2006).
Casestudiesof17lowimpactdevelopmentinstallationsforstormwaterflowcontrolandqualitymanagement
werecompletedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyin2007.ResultsofthestudyshowedthatapplyingLID
techniquesusuallyreducedprojectcostsandhadtheaddedbenefitofimprovedenvironmentalperformance(for
bothflowcontrolandqualityofdischarge).Insomecases,LIDwasmoreexpensivethanconventionalbest
managementpractices,dueinparttocontractorunfamiliarity.Inmostcases,significantcapitalcostswere
reducedbyavoidinggrading,stormwaterinfrastructure,additionalpavingandvegetation.Savingsrangedfrom15
80percentwiththefewexceptionsmentioned(EPA,2007).
GLOSSARY
LCCA Lifecycle costanalysis

REFERENCES
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(2007).ReducingStormwaterCoststhroughLowImpactDevelopment(LID)
StrategiesandPractices.[PublicationNumberEPA841F07006,December2007
HuberW.C.,Strecker,E.W.,Heaney,J.P.,&Weinstein,N.(2006).EvaluationofBestManagementPracticesand
LowImpactDevelopmentforHighwayRunoffControlUsersGuideforBMP/LIDSelectionGuidelinesManual.
NationalCooperativeResearchProgram.
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Stormwater Cost Analysis EW-4

176
Greenroads Manual v1.5 Environment & Water
EW-5 Site Vegetation
SITE VEGETATION
GOAL
Promotesustainablesitevegetationthatdoesnotrequireirrigation.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Sitevegetationshallbesubjecttothefollowingrequirementsinordertoreceivethe
pointslisted:
x 1point:Usenoninvasiveplantspeciesonly
x 1point:Donotusewater(noirrigation)aftertheplantestablishmentperiod
x 1point:Usenativeplantspeciesonly
Details
Sitevegetationisdefinedasallvegetationassociatedwithaparticularroadway
projectandshallincludeallvegetationwithintheroadwaysrightofway.Thiscan
includeroadsidevegetation,decorativeplanting(e.g.,planterboxesorpotted
plantsinurbanareas)andvegetationcontainedinstormwaterfacilities(e.g.,
bioswalesandraingardens).
Thefollowingitemsmustbeperformedtoensurethataplantspeciesisconsidered
noninvasive:
1. Consultexistinglocal(e.g.city,county,state,parkservice)vegetationpolicy
andprocedurethatisapplicabletotheroadwayprojectandisspecifically
formulatedtopreventtheuseofinvasiveplantspeciesandnoxiousweeds.
2. Uselocaland/orregionalliststoidentifyinvasiveplantspecies.
3. Complywithlocaland/ornationalnoxiousweedlaws.
Nowaterusemeansthatthesitevegetationwillnotrequireanyirrigationafter
theplantestablishmentperiod.Theplantestablishmentperiodshallbestatedin
theprojectspecifications.Typicalplantestablishmentperiodsare13years.This
requirementmeansthatvegetationrequiringirrigationsuchasseasonalplanter
boxescannotreceivetheassociatedpointevenifitisfullycomprisedofnon
invasiveornativespecies.
NativeplantspeciesareplantsnativetotheEPALevelIIIecoregionthatcontains
theroadwayprojectsiteorknowntonaturallyoccurwithin200milesofthe
roadwayconstructionsite(TheSustainableSitesInitiative,2009a).
DOCUMENTATION
x Avegetationorlandscapeplanshowingtypeandlocationofallplantspecies.This
canoftenbefoundinthestandardprojectplans.
x Thespecificationsectionsrelatingtositevegetationincludingplantingbed
requirements.Thesearetypicallyfoundinthetechnicalspecifications.
x Acopyoforreferenceto(e.g.,webaddress)thepolicyorprocedureusedtoselect
plantspecies.
EW-5
1-3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW3RunoffQuality
9 EW6Habitat
Restoration
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Economy
9 Equity
9 Extent
BENEFITS
9 ReducesWaterUse
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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Site Vegetation EW-5
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
UseaPreDefinedListofApprovedPlants
Inmanycasesthelocalroadowner(e.g.,City,County,Stateorotherauthority)alreadyhasapredefinedlistof
acceptableplantspeciesforsitevegetation.Usually,theselistshavebeencarefullydevelopedtoexcludeinvasive
plantsandnoxiousweeds;howevertheyshouldstillbecheckedagainstlocal/regionallistsandlaws.Oftentimes,
thesepredefinedlistsalsoidentifynativeplantsanddroughttolerantplants(e.g.,nowateruse).Followingsuch
listscanoftenachievethenoninvasivespeciespointandzerowaterusepoint.Selectingnativeplantsspecies
(whichmayalsobeidentifiedontheselists)canthenearnthethirdpoint.
Predefinedlistsareadvantageousbecausetheyarestraightforwardandeasytofollow;plantsareeitheronthe
listornot.However,whenusedalonetheymaynotprovideadequateguidanceonestablishinglongterm
ecosystemgoals,managementofsitevegetationafterplanting,appropriatelocationanddensityofvegetationand
othermoreadvancedconcepts.
FollowaPreDefinedProcess
Itmaybepossibletoidentifyasitevegetationprocessthathasbeenapprovedoradoptedbythelocalauthority.
Theseprocessestypicallyidentifythesitevegetationstrategyanddescribetheactionsandmajorstepsneededto
establishsitevegetation.Theseplanscanbecomplex,suchasWesternFederalLandsHighwayDivisionsRoadside
Revegetation:AnIntegratedApproachtoEstablishingNativePlants(Steinfeldetal.2007)ormoregeneralin
naturelikeXeriscapeColorado(ColoradoWaterwise2009).
SustainableSitesInitiative
OnerobustpredefinedprocessisassociatedwiththeSustainableSitesInitiative(www.sustainablesites.org).
Thisisaninterdisciplinaryefforttocreatevoluntarynationalguidelinesandperformancebenchmarksfor
sustainablelanddesign,constructionandmaintenancepractices.(TheSustainableSiteInitiative2009c).A
roadwayprojectparticipatingintheSustainableSitesInitiativeprogramandrecognizedasasustainablesite
wouldlikelyqualityforatleast1pointinthisVoluntaryCreditand,dependinguponwhichSustainableSites
creditbenchmarksareachieved,couldachieveall3points.Overall,theSustainableSitesInitiativeisamore
robustsetofbenchmarksforsitevegetationthanGreenroadsbecauseitsscopeislimitedtositedevelopment
anddoesnotincluderoadways,mobility,accessorothermetricsassociatedwithtransportation.
HaveanExpertDevelopaSiteSpecificVegetationStrategy
Intheabsenceofexistingguidance,itmaybenecessarytohaveanexpertdevelopanentirelynewsitespecific
vegetationplan.Whilethisisanacceptableoption,theexpertiseandtimetodeveloptheplancanbeexpensivein
relationtotheamountofsitevegetation;especiallyonsmallprojectswherevegetationislimited.Inadditionto
carefulselectionofappropriateplants,plandevelopmentrequiresconsiderationofplantingbedspecifications,
topsoilneeds,andplantingtechniques.Finally,longtermmaintenanceplansandgoalsmustbeestablishedforthe
plantcommunity.
Example: City of Portland, OR
TheCityofPortlandsBureauofPlanningandSustainabilityhasmaintainedaPortlandPlantListsince1991.
Thislistincludes:
x Nativeplants.PlantshistoricallyfoundintheCityofPortland.Theyaregroupedbytype(tree,arborescent
shrubs,shrubsandgroundcovers)andincludethescientificname,commonname,andwetlandindicator
statusandhabitattype.
x Nuisanceplants.Plantsthatcanberemovedmanuallywithoutrequiringanenvironmentalreviewor
greenwayreview.Plantsareconsideredanuisancebecausetheyhaveatendencytodominateplant
communitiesorareharmfultohumans.Nuisanceplantsmaybenative,exoticornaturalized.
x Prohibitedplants.Plantsprohibitedfromuseinallreviewedlandscapingsituations.Theseplantsposea
seriousthreattonativeplantandanimalhealth/vitality.
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EW-5 Site Vegetation
Example: City of Seattle, WA
TheCityofSeattleprovidesguidanceforprojectsitevegetationusing:
x DepartmentofTransportationsuggestedplantlistforstreetuse.
x Linkstoplantselectiondatabases.
x Treeprotectionordinance,specificationsandstandardplans.
x Heritagetreeprogram.
x Recommendedstreettreelist.
x Landscapestandardplans.
ThesuggestedplantlistforstreetuseiscalledtheSeattleGreenFactorPlantList
(http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/static/Green%20Factor%20Plant%20List_LatestReleased_DPDP015968.pdf).
Example: Western Federal Lands Highway Division
In2007,WesternFederalLandsHighwayDivision(WFLHD)publishedanativerevegetationmanual(Steinfeld
etal.2007)thattheynowuseastheirstandardprocessforrevegetatingdisturbedlandonroadwayprojects.
Thismanualdoesnotprovideaspecificplantlistbutratherdescribesacomprehensiveprocessforroadside
revegetationandcreationofasustainableplantcommunity.Thisprocessincludes(1)necessaryintegration,(2)
initiation,(3)planning,(4)implementationand(5)monitoring,andisillustratedonthewebat:
www.nativerevegetation.org.
Example: Sustainable Sites Initiative Case Studies
TheSustainableSitesInitiativewebsitecontainsanumberofcasestudiesdemonstratingsustainablelandscape
practicesat:http://www.sustainablesites.org/cases
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Siteplantingwithoutproperintegrationwithotherroadwayactivities(e.g.,maintenance,roadsidesafety).
2. Inadequateplantestablishment.
3. Notconsideringthesuitabilityofaplantspeciesspecificforsiteconditionsincludingcold/heattolerance,salt
toleranceandsoilpH,sun/shaderequirements,pestsusceptibility,andmaintenancerequirements(The
SustainableSitesInitiative2009).Theroadwayenvironmentmightbesignificantlydifferentfromthe
surroundingarea,andmaynotnecessarilysupportitsindigenousplantspecies.
4. Sitevegetationmustbeconsideredinthecontextofsoils,compaction,slopes,andhydrologyinordertobe
successfulonroadprojects.
5. Disturbedsoilconditionsmustbemodifiedtocreateconditionsthatwillsustainnativeplantgrowth.Planting
bedsshouldbepreparedbasedondisturbedconditionsandspecifiedinprojectdocuements.
6. ThisGreenroadscreditdoesnotcurrentlytrackprojectsbeyondconstructiontoensurecontinuedmaintenance
andnowateruse.

RESEARCH
Sitevegetationcanimpactfourprimaryroadwaysustainabilitycomponents:ecology,economic,equityandextent.
Inthebroadsense,argumentsforsustainablesitevegetationcenterontheircontributiontothelocalecosystem,
whichleadstobroadargumentsforhowecosystemsandecosystemservicesaffecttheseareasofsustainability.In
amorenarrowsense,argumentsforsustainablesitevegetationcenteronhowtheymayinfluenceprojectspecific
ecologicalissues,costs,safety,culture,anddurability.Whiletheseissuesareoftenthoughtofasselfevident,it
canbedifficulttofindquantifiableempiricalevidencetouseasproof.Thefollowingsectionsaddresssite
vegetationimpactsbycategory.
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Ecological
Sitevegetationispartofthelocalecosystem.TheMillenniumEcosystemAssessment(2005)definesanecosystem
asadynamiccomplexofplant,animal,andmicroorganismcommunitiesandthenonlivingenvironment
interactingasafunctionalunit.Thesecanbesystemsrelativelyuntouchedbyhumans(e.g.,naturalforests)or
thosethathavebeensignificantlymodified(e.g.,urbanareasandagriculturallands)(MEA2005).Inlookingat
ecosystemsoverthelast50yearstheMillenniumEcosystemAssessment(2005)arrivedatfourmajorfindings:
x Overthepast50yearshumanshavechangedecosystemsmorerapidlyandextensivelythaninanycomparable
periodofhumanhistory.
x Ecosystemchangeshavecontributedtosubstantialnetgainsinhumanwellbeingandeconomicdevelopment,
butthesegainsareattheexpenseofsubstantiallydiminishingthebenefitsthatfuturegenerationsobtainfrom
ecosystems.
x Thedegradationofecosystemservicescouldgrowsignificantlyworseduringthefirsthalfofthetwentyfirst
century.
x Reversingecosystemdegradationcanbedonebutinvolvessignificantchangesinpolicies,institutionsand
practicesthatarenotcurrentlyunderway.
Thus,totheextentthatsitevegetationhelpsmanageecosystemsmoresustainably,itcancontributepositively,
thoughperhapsonlyslightly,tothereversalofsomeofthedegradationseenoverthelast50years.Benefits
attributedtomoresustainablesitevegetationincludetheregionalandlocalimpactsoutlinedbelow(MEA2005):
Regional:
x Betterairquality
x Climateregulation
x Waterregulation
x Erosionregulation
x Waterquality
x Pestregulation
x Pollination
x Naturalhazardregulation

Local:
x Lowerwateruse
x Reducederosion
x Preventionofexoticplantspeciesfromoutcompetenativespecies
x Bettersurvivabilityofsitevegetationbecauseitisbetteradaptedtothelocalenvironment(thoughplants
indigenoustothelocalecosystemarenotnecessarilysuitableforthealteredroadwayenvironment).
Economic
Aspartofthelocalecosystem,sitevegetationcan,inabroadsense,provideeconomicbenefitssuchascleanair,
cleanwater,food,renewableresourcesandwastedecomposition(TheSustainableSitesInitiative,2009b).Itis
difficulttovalueecosystemservicesproperlybecause(1)ourattemptstovaluethemaregenerallybasedon
humanvaluesandnotwhatmightbeconsideredobjectivevaluesets,and(2)theyarenotfullyvaluedor
quantifiedincommercialmarketsorpolicydecisions(Costanzaetal.1997).Nonetheless,attemptshavebeen
madetovalueecosystemservicesthatcanprovideinsight.Costanzaetal.(1997)provideacomprehensive
overviewonthevalueoftheworldsecosystemservicesbasedonasynthesisofpreviouswork.Inshort,they
foundarangeofpotentialvaluesofUS$1654trillion/yrwithameanofUS$33trillion/yrfor17ecosystem
services(in1994USdollars).Thiscomparestoaworldgrossnationalproduct(GNP)ofUS$18trillion(1994US
dollars)makingecosystemservicesabout1.8timestheglobalGNPifthemeanvalueisassumed.Thisestimateis
basedonmarginalcostbydeterminingthedifferencesthatrelativelysmallchangesintheseservicesmaketo
humanwelfare.(Costanzaetal.1997).Theyacknowledgethattheirestimatesareonthelowside,incomplete
andflawedbutreasonthatsomeestimateisbetterthannone(Costanzaetal.1997).
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Inanarrowsense,sitevegetationcontributestoindividualprojectcostoveritslifecycleifcostssuchassite
maintenance,waterdemand,erosioncontrolandproblematicvegetationcontrolareconsidered(Steinfeldetal.
2007a).OneexampleofthiscomesfromtheCityofSantaMonicaintheirgarden\gardendemonstrationproject.In
thisprojecttheCityandWaterDistrictcomparedtwolandscapestrategies:sustainablevs.traditional(Santa
MonicaOfficeofSustainabilityandEnvironment2009).TableEW5.1summarizessomefindingsfromthe
comparison.
TableEW5.1:LandscapeComparisoninSantaMonica,CAfortheentireyearof2007
Category SustainableLandscape TraditionalLandscape
InitialConstructionCost $16,700 $12,400
WaterUse 14,300gallons 76,700gallons
AnnualWaterCost $14 $74
YardWaste 250lbs 670lbs
Maintenance 15hours 80hours
AnnualMaintenanceCost $800 $3,000

Itshouldbenotedthatdirectcomparisonsbetweensustainableandtraditionalvegetationwithactualvaluesfor
cost,wateruse,waste,etc.suchasthatdonebytheCityofSantaMonicaaredifficulttofind.
Equity
Aspartofthelocalecosystem,sitevegetationcanprovidehumanequitybenefitssuchasimprovedhumanhealth
(e.g.,betterwaterquality)andculturalserviceslikespiritualandreligiousvalues,recreationandaesthetics(MEA
2005).Onalocalscale,sitevegetationcancontributetoimprovedroadwaysafetybyimprovingvisibilityandcan
createnaturalbeautythatisappreciatedandvaluedbymotorists.
Extent
Sitevegetationcanalsohaveanimpactonthedurabilityofaparticularproject,whichaffectsprojectlifeoratleast
thelevelofnecessarymaintenancetoachieveaspecificprojectlife.Forinstance,nativerevegetationofahighway
roadsidecanbebetterthantraditionalnonnativeturfcoveragebecauseitcanhaveahigherprobabilityof
surviving,lastlonger,requirelessmaintenanceandbetterpreventsoilerosionbasedonadeeperandmorehearty
rootstructure(seecomparisonbetweenFiguresEW5.1andEW5.2).

FigureEW5.1:Afailingrevegetationeffortonasteep
slopethatdidnotuseanativerevegetationapproach
(fromSteinfeldetal.2007a).
FigureEW5.2:Anativeroadsiderevegetationin
GlacierNationalPark(fromSteinfeldetal.2007a,
photobyTaraLuna).

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GLOSSARY
Nativeplant PlantthatisnativetotheEPALevelIIIecoregionthatcontainstheroadway
projectsiteorknowntonaturallyoccurwithin200milesoftheroadway
constructionsite(SustainableSitesInitiative,2009a).
Plantestablishmentperiod Durationoftimethatallowsnewlyinstalledvegetationtoreachastateof
maturitythatrequiresminimalongoingmaintenanceforsurvival.
Activitiesduringtheplantestablishmentperiodcaninclude:removalof
litterandtrash,weeding,waterapplication(evenfornonirrigated
vegetation),replacementofdeadplantsandpestcontrol(includingthe
useofapprovedpesticides).
Xeriscape Asetofgardeningprinciplesdesignedtosavewaterwhilecreatingalushand
colorfullandscape.

REFERENCES
ColoradoWaterwise.(2009).XeriscapeColorado.Website.AccessedNovember25,2009.
http://coloradowaterwise.org//index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=88&Itemid=145.
Costanza,R.,dArge,R.,deGroot,R.,Farber,S.,Grasso,M.,Hannon,B.,Limburg,K.,Naeem,S.,ONeill,R.V.,
Paruelo,J.,Raskin,R.G.,Sutton,P.,vandenBelt,M.,(1997).Thevalueoftheworldsecosystemservicesand
naturalcapital.Nat.,387,253260.
MillenniumEcosystemAssessment(MEA),(2005).EcosystemsandHumanWellbeing:Synthesis.IslandPress,
Washington,DC.
SantaMonicaOfficeofSustainabilityandEnvironment.(2009).Landscape:DemonstrationGardens.Website.City
ofSantaMonica,CA.AccessedNovember30,2009
http://www.smgov.net/Departments/OSE/Categories/Landscape/Demonstration_Gardens.aspx
Steinfeld,D.E.,Riley,S.A.,Wilkinson,K.M.,Landis,T.D.andRiley,L.E.(2007a).RoadsideRevegetation:An
IntegratedApproachtoEstablishingNativePlants.FHWAWFL/TD07005.FederalHighwayAdministration,
WesternFederalLandsHighwayDivision,Vancouver,WA.
Steinfeld,D.E.,Riley,S.A.,Wilkinson,K.M.,Landis,T.D.andRiley,L.E.(2007b).AManagersGuidetoRoadside
RevegetationUsingNativePlants.FHWAWFL/TD07006.FederalHighwayAdministration,WesternFederal
LandsHighwayDivision,Vancouver,WA.
TheSustainableSitesInitiative.(2009a).GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks.AmericanSocietyofLandscape
Architects,LadyBirdJohnsonWildflowerCenterattheUniversityofTexasatAustin,UnitedStatesBotanic
Garden.
TheSustainableSitesInitiative.(2009b).TheCaseforSustainableLandscapes.AmericanSocietyofLandscape
Architects,LadyBirdJohnsonWildflowerCenterattheUniversityofTexasatAustin,UnitedStatesBotanic
Garden.

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HABITAT RESTORATION
GOAL
Offsetthedestructionanddeteriorationofnaturalhabitatcausedbyroad
construction.Restoreandprotectnaturalhabitatbeyondregulatoryrequirements.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
CompleteOptionAorB.
OptionAForprojectsrequiredtomitigatehabitatimpactsthroughrestorative
practices(3points)
Implementarestoration/preservationplanthatrestoresand/orpreservesmorearea
by5%beyondwhatisrequiredsuchthatoneofthefollowingmetricsbelowismet:
1. Totalareaofrestoredand/orpreservedhabitatequalsorexceeds105%oftotal
requiredmitigationarea
2. Totalrestorationand/orrestorationcostequalsorexceeds105%oftotalcost
requiredforrestoration/preservationduetotheroadwayproject
OptionBForprojectsnotrequiredtomitigatehabitatimpactsthroughrestorative
practices(3points)
Conductabiologicalassessmentofthepredevelopmentconditionoftheprojectsite
andsurroundingecosystemorwatershedandimplementarestorationplanthat
includesallsevenitemsbelow:
1. Restoresanareaequaltothetotaldisturbedsurfaceareaoftheroadwayproject.
2. Statesquantifiablegoalsregardingatleastoneoftheperformancemetricsoutlined
below.
3. Describesecologicaldesignorengineeringelementsthatareexpected,with
reasonableprofessionalcertainty,tomeetthegoalsstatedabove.
4. Listsresponsiblepartiesforrestorationactivitiesandsubsequentmonitoring
efforts.
5. Listssourcesoffundingforrestorationactivitiesandsubsequentmonitoring
efforts.
6. Completesrestorationactivitiespriortotheroadwayfacilityopenstotraffic,ideally
duringprojectplanning.
7. Issignedandapprovedbytheresponsiblepartiesortheprojectecologist.
Details
Disturbedsurfaceareaincludesallcutandfillsoilsforpavementareas,shoulders,
embankments,bridgeabutmentsandconstructionstagingareas.Inotherwords,
anyearthworkareathatisrequiredfortheroaditselfisincluded,butthearea
designatedforhabitatcreationorrestorationisnot.
Thetotalrequiredsurfaceareacanbemadeupofmultipletypesofrestorationand
preservationefforts,solongastheprojectteamcanshowthatthetotalrestored
andpreservedareasmeettheaboverequirements.
Preservedhabitatareasmaynotbepreviouslydesignatedopenspace.Preservation
designationsmustbedirectlyassociatedwiththeprojectandbeinplaceby40
EW-6
3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 EW2RunoffFlow
Control
9 EW3RunoffQuality
9 EW5SiteVegetation
9 EW7Ecological
Connectivity
9 EW8LightPollution
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Extent
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 RestoresHabitat
9 CreatesHabitat
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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yearsaftertheendofconstruction,theexpecteddesignlifetimeoftheproject,orlocalregulations,whichever
islongest.Preservationareasmustalsobe:
x Formallydesignatedpermanentasopenspaceaccordingtothedefinitionsofthegoverningagencyor
zoningauthority.
x Clearlyandpubliclyattributedtotheworkdonefortheroadwayproject.
x Compliantwithallapplicablezoningrequirementsofthejurisdiction.
x Appropriatelyvegetatedforthelocationandcontext.
Thefollowingperformancemetricsareconsideredsuitableforachievingcreditwherearestorationplanis
developed:
x Forroadwayswithwatershedsreceivingstormwaterrunofffromtheroadway,determinethe
predevelopmentIndexofBiologicalIntegrity(IBI)aspartofthebiologicalassessment.PredevelopmentIBI
(forpurposesofthiscreditonly)meansthereferenceconditionforthismetricthatisestablished
exclusivelyforrestorationworkfortheroadwayproject,measuredwithinareasonableamountoftime
priortogroundbreakingofconstruction.SetatargetIBIthatmeetsorexceedspredevelopmentconditions.
x Forroadwayprojectsincludingstreamrestoration,setatargetlimitonunstableslopes.Thistargetshould
notexceedpredevelopmentconditions.Inaddition,establishaminimumriparianbufferwidthforthe
stream.
x Forforestrestoration,maintainareasofinteriorhabitatequaltopredevelopmentconditions.Interior
habitatrequirements(distancetoforestedge)shouldbedefinedinthebiologicalassessment.
x RestorationofBrownfieldsitesmustresultinremovalofBrownfieldstatus.Thisshouldresultinlandthatis
suitablefordevelopment.NotethatthisincludesBrownfieldlandusedfortheroadwaycorridor.
x Ifaspecificspeciesisthetargetofarestorationplan,setpopulationgoalsforthetargetspecies.Plantand
animalspeciesarebothacceptable,butmustbenativetotheprojectregion.
x Otherrestorationgoalsasrecommendedbytheprojectecologist,biologist,orotherrestorationexpert.
Justificationofthisgoalshouldbeincludedintherestorationplan.
Whilethesemetricsrepresentimportantperformanceindicators,theoverallgoaloftherestorationproject
shouldbepromotionofbiodiversityandcreationofdynamic,functioninghabitat.
DOCUMENTATION
x Copyoftheexecutivesummaryfromthebiologicalassessment.
x Copyoftherestoration/preservationplan,highlightingtheboundariesoftherestoredareasandtheroadway
project.Ifoffsite,provideseparateplansshowingbothareas.
x Copyofthescheduleofrestorationactivitiesorpreservationeffortsdemonstratingthatthecompletionofall
restorationactivitiesandpreservationeffortscoincideswithoroccurspriortoopeningtotraffic.
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x FollowtheguidelinesforhabitatrestorationoutlinedintheFederalHighwayAdministrationEcological:An
EcosystemApproachtoDevelopingInfrastructureProjects(Brown,2006).Ecologicalcanalsobeusedfor
guidanceindevelopmentofregionalecologicalframeworks.Thisdocumentisavailableat:
http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/ecological/eco_index.asp
x Involveanecologistorotherbiologicalprofessionalearlyintheplanningphaseoftheprojecttodetermine
feasibilityofrestorationwork.
x Coordinatewithlandusemanagementagenciesearlyintheplanningphaseoftheprojecttodeterminescope
andsignificanceofpotentialrestorationactivities.
x CoordinatewithwatermanagementagenciesearlyintheplanningphaseoftheprojecttodetermineIBIforthe
biologicalassessment,especiallyinthecaseswherestormwaterrunofffromroadwaysisnottreated.
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x Usegeographicinformationsystems(GIS)mappingsoftwaretodeterminecalculationsfordisturbedand
restoredsurfaceareas.
x Anticipatethatrestorationactivitiestakeasignificantamountofthoughtfulplanning,andarebeststartedprior
totheconstructionoftheroadwayproject.
x Startacommunitystreammonitoringeffort.Mostbioindicatorspeciescanbeidentifiedbyamateursandthose
willingtolearnwellenoughtoestablishatleastafamilytaxonomiclevel.(UniversityofWashington,2001)
x Collaboratewithadjacentgoverningagenciestocreatemutuallybeneficial(andpotentiallymutuallyfunded)
restorationprojectsinconjunctionwiththeroadway.
x Coordinatewithwaterresourcesprofessionalsearlyintheplanningphaseoftheprojecttodevelopand
implementawatershedmanagementplanintandemwithahabitatconservationplan(Brown,2006).Roadway
projectscanbeintegratedintobothtypesofplans,includingestablishingminimumgoalsfortreatmentof
stormwaterimpactsonwaterqualityforreceivingwaterbodiesandpreservationofaquatichabitat.
x Avoidintroductionofinvasivespeciesthroughlandscapingactivities.SeealsoCreditEW5SiteVegetation.
Example: Off-Site Mitigation - Springbrook Creek Wetland & Habitat Mitigation Bank
TheSpringbrookCreekWetland&HabitatMitigationBankwasacombinationofwetlandenhancementand
restorationcovering130acresinRenton,Washington.Theseeffortswereaimedatmitigatingtheincreased
runoffcausedbyconstructionofadditionallanesonInterstate405andfutureregionaltransportationprojects,
aswellascreatingwildlifehabitat.Theprojectsiteislocatedinanareasurroundedbyheavydevelopmentand
twomajorfreeways.Anemphasiswasplacedontheplantingofalargevarietyandnumberofnativeplants,
enhancingtheattractivenessofthesitetolocalfauna.Inaddition,aboardwalkwasconstructedthroughthe
sitetoraisepublicawarenessoftheimportanceofwetlandhabitat.ConstructionwascompletedinJune,2009.
FiguresEW6.2andEW6.3showtherestoredwetlandandboardwalk,aswellaslocalwildlife.
Moreinformationonthisprojectisavailableat:http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/i405/Springbrook/

FigureEW6.2:GeesefamilyintheSpringbrookCreekwetland(PhotobyWSDOT)

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FigureEW6.3:Greatblueheronperchedonboardwalk(PhotobyWSDOT)

Example: Management Tools for Habitat Restoration


Thereareseveralguidancedocumentsavailableforroadwayprojectsonwatershedassessmentandhabitat
restorationfrommanypublicagencies.
x StateWildlifeActionPlans.Comprehensivewildlifeconservationstrategiesaremandatedbythefederal
governmentandmanagedbythestates.Thesestrategiesofferbroadreachingwildlifegoalstailoredto
eachstate.Helpfulresources,includingsampleplans,areavailablethroughtheAssociationofFish&
WildlifeAgencies:http://www.wildlifeactionplans.org
x EPAsHandbookforDevelopingWatershedPlanstoProtectandRestoreOurWaters.EPAprovidesawealth
ofinformationalresourcesonwatershedplanning:
http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/nps/handbook_index.cfm
x TheNationalActionPlantoImplementtheHydrogeomorphicApproachtoAssessingWetlandFunctions.
Thisactionplanprovideswaystomeasurewatershedfunctions:
http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/guidance/wetlands/hgm.cfm

Example: Indiana Department of Transportation and Indiana Bat Habitat


TheneedforhighwayimprovementsneartheIndianapolisInternationalAirportbroughttogetherseveral
agencies,includingtheIndianaDepartmentofTransportationandthelocalFederalHighwayAdministration,to
developaplantoprotectandconservelocalhabitatfortheIndianabat,anendangeredspecies.Theplan,
calledtheHCP(HabitatConservationPlan)hasthefollowingfeaturesthatwouldhelpmeetthiscredit:
x 3,600acresprotected(approximately10%existingbathabitat)
x 346acresofnewlyplantedhabitat
x Apublicoutreachprogram
x A15yearmonitoringprogram

TheHCPwascompletedinconjunctionwithapproximately$1.5billioninhighwayimprovementsinanarea
forecastedforhighurbangrowth.MoreinformationabouttheHCPcanbefoundinEcoLogical(Brown,2006).

POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Ecologistsandenvironmentalengineersarenotalwaysawareofallbiologicalorhabitatneedsofallspecies
thatmaybetargetedforahabitat,norcanalloftheresourcestomeettheseneedsbeacquiredinallcases.
Thus,thereisalargeamountofuncertaintyunderlyingmanyecologicalassumptionsmade.
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2. Restoredorengineeredwetlandandhabitatareasmayfunctionwell,butplacementwithinalargelydeveloped
areacanseverelylimitinteractionofspecieswithinthesite.
3. Adjacenthabitatcaninfluencewhetheratargetspeciescanuseasitebecausemanyspeciesusemultiple
habitatsaspartoftheirlifecycle.Inparticular,mostlargespeciesalsodonotliveinonehabitatduringtheir
entirelife.
4. Habitatagecaninfluencethedegreetowhichspeciesuseanarea.Createdsitesarealwaysecologicallyyoung.
5. Completingrestorationactivitiesintandemwithroadwayconstructionmaynotbeoptimal.Mitigating
activitiessuchasrestorationsoftenfunctionbestwhencompletedpriortothestartofconstructionsothatthe
newlymitigatedhabitatcanstabilizeandbefullyfunctional.Specificityofdesigndoesnotnecessarilydictate
successfulusebyparticularspeciesofwildlife.Detailedtargetingeffortsdonotalwayswork,evenifspecies
specificdesignfeaturesofahabitatareincorporated.
6. Duringthelifetimeofahabitat,alltargetedspeciesmayusethesite,butnotnecessarilyallatthesametime.
Monitoringexpectationsshouldthereforebesetaccordingly.
7. Somehabitatscannotbefullyrestoredtopredevelopmentconditions.
8. Lossofbiodiversityorspeciesdiversityisdifficult,ifnotimpossible,toreplace.
9. Manynewlyrestoredhabitats,especiallysensitiveorcriticalones,maynotfunctionasefficientlyoreffectively
asplannedandintended.Onlysomeofthefunctionsmaybesuccessfullyreplacedorimprovedartificially.
10. Plannersanddesignersshouldbetakentoavoidlocatingorcreatingpotentiallysensitivehabitatnearedges
andboundariesofroadwayprojects.Wherepossible,theroadwayclearzoneshouldbemaintainedtopreserve
safetyandvisibility.
11. Monitoringanddatacollectioneffortsshouldbetiedtoperformancemetricsdeterminedduringtheplanning
stageofrestorationprojectstomakethemmeaningful.
RESEARCH
Naturalecosystemsprovideavarietyofimportantservicestobothhumanandnonhumanlife,andrelyonawide
arrayofcomplexinteractionstofunction.Inevitably,thechangeoflandusebyhumandevelopmentcandisrupt
thesedelicateprocesses,oreliminateimportantareasofecosystemaltogether.Habitatrestorationistheprocess
ofretainingthenaturalfunctionalityofagivenimpactedecosystem,throughlocalimprovementorthecreationof
analogousecosystemelsewhere.Inpractice,manyrestorationprojectsareaimedatrestoringwatershed
managementactivities,knownaswetlandrestoration.However,restorationcanapplytodamagednonaqueous
ecosystemsaswell,whicharenotalwaysregulatedtosimilarstandards.Whilerestorationeffortsareoften
orientedtowardsaparticularecosystemfunction,itisrecognizedthatecosystemsfunctionmosteffectivelyunder
naturalconditions(EPA,1994).Restorationisadelicateprocessrequiringsignificantknowledgeofthespecific
ecosystemathand,andmonitoringeffortsareusuallyrequiredtoensurethecontinuingsuccessofarestored
habitat.Legalmandates(primarilytheCleanWaterAct)andorpoliticaldirectivesgenerallydictatethetypeand
methodofmostwatershedrestorationprocesses,aswellasmonitoringrequirements.
RoadsandHabitatLoss
Roadsandhighwayscannegativelyimpactnaturalhabitatinanumberofways.Theseimpactshavetraditionally
beendividedintodestruction,fragmentation,anddegradationofhabitat(EPA,1994;Amentetal,2008).
Destructionreferstotheactualreplacementofhabitatbyroadwayplacement.Thisincludestheroadwayitselfas
wellasanysubstantiallyalteredcorridor.Fragmentationisthebreakingupofremaininghabitatandeliminationof
criticalmigrationpathways.Inaddition,fragmentationofhabitatareaincreasestheproportionofedgehabitat
exposedtotheoutsideenvironment,whichcanhavesignificantlydifferentcharacteristicsfrominteriorhabitat
(FuentesMontemayoretAl,2009).Degradationinvolvesdisturbancestosurroundinghabitatduetofactorssuch
asnoise,pollutantcontamination,andothersecondaryimpacts.Roadconstruction,forexample,canintroduce
invasivespecies,altersoilproperties,increaseerosion,etc.(FormanandAlexander,1998).
Aparticularlyimportantdegradationeffectofroadsisthecreationofpollutedrunoff.Asaresultoftherangeof
thesevariousimpacts,roadconstructiondisturbshabitatinanareamuchgreaterthantheactualroadway
corridor.BecauseroadscoverapproximatelyonepercentoftheUnitedStates,theirecologicaleffectshave
widespreadimpacts(FormanandAlexander,1998).
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TheImportanceofHabitatLoss
Naturalecosystemsprovideavarietyofimportantservicestobothhumanandnonhumanlife,andrelyonthe
presenceofsuitablehabitattofunction.Lossofhabitatdisruptstheimportantbenefitsoftheseecosystems.
Naturalprocesseshaveimportantfunctions:maintainingairandwaterquality,regulatingclimate,productionof
goods,andotherimportantprocesses(Wilson,2002).Theglobalvalueoftheseserviceshasbeenestimatedtobe
between16and54trilliondollarsannually(Constanzaetal,1997).
Inaroadwaysetting,preservationofsurroundinghabitatcanaidinstormwatercontrol,afunctionmade
increasinglyimportantbytheextrarunoffcreatedbytheroadwayitself(NCHRP,2006).Inaddition,habitat
destructionleadstothereductionofbiodiversity(Wilson,2002).Societalacceptanceofthevalueofbiodiversityin
theU.S.hasbeenexemplifiedexplicitlyinlegislationsuchastheEndangeredSpeciesAct(1973),whichstatesthat
speciesoffish,wildlife,andplantsareofesthetic,ecological,educational,historical,recreational,andscientific
valuetotheNationanditspeople.Inaddition,biodiversityisoftenconsideredaneconomicgoodbasedonits
importanceinscience,industry,andmedicine.Therefore,preservationofbiodiversityisvitaltobothtoecosystem
healthandhumanhealth(Wilson,2002).
PrecedentforRestoration
MostoftherequiredhabitatrestorationintheUnitedStatesismandatedbySection404oftheCleanWaterAct,
whichregulatesactivityinU.S.watersincludingwetlands.Toobtainapermitunderthisact,thedevelopermust
showthatmeasureshavebeentakentoavoidandreducewetlandimpacts,andthatanynecessaryimpactshave
beencompensatedfor(EPA,2009a).Habitatrestorationcanbeconsideredaformofcompensationthroughthe
creationofnewwetlandenvironments.Constructionofwetlandshasalsotraditionallybeenusedasabest
managementpracticeforacquisitionofapermitundertheNationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem
(NPDES),whichisgenerallyrequiredbytheCleanWaterActwhenconstructionwillcausepollutantdischargeto
surfacewaters(NCHRP,2006).
Inaddition,habitatrestorationcanbeemployedtomeettherequirementsoftheEndangeredSpeciesAct.Actions
whichwouldcauseincidentalharmtoaconservedspecies(includinghabitatloss)requiresubmittalofaHabitat
ConservationPlan(HCP).TheseHCPsmustshowthattheapplicantwill,tothemaximumextentpracticable,
minimizeandmitigatetheimpactsofthetaking.Similartotheprovisionsofthecleanwateract,restorationof
previouslydisturbedhabitatcansatisfyrequirementsformitigationefforts.(U.S.FWS,2009)
BrownfieldRestoration
Thetermbrownfieldreferstoanareainwhichdevelopmentorusehasbeencomplicatedbyathreatof
contamination.Thisiscommonlyaresultofpreviousindustrialusebutiscausedbyotheractivitiesaswell.
Remediationoftheseareas,whichusuallyinvolvessoilandgroundwatercleanup,canconvertthelandbackto
usablecondition.Thisincreasesthevalueofthepropertyandcanhelppreserveundevelopedland.Private
developersareoftenreluctanttoremediatebrownfieldsduetofinancialrisksandliabilityissues,howevermany
differentgovernmentagenciesincentivizetheseactivities(Opp,2009).TheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)
hascreatedaBrownfieldsProgramthatprovidesfundingtobrownfieldrevitalizationprojects,whichhasinturn
contributedtohigherlevelsofownerinvestment,creationofjobs,andincreasesinnearbypropertyvalues(EPA,
2009).Inaddition,eachstatehastheirownbrownfieldprogram,providingvaryinglevelsoffundingandliability
protectionforcleanupefforts(Opp,2009).
Anumberoftreatmentmethodsexistfortheremovalofhazardouspollutantsfromsoilandgroundwater.These
canbebrokendownintotechniquesthatremovecontaminantsthroughbiological,chemical,orphysicalprocesses
(Hamby,1996).Bioremediationreferstotheuseofmicroorganismsthatcanbreakdownortransformdangerous
chemicalcompoundsthroughtheirownmetabolicpathways.Whenappropriate,thiscanbealowcostalternative
tootherremediationoptions(Hamby,1996,EPA,1991).Phytoremediation,anotherexampleofabiological
approach,usesplantstocleansoilandgroundwaterthroughsorptionandwateruptake.Chemicalmethodsrelyon
theintroductionofcompoundsthatcandestroy,transform,bindto,orotherwiserendercontaminantsharmless.
Finally,physicaltechniquesincludetreatmentssuchasstripping,pumping,andwashingofthesoilorwaterin
question(Hamby,1996).Bothofthesecategoriesaretonumerousandvariedtobediscussedindetailhere.
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IndexofBiologicalIntegrity
TheIndexofBiologicalIntegrity(IBI)isamultimetricassessmenttoolthatcharacterizesthebiological
functionalityofawaterbodybasedonanumberofsensitivebiologicalmeasures.Specifically,IBI(andother
derivativesofthismetric)measurestheimpactsofhumanactivitiesonbiologicalcommunities.Integrityofliving
systemswithinawaterbodyisrequiredtoperformnecessaryecosystemservices(KarrandChu,1997).Thus,
biologicalintegrityistheabilitytosupportandmaintainabalanced,integratedadaptiveassemblageof
organismshavingspeciescomposition,diversity,andfunctionalorganizationcomparabletothatofnaturalhabitat
oftheregion"(KarrandDudley,1981).Asaresult,theIBIprovidesimportantinformationabouttheconditionofa
waterbodyrelativetosurroundinglevelsofhumaninfluence.AkeypointisthatdeterminationoftheIBIrequires
trainedbiologistsfamiliarwiththespecificaquaticecosystem.
Additionally,sinceitisarelativemeasure,useoftheIBIrequiresdeterminingareferenceconditionforthearea.
TheEPA(2006)describesthereferenceconditionforbiologicalintegrity,RC(BI),asthenaturalbiological
conditionofawaterbody,undisturbedbyhumanactivity.Asaconceptualaid,itisusefultothinkofanabsolute
naturalorpristineconditionthatcouldexistintheabsenceofallhistoricalandcurrenthumandisturbances.This
definitionrecognizestheneedforareferenceconditiontermreservedfornaturalnessorbiologicalintegrity
eventhoughwemightonlyapproximateitinmostpartsoftheworld.Italsorequiressomelevelofdata
collection,someofwhichmayalreadybeestablishedviacontinuousmonitoring.DataforcomputingIBIscoresis
basedonthelowestpracticaltaxonomiclevelwhichmeanstothefurthesttaxonomicextentallowedbycurrent
science(UniversityofWashington,2001)forlocalbioindicatorspecies(EPA,2009b)forpurposesofthiscredit.
Examplesofcommonbioindicatorspeciesaremacroinvertebrates,whichareaquaticinsects(benthos,hence,
theBenthicIBI).
GLOSSARY
Benthos Greekformacroinvertebrates
BIBI BenthicIndexofBiologicalIntegrity
Biodiversity Totalnumberofspeciespresent
Bioindicator Seeindicatorspecies
BiologicalIntegrity Theabilitytosupportandmaintainabalanced,integratedadaptive
assemblageoforganismshavingspeciescomposition,diversity,and
functionalorganizationcomparabletothatofnaturalhabitatoftheregion
(KarrandDudley,1981).
Brownfield Anareamadeunsuitablefordevelopmentbyprevioususe,commonly
industrial.
EcosystemServices Naturalprocessesthatprovidebenefitsforhumankind
Fragmentation Divisionofasinglepopulationordisruptionofmigrationroutesbetween
smallerpopulations
IBI IndexofBiologicalIntegrity
Indicatorspecies Aspecieswhichrespondspredictablytostressorsfromhumandisturbance
(EPA,2009b)
RC(BI) Referenceconditionforbiologicalintegrity
Referencecondition Thenaturalbiological conditionofawaterbody,undisturbedbyhuman
activity.Asaconceptualaid,itisusefultothinkofanabsolutenaturalor
pristineconditionthatcouldexistintheabsenceofallhistoricalandcurrent
humandisturbances(EPA,2006)
Totaldisturbedarea Anyareadisturbedforconstructionactivitiesincludingconstructionstaging
areasandclearedorstrippedplantlife,butnotincludinganyareas
designatedforrestorationorhabitatcreationpurposes

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REFERENCES
AssociationofFish&WildlifeAgencies.(2007).StateWildlifeActionPlans:About.AccessedOctober7,2010.
Availableathttp://www.wildlifeactionplans.org/about/index.html.
Brown,J.andU.S.DepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration,ResearchandInnovative
TechnologyAdministration,VolpeTransportationResearchCenter.(2006,April).Ecological:AnEcosystem
ApproachtoDevelopingInfrastructureProjects.[FHWAHEP06011].Washington,DC:OfficeofProject
DevelopmentandEnvironmentalReview,FederalHighwayAdministration,U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.
Costanza,R.,dArge,R.,deGroot,R.,Farber,S.,Grasso,M.,Hannon,B.,Limburg,K.,Naeem,S.,ONeill,R.V.,
Paruelo,J.,Raskin,R.G.,Sutton,P.,vandenBelt,M.(1997).Thevalueoftheworldsecosystemservicesand
naturalcapital.Nature,387,253260.
EndangeredSpeciesActof197316U.S.C.1531
FederalInteragencyStreamRestorationWorkingGroup(2001).StreamCorridorRestoration:Principles,Processes,
andPractices.
http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/stream_restoration/newtofc.htm
Forman,R.andAlexander,L.(1998).Roadsandtheirmajorecologicaleffects.AnnualReviewofEcologyand
Systematics,29,207231.
Forman,R.T.T.andDeblingerR.D.(2000).TheEcologicalRoadEffectZoneofaMassachusettsSuburbanHighway.
ConservationBiology.14,1,3646.
Hackney,C.T.(1998).HabitatRestoration:"GoalSettingandSuccessCriteriaforCoastalHabitatRestoration"
Dept.BiologicalSciences,UniversityofNorthCarolinaatWilmington.
Hamby,D.M.(1996).Siteremediationtechniquessupportingenvironmentalrestorationactivitiesareview.The
ScienceoftheTotalEnvironment.191,203224.
Karr,J.R.,Chu,E.W.(1997).BiologicalMonitoringandAssessment:UsingMultimetricIndexesEffectively.(EPA235
R97001)
Karr,J.R.andDudley,D.R.(1981).Ecologicalperspectiveonwaterqualitygoals.EnvironmentalManagement,5:55
68.
Kentula,M.E.(1998).PerspectivesonSettingSuccessCriteriaforWetlandRestorationin:HabitatRestoration:
"GoalSettingandSuccessCriteriaforCoastalHabitatRestoration"Dept.BiologicalSciences,Universityof
NorthCarolinaatWilmington.http://www.csc.noaa.gov/lcr/text/confsumm.html
Keim,R.F.,A.B.Price,T.S.Hardin,A.E.Skaugset,D.S.Bateman,R.E.Gresswell,andS.D.Tesch.(2003).An
AnnotatedBibliographyofSelectedGuidesforStreamHabitatImprovementinthePacificNorthwest.
ResearchContribution44,ForestResearchLaboratory,OregonStateUniversity,Corvallis.
Miller,J.R.,Hobbs,R.J.(2007).HabitatRestoration:DoWeKnowWhatWereDoing?RestorationEcology.15,3,
382390
MontemayorFuentes,E.,Cuaron,A.D.,VasquezDominguezE.,MalvidoBenitez,J.,ValenzuelaGalvan,D.,
Andresen,E.(2009).Livingontheedge:roadsandedgeeffectsonsmallmammalpopulations.Journalof
AnimalEcology,78,857865.
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NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram,NationalResearchCouncil(U.S.),AmericanAssociationofState
HighwayandTransportationOfficials,OregonStateUniversity,UniversityofFlorida,GeoSyntecConsultants,
etal.(2006).Evaluationofbestmanagementpracticesforhighwayrunoffcontrol.(Report565)Washington,
D.C.:TransportationResearchBoard.Washington,DC:TransportationResearchBoard.
NorthCarolinaDepartmentofTransportation.(2003).Awards:LengyelMitigationSiteinNewBern.
http://www.ncdot.org/programs/environment/awards/Lengyel.htmland
http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/pe/NEU/Monitoring/2003Monitoring/LengyelReport2003.pdf
Opp,S.M.(2009).ExperiencesoftheStatesinBrownfieldRedevelopment.EnvironmentalPractice.11,270284.
UniversityofWashington.ColumbiaBasinResearch.SchoolofFisheriesandAquaticSciences.(2001,June29).
Salmonweb:CommunityBasedMonitoringforBiologicalIntegrityofStreams.AccessedDecember1,2009.
Availableathttp://www.cbr.washington.edu/salmonweb/
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(1991).UnderstandingBioremediation:AGuidebookforCitizens.[EPA540
29100].WashingtonD.C.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(1994).EvaluationofEcologicalImpactsfromHighwayDevelopment.[EPA
300B94006].Washington,DC:OfficeofFederalActivities.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2006).BestPracticesforIdentifyingReferenceConditionsinMidAtlantic
Streams.[EPA260F06002].Washington,DC:OfficeofEnvironmentalInformation.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009).WetlandRegulatoryAuthorityfrom:
http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/pdf/reg_authority_pr.pdf
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2010)BrownfieldsandLandRevitalization.RetrievedSeptember30
th
,2010
from:http://epa.gov/brownfields/
Rumps,J.M.,S.L.Katz,K.Barnas,M.D.Morehead,R.Jenkinson,S.R.Clayton,P.Goodwin.(2007).Stream
RestorationinthePacificNorthwest:AnalysisofInterviewswithProjectManagers.RestorationEcology15,3,
506515.
Sudduth,E.B.,Meyer,J.L.,Berhardt,E.S.(2007).StreamRestorationPracticesintheSoutheasternUnitedStates.
RestorationEcology.15,3,573583
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009b,December31).EPA|AboutBiologicalIndicators.AccessedJanuary
9,2010.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/about.html
U.S.FishandWildlifeService.(2009).HabitatConservationPlansUndertheEndangeredSpeciesAct.Arlington,VA:
EndangeredSpeciesProgram.
Wilson,E.O.(2002).Thefutureoflife.NewYork:AlfredA.Knopf.

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EW-7 Ecological Connectivity
ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY
GOAL
Provideorimprovewildlifeaccessandmobilityacrossroadwayfacilityboundariesand
reducevehiclewildlifecollisionsandrelatedaccidents.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Completeasitespecificwildlifeassessmentfortheroadwayproject.Reportthe
resultingimpactsthattheroadwayhasonsurroundingmajorecosystems,identifying
allnonhumanlifethatisimpactedbytheroadwayfacilityaccordingtothebest
scientificknowledgeavailablefortheecosystem.Bothpointscenariosbelowrequire
approvaloftheprojectecologist.
AND
Completeoneofthetwoofthefollowingoptions:
OPTIONAExistingAlignmentsONLY(1point)
Replaceinkind,retrofit,orupgradeanyandallexistingculvertsandwildlifefencing
structuresdeemedstructurallydeficient,damaged,obsolete,insufficientlysized,or
otherwiseinadequate.
OR
OPTIONBNewandExistingAlignments(3points)
Installnewdedicatedwildlifecrossingstructuresandprotectivefencing(ifneeded)as
recommendedbythewildlifeassessment.Inaddition,existingalignmentsmustalso
replaceinkind,retrofit,orupgradeallexistingculvertsandfencingstructuresdeemed
structurallydeficient,damaged,obsolete,insufficientlysized,orotherwiseinadequate.
Details
Dedicatedwildlifecrossingsarestructuralfeaturesoftheroadwaythatarenot
usedbymotorizedvehicles.Wheredeemedappropriatebyanecologist,crossings
maybesharedbynonmotorizedmodesoftransport.Nopointswillbeawardedin
thefollowingconditions:
1. Forprojectsthatmaintainorrehabilitateexistingecologicalconnectionstoout
ofdateorcurrentstandards(i.e.routinemaintenanceofdrainageculvertsdoes
notqualify).
2. Preexistingecologicalconnectivityfeatures:allnewfeaturesorupgradesmust
beduetoandcompletedaspartoftheroadwayproject.
3. Projectsthataddwildlifeconnectivityfeatureswheresuchfeaturesareclearly
outsideoftheprojectcontext.
4. Projectslocatedinanetworkthatissystematicallyinadequate.However,points
couldbeawardedforsuchprojectswhereitisdemonstratedthataprogramis
inplaceattheowneragencyforsystematicimprovementsonthatnetwork,
andthatthisprojectfitsthisprogram.

EW-7
1-3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW6Habitat
Restoration
9 AE1SafetyAudit
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 RestoresHabitat
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
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DOCUMENTATION
1. Copyoftheexecutivesummaryoftheecologicalstudyperformedfortheproject.Atminimum,thissummary
shouldcontain:
a. Sitelocationmapandsiteplan.Highlightlocations,typesandsizesofecologicalconnectionsinthefacility.
b. Alistofnonhumanspeciesidentified.Includecommonname,Latinname,size,photosofthespecies,and
highlightthelargestspecies.
c. Thesizeoftheconnectionrequiredinordertoaccommodatethelargestspeciesidentifiedabove
d. Alistofplannednewdedicatedconnections,newculvertsandfencingtobeinstalled,andanyupgraded
culvertsandfencinginstallations.
e. Signatureoftheprojectecologist.
2. Photosofallculvertsandfencing(newandupgraded,ifany)anddedicatedcrossingsafterconstruction.Usea
familiarobjectinthephotoforscalingpurposes(hammer,measuringtape,shovel,etc.)orprovidescaleonthe
image.
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Forexistingprojects,useroadkilldatatoidentifykeyspeciesintheprojectarea.Inaddition,ifunderpassesor
othersimilarstructuresexistforotherpurposesthanecologicalconnectivity,monitoranimaloraquatic
organismmovementthroughthesepassages.
x Fornewandexistingprojects,determinethemakeupofanimalpopulationsintheareaandmigrationpatterns.
Animalpopulationdatacanbeobtainedfromexistingecologicalrecordsorbymoretraditionalmethodssuch
astheanalysisoftracksorotheridentifyinganimalfeatures.MigrationpatternscanbepredictedusingGIS
landscapedata,GPStrackingcollars,analysisofanimaltracks,andmostcommonlythroughuseofcameras
alongtheproposedorexistingroadway.
Example: Case Study - Banff National Park of Canada
BanffNationalParkinCanadaHighwayFencingandWildlifeCrossingsisanexampleofoneofthefirstand
mostsuccessfulprojectstoaccommodateterrestrialhabitatconnectivity.Inresponsetohighandrisingtraffic
volumes,sectionsoftheTransCanadaHighway(TCH)havebeenupgradedfromatwolanetoafourlane
dividedhighwayinBanffNationalPark.
ToreducethenegativeimpactsofalargerhighwayonwildlifepopulationsinBanffNationalPark:
x Fencinghasbeeninstalledonbothsidesofthetwinnedhighwaysectionstopreventlargeanimalsfrom
gettingontothehighway.Vehiclewildlifecollisionshavebeensignificantlyreduced.
x Wildlifeunderpassesandoverpasseshavebeeninstalledtoconnectvitalhabitatsandhelpsustain
biodiversity.
x In1996,thehighwaymitigationresearchprojectbeganstudyingtheimpactsofroadsonwildlifeintermsof
roadmortality,wildlifemovementsandhabitatconnectivityintheBowValley.Researchresultsarebeing
appliedinhighwayupgradeprojectsinthemountainparksandbeyond,includingothercountries.

ExamplesofconnectivitystructuresareshowninfiguresEW7.1andEW7.2below.
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FigureEW7.1:Wolverineoverpass FigureEW7.2:Deerusingabridgecrossing
(http://www.pc.gc.ca/pnnp/ab/banff/docs/routes/sec3/page42_e.asp#redearth3)

Formoreinformation,visit:http://www.pc.gc.ca/pnnp/ab/banff/index_e.asp.
Example: Case Study Interstate 90 Snoqualmie Pass East Mitigation Project
Interstate90,whichstretchesacrossthenorthernUnitedStates,iscurrentlyundergoinganumberof
improvementsalongafivemilestretchbetweenHyakandKeechelusDamincludingtheadditionoftwolanes
andanumberofconnectivityfeatures.Thisstretchofhighwayisavitalcorridorconnectingeasternand
westernWashingtonState.Tomeettheecologicalneedsofthearea,WashingtonStateDepartmentof
TransportationhasidentifiedanumberofConnectivityEmphasisAreas(CEAs)thatlinkvitalpatchesofaquatic
orterrestrialhabitat.
Tofacilitateconnectivityacrosstheroadway,theseCEAswillfeature:
x Bridgesrangingfrom120to900feetinlengthaswellasanumberofculvertstopreserveaquaticmigratory
abilityandhydrologicfunction.
x Threeoverroadwildlifecrossingscombinedwithfencestodirectanimalstotheselocations.
Formoreinformation,visit:http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/I90/SnoqualmiePassEast/Default.htm.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Identifyingecologicalconnectivityrequirementsneedswelldesignedlongtermstudies.Inmanycasesthese
mayneedtobeconductedovermultipleyears.
2. Lackofecologicalorspeciesdata.
3. Developmentconflictswithecologicallysensitiveareas.
4. Designofconnectivitystructuresthatwillbeacceptedandusedbytargetorganismscanbedifficult.
5. Fornewprojects,priormigrationpatternsandotheranimalandaquaticorganismbehaviorsmaybealteredby
thepresenceoftheroadway.Thisshouldbecarefullyconsideredasalongtermimpact,especiallyduring
environmentalreview.
6. Ingeneral,caseswherethiscreditmaynotbeappropriatearerare,eveninurbanenvironments,butare
heavilydependentonavailableecosystemdata.Thisdatamaynotbeavailableinurbanizedecosystemsthat
arenotcloselymonitored.
7. Inrarecases,projectsthathaveconductedanecologicalstudymaydeterminethatecologicalconnectionswill
underminethesafetyofhumanusers.
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RESEARCH
Whatisecologicalconnectivity?
Ecologicalconnectivityistherelativeeasewithwhichdispersiveanddynamicecologicalprocesses(suchasspecies
migration,watermovement,soiltransmission,pollination,etc.)occuracrossvariousecosystemboundaries
(Interstate90SnoqualmiePassDevelopmentTeam2006).InGreenroads,specifically,ecologicalconnectivityrefers
tothemovementofnonhumanorganisms(wildlifeandplantspecies)acrossvariousmanmadeecosystem
boundaries,suchasroadways.Anecologicalconnectionisadeliberateattempttoprovideapathwayfor
transmissionofnonhumanlifeacross,under,above,orthrougharoadwayprojectfootprintwithoutimpacting
thesafetyofhumanusers.
Considerationofandcompensationforadverseeffectsonecologicalconnectivityarenotspecificrequirementsof
theNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)orstateenvironmentallaws.Instead,considerationofecological
connectivityisdrivenbystakeholders,regulatoryandnaturalresourceagenciessuchastheU.S.ArmyCorpsof
Engineers(USACE),EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(throughSection404oftheCleanWaterAct),theU.S.Fish
andWildlifeService,federallandmanagementagencies,orthestatenaturalresourcesmanagementagency.
Whyisecologicalconnectivityimportant?
Migrationabilityisnecessarytothesurvivalofmanyspecies,androadsthatdisruptvitalhabitatcorridorshavethe
potentialtoseriouslydebilitateanecosystem.Animalcrossingoftraditionalroadshashugecostsintheformof
humanandanimallifeinadditiontomonetarylosses.However,withcarefulplanning,wildlifecrossingcanbe
effectivelyfacilitatedinasafeandnondisruptivemanner.Itisimportanttonotethatthereisnosinglesolutionto
everyconnectivityproblem,andthereisnotnecessarilyasolutionforeveryspeciesthatmightbeencounteredon
aproject.Whenwellresearchedandtailoredtoaspecificproject,connectivityfeatureshavethepotentialto
createsaferroads,improvehabitat,andsavemoney.Establishingormaintainingecologicalconnectivityfor
existingandnewprojects,respectively,willreducethelongtermecologicalimpactsofroads,helptosustain
populations,andpossiblyreducetheneedforlegalprotectionforspecies.
Access&MobilityforWildlife
Amongtheanimalkingdom,therearefewspeciesthatliveinsingle,staticrangesthroughouttheirlifetimes.
Suitablehabitatforaspecificspeciesmightonlybefoundinsmallparcelsthroughoutaregion,whichoften
forcesaspeciestoinhabitsmallisolatedchunksofland.Thispopulationstructureisdefinedasa
metapopulation,oragroupofsmallpopulationswhichmakeupthetotalpopulation.Becauseoflowgenetic
variabilitywithinthesesmallerpopulations,thethreatofindividualgroupextinctionandtheneedfora
constantfoodsource,connectivitybetweendifferenthabitatpatchesisvitalforthesurvivalofmanyspecies
(Freemanetal.2005).IlkaHansi,whoextensivelystudiedGlanvillebutterflypopulationsinoneofthedefining
studiesofpopulationdynamics,concludedthattheabilityofsmallerpopulationstobereplacedbyindividuals
fromothergroupsisnecessarytoavoidextinction(Hanski,1995).
Roadwaysandhighwaysarelonglinearstructureswhichcanoftenseparateanimalsfromimportant
destinations,resultinginalossofecosystemfunctionalityforthosethatdonotattempttocrossandamore
directhazardintheformofautomobilecollisionforthosethatdo.IntheAppalachians,areasinwhichblack
bearscommonlyattempttocrossroadshavesignificantmortalityrates,whilehighertrafficroadsdeterbear
crossingandforcesmall,isolatedpopulationsthreatenedbylowgeneticvariability(Donaldson2007).In
additiontoterrestrialanimals,population,geneticdiversity,andlongtermsurvivalofmanyfishspeciescanbe
significantlyreducedbylossofmigrationability,whichcanbehinderedorpreventedbytypicalculvertsfound
atstreamandrivercrossings.(Mirati1999,Fitch1995)
HumanSafety
Thecrossingofroadwaysbyanimalshasaverydirecthumancostaswell.In2002,anestimated1.5million
collisionsbetweenautomobilesanddeeroccurredintheUnitedStates,killingabout150peopleandcausing
over$1.1billioninvehicledamage.(Hedlundet.Al2003)Inthiscase,thereislittlethreattothesurvivalofthe
species.Infact,therapidgrowthrateofdeerpopulationindicatesthatthistrendwillworsenovertime.
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Inmostcases,theinstallationofwildlifepassagestructureshasledtoincreasedanimalcrossingandreduced
collisions,andfederalfundinghasbeenmadeavailableforsuchprojectsundertheTransportationEquityActof
1998.(Hartmann2003)Formammalcrossingthemosteffectivecrossingsystemshavebeenunderpasses
coupledwithfencingtofunnelanimalstotheappropriatepoint(Hedlundet.al2003;Doddet.al2007).
Importantfactorsinfluencingtheuseofsuchunderpassesincludetheheightoftheunderpass,surrounding
vegetation,andtypeofgroundsurfacevisible(Donaldson2007;Doddet.Al2007).Underpassuseisreported
fordeeraloneinsevendifferentstates,andbothunderpassesandoverpasseshavebeenusedtoallowpassage
ofelk,bear,panther,mountaingoats,andsalamanders(Hartmann2003;RominandBissonette1996).Aseries
ofunderpassesandfencingonthenewlyreconstructedArizonaSR260isestimatedtosave$1milliondollars
peryearbypreventingcollisions(primarilywithelk),whichhavebeenreduced56%from19921997levels
despiteincreasedtrafficvolume.(Doddet.Al2007,BrownandLaird1999)InVirginia,underpasseswere
effectivelyusedbydeer,raccoons,groundhogs,andawiderangeofothermammals,birds,amphibiansand
reptiles,butwereunabletoallowthepassageofblackbears,oneofthetargetsoftheproject.(Donaldson
2007)Whenproperlyresearchedandconstructed,underpassescanprovidecriticalpassagewaysforanimals,
butthereisnoguaranteethatagivenpopulationwillbewillingtousesuchstructureswithoutpriorevidence.
AquaticConnectivity
Culvertdesignforstreamandrivercrossingscanhaveanimportantimpactontheabilityoffishtosuccessfully
crossaroadway.Highwatervelocitiescausedbysteepslopesandnarrowedflowareoftenimpassableto
certainfishspecies(BelfordandGould1989).Becauseofthisandotherfactors,theslopeofaculvertplaysa
keyroleintheeffectivenessofacrossing.Ideally,culvertswillbeplacedatgradewiththestream.Culvertsat
lowergraderiskcausingdangeroushydraulicjumpsoroutletdrops,whilesteepgradestypicallymeanhigher
velocityflows(Fitch1995).Whilebridgesarethemosteffectivewaytoeliminateimpedimentoffishtravel,this
isoftenaprohibitivelyexpensiveoption.Welldesignedculvertswithcontrolledflowvelocityplacedatgrade
cansuccessfullyaccommodatefishpassageandaregenerallyamorefeasiblealternative(Fitch1995).
AdditionalResources&Tools
x Themostcomprehensivereviewofrelativelyrecentworkforecologicalconnectionsandsocietalbenefitsis
presentedinabookcalledRoadEcology:ScienceandSolutionsbyR.T.T.Formanetal.(2003).
x TheFederalHighwayAdministrationswebsitecalledWildlifeProtectionandHabitatConnectivityincludes
severalhundredexamplesofprojectsimplementedaroundtheUnitedStatesandEurope:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/hconnect/index.htm
x Currentresearch,policyissues,andbestpracticesarepostedbyNorthCarolinaStateUniversity'sInstitutefor
TransportationResearchandEducation,CenterforTransportationandtheEnvironmentWildlifeFisheriesand
TransportationWebGateway
http://www.cte.ncsu.edu/cte/gateway/home.asp
GLOSSARY
Ecologicalconnection Adeliberateattempttoprovideapathwayfortransmissionofnonhuman
lifeacross,under,above,orthrougharoadwayprojectfootprintwithout
impactingthesafetyofhumanusers
Ecologicalconnectivity themovementofnonhumanorganisms(wildlifeandplantspecies)across
variousmanmadeecosystemboundaries,suchasroadways
Geneticdiversity Thenumberofdifferentkindsofgenesthatexistwithinapopulationor
group.Populationswithlowgeneticdiversityarelesslikelytobeableto
adapttochangingenvironmentalpressuresandarethereforeathigherriskof
extinction.
Metapopulation Apopulationconsistingofanumberofsmallerdispersedpopulations.
Individualorganismstypicallymovebetweensmallergroupstomaintaina
healthyecosystem.
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REFERENCES
Belford,D.AandGould,W.R.(1989)AnEvaluationofTroutPassageThroughSixHighwayCulvertsinMontana.
NorthAmericanJournalofFisheriesManagement9,437445.
Brown,Douglas,Laird,James(1999)MethodsUsedbytheArizonaDepartmentofTransportationtoReduce
WildlifeMortalityandImproveHighwaySafety.ArizonaDepartmentofTransportation.
Clevenger,Anthony.(1998).PermeabilityoftheTransCanadaHighwaytoWildlifeinBanffNationalPark:The
ImportanceofCrossingStructuresandFactorsInfluencingTheirEffectiveness.ProceedingsoftheInternational
ConferenceonWildlifeEcologyandTransportation.February1012,Ft.Meyers,Florida.FLER6998:pp.109
119.
DamasandSmith,Ltd.(1982).WildlifeMortalityinTransportationCorridorsinCanada'sNationalParksImpact
andMitigation.ParksCanada.2volumes.
Dodd,N.L.,J.W.Gagnon,S.Boe,A.Manzo,Schweinsburg(2007)EvaluationofMeasurestoMinimizeWildlife
VehicleCollisionsandMaintainPermeabilityAcrossHighways.ResearchBranch,ArizonaGameandFish
Department
Donaldson,B.(2007)UseofHighwayUnderpassesbyLargeMammalsandOtherWildlifeinVirginia.
TransportationResearchRecord2011,157164.
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2002).WildlifeHabitatConnectivityAcrossEuropeanHighways.
http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/wildlife_web.htm
Fitch,MichaelG.(1995)NonanadromousFishPassageinHighwayCulverts.VirginiaTransportationResearch
Council
Forman,R.T.T.et.Al.(2003).RoadEcology:ScienceandSolutions.IslandPress.Washington,D.C.481pp.
Foster,M.L.andS.R.Humphrey.(1995).UseofHighwayUnderpassesbyFloridaPanthersandotherWildlife.
WildlifeSocietyBulletin.V.23(1):pp.9294.
Freeman,Scott.(2005).BiologicalScience(3rded.).NewJersey:PearsonPrenticeHall
Graves,A.T.,S.Farley,M.I.Goldstein,C.Servheen(2007)IdentificationofFunctionalCorridorsWithMovement
CharacteristicsofBrownBearsontheKenaiPeninsula,Alaska.LandscapeEcology22,765772
Hanski,Ilkka(1998)MetapopulationDynamics.Nature396,4149
Hartmann,Maureen(2002)AnEvaluationofWildlifeCrossingStructures:TheirUseandEffectiveness.RoadRi
porter,7.
Hedlund,J.H.,P.D.Curtis,G.A.Curtis,A.F.Williams.(2003)MethodstoReduceTrafficCrashesInvolvingDeer:
WhatWorksandWhatDoesNot.InsuranceInstituteforHighwaySafety
Holsinger,K.HabitatFragmentation.(2007).http://darwin.eeb.uconn.edu/eeb310/lecture
notes/fragmentation/node1.html
Migration Eitheraonetimeorrepeatingmovementofapopulationfromonerangeof
habitattoanother.
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Interstate90SnoqualmiePassEastMitigationDevelopmentTeam.(2006).RecommendationPackage.Prepared
forWashingtonDepartmentofTransportationandFederalHighwayAdministration.
Leeson,B.F.(1996).HighwayConflictsandResolutionsInBanffNationalPark,Alberta,Canada.In:Evink,G.L.;
Garrett,P.;Ziegler,D.;andJ.Berry(Eds.)TrendsInAddressingTransportationRelatedWildlifeMortality.
ProceedingsoftheTransportationRelatedWildlifeMortalitySeminar.
Maehr,D.S.(1984).Animalhabitatisolationbyroadsandagriculturalfields.BiologicalConservatio,29,8196.
Mirati,AlbertH.Jr.(1999)AssessmentofRoadCulvertsforFishPassageProblemsonStateandCountyOwned
Roads.OregonDepartmentofFishandWildlife
ParksCanada.(2009).BanffNationalParkCanada.RetrievedSeptember25,2009,fromhttp://www.pc.gc.ca/pn
np/ab/banff/index_e.asp
Reed,R.A.,JohnsonBarnard,J.andW.L.Baker.(1996).ContributionofRoadstoForestFragmentationinthe
RockyMountains.ConservationBiology,10(4),10981106.
Romin,A.L.,J.A.Bissonette(1996)Deervehiclecollisions:statusofstatemonitoringactivitiesandmitigation
efforts.WildlifeSocietyBulletin24,276283
Ruediger,B.,J.J.Claar,andJ.F.Gore.Nodate.RestorationofCarnivoreHabitatConnectivityintheNorthern
RockyMountains.
http://www.defenders.org/resources/publications/programs_and_policy/habitat_conservation/habitat_and_hi
ghways/reports/restoration_of_the_carnivore_habitat.pdf
Ruediger,Bill.(1996).TheRelationshipBetweenRareCarnivoresandHighways.In:Evink,G.L.;Garrett,P.;Ziegler,
D.;andJ.Berry(Eds.)TrendsIn:AddressingTransportationRelatedWildlifeMortality.Proceedingsofthe
TransportationRelatedWildlifeMortalitySeminar.
Smith,D.J.;Harris,L.D.andF.J.Mazzotti.(1996).Alandscapeapproachtoexaminingtheimpactsofroadsonthe
ecologicalfunctionassociatedwithwildlifemovementandmovementcorridors:Problemsandsolutions.In:
Evink,G.L.;Garrett,P.;Ziegler,D.;andJ.Berry(Eds.)TrendsInAddressingTransportationRelatedWildlife
Mortality.ProceedingsoftheTransportationRelatedWildlifeMortalitySeminar.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation.(2009).190SnoqualmiePassEast.RetrievedSeptember24,
2009,fromhttp://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/I90/SnoqualmiePassEast/Default.htm

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EW-8 Light Pollution
LIGHT POLLUTION
GOAL
Safelyilluminateroadwayswhileminimizingunnecessaryandpotentiallyharmful
illuminationofsurroundingskyandhabitat.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
ProvidelightingfixturesthatareDarkSkycompliantorequivalent.AlistofDarkSky
approvedfixturescanbefoundathttp://www.DarkSky.org.
Details
Thiscreditaddressestwokeycomponentsofroadwaydesign,nighttimesafetyand
lighttrespassintoadjacentecosystemsandthenightsky.
TheInternationalDarkSkyAssociation(IDA)fixturecertificationprogramisbased
onupwardlightemission.Approvedfixturesmustemitnolightabove90degrees
(oftencalledfullcutoff).Forfixturestobecomecertified,photometricimagery
fromacertifiedtestinglabmustbesubmittedtotheIDAforexamination.
EquivalentstandardswillmeetthecriteriaforIDAbutmaynotcarrytheDarkSky
seal.Equivalencecanbeshownbyprovidingdocumentationdemonstratingthat
IDAstandardsaremetorexceededbyselectedfixtures.Suchdocumentation
shouldbereviewedandapprovedbytheprojectlightingprofessionalorelectrical
engineerandalettershallbeprovidedstatingequivalence.
Projectsthatdeliberatelyreduceexistinglightingorcompletelyeliminatelighting
areeligibleforthiscreditprovidedthat:
a. Lightingiswithintheprojectscopeorotherwiseisnormallyrequiredby
standardspecifications(e.g.,apreservationhotmixasphaltpavementoverlayis
notlikelytohaveroadwaylightingwithinitsscopeandisthereforenoteligible
forthiscredit).WithinscopecanbedemonstratedbycreditPR1
EnvironmentalReviewProcessorbyAE3ContextSensitiveSolutions.
b. Theprojectprovidesevidencetoshowthatlightingisnotrequiredtomeet
minimumroadwaysafetyrequirementsorthatreducingexistinglightingissafe.
Thisgenerallymeansanintentionaldecisionhasbeenmadetoreduceor
eliminatelightingwithinthealignmentbasedonafullsafetyinvestigation.(See
alsoAE1SafetyAudit).
c. AnylightingusedconformstoIDAfixturestandardsorequivalent.
DOCUMENTATION
x Executivesummaryofthelightingsafetystudydemonstratingappropriatenessof
lightingconfiguredforroadway,signedbytheleadelectricalprofessional.
x Lightingorelectricalplan.HighlightALLlocationsoffixture,bulbandcover
technologyused.
x Alistofthefixtures,bulbsandcoversinstalled,includingnameoftechnologies,
wattage,areaofshade,codecompliance(ifany).
x CopyoftheDarkSkycertificationforanyproductspecifiedandinstalled.
EW-8
3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 AE1SafetyAudit
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 MR6Energy
Efficiency
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 RestoresHabitat
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x U.S.DepartmentofEnergysEnergyStarprogramhasbeenexpandedtoincluderoadwaylighting.The
standardsforupwardilluminationforEnergyStarcertifiedfixturesaresuchthatfixturesreceivingthis
certificationarelikelytobedarkskycompliant.Selectionoffixturesthatmeetbothspecificationscanreduce
bothenergyuseandlightpollution(seeMR6EnergyEfficiency).
x Effectivelightingdesigncreatesanimpressionofelegance,comfort,andclarityontheroadwayatnight.This
canbeaccomplishedusingthelatestlightingdesignsoftwaretomodeltheappearanceoftheproject,aswell
asdesigningprojectattributessuchassignageformaximumvisibility.
Example: Dark-Sky Certified Fixture Label
FigureEW8.1belowisanexampleofalabelthatcanbefoundonfixturesthatareDarkSkycompliant.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Lightingmodificationsimplementedtopromoteecosystemhealthalsomustmaintainsufficientlightlevels
necessaryforhumansafety.
2. NonoverheadroadwaylightsarenotcurrentlyDarkSkycertifiablethroughIDA.
RESEARCH
Roadwaylightingisanimportantrequirementforasafenighttimedrivingenvironment.Thoughabout25%of
drivingoccursatnight,thefatalityrateofnighttimedrivingismorethandoublethatoftheday(FHWA,1985,Sivak
etal.,2007).Theincreasedabilitytoidentifypotentialhazardsprovidedbyoverheadlightingfixturessignificantly
decreasesnighttimeaccidentrisk.Therefore,installationofroadwaylightingsystemscansavehumanlifeand
money.However,excessivelightingcanhavenegativeimpacts,andthesafetybenefitsofadditionallighting
diminishathigherintensitylevels(Fisher,1977).Inadditiontousefullightthatilluminatestheroadway,lightcan
beemittedupwarddirectlyfromlightfixtures,orreflectfromtheroadwaysurface,bothofwhichcontributetosky
glow.Inadditiontotheseformsoflightpollution,lightfromoverheadfixturescantrespassandilluminate
surfacesandareasotherthantheroadwayincludingprivatepropertyornaturalhabitat.Thisexcesslightcanhave
consequencesforhumancomfort,ecosystemfunction,andtheabilitytoconductastronomicalobservations.
However,inmanycases,carefullightingdesigncanprovidesafedrivingconditionswhileminimizingwastedlight
andadverselightingeffects.
EnvironmentalImpacts
Lightpollutioncannegativelyimpactawiderangeofplantandanimalspecies.Outdoorskygloweffectscanbe
significantenoughthatnighttimeconditionsmimicthosenaturallyobservedattwilight(NavaraandNelson,2007).
Estimatesindicatethat20%oflandinthecontinentalUnitedStatesislocatedwithin127metersofaroadway
(RittersandWickham,2003).Becauseofthis,theecologicalconsequencesoflightpollutionfromroadwaylighting
havehugepotentialimpacts.Intheplantkingdom,artificiallightcandisruptthenaturalmechanismsusedto
regulatefloweringandotherseasonalactions(SelectCommissiononScienceandTechnology,1997).Impactson
theanimalkingdomhoweverarefarmorediverseandcauseawidearrayofecosystemalteration.Insomecases,
lightpollutioncanbedevastating.Forinstance,seaturtlehatchlingsnavigatetheirwaytotheoceanbasedonthe

FigureEW8.1:IDALabelforDarkSkyApprovedDevices
http://www.DarkSky.org/mc/page.do?sitePageId=56421&orgId=idsa
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relativedarknessoflandmass,andartificiallightscanrenderthisabilitycompletelyineffective(Salmon,2003).
Nocturnalanimalsarealsoparticularlyvulnerable.Streetlightinglimitstheflyingroutesofendangeredbatspecies
andcancausehabitatfragmentation(Stoneetal.,2009).Whennocturnalhabitatsarefragmented,populations
becomeincreasinglyatriskoflossofgeneticdiversityandlocalextinction.Increasedlightingconditionscanalter
reproductivebehaviorinanimalssuchasfrogs,whicharemorewaryintheabsenceofdarkness,orglowworms,
whichcommunicatevisuallytoattractamate(LongcoreandRich,2004;NavaraandNelson,2007).Whilethese
examplesarefarfromacomprehensivelist,theyillustratethekindsofimportantecosystemdisruptions
precipitatedfromaseeminglyminorenvironmentalchange.
Thoughlighthasobviousbenefitstohumansociety,excesslightcanhavenegativehumanimpacts.Surveyshave
indicatedpublicdispleasureinsomecaseswithfreewaylightingthatinadvertentlylightstheiryardsandhouses
duringthenight(Khan,2003).Inaddition,lightpollutionhasseriouslyreducedtheaestheticvalueofthenightsky.
MosturbanresidentsarenowunabletoviewtheonceomnipresentMilkyWaygalaxy.Inaddition,many
astronomicalobservatorieshavebecomesignificantlylessusefulasevenasmallchangeinskybrightnesscanhave
ahugeimpactontheabilitytoviewextremelydistantobjects.Inaddition,moreandmoreresearchisbeing
conductedonapossiblelinkbetweenlightpollutionandcertaintypesofcancer.
LightPollutionPrevention
Lightpollutioncanbemitigatedinanumberofways.LEDlightingsystemsaregenerallymoreefficientatdirecting
lighttodesiredareas,thereforereducingtheamountoflightescapingtonearbyenvironmentsforsafelevelsof
lighting.Whileonlyabouthalfthelightfromtraditionalroadwayluminariesreachestheroadway,asmuchas85%
ofLEDlightingcandoso(Wuetal.,2009).Direct,physicalshieldingoflampsisanothereffectivemethodof
curbingstraylight.However,becauselightisreflectedfromilluminatedsurfaces,lightpollutioncannotbe
eliminatedbydirectionandshieldingalone(Soardoetal.,2008).Therefore,itisimportanttoidentifythe
minimumlightintensityneededtoprovidesaferoadwayvisibility.Thisneedstobeconsideredcarefully,as
numerousattemptstoconserveelectricityusethroughlightdimminghavebeenshowntohaveincreased
nighttimeaccidents(FHWA,1985).Sophisticatedtestsareavailableformeasurementsofluminanceorilluminance
todeterminewhetherroadwaysaresignificantlylittoprovideasafeenvironment.Lightfixturesthatprovidemore
uniformlightingcanprovidesafeconditionsonallpointsonaroadwaywithlesstotallightoutput,andtherefore
lessreflectedlightpollution.
Scientificanalysisoftheconsequencesoflightpollutionisarelativelynewphenomenon.However,researchto
datehasalreadyuncoveredahostofimportantdetrimentstohumanhealthandecosystemfunctioninadditionto
thedegradationoftheintrinsicaestheticvalueofthecosmos.Electricallightinghasbeeninexistenceforatime
periodthatisinsignificantfromanevolutionaryperspective,meaningthathumansandotheranimalshavehadno
opportunitytoadapttothisdrasticenvironmentalshift(Pauley,2004).Whileroadwaylightingisfarfromtheonly
culprit,streetsareamajorcontributortoelevatedlightlevelsandareasignificantopportunityforreductionof
lightpollution.Roadwayilluminationisresponsibleforapproximately70%ofluminousfluxinurbanareas,and
presentstheonlymajorsourceofartificiallightincertainruralsettings(Soardoetal.,2008).Lightpollutionand
trespassarenotonlywasteful,butalsodamagetheabilityofourbuiltenvironmenttosustainhumanand
ecosystemhealth.
InternationalDarkSkyAssociation(IDA)
Formedin1988,theInternationalDarkSkyAssociation(IDA)istheauthoritativevoiceonlightpollution.IDA
educateslightingdesigners,manufacturers,technicalcommittees,andthepublicaboutlightpollutionabatement.
TheIDAsgoalofprotectingandrestoringnaturalnightenvironmentandheritageofdarkskiesisthrough
promotionofqualityoutdoorlighting.TheyhavedevelopedtheFixtureSealofApproval(FSA)programfordark
skyfriendlyfixtures.
TheFixtureSealofApprovalprovidesobjective,thirdpartycertificationforluminairesthatminimizeglare,reduce
lighttrespass,anddontpollutethenightsky.Foramodestfee,IDAwillevaluatethephotometricdataofany
luminairesubmittedbyitsmanufacturer.Whenthefixtureisapproved,themanufacturerreceivesacertificate
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Light Pollution EW-8
andtheFixtureSealofApproval.ManufacturersmayusetheFSAsealtopromoteandadvertisetheirIDA
Approveddarkskyfriendlyproducts.
GLOSSARY
Lightpollution Theunwantedcontributionofmanmadelightingtonighttimebrightnessand
skyglow.
Lighttrespass Directshiningofelectricallightontosurfacesbesidesthosemeanttobelit.

REFERENCES
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2004).ReducedLightingonFreewaysDuringPeriodsofLowTrafficDensity.
(ReportNo.FHWA/RD86/018)U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.
Fisher,A.J.,(1977).RoadLightingasanAccidentCounterMeasure.AustralianRoadResearch,7,216.
InternationDarkSkyAssociation.(2009).AccessedDecember20,2009fromhttp://www.DarkSky.org
Khan,A.M.(2003).Highwaylighttrespass:Humanandsocialfactors.InsituteofTransportationEngineers.ITE
Journal,73,5.
Longcore,T.,&C.Rich(2004).EcologicalEffectsofLightPollution.FrontiersinEcologyandtheEnvironment,2,
191198.
MorganTaylor,Martin.(2008).RCEPConsultationonArtificialLightintheEnvironment.PresentedtotheRoyal
CommissiononEnvironmentalPollution'sstudyofArtificialLightintheEnvironment.
Navara,K.J.,&R.J.Nelson(2007).TheDarkSideofLightatNight:Physiological,Epidemiological,andEcological
Consequences.JournalofPinealResearch,43,215224
Pauley,S.(2004).LightingfortheHumanCircadianClock.MedicalHypotheses,63,588596
Ritters,K.H.&J.D.Wickham.(2003).HowFartotheNearestRoad?FrontiersinEcologyandtheEnvironment,3,
125129
Salmon,M(2003).ArtificialNightLightingandSeaTurtles.Biologist:JournaloftheInstituteofBiology,50,163168
Sivak,M.,J.Luoma,M.J.Flannagan,C.R.Bingham,D.W.Eby,&J.T.Shope(2007).TrafficsafetyintheU.S.:Re
examiningmajoropportunities.JournalofSafetyResearch,38,337355.
Soardo,P.,P.Lacomussi,G.Rossi&Fellin,L.(2008).Compatibilityofroadlightingwithstarvisibility.Lighting
ResearchandTechnology,40,307322.
Stone,E.L.,Jones,G.,&S.Harris(2009).StreetLightingDisturbsCommutingBats.CurrentBiology,19,11231127
UnitedKingdomHouseofCommonsCommissiononScienceandTechnology.(1997).TheExtentandNatureof
LightPollution(SeventhReport)London,England.
Wu,M.S.,Huang,H.H.,Huang,B.J.,Tang,C.W.,ChengC.W.(2009)EconomicFeasibilityofSolarPoweredLED
RoadwayLighting.RenewableEnergy,34,19341938.
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AE-1 Safety Audit
SAFETY AUDIT
GOAL
Improveroadwaysafetythroughreviewbyanindependentauditteam.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Conductaroadsafetyaudit(RSA)ontheprojectroadwayinaccordancewiththe
proceduressetforthinFHWAsRoadSafetyAuditGuidelines.TheGuidelinesdefine
threegeneralphasesofaprojectduringwhichaRSAmaybeconducted.
1pointisawardedforeachRSAconducteduptoamaximumof2points.
1. PreconstructionphaseRSA.Performedbeforeconstructionbegins.Recommended
changesaregenerallylesscostlyandresultinlessdelay.
2. ConstructionphaseRSA.Performedduringpreparationsconstruction.Theyallow
theroadwaytobeviewedasbuiltandofferalastchancetoassesssafetybeforeit
isopenedtothepublic.
3. PostconstructionphaseRSA.Performedonexistingroadstoidentifyroadsafety
issuesfordifferentroadusers.
Note:Foragivenroadwayproject,itislikelythatpreconstructionandconstruction
phaseRSAsareappropriate.ApostconstructionphaseRSAinadditiontothesetwo
RSAswouldtypicallyberedundantandisthereforenotadvisable.SeetheExamples
sectionforsituationswhereapostconstructionphaseRSAmaybeappropriate.
Details
TheFHWARSAGuidelinesareavailableat:
x http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/guidelines.
ManyowneragenciesalreadyhavesafetyauditprogramsthatmeetRSA
guidelines,buttheprogramsmaybecalledothernames.Suchaprogrammust
meettheintentofanRSAasdefinedintheFHWAsRoadSafetyAuditGuidelines.
Specifically,theRSAmustinvolveareviewbyanindependentteamandfocus
solelyonsafety.
DOCUMENTATION
x SubmitacopyoftheRSAreportandformalresponseasdefinedintheFHWAs
RoadSafetyAuditGuidelines(2006)foreachRSA.
OR
x Foragencieswithexistingsafetyauditprograms,providealetter,signedbythe
agencyrepresentativefortheproject,statingthattheexistingagencyprogram
meetsorexceedstherequirementsdefinedintheFHWAsRoadSafetyAudit
Guidelines(2006).Submitacopyofagencyprogramdocumentsthatmeetthe
criteriadefinedinFHWAsguidelinesasnotedabove.

AE-1
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Expectations
BENEFITS
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x FollowadvicegivenbytheFHWAPublicationNo.FHWASA0606,availableat:
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/guidelines/documents/FHWA_SA_06_06.pdf.
x RefertotherecommendationsintheFHWAsRoadSafetyAuditGuidelines(Chapter2)forintroducingRSAs
intoanorganizationasaninternalprogram.TheserecommendationsnotethateffectiveandsuccessfulRSAs
requireamanagementcommitment,anagreeduponpolicy,informedprojectmanagers,anongoingtraining
program,andskilledauditors(FHWA,2006).
Example: Hypothetical Case Study
A2inchoverlayisscheduledfor20lanemilesofa2laneruralroad.ApreconstructionRSAisconductedand
makesrecommendationsonmovingwarningsignstobetterlocationsandinstallingarumblestripalongthe
centerline.Theoverlayprojectadoptstheserecommendationsandincludesthemintheproject.Theproject
wouldreceive1pointforthepreconstructionRSA.AconstructionphaseRSAcouldbeconductedtoachieve
anotherpointhowevertheprojectteamdidnotseebenefitinthisandelectednottoconductone.
Example: When to Consider a Post-Construction RSA
ApostconstructionRSAcouldbeusefulinthefollowingsituations:
1. AnowneragencyundertakesaroadwayprojectonasectionofroadthatpreviouslyhadaRSAconducted
onitasanexistingfacility.ThisRSAwouldprovideinputintotheplanninganddesignphaseoftheproject
andmakethepreconstructionRSAredundant.
2. AnowneragencyisinventoryingallGreenroadspointsitcanobtainforagivennetworkratherthanusing
Greenroadstocertifyanindividualprojectitmightbeabletoimproveitsnetworkscorebyincludingthe
RSAsithasconductedonexistingfacilities.
3. Anowneragencydesiresalistofmodificationsthatcouldresultinfuturesafetyissuechanges.
Examples: FHWA Case Studies
Forfurtherexamples,theFHWAsRoadSafetyAuditGuidelinescontainssixRSAcasestudies.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. RSAusewhenitisnotpartofaformalagencypolicymayseemarbitraryandRSAexecutionmaybe
cumbersome.
2. TheRSAprocessasdescribedintheFHWAsRoadSafetyAuditGuidelines(2006)allowsadesignteamto
essentiallydisagreewithallauditrecommendations.Therefore,itispossible,ifnotlikely,thatno
recommendationsareimplementedandtheroadwaysoverallsafetydoesnotbenefitfromtheRSA.
RESEARCH
Roadwaycrashesandtheirresultantinjuriesandcostshaveanimmenseimpactonsociety.Eachyearhighway
crashesintheU.S.injure3million,kill43,000andcostover$230billion(WilsonandLipinski,2004).Generally,
societyviewsthesedeaths,injuriesandcostsasavoidableandhasplacedahighpremiumonreducingtheir
numberandseverity.Threeexamplesofthisviewpointfollow:
x thetollofdeathsandinjuriesonourroadwaysisamongthemostcompellingpublichealthissuesofour
time.(AASHTO,2007)
x roadtrafficinjuries(pose)aglobalpublichealthcrisisrequiringurgentnationalandinternationalaction.
(UnitedNations,2008)
x Safetyisourtoppriority(actingFHWAadministratorJimRayinRoadsCanbeSafer,2008)
Mostofthissectionprovidesasummaryofroadsafetyauditsfromtwomaindocuments:
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x NCHRPSynthesis336:RoadSafetyAudits(2004),whichsummarizesRSAprocessesandtheircurrentusagein
theU.S.andworldwide.
x RoadSafetyAuditGuidelines(2006)fromtheFederalHighwayAdministration,whichprovidesguidancefor
agenciestodrawuponwhendevelopingRSApoliciesandprocedures.
RoadwaySafetyAudits
OnemethodthathasshownpromiseinimprovingroadwaysafetyiswhatiscommonlyreferredtoasaRoad
SafetyAudit(RSA).AnRSAisaformalsafetyperformanceexaminationofanexistingorfutureroador
intersectionbyanindependentauditteam.Itqualitativelyestimatesandreportsonpotentialroadsafetyissues
andidentifiesopportunitiesforimprovementsinsafetyforallroadusers(FHWA,2006).RSAsaregenerally
thoughtofasanadditionaltooltoimprovesafetyratherthanareplacementforotherestablishedpracticessuch
assafetyimpactstudies,modeling,safetyimpactstudiesandsafetycompliancereviews(FHWA,2006).
ApplicableProjectTypes
RSAscanbebeneficialtoalltypesofprojects.TheFHWA(2006)specificallymentionsthefollowingtypesof
projectsandbenefits:
x Capitalimprovementprojects.RSAscanprovidesignificantsafetybenefitsinthedesignprocess.
x Rehabilitationprojects.ThescopeandfundingofsuchprojectsmakesincorporatingRSArecommendations
oftenachievablewithonlyminorchangesinoveralldesign.
x Surfaceimprovementprojects.HavethegreatestpotentialtobenefitfromRSAs.Oftenlowcost,highimpact
solutionscanbeidentifiedandimplemented.
x Bridgereconstructionprojects.Allprojects,butespeciallybroadlyscopedones,canbesuccessfulin
incorporatingmajorsafetyimprovementsrecommendedbyanRSA.
x Safetyprojects.Thesemayonlyusereactivetechniquesinidentifyinghazardsandcouldbenefitfromthe
proactivenatureofRSAs.
x Developerledprojects.Generally,theyarecandidatesbynospecificevidenceisoffered.
WhentoConductanRSA
RSAsaregenerallyconductedatoneormorepointsintheprojecttimeline:
x PreconstructionphaseRSA.Performedbeforeconstructionbegins.Recommendedchangesaregenerallyless
costlyandresultinlessdelay.
x ConstructionphaseRSA.Performedduringpreparationsconstruction.Theyallowtheroadwaytobeviewedas
builtandofferalastchancetoassesssafetybeforeitisopenedtothepublic.
x PostconstructionphaseRSA.Performedonexistingroadstoidentifyroadsafetyissuesfordifferentroad
users.PerformingaRSAatthisstagemaybethemostbeneficialforfutureprojectsaschangesafter
constructioncanbecostly.
RSAscanimpactprojectschedulebuttheimpactdependsontheirrecommendationsandhowtheyareaddressed.
SafetyBenefits
BothU.S.andinternationalevidencesuggeststhatRSAsarelowcostandcanprovidesubstantial,measurable
benefits.Benefitsgenerallycomefromreducingreconstructioncostsassociatedwithsafetydeficiencies,reducing
lifecyclecosts,reducingsocietalcostsassociatedwithcollisionsandreducingliabilityclaims.Somespecific
examplesare(WilsonandLipinski,2004;FHWA,2006):
x AUKstudyanalyzedcrashdatafrom19auditedand19nonauditedsites.Itfoundacasualtysavingsof1.25
peryear(fatalcrashratesdroppedfrom2.08to0.83peryear)fortheauditedsitesandonly0.26peryear
(fatalcrashratesdroppedfrom2.6to2.34peryear)forthenonauditedsites.
x AUKstudyanalyzed22auditedtrunkroadsitesandplacedtheaveragesavingspersiteat11,373persite.
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x Austroadsdescribed9auditeddesignstatesitesthatreported250findingswithbenefit/costratiosbetween
3:1and242:1.
x TheNewYorkDepartmentofTransportationreportsa2040%reductionincrashesatmorethan300high
crashlocationsthathadreceivedsafetyimprovementsrecommendedbyRSAs.
x EarlySouthCarolinaDepartmentofTransportationresults(atthe1yearpoint)showeddecreasedcrashesand
economicsavings.Onesiteimplementing4of8recommendationsshoweda12.5%decreaseincrasheswitha
savingsof$40,000,asecondsitehada15.8%increaseincrasheswhenonly2of13recommendationswere
implemented,athirdsitethatimplementedall9recommendationssawa60%reductioninfatalitiesresulting
ina$3.66millionsavings,andafourthsitethatimplemented25of37recommendationshada23.4%
reductionincrashesandasavingsof$147,000.
Costs&LegalConsiderations
GenerallyRSAscostbetween$1,000and$8,000(WilsonandLipinski,2004),whichusuallyrepresentsasmall
fractionofengineeringdesigncosts.Therefore,analysesthatcalculaterateofreturngenerallygivevaluesofover
100%.ThisisespeciallytruewhenevenonelifesavedisattributedtotheRSA.Inpractice,however,itisdifficultto
attributesavingalifetoanyoneaudit,recommendationoraction.
TheFHWA(2006)mentionsthatsomeagencieshavebeenreluctanttoconductRSAsduetoafearthatreportswill
beusedagainstthemintortliabilitylawsuits.InstateswheretrainingonRSAswasconductedlocallegalstaffs
gaveacommonmessage:RSAsareapositiveapproachanddonotincreasetheagencysliabilityand,infact,help
inthedefenseoftortliability(WilsonandLipinski,2004).
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(2007).Transportation:Investin
OurFuture.AASHTO,Washington,DC.Availableat
http://www.transportation1.org/tif5report/safer_america.html
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2006).RoadSafetyAuditGuidelines.PublicationNo.FHWASA0606.
FHWA,U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.Availableathttp://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/index.cfm.
UnitedNations.(2008).GeneralAssemblyAdoptsResolutiononEasingGlobalRoadSafetyCrisis.GA/10694.Sixty
secondGeneralAssembly,Plenary,87thmeeting(AM).
U.S.DepartmentofTransportationOfficeofPublicAffairs.Pressrelease:RoadsCanBeSafer,TopFederalHighway
OfficialSays.(2008).Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pressroom/fhwa0816.htm.
Wilson,E.M.andLipinski,M.E.(2004).NCHRPSynthesis336:RoadSafetyAudits.TransportationResearchBoard,
Washington,D.C.
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
RSA Roadsafetyaudit
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AE-2 Intelligent Transportation Systems
INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
GOAL
Meeteconomicandsocialneedsandimprovemobilitywithoutaddingcapacity,or
improvetheefficiencyoftransportationsystems.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Includeintelligenttransportationsystem(ITS)applicationslistedintheFederal
HighwayAdministrations(FHWA)ResearchandInnovativeTechnologyAdministration
(RITA)OfficeofIntelligentTransportationSystemsApplicationsOverviewportionof
theirITSwebsite(seeat:http://www.itsoverview.its.dot.gov).TableAE2.1(opposite
page)liststhestandardITSapplicationsandRITAITSwebsitecategoriesallowablefor
thiscredit.
2points
Installatleast1applicationin2separatecategories.
3points
Installatleast1applicationin3separatecategories.
4points
Installatleast1applicationin4separatecategories.
5points
Installatleast1applicationin5separatecategories.
Details
Additionally,inorderforanITSapplicationtocountforthiscredititneedstoexist
withintheprojectlimitsinameaningfulmanner.TheFHWAsRITAITSwebsite
separatesITSapplicationsintobroadcategories.Theintentionofthiscreditisto
haveatleasttwooftheseRITAITSwebsitecategoriesrepresentedwiththeproject
limitstoearnpoints.So,iftheprojectisanimprovementofanexistingfacilityand
thatexistingfacilityalreadyincludesoneormoreITSapplications,thoseexisting
applicationscanbecountedtowardthetotalpoints.Additionally,notethatinno
casecanmorethan5pointsbeearned.Theremustbeatleast1applicationin2
separatecategoriesinorderforanypointstobeearned.
DOCUMENTATION
x AlistoftheITSapplicationsandtheircorrespondingcategories
x EvidencethattheseITSapplicationsarephysicallyinstalledontheprojectorare
applicabletotheprojectarea.Thisevidencecanbeanyoneofthefollowing:
x Thepage(s)intheprojectplansandspecificationsthatrefertotheapplication
x Documentationthatshowsaparticularapplicationisoperationalintheproject
area(e.g.,thegeographiccoverageareaforthe511travelerinformation
service,ascreenshotofanonlinedynamicmapthatidentifiestheprojectarea
andclearlyshowstheprojectareaisincludedinthemap)
x Photo(s)ofeachapplicationinstalledifitisaphysicalentity.
AE-2
2-5 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE5Pedestrian
Access
9 AE6BicycleAccess
9 AE7Transit&HOV
Access
9 MR6Energy
Efficiency
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesMobility
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 IncreasesAwareness
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TableAE2.1:AllowableITSApplicationsforAE2
Category Application
Surveillance Traffic
Infrastructure
TrafficControl AdaptiveSignalControl
AdvancedSignalSystems
VariableSpeedLimits
Bicycle&Pedestrian
SpecialEvents
LaneManagement HOVFacilities
ReversibleFlowLanes
Pricing
LaneControl
Variable SpeedLimits
EmergencyEvacuation
InformationDissemination DynamicMessageSigns(DMS)
HighwayAdvisoryRadio(HAR)
Enforcement SpeedEnforcement
TrafficSignalEnforcement
RampMeterEnforcement
HOVFacilitiesEnforcement
RampControl RampMetering
PriorityAccess
WarningSystems RampRollover
CurveSpeedWarning
DownhillSpeedWarning
Overheight/OverwidthWarning
HighwayRailCrossingWarningSystems
IntersectionCollisionWarning
PedestrianSafety
BicycleWarning
AnimalWarning
RoadWeatherManagement PavementConditions
AtmosphericConditions
WaterLevel
TransitManagement DynamicRouting/Scheduling
InTerminal/WaysideInformationDissemination
TravelerInformation Internet/Wireless
511
Telephone
ElectronicPayment/Pricing TollCollection
TransitFarePayment
TrafficIncidentManagement CallBoxes
ServicePatrols
EmergencyVehicleSignalPreemption
Notes:TheapplicationnomenclatureanddefinitionscomedirectlyfromtheFHWAsRITAITSApplications
Overviewwebpage(http://www.itsoverview.its.dot.gov).
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x TheFHWAsRITAITSwebsite(http://www.its.dot.gov)maintainsacurrentdatabaseofITSbenefits,costs,
lessonslearnedanddeploymentstatistics.Itisanexcellentresourceforapproachesandstrategies.
x ITSAmerica,anotforprofitorganization,alsomaintainsawebsite(http://www.itsa.org)withsubstantial
documentationonITSefforts.
Example: How to Calculate Points
3points
Afreewayonrampisbeingupgradedtoincludearampmeteringsystem.Inadditiontherearealreadyvideo
surveillancecamerasinusethatareaccessiblebythegeneralpublicthroughacommontrafficwebsite.The
areaisalsocoveredbya511trafficinformationsystemandhighwayadvisoryradio(HAR).Thisprojectwould
earn3pointsbecause3applicationcategoriesarerepresented.Notethataprojectcannotearn1pointforthis
VoluntaryCredit.Atleast2categoriesmustberepresentedtoearntheminimumof2points.
x Surveillance.Thetrafficcamerasareanapplicationinthiscategory.
x Travelerinformation:the511serviceandwebsitearebothapplicationsinthiscategory.Althoughthis
categoryisrepresentedbytwoseparatesystems,itisstillonlycountedonce.
x Informationdissemination:theHARisanapplicationinthiscategory.
5points
Anarterialisbeingupgradedtobemorecontextsensitive.Existingarterialfacilitiesthatremaininplace
includeavariablemessagesignandvideotrafficsignalenforcement.Theprojectisaddingtimedsignallights
andsensorstoincludeitintheareawidenetworkshownonlineattheagencyswebsite.Trafficsurveillance
camerasarealsobeingadded.Thisprojectwouldearn5pointsbecause5applicationcategoriesare
represented.Notethataprojectcannotearn1pointforthisVoluntaryCredit.Atleast2categoriesmustbe
representedtoearntheminimumof2points.
x Surveillance.Theaddedtrafficcamerasareanapplicationinthiscategory.
x Trafficcontrol.Theaddedsignaltimingisanapplicationinthiscategory.
x Informationdissemination.Theexistingdynamicmessagesignisanapplicationinthiscategory.
x Enforcement.Theexistingtrafficsignalvideoenforcementisanapplicationinthiscategory.
x Travelerinformation:theinclusionofthisarterialintheagencysonlinetrafficflowmapisanapplicationin
thiscategory.
Example: ITS Categories
SomeexamplesofITSusefromtheRITAsIntelligentTransportationSystemsBenefits,Costs,andLessons
Learned:2008Updateare(thesearedirectquotesfromtheexecutivesummary,italicsaddedtodistinguish
fromothertext):
ArterialManagement
Optimizingsignaltimingisconsideredalowcostapproachtoreducingcongestion.Basedondata
fromsixseparatestudies,thecostsrangefrom$2,500to$3,100persignalperupdate(Sunkari2004;
TEIEngineering2005;Harris2005;NTOC2005;Luor2006;Heminger2006).Basedonaseriesof
surveysofarterialmanagementagenciesin78ofthelargestU.S.metropolitanareas,halfoftraffic
signalsinthesemetropolitanareaswereundercentralizedcontrolthroughclosedlooporcomputer
controlin2006.
FreewayManagement
TherearenumerousITSstrategiestoimprovefreewayoperations.Metropolitanareasthatdeploy
ITSinfrastructureincludingdynamicmessagesigns(DMS)tomanagefreewayandarterialtraffic,
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andintegratetravelerinformationwithincidentmanagementsystemscanincreasepeakperiod
freewayspeedsby8to13percent(SmithandPerez1992;BirstandAyman2000),improvetravel
time,andaccordingtosimulationstudies,reducecrashratesandimprovetriptimereliabilitywith
delayreductionsrangingfrom1to22percent(SmithandPerez1992;FHWA1999a;FHWA1999b;
BristandAyman2000;FHWA2000;FHWA2001;Jeannotte2001).InMinneapolisSt.Paul,the
benefittocostratioforarampmeteringsystemwasestimatedat15:1(CambridgeSystematics
2001).
CrashPreventionandSafety
Downhillspeedwarningsystemshavedecreasedtruckcrashesbyupto13percentatproblemsitesin
OregonandColorado(Drakopoulos2006).Aspartofanevaluationofautomatedtruckrollover
warningsystems,thePennsylvaniaDOTresearchedsystemsinotherstates.Thecostofthesesystems
variedsignificantly,rangingfrom$50,000to$500,000,asdidtheirconfigurations:invasiveandnon
invasivedetection,weightbasedversussimplifiedspeedclassalgorithms,andsystemcalibrationsfor
warnings(Pento2005).Thethreemostwidelyadoptedsystemsarecurveandrampspeed,rail
crossingwarningsystemsandpedestriansafetysystems.Nextinpopularity,andadoptedbyabout
halfasmanystates,aredownhillwarningsystems,intersectioncollisionavoidancesystems,and
animalwarningsystems.
RoadWeatherManagement
Evaluationdatashowthat80to94percentofmotoristswhousetravelerinformationWebsites
thinkroadweatherinformationenhancestheirsafetyandpreparesthemforadverseroad
weather.(FHWA2004;FHWA2006).Studieshavefoundthatantiicingprogramscanlowersnowand
icecontrolcostsby10to50percentandreducecrashratesby7to83percent(Breen2001;
McCormickRankinCorporationandEcoplansLtd.2004;OKeefeandShi2005).
ElectronicPaymentandPricing
Onfreeways,variablepricingstrategiesareeffectiveatinfluencingtravelerbehavior.Althoughinitial
publicsupportforsuchtollsmaybelow,researchindicatesthatroadusersvaluetimesavingsand
arewillingtopayapricetoavoidcongestionanddelay(NorthCentralTexasCouncilofGovernments
2005;Doumaetal.2006).InCalifornia,forexample,publicsupportforvariabletollingonState
Route91wasinitiallylow;butafter18monthsofoperations,nearly75percentofthecommuting
publicexpressedapprovalofvirtuallyallaspectsoftheexpresslanesprogram(NorthCentralTexas
CouncilofGovernments2005).
TravelerInformation
Studiesshowthatdriverswhouseroutespecifictraveltimeinformationinsteadofareawidetraffic
advisoriescanimproveontimeperformanceby5to13percent(Vasudevanetal.2005).Recent
evaluationdatashowthatcustomersatisfactionwithregional511deploymentsrangefrom68to92
percent(511DeploymentCoalition2005).The511DeploymentCoalitionconductedanindepthcost
analysisbasedontheexperiencefromnine511deployers.Onaverage,thestatewidesystemscost
approximately$2.5milliontodesign,implement,andoperateduringthefirstyear.Metropolitan
systemscostanaverageof$1.8milliontodesign,implement,andoperateduringthefirstyear(511
DeploymentCoalition2006).Thetwomostpopularmediafordistributingtravelerinformationinthe
78largestU.S.metropolitanareasareWebsitesandemail,followedbyautomatictelephoneand
pagers.Thirty(30)ofthe78metropolitanareasusededicatedTVtodistributetravelerinformation
and18usekiosks,amediumwhichhasseennogrowthinrecentyears.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
TheITSapplicationsusedshouldprovidequantifiedbenefitsthatjustifytheircost.
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AE-2 Intelligent Transportation Systems
RESEARCH
TheFHWAsRITAITSwebsite(http://www.its.dot.gov)maintainsacurrentdatabaseofITSbenefits,costs,lessons
learnedanddeploymentstatistics.ITSAmerica,anotforprofitorganization,alsomaintainsawebsite
(http://www.itsa.org)withsubstantialdocumentationonITSefforts.
PerceivedandMeasuredBenefitsofITS
Thegoalareadefinitionslistedbelow(whichcanbefoundatthebottomofthiswebsite:
http://www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/ByInfo/WhatIsBClassifications#goal)giveanoverviewofthe
perceivedandmeasuredbenefitsofITS.Themostrelevantsustainabilitycomponentsarelistedattheendofeach
goalareadescription.
Safety
Severalspecificapplicationsaimtoreduceboththenumberandseverityofcrashes.Thisbenefitisdirectly
relatedtotheequitycomponentofsustainability.Measuresofeffectivenessincludecrashrate,fatalityrate,
andinjuryrate.Equity
Mobility
Manyapplicationsaimtoreducetraveldelayandtraveltime.Thisbenefitisrelatedtotheequity(improved
mobility),economy(lowerusercostassociatedwithfacilityuseduetofastertraveltime)andecology(more
efficientusecanbutmaynotalwaysleadtolessfuelconsumptionandfeweremissions).Measuresof
effectivenessincludedelaytimeandvariabilityoftraveltime.Ecology,economy
Productivity
Someapplicationsaimtoreduceoperatingcostsandallowproductivityimprovements.Thisincludes
applicationsthatmaysavetimeincompletingbusinessorregulatoryprocesses,systemsthathavelowerlife
cyclecostscomparedtotraditionaltransportationsystems,andinformationcollection/aggregation
applicationsthatcanleadtoeconomicsavingsorperformanceimprovement.Measuresofeffectivenessare
usuallysomeformofcostsavingsachievedbyusingITS.Economy,extent,expectations.
Efficiency
Manyapplicationsaredesignedtoimprovetheefficiencyofexistingfacilitiessothatmobility,accessandother
needscanbemetwiththeexistingorlessphysicalinfrastructurethanwouldotherwisebepossible.Traditional
methodsofmeasuringcapacity(e.g.,thoseintheHighwayCapacityManual2000)oftendonotaccountforITS
applicationsthatcanimprovecapacitybeyondthatforatraditionalroadwaywithoutITS.Atypicalmeasureof
effectivenessiseffectivecapacity,orthemaximumpotentialrateatwhichpersonsorvehiclesmaytraversea
link,node,ornetworkunderarepresentativecompositeofroadwayconditionsincludingweather,incidents,
andvariationintrafficdemandpatterns.Economy,equity,extent,expectations.
EnergyandEnvironment
Someapplicationshavethesecondaryeffectofimprovingairqualityandlesseningenergyimpactsof
transportationbecauseofimprovedefficiencyorotherimprovementmeasures.Measuresofeffectiveness
includemodeledorsimulatedreductionsinemissionsandenergyuse.Ecology,economy.
CustomerSatisfaction
Manyapplicationsprovideimprovedcustomersatisfactionbymorecloselymeetingtravelerexpectations.
Typicalmeasuresofeffectivenessaretravelersurveys,productawareness,expectation/realizationofbenefits
andassessmentofvalue.Equity.
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GLOSSARY
Effectivecapacity Themaximumpotentialrateatwhichpersonsorvehiclesmaytraversealink,
node,ornetworkunderarepresentativecompositeofroadwayconditions
includingweather,incidents,andvariationintrafficdemandpatterns.
IntelligentTransportationSystem Anapplicationofintegratedinformation,telecommunicationsandcomputer
basedtechnologiestoinfrastructureandvehiclesinordertoimprovesafety
andmobilityonsurfacetransportationnetworks.

REFERENCES
511DeploymentCoalition.(2005).AmericasTravelInformationNumber:ImplementationandOperational
Guidelinesfor511ServicesVersion3.0,511DeploymentCoalition.
511DeploymentCoalition.(2006).511DeploymentCosts:ACaseStudy,511DeploymentCoalition.
Birst,S.andAymanS.(2000).AnEvaluationofITSforIncidentManagementinSecondTierCities:AFargo,NDCase
Study.PaperPresentedatITE2000AnnualMeeting.Nashville,Tennessee.610August2000.
Breen,B.D.(2001).AntiIcingSuccessFuelsExpansionofthePrograminIdaho,IdahoTransportationDepartment,
SnowandIcePooledFundCooperativeProgram.
http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/weather/Publications/AntiicingIdaho.pdf.Accessed5October2001.
CambridgeSystematics.(2001).TwinCitiesRampMeterEvaluation:FinalReport.PreparedbyCambridge
SystematicsfortheMinnesotaDOT,EDLNo.13425.St.Paul,MN.
Douma,F.;Zmud,J.andPatterson,T.(2006).PricingComestoMinnesota:BaselineAttitudinalEvaluationoftheI
394HOTLaneProject.PaperPresentedatthe85thTransportationResearchBoardAnnualMeeting.
Washington,DC.
Drakopoulos,A.(2006).CVO/FreightandITSSession.Presentationatthe12thannualITSForum,Wisconsin
ChapterofITSAmericaSmartways,MarquetteUniversity.Milwaukee,WI.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(1999a).InnovativeTrafficControlTechnologyandPracticeinEurope,
U.S.DOTFederalHighwayAdministration,OfficeofInternationalPrograms.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(1999b).ITSImpactsAssessmentforSeattleMMDIEvaluation:Modeling
MethodologyandResults.U.S.DOTFederalHighwayAdministration.EDLNo.11323.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2000).MetropolitanModelDeploymentInitiative:SanAntonio
EvaluationReport(FinalDraft).U.S.DOTFederalHighwayAdministration,ReportNo.FHWAOP00017,EDL
No.12883.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2001).DetroitFreewayCorridorITSEvaluation,U.S.DOTFederal
HighwayAdministration.EDLNo.13586.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2004).EvaluationofRuralITSInformationSystemsalongU.S.395,
Spokane,Washington.U.S.DOTFederalHighwayAdministration,EDLNo.13955.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2006).FinalEvaluationReport:EvaluationoftheIdahoTransportation
DepartmentIntegratedRoadWeatherInformationSystem.U.S.DOTFederalHighwayAdministration,EDLNo.
14267.
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Harris,J.(2005).BenefitsofRetimingTrafficSignals:AReferenceforPractitionersandDecisionMakersaboutthe
BenefitsofTrafficSignalRetiming.PresentedattheITE2005AnnualMeetingandExhibit.Melbourne,
Australia.710August2005.
Heminger,S.(2006).RegionalSignalTimingProgram2005CycleProgramPerformance.Memorandumtothe
CaliforniaMetropolitanTransportationCommissionsOperationsCommittee.Oakland,CA.
Jeannotte,K.(2001).EvaluationoftheAdvancedRegionalTrafficInteractiveManagementandInformationSystem
(ARTIMIS).PaperPresentedatthe11thAnnualITSAmericaMeeting.Miami,FL.
Luor,J.(2006).ConversationwithJerryLuor,TrafficEngineeringSupervisor,DenverRegionalCouncilof
Governments(DRCOG).October2006.
McCormickRankinCorporationandEcoplansLtd.(2004).CaseStudy#6:WinterMaintenanceInnovationsReduce
AccidentsandCostsCityofKamloops,PreparedbytheMcCormickRankinCorporationandEcoplansLimited
fortheInsuranceCorporationofBritishColumbiaandEnvironment.Canada.
NationalTransportationOperationsCoalition(NTOC).(2005).TheNationalTrafficSignalReportCard:Technical
Report.NationalTransportationOperationsCoalition.Washington,DC.
NorthCentralTexasCouncilofGovernments.(2005).2005RegionalValuePricingCorridorEvaluationand
FeasibilityStudy:Dallas/FortWorthValuePricingHistoryandExperience.NorthCentralTexasCouncilof
Governments.Arlington,TX.
OKeefe,K.andShi,X.(2005).SynthesisofInformationonAntiicingandPrewettingforWinterHighway
MaintenancePracticesinNorthAmerica:FinalReport.PreparedbytheMontanaStateUniversityforthePacific
NorthwestSnowfightersAssociationandtheWashingtonStateDOT.
Pento,R.J.(2005).EvaluationofPennDOTITSDeployments,PennDOT,BureauofHighwaySafetyandTraffic
Engineering.Presentationtothe2005TransportationEngineeringandSafetyConference.
Smith,S.andPerez,C.(1992).EvaluationofINFORMLessonsLearnedandApplicationstoOtherSystems,Paper
Presentedatthe71
st
AnnualMeetingoftheTransportationResearchBoard.Washington,DC.
Sunkari,S.(2004).TheBenefitsofRetimingTrafficSignals,ITEJournal.April2004.
TEIEngineering.(2005).FeeEstimateMillenniaMallRetimingandScopeandScheduleMillenniaMallRetiming,
BidsubmittedbyTEIEngineeringtotheCityofOrlando,FL.
TransportationResearchBoard(TRB).(2000).HighwayCapacityManual2000.TRB,NationalResearchCouncil,
Washington,D.C.
Vasudevan,M.;Wunderlich,K.;Larkin,J.;andToppen.A.(2005).AComparisonofMobilityImpactsonUrban
CommutingBetweenBroadcastAdvisoriesandAdvancedTravelerInformationServices.PaperPresentedatthe
84thAnnualTransportationResearchBoardMeeting.Washington,DC.

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AE-3 Context Sensitive Solutions
CONTEXT SENSITIVE SOLUTIONS
GOAL
Deliverprojectsthatsynthesizetransportationrequirementsandcommunityvalues
througheffectivedecisionmakingandthoughtfuldesign.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
DesigntheprojectaccordingtotheprinciplesofContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS).
FilloutthesubmissionformfromtheCSSNationalDialogwebsiteforprojectdesign
andconstruction.Theformcanbefoundhere:
http://www.cssnationaldialog.org/documents/design.pdf.
OR
Createashortwhitepaper(narrative)documentdescribingthefollowing:
1. Thepurposeandneedfortheproject.
2. Theplanninghorizonandproposedtimelineorscheduleforprojectcompletion.
3. Alistororganizationalchartofthemanagementstructurefortheproject:this
includes,projectplanners,designprofessionals,consultants,agencyleads,and
otherstakeholdersinvolved.
4. Theelementsofthedecisionmakingprocessused.
5. Thelocalandregionalcontextandissuessurroundingtheproject,otherfederal
contextandissues,andapplicablejurisdictionalregulationsandpolicies.
6. ThepublicinvolvementprocessforCSDandresultsofthisprocess.
7. Thetransportationmodesconsideredandresultsofthisconsideration.
8. Thevisualandaestheticcomponentsoftheproject.
9. Theplanforlongtermongoingmonitoringduringoperations(ifany).
10. Thefinalalternativesanddesignelementschosenforimplementation(asummary
issufficient).
Details
Note:ThiscreditmustbeearnedinordertoearncreditsAE4TrafficEmissions
Reduction,AE5PedestrianAccess,AE6BicycleAccess,andAE7TransitAccess.
ContextSensitiveSolutions(alsoContextSensitiveDesign;CSD)isdefinedasa
collaborative,interdisciplinaryapproachthatinvolvesallstakeholderstoprovidea
transportationfacilitythatfitsitssetting.Itisanapproachthatleadstopreserving
andenhancingscenic,aesthetic,historic,community,andenvironmentalresources,
whileimprovingormaintainingsafety,mobility,andinfrastructureconditions.
(FHWA,2009)
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyoftheimplementationofCSSintransportationprojectdesignand
constructionformORcopyoftheContextSensitivePlanningwhitepaper
addressingall10itemsabove.
AE-3
5 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 AE4Traffic
EmissionsReduction
9 AE5Pedestrian
Access
9 AE6BicycleAccess
9 AE7Transit&HOV
Access
9 AE8ScenicViews
9 AE9Cultural
Outreach
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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Context Sensitive Solutions AE-3
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
TheCSS/CSDFramework
x Consultexistingguidancedocumentsandresourcestounderstandtheframeworkandreviewavarietyof
examples.SeetheAdditionalResourceslistedattheendofthiscredit.
x FollowtheCSSframework(Stamatiadisetal.,2009;Neumanetal.,2002).TherearesixkeystepsintheCSS
projectdevelopmentprocess:
1. Developadecisionmakingprocessandmanagementstructure.
2. Definetheproblem.
3. Developtheprojectandtheevaluationframeworkfortheproject.
4. Determinealternatives.
5. Screenthealternatives.
6. Evaluateandselectanalternative.
InterdisciplinaryDecisionMaking
x Collaboratewithlocalexpertsinbothtransportationandnontransportationplanninganddesignprofessions.
x Useatransparentdecisionprocesswithclearchannelsforcommunityparticipation.Thiswillensuredesignofa
projectthatmeetstheneedsofthetransportationsystemaswellasthecommunityasawhole.
x Incorporatethefollowingfiveelementsinthedecisionprocessthroughouttheprojectforthemosteffective
approach(fromNeumanetal.,2002):
1. Thedecisionpointsintheprocessorprojectmilestones.
2. Whowillmakeeachdecision.
3. Whowillmakerecommendationsforeachdecision.
4. Whowillbeconsultedoneachdecision.
5. Howrecommendationsandcommentswillbetransmittedtodecisionmakers.
x Documenteachoftheseelementsclearlyintheprojectpapertrail.Thiswillhelpensurethatprojectdecision
makersareheldaccountablefortheirresponsibilitiesandactions.
PlanningandDesignConsiderations
x Considertheappropriatenessofincludingbike,pedestrianortransitfacilitiesinthedesignoftheroadway
duringprojectplanning.Thismightbeassimpleasconstructingbikelanesandsidewalksascalledforinlocal
designstandards.
x Reviewlocalplansforroadwaydesignstandardsandfunctions.
x Consultwithlocalplannersfromappropriateagencies(parksdept.,publicworks,planning,transportationand
transit)todetermineifyourassessmentiscomplete.
x Usevisualizationtools,suchasphotographrenderingorcomputermodels.Thesecanoftencanhelpindesign
alternativeselectionprocess.
x Considertheprojectnobuildcondition.Somelocalstandardsmayrequireelementsthatmaynotbe
appropriateforenvironmentalorengineeringreasonsandmaybeabletobegrantedanexceptionwhichcan
bepursuedduringplanning.Anexamplewouldbedesigningnarrowerstreetsthanrequiredbystandard
specificationsinaresidentialneighborhood,whichcanimprovesafetybyslowingneighborhoodtraffic.
CSDforMultimodalAccess
x Considerallmodesattheinitialstagesofplanning.Whileeachindividualroadwaydoesnothaveto
accommodatepeopleusingallmodes,asystemshouldbeaccessibletopeopleonbikes,foot,andtransit,as
wellasincarsandtrucks,wherethepurposeandneedstatementfortheprojectdefinetheseelementsas
appropriate.
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AE-3 Context Sensitive Solutions
x Consultlocalplansforexistingandfutureplannedbike,pedestrianandtransitelementstoseeiftheproject
includesorcrossesnamedelements.Manyjurisdictionshaveadoptedplansrelatedtobike,pedestrianand
transitsystems.
x Incorporatenewmodalelementssuchasbikelanes,sidewalksortrails,andtransitfacilitiesshouldbeincluded
indesignswhereapplicable.Generally,designstandardsorplanswilldictateplacementoftheseelements,or
theymayberequestedbythepublicduringprojectscoping.
x Consideringroadwayimprovementswhichmayimpacttheexistingormasterplannedbike,pedestrianand
transitnetworks.Improvementstothesemodalelementsshouldbemadeasappropriatetomitigateuser
impacts.
PublicInvolvementConsiderations
x Consultwithstakeholderstounderstandcommunityissues,toenvisionsolutions,and,ultimately,to
understandhowaprojectfitsintoacommunity.Throughthisprocess,plannersanddesignersaremorelikely
todesignaprojectthatminimizesimpactstothecommunityandsupportsthecommunitysvision.
x Conductanappropriatelyscaledstakeholderconsultationprocessinprojectplanningforthewholeprojectand
specificissuesasneeded.Thisprocessmightbeassimpleasholdingaprojectopenhousetoidentify
communityconcerns,issuesoropportunities,oritmightbealongprocesswithmultipleopportunitiesfor
stakeholderengagementincludingpublicworkshops,committeemeetings,andotherengagement
opportunities.
x Includeinthepublicinvolvementplanthefollowingsteps:issueidentification,developmentofevaluation
criteria,developmentofpotentialsolutions,evaluationofsolutions,andselectionofasolutionthatbestmeets
theevaluationcriteria.
x Followtheguidanceavailableonstakeholderconsultation,suchastheFHWAsPublicInvolvementTechniques
forTransportationDecisionMakingandHowtoEngageLowLiteracyandLimitedEnglishProficiency
PopulationsinTransportationDecisionmaking.
x Developmentaplanforstakeholderinvolvementsothatthesessionsrunsmoothlyandachieveobjectives.This
planrequiresanunderstandingofthecommunitythatcanbeinformedbyconversationswithlocalleadersor
jurisdictionalstaff,researchontheweb,orpreviousworkinthecommunity.Theplanshouldidentify
milestonesforstakeholderinvolvement,acleardecisionprocessthatillustrateshowinputwillbeused,and
toolsormethodsforinvolvingstakeholders.
x Documentandtrackpublicinputandhowthatinputisreflectedinprojectplanninganddesign.
x Setupacommentandresolutionlogthatlistscommunitycommentsandteamactions.
x Usenarrativesorminutesthatdescribeinputgatheredateachprojectmilestoneandhowthatinputwillbe
reflectedintheprocess.
x Rememberthatthestakeholderconsultationprocessdoesnotrequireacquiescencetoeverystakeholder
request.Somerequestswillbetooexpensive,willbeoutofstepwiththeprojectpurpose,orwillnotreflect
thevaluesofthecommunityasawhole.
x Developinganevaluationframeworkthatreflectscommunitygoalsandprojectgoalscreatesafilterfor
determiningwhichrequestsareintegratedintotheprojectandwhicharesetaside.
Example: Aurora Avenue North Multimodal Corridor Project Shoreline, WA
TheCityofShorelineimplementedanewroadwaydesignforthreemilesofStateRoute99(alsoknownas
AuroraAvenueNorth)toalleviatetrafficcongestion,improvebusinessaccess,andprovidepedestrianaccess.
ContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS)wereusedtodesignanenvironmentallyconsciousroadwaythatprotected
salmonandprovidedmultimodalmobilityimprovementstotheNorthwest,includingpedestrians,bicyclists,
motorists,andfreighttruckers.SeeFiguresAE3.1throughAE3.3.
SomehighlightsoftheCSSprocessfollowedbytheprojectinclude:
x Photosimulationshelpedstakeholdersvisualizetheimpactofproposedsolutions
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x MultimodalconnectivitywassuccessfullyprovidedforcyclistsandpedestriansviatheInterurbanTrail,
whichsailsacrosstheroadway,givingsafeanddedicatedaccessforthesetravelers.Continuous11foot
widesidewalkswithdisabilityaccesswerealsoinstalled,reducingpedestrianfatalitiesandinjuries.
x TransitservicewasenhancedviaBusRapidTransit(BRT:FigureAE3.2),includingdedicatedbuslanes,in
linestops,accessimprovementsatbuszonesandshelters,andsignalpriority.Theseenhancements
resultedinmajorefficiency(80%speedincrease)andschedulingimprovements(600%reliabilityincrease).

FigureAE3.1:BicycleandPedestrianBridge.
PhotobyCH2MHill.

FigureAE3.2:AerialviewofAuroraAvenueandBRT.
PhotobyCH2MHill.
FigureAE3.3:InterurbanTrailBicycleandPedestrianBridgeoverSR99.PhotobyCH2MHill.

x Stakeholdersworkedalongwithplannersanddesignerstoreachaconsensusthatbestfitgoalsandvalues,
(thoughagoodportionoftheremainingSR99corridorisstillamatterofpublicdebate.)
x Trafficefficiencyimprovements,suchasintersectioncapacity,corridorwidetrafficmanagement,new
signalsandaccesslocations,resultedinflowimprovementsover36%overthenobuildcondition.
x Accessmanagementandilluminationofthecorridorincreasedsafetybyreducingseverityofcrashesand
reducingtotalcrashesby25%.
x Aestheticimprovementswereincorporated,includinglandscaping,trees,screeningandburyingutilities,
publicartandarchitecturalfeatures.Thisresultedinincreasedpropertyvaluesandredevelopmentanda
morelivablecommunity.
x StormwatermanagementincorporatedbiofiltrationareasandinRightofWaytreatmentfacilities,
ultimatelyreducingimpervioussurfaceby15%andimprovingstormwaterqualityby100%overnobuild.
MoreinformationabouttheSR99ImprovementsisavailableherefromtheWashingtonStateDepartmentof
Transportation:http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/projects/SR99/Shoreline_NCTHOV/
Example: Case Study Whittier Access Project Whittier, Alaska
TheAlaskaDepartmentofTransportationandPublicFacilitiesbegantheWhittierAccessProjecttoincrease
accessandmobilitytotheregionforbothtrainandhighwaytravel.Forthefirsttimein50years,Whittier
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wouldhaveahighway,providingaccesstoemergencyservices,recreation,tourism,travelandcommercein
theenvironmentallysensitivesettingofPrinceWilliamSoundandtheChugachNationalForest.
Twofundamentalobjectivesguidedtheproject:meettransportationaccessneedsforresidents,freightand
visitorsandminimizeenvironmentalimpactfromconstruction.Planningforthe4mileaccessroad,two
tunnels(one500feetandanother2.5milecombinedaccessforrailandhighway),twobridges,andportal
buildingsbeganin1993.Thecompletedprojectopenedtothepublicin2000.Notethatpedestrianandbicycle
accessisnotprovidedforsafetyreasons.Additionally,thereisnopublictransitinWhittier.SeeFigureAE3.4.

FigureAE3.4:WhittierAccessproject.PhotobyCH2MHill.

Someprojecthighlightsinclude:
x Theroadwayalignmentsusedexistingtopographicalfeaturestominimizevisualimpactbyscreeningthe
roadwiththenew500footlongtunnel.
x Thealignmentsalsominimizedimpactstosensitiveplants,salmonspawninggrounds,wildlifeandprovided
drainagestructuresadequateforfishpassage.
x Blastingtechniqueswereusedasanaesthetictooltoleaveanirregularsurfacethatwassimilartothelook
ofnaturalrockformations.ThisminimizedvisualimpactsfromthenearbyPortageLake.
x Thebridgesweredesignedtobelowprofileandminimumfootprintwithsinglecolumnpierstoallow
boatingaccessandminimizeobstructionofanearbyglacialviewpoint.
x Bridgegirdersweresandblastedandtexturedtomatchsurroundings.
MoreinformationabouttheWhittierAccessprojectcanbefoundfromtheAlaskaDepartmentof
TransportationandPublicFacilitieshere:http://www.dot.state.ak.us/creg/whittiertunnel/index.shtml
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POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Forsmallerprojectsthattypicallydonotrequireinvolvementofmanypeople,ordirectmanagementby
stakeholders,thiscreditrequiresthatanadditionaldocumentisgenerated.
2. CSSdoesnotguaranteeeffectivenessofthefinaldesignalternative.Thisisespeciallytruerelativetocostand
schedulingconcerns.
3. CSSdoesnotaddressconstructionmanagementissuesexceptbroadly.
4. Thisparticularcreditdoesnothaveanymeansoftrackingormonitoringthesuccess(orfailure)ofaproject
afteritisconstructed,i.e.todetermineiftheCSSplanningprocessresultedinapositiveornegativeoutcome.
RESEARCH
Ifhighwaydesignersarenotawareofopportunitiestousetheircreativeabilities,thestandardorconservative
useoftheGreenBookcriteriaandrelatedStatestandards,alongwithalackoffullconsiderationofcommunity
values,cancausearoadtobeoutofcontextwithitssurroundings.Itmayalsoprecludedesignersfromavoiding
impactsonimportantnaturalandhumanresources(FederalHighwayAdministration,1997).Contextsensitive
design(CSD),sometimescalledContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS),isawelldocumentedapproachtoproject
deliverythatreliesonanunderstandingofandresponsetotheprojectscontextitsphysicalandsocialplacein
allaspectsofdesign.ThereareseveraldefinitionsofCSS,butallofthemareconsistentwithindustrybestpractice
(ICFInternational,2009).AccordingtotheFHWA,thedefinitionofCSSis:
Acollaborative,interdisciplinaryapproachthatinvolvesallstakeholderstoprovideatransportation
facilitythatfitsitssetting.Itisanapproachthatleadstopreservingandenhancingscenic,aesthetic,
historic,community,andenvironmentalresources,whileimprovingormaintainingsafety,mobility,
andinfrastructureconditions.(FHWA,2009)
CSSsynthesizesconventionalengineering,professionalexpertiseandthoughtfulplanningwithhumanvalues
throughasystemsapproachforprojectdelivery.IntegratingCSSintoprojectdecisionmakingrequiresa
multidisciplinaryapproachtoplanninganddesignandanopendialoguewithstakeholders.CSSalsoreferstoan
overallproductoroutcome:aroadwayprojectthatisgenerallymoresuitableandvaluabletoitscommunity(ICF
International,2009).
Severalfederal,stateandlocallawsmandate(orotherwisestronglyrecommend)theuseofcontextsensitive
design.ThemostrecentfederalregulationthatwasrelevanttoCSSwastheSafe,Accountable,Flexible,
TransportationEfficiencyAct:ALegacyforUsers(SAFETEALU),whichrecentlyexpiredandhasnotbeenreplaced
byasubsequentregulationasofthiswriting.Section6008Historically,CSSconceptshavebeenembeddedin
federallawsincetheinstitutionoftheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA)atthestartof1970.(American
AssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials:AASHTO,2010;ContextSensitiveSolutions.org,2010)
WhileenvironmentalreviewprocessesliketheNEPAsharesometraitswithCSSplanninganddesignapproaches,
theyarenotoneandthesame.Instead,CSSandtheenvironmentalreviewprocessarecomplementarydecision
makingprocesses.Bothprocesses(andtheirresultingimplementation)arecomprehensiveinnature,buttheir
focusisgenerallydifferent.Forexample,harmonizingenvironmentalneedsfortheprojectintheCSSprocess
couldeasilybeaddressedintheenvironmentalreviewprocess,ifrequiredbytheagencyorjurisdiction.Many
projectteamsuseCSSasanopportunitytocompletetheenvironmentalreviewprocesseveniftheprojectisnot
subjecttoNEPAorlocalrequirements.Thischoiceisgenerallyseenasawaytominimizebacktrackingfor
documentationthatwouldneedtooccurif,forinstance,theprojecthappenedtoqualifymidwaythroughthe
designprocessforfederalfunding.(Neumanetal.,2002).
CharacteristicsofCSS
Interestingly(andunlikeothercreditsinGreenroads),thereisnoclearcorollarytoCSSinthebuildingindustryor
intheLEEDGreenBuildingRatingsystem.CSSisanapproachexclusivetotransportationinplanningand
development.ThebestanalogyisthatCSSistotransportationasarchitectureandurbandesignaretothebuilt
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environment.However,thereisonekeydifferencebetweenstandarddesignapproachesforroadwayprojectsand
CSS.Conventionaldesignprocessfollowsalinearapproach:thesemethodsusuallyinvolvebooksofstandardsand
readingfromtablestodevelopthealternativesinordertofitaroadwaytoaplace.However,thisprocessoften
resultsinaconservative,uncreativedesign,orworse,anunsustainableonethatignoresoromitsimportant
environmentalconcerns.Conversely,theCSSapproachprovidesaniterativeandinterdisciplinaryapproachto
planninganddesignthatrecognizesandimplementskeysynergiesthatwillultimatelyresultinamorefunctional,
moreappropriate,andmoreapplicableroadwayproject.ThisintegratedapproachisshowninFigureAE3.5.
LinearDesignProcess
ConventionalDesign
IterativeDesignProcess
ContextSensitiveDesign

FigureAE3.5:ComparisonofaconventionaldesignprocesstoaContextSensitivedesignprocess.
(AdaptedfromNeumanetal.,2002)

CSSPrinciples
AccordingtoStamatiadisetal.(2009)therearefifteencoreprinciplesofCSSthatareapplicableandrelevantto
transportationprofessionalsinpractice.ThediagramshowninFigureAE3.6providesagoodillustrationofthe
principles,andtheirrelativeimportance.Importantly,Principles13formthefoundationtoasuccessfulCSS
program.Thesecondlevelofthefoundation,Principles47,representsthefourcommonagencygoalswhichhelp
todefinetheprojectneedsandpurpose(Stamatiadisetal.,2009;Neumanetal.,2002).Thethirdlevel(thepillars:
principles813)representsthesolutionenablers.Thesearethepolicycommitmentsandagencygoals,andthe
perspectivesthatallowforaneffectivesolutiontobeapproachedandachieved.Thefourth(principle14)andfifth
(principle15)levelstandforsuccessfulprojectdeliveryandeffectivelongrangeplanning.EveryCSSproject
exemplifiesalloftheseprinciples,thoughthereismuchvariabilityinbothinitialdesignandfinaloutcomefrom
projecttoproject(Stamatiadiasetal.,2009).
DevelopEngineering
Alternatives
EvaluateAlternatives
CompleteEnvironmental
Documentation
Develop
Engineering
Alternatives
Evaluate
Alternatives
Selectand
DocumentFinal
Alternative
DetermineIssues
andConstraints
Engineering
Environmental
Stakeholder
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FigureAE3.6:Graphicaldepictionof15principlesofContextSensitiveSolutions.(Stamatiadisetal.,2009)
BenefitsofCSS
ThereareseveralbenefitsofCSS.Stamatiadisetal.(2009)recentlyattemptedtoidentifythequantifiablebenefits
ofCSS.Hisgroupestablished22quantifiablebenefitsofapplyingCSSprinciples.TheseareshowninTableAE3.1.
TableAE3.1:22BenefitsofCSS(adaptedfromNCHRPReportNo.690byStamatiadisetal.,2009)
ImprovedbyCSS OptimizedbyCSS
Performancepredictabilityandprojectdelivery Maintenanceandoperations
Scopingandbudgetingprocess Designappropriateforcontext
Longtermdecisionsandinvestments IncreasedbyCSS
Environmentalstewardship Riskmanagementprotection
Mobilityforusers Stakeholder/publicfeedback
Walkabilityandbikeability Stakeholder/publicparticipation,ownershipandtrust
Safety(vehicles,pedestriansandbikes) Partneringopportunities
Accesstomultimodaloptions(includingtransit) MinimizedbyCSS
Communitysatisfaction Overallimpacttohumanandnaturalenvironment
Qualityoflifeforcommunity Constructionrelateddisruption
Speedmanagement Overallcostsforprojectdelivery
Overalltimeforprojectdelivery

Inadditiontothequantifiablebenefits,somequalitativehighlightsofCSSplanninganddesignprinciplesare:
x CSSisuniversal.AkeystrengthofCSS/CSDisitsuniversalityandapplicabilitytoallstakeholdersintheproject,
includingowneragencies,thepublicanddesignprofessionals.TheNCHRP480(Neumanetal.,2002)document
summarizesstrategiesandapproachesbasedonsixareasofpeoplewhohaveastakeintheoveralloutcomeof
theproject.Thedocumentisorganizedintosectionsbasedonprofessionalareaandthereaderisreferredto
thisdocumentinsteadofsummarizingeachofthoseapproachesherein.
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x CSSisapplicableandeffectiveataprojectlevel.CSSprojectsrequireeffectiveandsuccessfulprojectdelivery
basedonstructureddecisionmaking,thoughtfulconsiderationofcommunityinputandvalues,environmental
awareness,protectionofsafety,andanunderstandingofhowtheprojectfitswithinorganizationalneedsand
constraints(Neumanetal.,2002)
x CSSpromotesenvironmentalstewardship.Environmentalresourcesareidentifiedandgoalsaresetto
managetheseresourcesatthebeginningoftheproject.Thisapproachhelpstopreventunnecessaryor
minimizeenvironmentalimpacts(ICFInternational,2009).
x CSSallowsacleardefinitionofscope.ImplementingaprojectmanagementstructurethatalignswithCSS
principlescanclearlydefinetheprojectneedsandscope.Thishelpsprioritizeproblemsthatmayariseduring
constructionorevenpreemptthemthroughthoughtfulplanning.(Stamitidiasetal.,2009)Italsoallowsfora
unifiedvisionstatement;FHWA,2007)
x CSSoffersamoreinformeddecisionmakingprocess.Effectivedecisionmakingrequiresinformationfromall
collaboratingparties.CSSaccomplishesthiscollaborationbyinstitutingamantraofinformedconsent,through
activestakeholderengagementandopencommunication.(Stamitidiasetal.,2009;ICFInternational,2009)
x CSSengagesstakeholders.StakeholderinvolvementisacoreprincipleofCSS.Collectionandintegrationof
stakeholdervaluestranslatesthosevaluesdirectlyintothefinalprojectoutcomes.(FHWA,2009;AASHTO,
pavementconference;Neumanetal.,2002;Stamiditidiadlas;ICFInternational,2009)CSSopenslinesof
communicationwithallstakeholdersearlyandkeepsthemopenthroughoutprojectdevelopmentanddelivery
(FWHA,2007)
x CSSisinterdisciplinary.Decisionsmadeareconsensusbased,anddrawfromprojectmanagers,environmental
managers,roadwaydesignersandengineers,owneragencies,andthepublic(Neumanetal.,2002).
x CSSiscosteffective.InastudybytheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)andthe
UniversityofWashington,WSDOTfoundthatcontextsensitiveplanningforcommunitydesignelementsin
mainstreetareasofurbancentershelptopreemptscopeandschedulingchanges,whichresultedinpotential
overallsavingsfortheagency.(NichollsandReeves,2009)
x CSScanbeintegratedintopolicy.CSSisawellestablishedbestpracticethathasbeensuccessfullyintegrated
withinmanyagenciestohelpachieveinternalgoalsandobjectives,suchasatWSDOTandtheUtah
DepartmentofTransportation(UDOT)(FHWA,2007;ICFInternational,2009).
x CSSisubiquitous.TheCSS/CSDprocessforprojects(andforguidancedocuments)iswellsuitedtoanonline,
collaborativeandinteractiveenvironment.Manytoolsareavailableforprojectteamstocreateandmanage
theCSSelementsoftheproject,includingpublicinvolvement.Thedepthoftheinternetinfrastructurethat
supportsCSSideasandimplementation.TheonlinedatabaseofCSS,http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org
isjustoneexampleoftheresourcesavailable.Additionally,theFHWAandAASHTOCenterforEnvironmental
Excellencehavecreatedanopenforumforallpractitionersandprofessionals:
CSSandSustainability
CSSiswellestablishedandacceptedasabestpracticeforroadwaydesigners.However,itmaybesaidthatwhile
usingAASHTOsGreenBookisconsideredabestpracticefordesigningmanyroads,itcertainlydoesnotguarantee
thattheroaditselfwillbegreenormoresustainable.Sustainabilityisasystemcharacteristicthatdescribesthat
systemscapacitytosupportnaturallawsandhumanvalues.Whatactuallymakestheroadwaymoresustainable
thoughisateamofproactiveandthoughtfulprofessionalsmakingadeliberateattempttobeconsiderateof
communityneeds,valuesandenvironmentalsurroundingswhileplanninganddesigningtheproject.Themulti
disciplinary,consensusbased,wholesystemapproachisthekeydifferencebetweenconventionalpracticeand
CSS,anditisalsothereasonwhyCSDusuallyresultsinamoresustainableproject.Infact,CSSaddressesallseven
sustainabilitycomponentsunderitswideumbrellaofcharacteristics.TableAE3.2showshowthe15principlesof
ContextSensitiveSolutionsaddressthesevencomponentsofsustainabilityandhowtheyalignwiththe
Greenroadstaxonomyofsustainabilitybenefits.

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TableAE3.2:CSSandSustainability(AdaptedfromStamatidiasetal.,2009)
No. CSSPrinciple SustainabilityComponents PotentialBenefits
1 Useofinterdisciplinaryteams. 9 Experience 9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
2 Involvestakeholders. 9 Expectations
9 Exposure
9 IncreasesAwareness
3 Seekbroadbasedpublic
involvement.

9 Exposure 9 IncreasesAwareness
9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
9 CreatesNewInformation
4 Useafullrangeof
communicationstrategies
9 Exposure
9 Experience
9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
9 IncreasesAwareness
5 Achieveconsensusonpurpose
andneed
9 Expectations 9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
9 IncreasesLifecycleSavings
6 Addressalternativesandall
modes
9 Extent
9 Experience
9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
9 IncreasesLifecycleSavings
7 Considerasafefacilityforusers
andcommunity
9 Equity 9 ImprovesHumanHealth&Safety
8 Maintainenvironmentalharmony 9 Ecology
9 Experience
9 OptimizesHabitat&LandUse
9 Addresscommunityandsocial
issues
9 Equity
9 Exposure
9 ImprovesAccess&Mobility
9 ImprovesHumanHealth&Safety
9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
9 Aesthetics
10 Addressaesthetictreatmentsand
enhancements
9 Exposure 9 Aesthetics
11 Utilizeafullrangeofdesign
choices
9 Experience
9 Extent
9 OptimizesHabitat&LandUse
9 ImprovesAccess&Mobility
9 IncreasesLifecycleSavings
9 IncreasesLifecycleService
12 Documentprojectdecisions 9 Expectations 9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
13 Trackandmeetallcommitments 9 Expectations 9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
14 Useagencyresourceseffectively 9 Economy 9 IncreasesLifecycleSavings
9 ImprovesBusinessPractice
15 Createlonglastingcommunity
value
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Equity
9 OptimizesHabitat&LandUse
9 ImprovesHumanHealth&Safety
9 ImprovesAccess&Mobility
9 IncreasesLifecycleService
9 Aesthetics

FollowingtheCSSframeworkdoesnotultimatelyguaranteeroadwaysustainabilityasanendproduct,nordoesit
implythatsustainabilitymustbenecessarilyconsideredduringprojectdevelopment.However,CSSand
sustainabilityarecomplementaryapproachestothesameendpoint.TheCSSframeworkiswellsuitedto
accommodatingsustainabilityconsiderations,suchasthoseoutlinedbyGreenroads,earlyinprojectdevelopment.
LimitationsofThisCredit
Generally,CSSisaplanninganddesignstepthatiscomprehensivebecauseitinvolvesconsiderationoftheentire
projectlifecycleandusessystemsthinkingtocreatesolutions.Thislifecycleperspectivenecessitatesanevaluation
orassessmentprocessthatoccursduringtheoperationandmaintenancephaseoftheproject(i.e.longterm
performancemonitoring).However,thecreditrequirementsdonotrequiredetaileddiscussionofplanning
considerationsfortheroadwaymaintenance.Thisisbecausesuchplansanddocumentationforlifetime
maintenanceandoperationsarecoveredelsewhereinGreenroads(infact,theyarerequiredundertheProject
RequirementsPR9PavementMaintenanceandPR10SiteMaintenance).Currentlythereisnocreditgivenfor
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monitoringorevaluationbecausethereisnofeasiblemechanismavailableforaratingsystemtoenforceor
validatesuchactivities.
AdditionalResources
Therearemany,manyresourcesavailableforCSS,fromguidebookstowebsitestoformalresearchreports.Many
oftheideasoverlapandaresharedbetweenresources.Thereaderisreferredtothesesourcesformoredetailed
informationonCSS.Abriefdescriptionandalink(whereapplicable)areprovidedbelow:
x ThehubforallthingscontextsensitivecanbefoundatContextSensitiveSolutions.org:
http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org
x TheAASHTOCenterforEnvironmentalExcellenceContextSensitiveSolutionspageincludesabriefhistoryand
applicablefederal,stateandlocallaws,policiesandguidancedocuments.Additionally,anumberofuser
forumsareavailableforpublicuse.Thispageisavailableat:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/context_sens_sol/
x TheFlexibilityinHighwayDesignprovidesoneoftheearlierfoundationdocumentsforCSSandincludes
practicalguidanceforcreatinghighwaysthataresafe,effectiveandefficientusingCSSprinciples.
x TworeportsfromNCHRPareheavilyreferencedinthisdiscussion.TheyareNCHRP480:Aguidetobest
practicesforachievingcontextsensitivesolutionsandNCHRP642:QuantifyingthebenefitsofContextSensitive
Solutions.Thefirstoffersaveryqualitativereview,andthesecond,aquantitativeone.
x PublicinvolvementisacoreissueandtherearetwodefinitiveFHWAresourcesavailableforfacilitating
effectivestakeholdercommunicationandpublicinvolvementprocesses.TheyarePublicInvolvement
TechniquesforTransportationDecisionMakingandHowtoEngageLowLiteracyandLimitedEnglish
ProficiencyPopulationsinTransportationDecisionmaking.
GLOSSARY
Contextsensitivedesign Seecontextsensitivesolutions
Contextsensitivesolutions Acollaborative,interdisciplinaryapproachthatinvolvesallstakeholdersto
provideatransportationfacilitythatfitsitssetting.Itisanapproachthat
leadstopreservingandenhancingscenic,aesthetic,historic,community,and
environmentalresources,whileimprovingormaintainingsafety,mobility,
andinfrastructureconditions(alsoContextSensitiveDesign)
CSD Contextsensitivedesign
CSS Contextsensitivesolutions
Multimodal Concerningmorethanonetransportationmode
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
NCHRP NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials

REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)CenterforEnvironmentalExcellence.
(2010).CenterforEnvironmentalExcellencebyAASHTO:ContextSensitiveSolutions.AccessedJanuary9,2010.
Availableat:http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/context_sens_sol
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(2004).AASHTOGreenBookApolicy
ongeometricdesignofhighwaysandstreets.Washington,D.C.:AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayand
TransportationOfficials.
CityofShoreline.(2010,January8).CityofShoreline,WA:AuroraCorridorProject.AccessedJanuary9,2010.
Availableathttp://www.shorelinewa.gov/index.aspx?page=227
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CSSNationalDialog.(2009).SubmissionFormsAccessedSeptember16,2010.Availableat
http://www.cssnationaldialog.org/forms.asp
ContextSensitiveSolutions.org.(2010).WelcometoCSS|ContextSensitiveSolutions.orgACSSsupportcenter
forthetransportationcommunity.AccessedJanuary9,2010.Availableat
http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)OfficeofPlanning.(2006,February).HowtoEngageLowLiteracyand
LimitedEnglishProficiencyPopulationsinTransportationDecisionmaking.[FHWAHEP06009].Reporttothe
FHWAbyPBS&J.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/hep/lowlim/lowlim1.htm.
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2009,April13)AGuidetoBuildingCSSKnowledgeandSkillsfor
SuccessfulProjectDelivery.AccessedJanuary9,2010.ReporttotheFHWAbytheLouisBergerGroup,Inc.,
OldhamHistoricProperties,Inc.andProjectforPublicSpaces.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/trainingguide/
ICFInternational,CH2MHill,Inc.andTransTech.(2009,June30).IntegratingContextSensitiveSolutionsinto
TransportationPracticeGuide.AccessedJanuary9,2010.Availableat
http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org/content/reading/integrating_context_sensitive_s_//resources/Integ
rating_CSS_into_Transportation_Practice_Guide.pdf
Neuman,T.R.etal.(2002).Aguidetobestpracticesforachievingcontextsensitivesolutions.NationalCooperative
HighwayResearchProgramNCHRPReport480.Washington,D.C.:TransportationResearchBoard.
Nicholls,J.andReeves,P.(2009).Statehighwaysasmainstreets:Astudyofcommunitydesignandvisioning.[WA
RD733.1]Seattle,Wash:WashingtonStateTransportationCenter,UniversityofWashington.
Stamatiadis,N.etal.(2009).QuantifyingthebenefitsofContextSensitiveSolutions.NationalCooperativeHighway
ResearchProgramNCHRPReport642.Washington,D.C.:TransportationResearchBoard.
StateofAlaska,DepartmentofTransportationandPublicFacilities.(n.d.)AntonAndersonMemorialTunnel
Whittier,Alaska.AccessedJanuary9,2010.Availableat
http://www.dot.state.ak.us/creg/whittiertunnel/index.shtml
UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)FlexibilityinHighway
Design.[FHWAPD97062]ReportbytheFederalHighwayAdministration.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/flex/index.htm
UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministration.(2007,March)ResultsofJoint
AASHTO/FHWAContextSensitiveSolutionsStrategicPlanningProcessSummaryReport.Preparedbythe
CenterofTransportationandtheEnvironment,NorthCarolinaUniversity.Availableat
http://environment.transportation.org/pdf/context_sens_sol/portlandsummary_final.pdf
UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation,FederalHighwayAdministrationandFederalTransitAdministration.
(1996).PublicInvolvementTechniquesforTransportationDecisionMaking.[FHWAPD96031]Reporttothe
FHWAandFTA.PreparedbyHoward/SteinHudsonAssociates,Inc.andParsonsBrinckerhoffQuadeand
Douglas.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/pittd/cover.htm.
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AE-4 Traffic Emissions Reduction
TRAFFIC EMISSIONS REDUCTION
GOAL
Reduceoperationalmobilesourceemissionstoimproveairqualityandhumanhealth.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Showthatcongestionpricingwasusedonthisproject.Thisusuallyispartofalarger
congestionpricingprogram.UsetheEPAMOVES2010softwaretocomputethetotal
greenhousegasemissionsandcriteriapollutantemissionsreducedbythetollingor
pricingprogramcomparedtothenonpricedalternativeforthelengthoftheproject.

Details
Emissionsmodelingwillrequireestablishingabaselinecase.Thisshouldconsistof
thelengthoftheprojectwithoutcongestionpricingandshouldusethesame
assumptionsthataremadeinthecongestionpricingcase.Congestionpricing
schemesreducethenumberofvehiclesonaroadwaybychargingmoneyforuse
duringpeakperiods,thereforereducingfueluseandtotalemissions.Congestion
pricingneednotapplytoalllanesofaroadway.
DOCUMENTATION
Copyoftheprojectdesignreportshowingtheprojectsplannedcongestionpricingand
acopyoftheexecutivesummaryfortheMOVES2010trafficmodelstudycompleted
fortheprojectforboththebaselinecaseandcongestionpricingcase.Thesummary
shouldincludethesamedetailsofthemodelasnotedabove.

AE-4
5 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 AE2Intelligent
Transportation
Systems
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE5Pedestrian
Access
9 AE6BicycleAccess
9 AE7Transit&HOV
Access
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations

BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesMobility
9 IncreasesServiceLife
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ReducesLifecycle
Cost
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x BecomeanearlyadopteragencyoftheMOVES2010software.
x Considerimplementingintelligenttransportationsystems(ITS)fordynamicpricingandconversionofexisting
highoccupancyvehicle(HOV)lanestohighoccupancytoll(HOT)lanes.
x Notethatsometolledfacilitieswerenotinstalledtomanagecongestion.Inorderfortollfacilitiestomeetthe
intentofthiscredit,roadwayprojectswithinatolledsystem,especiallyiftheusercostisstatic,reduces
congestionusingtheMOVES2010softwareandprovidingsupportinginformationasnoted.
Example: Congestion Pricing in Puget Sound Traffic Choices Study
In2002,thePugetSoundRegionalCouncil(PSRC)receivedagranttobecomeapilotprojectwiththeValue
PricingPilot(VPP)programwiththeFederalHighwayAdministration.Theobjectofthestudywastomonitor
behavioralchanges(numberoftrips,mode,route,andtimeofvehicletrips)tovariableorcongestionbased
tolling.TheTrafficChoicesStudy(PSRC,2008)usedglobalpositioningsystem(GPS)tollingmeterstotrack
drivingpatternsfor275volunteerhouseholds,beforeandafterexperimentaltollswerechargedforuseof
majorfreewaysandarterialsinSeattle.Whilenocostwasincurredbythevolunteers,severalimportant
changesintraveldemandwereobservedthathavesignificantimplicationsonreducingemissions.These
resultsincluded:
x Alltrips(toursperweek)decreased7%
x Vehiclemilestraveled(milesperweek)decreased12%
x Drivetime(minutesofdrivingperweek)decreased8%
x Toursegments(segmentsoftoursperweek)decreased6%
x Milesdrivenontolledroads(tolledmilesperweek)decreased13%.
MoreinformationabouttheTrafficChoicesStudyisavailableat:http://www.psrc.org/transportation/traffic.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. NotethatthetransportationsectordesignationofmanyenergyuseorGHGemissionsstatisticsdonotinclude
processesfordesignorconstructionofroadways.Thisislikelyduetothesmalltimescaleofconstruction
activitieswhencomparedtothemuchlongerservicelifeoftheroaditself.Dependingonthelifecyclemodel
usedandwhatthesystemboundariesofthatmodelare,eithertheusephase(i.e.vehicularemissions)orthe
productionofmaterials(i.e.themanufacturingorconstructionprocess)havebeenshowntohavethehighest
overallimpactonGHGandenergyuse.Thesevaluesarehighlyvariabledependentonlocation,capacity,type
ofroadway,multimodalaccess,maintenance,andamountofcongestion,tonamejustafew.
2. TheEPAMOVES2010modeliscurrentlythebestavailablequantitativeapproachtomodelingusephasevehicle
emissions.(EPA,2009f)Aswithanysoftwareprogram,thismodelhasbuiltinassumptionsthatmaybe
counterindicativeofappropriatenessforaparticularroadwayproject.ThelimitationsofEPAMOVES2010
shouldbeunderstoodpriortopursuingthiscredit.
RESEARCH
ThoughGreenroadsisintendedtobemosteasilyimplementedduringthedesignandconstructionphasesofthe
roadwaylifecycle,theimpactoftheuseandoperationsphaseandtheplanningimplicationsoftheroadwayinthis
phaseareunavoidable.Ignoringtheseimplicationswouldberemiss,sinceclearlyimplementingsuchemissions
reductionprogramsresultsinaroadwaythatismoresustainableoverall.Thiscreditrewardsplanningstepsthat
havebeenimplementedinordertoreducetheoveralllifecycleemissionsimpactduetovehiculartrafficfrom
roadsinordertopromotehumanandenvironmentalhealth.Additionally,researchintheseareasalsoshowsthat
thereareexternalbenefits,suchasincreasedservicelife(andtherefore,reducedlongtermmaintenancecosts)
andhumanhealthimprovements,thatareassociatedwithsystematictollingprograms.
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AirEmissionsImpactsoftheTransportationSector
ThemostrecentstatisticaldataavailablefromtheEPA(2009a)andtheDepartmentofEnergy(DOE:Davis,Diegel
&Boundy,2009)showthatthetransportationsectorisoneofthebiggestcontributorsformanyoftheair
emissionsconsideredgreenhousegasesandcriteriapollutants.Thisisprimarilyduetothecombustionoffossil
fuels,mostcommonlygasolineanddiesel.Theamountsofthesegasesthatarereleasedduringcombustion
dependprimarilyonthecarboncontentofthefuel.(Davis,Diegel&Boundy,2009)
WhatareGreenhouseGases?
Greenhousegases(GHGs)areagroupof22longlivedchemicalcompounds(Solomonetal.,2007)thatare
foundinairemissionsfromhumanactivitiesandnaturalprocesses.Increasingconcentrationsofthesegasesin
theEarthsatmospherehavebeenidentifiedtobemajorfactorsinglobalwarmingandclimatechange
(sometimesthesearecombinedtoonetermglobalchange).Highlevelsofthesegasesintheatmosphere
disturbtheenergybalanceofEarthsclimatesystemsandactlikeablanketaroundtheEarth,trappingheat
fromsolarradiationwithintheEarthsatmospherewhichmightotherwiseescapevianormalclimate
processes.Thepotencyorconcentrationofthesegasesismeasuredinunitsofchangeinradiativeforcing,
whichisareflectionoftheiroverallwarming(orcooling)influence.Currently,mostGHGemissionsarenotas
strictlyregulatedorotherwisemonitoredbytheEPA.
ThefourGHGsthathavebeenidentifiedarecarbondioxide(CO
2
),methane(CH
4
),nitrousoxide(N
2
O)and
halocarbons(agroupofgaseswithfluorine,chlorineorbromine).Eachgashasadifferentinfluenceonglobal
warmingduetotheirpropertiesandlifetimes.Typically,thegasesarecomparedtoabaselineunitofCO
2
using
anindex(multiplier)calledGlobalWarmingPotential(GWP)thatreflectsthatcompoundsrelativeradiative
forcingcomparedtoCO
2
.GWPisusuallyexpressedinunitsofcarbondioxideequivalent(CO
2
e,sometimes
CO
2
eq)emissions,butdoesnotnecessarilyreflectthesameclimateresponses.(Bernsteinetal.,2007)For
example,1unitemissionofmethanehasaGWPin100yearsequivalentto25unitsofcarbondioxideaccording
totheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChangeFourthAssessmentReport,soitisexpressedas25CO
2
e.
(Solomonetal.,2007;Bernsteinetal.,2007)
The2009U.S.GreenhouseGasInventoryReport(EPA,2009a)states:
From1990to2007,transportationemissionsroseby29percentdue,inlargepart,toincreased
demandfortravelandthestagnationoffuelefficiencyacrosstheU.S.vehiclefleet.Thenumberof
vehiclemilestraveledbylightdutymotorvehicles(passengercarsandlightdutytrucks)increased40
percentfrom1990to2007,asaresultofaconfluenceoffactorsincludingpopulationgrowth,
economicgrowth,urbansprawl,andlowfuelpricesovermuchofthisperiod.Asimilarsetofsocial
andeconomictrendshasledtoasignificantincreaseinairtravelandfreighttransportationbyboth
airandroadmodesduringthetimeseries.
Accordingtothisreport,thetransportationsectorwasresponsiblefor33%ofCO
2
emissions,26%methane
(CH
4
)emissions,and67%ofnitrousoxide(N
2
O)emissionsfromfossilfuelcombustion.Thesestatisticshave
beenadjustedforendusesector(socontributionsduetoelectricitygenerationhavebeenincluded)anddo
notincludeairandfreightmodes.Generally,theenduseadjustmentincreasesoverallpercentage
contributionsanddirectemissionsareless.Thetransportationsectorisalsoaccountablefor0.9%ofthe
halocarbonemissions,mostlyintheformoftherefrigerantHFC134a.(EPA,2009a).Enduseadjustedstatistics
werenotspecifiedforhalocarbonsinthetransportationsector.
WhatareCriteriaPollutants?
Thecriteriapollutantsaresixcommonpollutantsinairthatareknownhavedetrimentalhumanhealthimpacts
aswellaspotentialtodamageproperty.Thepollutantsareparticulatematter(PM
10
andPM
2.5
),groundlevel
ozone(O
3
),nitrogenoxides(NO
x
),carbonmonoxide(CO),sulfurdioxide(SO
2
),andlead(Pb).Ofthese
pollutants,particlepollutionandgroundlevelozonearethegreatestthreatstohumanhealthand
environmentaldamage.(EPA,2009d)Thesixpollutantsarecalledcriteriapollutantsbecauseconcentrations
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intheairareregulatedbytheEPA,whocomparestestedlevelstoallowablelevelssetinthe1990CleanAirAct
(CAA)amendments(40CFR50)NationalAmbientAirQualityStandard(NAAQS).(EPA,2009b;EPA,2009c)
Itisimportanttonotefuelcombustionalsoaccountsformostoftheindirectgreenhousegases(EPA,2009a)
whichincludeCO,NO
X
,nonmethanevolatileorganiccompounds(NMVOCs),andSO
2
.Indirectgreenhouse
gasesdonothaveadirectglobalwarmingeffect,butindirectlyaffectterrestrialradiationabsorptionby
influencingtheformationanddestructionoftroposphericandstratosphericozone,or,inthecaseofSO
2
,by
affectingtheabsorptivecharacteristicsoftheatmosphere.Additionally,someofthesegasesmayreactwith
otherchemicalcompoundsintheatmospheretoformcompoundsthataregreenhousegases.(EPA,2009a)
TableAE4.1summarizesthepercentagecontributionsofselectedpollutantsfromthetransportationsector.
Mostoftheemissionscomefromuseofhighwayvehiclesandheavytrucks.Also,notably,transportation
accountsforthemajorityofcarbonmonoxideandnitrogenoxideemissionsintheUnitedStates(Davis,Diegel
&Boundy,2009).
TableAE4.1:TransportationsShareofU.S.EmissionsofVariousPollutants,2007
(AdaptedfromTable12.1inDavis,Diegel&Boundy,2009)
Pollutants ChemicalSymbol Percentage ofTotalU.S.Emissions(%)in2007
Carbonmonoxide CO 68.4
Nitrogenoxides NO
X
57.1
Volatileorganiccompounds(VOC) Various 33.9
Sulfurdioxide SO
2
8.9
Ammonia NH
3
5.7
Particulatematter PM
10
2.7
PM
2.5
7.2
Lead Pb Notincluded
Ozone O
3
NotIncluded

Notethatthetermtransportationsectormeanshumanuseofvehiclesonroadways,andcommonlytheair
pollutantcontributionsduetoconstructionareomittedfromstatisticalreports.TheDOEdatainTableAE4.1
werealsonotspecificallyadjustedforenduseelectricityorenergyforthetransportationsectorandincludes
contributionsfromairandfreightmodes.Duetotheincreasedavailabilityofunleadedgasolineandrelated
regulationssincethemid1980s,theprevalenceofthecriteriapollutantleadhasdecreasedsignificantly(EPA,
2009d)anditisnotincludedinthestatisticsshown.Similarly,groundlevelozoneisnotincludedbecauseitis
notemitteddirectly;instead,itisformedduetoachemicalreactionofnitrogenoxidesandVOCsinsunlight
(2009d).
HowareAirEmissionsfromTransportationModeled?
TheEPAisrequiredbytheCAAtocontinuallytrackandupdateairqualitydatafrommobilesourceemissions,
aswellasitssoftwaremodelsusedtomeasurevehicleemissions.PriortotheDecember2009releaseof
MOVES2010softwarefromtheOfficeofTransportationandAirQuality(OTAQ),eitherMOBILE6.2orprevious
versionsoftheMOVESprogramwererequiredtobeusedtodevelopemissionsmodelsduringcreationofstate
implementationplansforairqualityperformance.Now,theEPAstatesthatMOVES2010isthebestavailable
toolforemissionsmodelingfortransport.(EPA,2009f)Recentdata(collectedwithinthelast10yearsusingthe
bestavailabletechnologiesandimprovedmonitoringandcontrols)wasusedtodeveloptheemissions
algorithmsinMOVES2010.Currently,thereisatwoyeargraceperiodbeforetheEPAwillrequireadoptionof
theMOVES2010softwareinallregulatedagencies.(EPA,2009f)TheaddedfeaturesofMOVES2010,when
comparedtoMOBILE6.2,allowimprovedcalculationofgreenhousegasemissions(aswellascriteriapollutants)
becauseitisbaseduponuserinputsfortransportationplanning,vehiclemilestraveled(VMT)andspeedsand
notsolelyuponfuelconsumption.(ICFConsulting,2006)
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HumanHealth,AirQuality&PublicPolicy
Humanhealthimpactsduetopoorairquality,especiallyduetocriteriapollutantsfrommobilesourcesliketraffic,
arewelldocumented.AsystematicreviewbyWoodcocketal.(2007)foundthatthehealthimpactsoftransport
pollutionareevidencedbyincreasedtotaldeaths,increasedrespiratoryandcardiovasculardeathanddiseases,
increasedallergiesandalsopotentiallylinktocasesoflungcancer.Additionaldeathsresultfromhealthdangers
suchastrafficaccidents,andarecommonlyarguedtobeduetobehavioralchoicesandlifestyles.Anexcerptfrom
theforewordofthe2005WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)report,HealthEffectsofTransportRelatedAir
Pollution,framesthesituationwell:
Transportplaysafundamentalroleinthelivesofsocietiesandindividuals:howpeopleinteract,
work,play,organizeproduction,developcities,andgetaccesstoservices,amenitiesandgoodsis
inextricablylinkedwiththedevelopmentofmobilityandthechoicespeoplemakeaboutit.In
societiesthatrelyheavilyandincreasinglyonprivatemotorizedtransport,vehiclesareexpectedto
becomesafer,moreluxuriousandpowerful,andtobedrivenmorefrequently.Theseexpectations,
however,oftendonottakeaccountoftheensuingconsequences:increasedfuelconsumption,
greateremissionsofairpollutantsandgreaterexposureofpeopletohazardouspollutionthatcauses
serioushealthproblems.Theincreasedintensityofandrelianceontransportalsoincreasetheriskof
roadtrafficinjuries,exposuretonoiseandsedentarylifestyles.Theserisksareadisproportional
threattothemostvulnerablegroupsinthepopulation,suchaschildrenandtheelderly,andthey
raiseimportantquestionsaboutsocialinequalities.(Krzyanowski,KunaDibbert,&Schneider,2005)
Whilethehealtheffectsofcriteriapollutantsarebothwelldocumentedandregulated,thehealtheffectsof
greenhousegasemissionsarelesswellunderstood.In2009,Hainesetal.publishedasummaryforpolicymakers
attheendofacomprehensiveseriesofstudiesonthepublichealthimpactofgreenhousegases.Allscenarios
modeledbythatgroup(seeWoodcocketal.2009)demonstratedsignificantincreasesintotalhumanhealthbased
onthreeindicators(physicalactivity,outdoorairpollutionandroadtrafficinjury)whensustainabletransport
policieswereimplemented,aswellasactivetransportandmultimodalsolutions.Also,allscenariosdemonstrated
decreasesinoverallCO
2
eemissions.(Woodcocketal.2009)However,Chan(2009)notesthatmanypolicymakers
havenotmadetheconnectionbetweenclimatechangeandpublichealth.Shealsonotesthatthecarbon
reductionpolicycanprovidebenefitstopublichealthwhichcouldbesubstantial,andincludesreductionsin
chronichealthproblemssuchasheartdisease,cancer,obesity,diabetesandrespiratoryailments.Someregions
haverecentlybeguntochangecourseandcarbonreductionpolicyisbecomingmoreprevalent(Chan,2009).
Hainesetal.(2009)providesomekeymessagestopolicymakers,someofwhicharehighlightedbelow:
x Substantialhealthbenefitscanberecognizedbypoliciesandmeasuresmadetowardreducinggreenhousegas
emissionsatbothregionalandgloballevels.
x SpecifictransportationpoliciesthatcanreduceGHGemissionsandimprovepublichealthareincreasedwalking
andcyclingmodalaccessandreducedprivatevehicleuseinurbanareas.
x Somemeasuresmayhavenegativehealtheffectstoo,butthesetradeoffsmustbeweighedaccordinglyduring
decisionmaking(forexample,reducingthedangerofcaraccidentsbyencouragingcyclingmayincreasedanger
ofbicycleaccidents).
x Costsofthesemeasuresvarybutmaybeoffsetbythesavingsinhealthcarecosts,andinsomecasesthe
savingsmayoutweighcostsinthelongterm.
x Woodcocketal.(2009)alsostatethattheavoidedcostsofhealthcarearepotentiallyenormous,though
difficulttomodel.
TheRoleofCongestionPricing
Theconceptofcongestionpricingisnotnew(CongressionalBudgetOffice:CBO,2009).Pollutiondueto
congestionishigherbecausestopandgotraffictendstoincreasefueldemandandthereforecanproduce
moreemissions.Increasingroadwayphysicalcapacitytomeettrafficdemandhasbeenfoundtoencourage
additionaldemandandthereforeincreasevehicletrips,fossilfueluse,andairpollutantemissions.While
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substantialimprovementsinvehiclefuelefficiencyhavebeenachievedinthepastdecades,therearesimply
moredriversontheroadatpeakhoursinmanylocationsthancanfitcomfortably.Congestionpricingoffersa
meansofapproachingthesechallengesthroughmoreeffectiveuseofroadwaycapacityandinfluencing
travelerbehaviorsthrougheconomictools.
Congestionpricingworksbyapplyingavariablecosttotheusersoftheroadwayfacilityduringpeaktravel
times,therebyloweringtraveldemand,reducingthenumberofvehiclesonaroadway,andreducingemissions
duetofeweridlingvehicles(CBO,2009;Daniel&Bekka,2000).Daniel&Bekka(2000)notethatTravelersdo
notconsidercostsofdelayorpollutiontheyimposeonothers,butonlytheirowntravelcosts.Assessing
congestionfeesequaltotheadditionaltravelcoststhattravelersimposeonothersinternalizesthesecostsand
promotesefficientuseoflimitedroadwaycapacity.Becausecongestionpricingimprovesefficiency(bynot
overloadingthestructuralcapacityofthepavement),thelifetimeoftheroadwayisincreased,which
correspondstolesslifetimemaintenanceneedandthereforereducedlifecyclecosts.Also,congestionpricing
hasalsobeenfoundtoproduceenormousnetsocialbenefitsvaluedbetween$1945billion(2005dollars)
(CBO,2009),andonceimplemented,hasasurprisinglylowpublicdisapprovalratinginmostcases
(Verbruggen,2008).
ABriefNoteonEquity
Theroleofequityinthedebateoverairqualityintransportationpolicyiscomplex,aswithanyethicaldebate
regardingpolitics,economicsandcommunitiesofpeople.Woodcocketal.(2007)notesthatcurrentlevelsof
automobileuseinhighincomecommunitiesarenotsustainablebecausetheydonotprovideequalaccessor
mobility.ArecentstudybyDietz&Atkinson(2005)highlightsseveralofthecoreequityissues,including
disparitybetweenpollutiondistributionbecauseofphysicalprocesses(i.e.someareashavelowerairquality
thanothers),economicpolicy(wheretheeconomicortaxburdenoftransportpoliciesisoftenunevenly
distributed,andsometimeshardesthitarelowincomegroups),andaccountabilityforthegenerationof
transportationemissions.However,theCBO(2009)reportsthatstudiesoftheequitychallengesdueto
congestionpricinghavefoundsupportamongallincomegroupswhereithasbeenimplemented.Notably,
Dietz&Atkinson(2005)pointoutthefactthatsomeenjoycleanerairthanothersissignificant.Fromthisit
followsthatbecausecleanerairbenefitseveryoneandtheenvironment,thehumanequitydiscussion(while
bothimportantandinevitable)issecondarytotheoverallenvironmentalqualitygoal.Also,otherimportant
equityissuescanarisebetweencommunitiesandroadwaysduetocertainplacementorlocationnearhigh
densitytrafficareas(Appatova,Ryan,LeMasters&Grinshpun,2008),orproximityanddensityofcertain
communitiestolowrisestructureswhichcantrappollutantsinastreetcanyoneffect(Salizzoni,Soulhac&
Mejean,2009).Equityissuesregardingaccessandmobilityneedsarefurtheraddressedinsubsequent
Greenroadscreditsformultimodaltransportalternativesandsolutions.However,Greenroadsdoesnot
addresslanduse,planningandzoningorothercommunitylocationissues;itisnotknownifthisiseither
possibleorappropriateforsuchametric,andingeneraltheseissuesfalloutsidethescopeofGreenroads.
ProjectLevelImplications
TheCleanAirAct(CAA)andwellasformerfederalmandates,suchastheIntermodalSurfaceTransportation
EfficiencyAct(ISTEA),theTransportationEquityActforthe21
st
Century(TEA21),andtheSafe,Accountable,
Flexible,EfficientTransportationEquityAct:ALegacyforUsers(SAFETEALU)givestateagenciestheauthorityto
regulateandcontrolairpollutionthroughavarietyofmeans(Daniel&Bekka,2000)[Notethatasofthiswriting,
theSAFETEALUregulationhasexpiredandnoreplacementhasbeenpassedbyCongress.Itisassumedthestate
authoritywillbepreserved.]Ingeneral,implementingbroadagencypoliciesthatprovidemitigationstrategiesfor
curbingairemissionsarelikelytobeverychallenging(Fisher&Costanza,2005)andalsounfamiliar.Congestion
pricingschemesmayalsobeunfamiliar(orworse,unwanted)bypublicstakeholders(Verbruggen,2008,CBO,
2009).But,DAvignonetal.(2009)showthatwhileglobalairemissionsimpactsdonottranslatewellenoughtobe
measuredeasilyormeaningfullyatlocalandregionalscales,theimpactsoflocalemissionspoliciescanstillbe
effectiveatreducinglocalsectorcontributions.Similarly,congestionpricinghasbeenwellestablishedasan
effectivemeasureforreducingvehicleemissionsandincreasingefficiencyofroadwaycapacity.(FHWA,2009;
Hecker,2003;CBO,2009;Verbruggen,2008)
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DAvignonetal.(2009)statethatthisistrueespeciallywhenemissionsinventoriesareusedtoestablishinitial
policybenchmarks,reductiontargets,andlocalactionplansformitigation.(Formoreinformationonemissions
inventories,seeProjectRequirementPR3LifeCycleInventory).Whileanemissionsactionplanorpolicydoesnot
guaranteesuccessoreffectiveness,especiallyiftargetsarecontinuallyunmetorpushedfurtherintothefuture,it
doesallowforincreasedlocaladaptabilityforlongrangeclimatechangeplanningandprojectspecificityfor
emissions,aswellasuniformityoflocalandregionalpolicyandpractice(Fisher&Costanza,2005).The
introductionofpricingschemesintheshorttermmightassistinfutureacceptanceofsuchpolicies.
Pricingschemesdifferinutilityataprojectlevelcomparedtoregionalpoliciesbecausetheycanbeappliedona
projectbyprojectbasis.Basically,thisallowsacorridortobebuiltandpricingtobeimplementedinapiecewise
manner,whichismoremanageableandrealisticonaprojectscale.However,piecewisemanagementalsocomes
withtradeoffsbecauseitstillrequiresadequateandthoughtfulplanningaswellaspublicinvolvementpriorto
beingimplementedsuccessfullyandeffectively.
AdditionalResources
TheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)aspartofNationalCooperative
HighwayResearchProgram(NCHRP)oftheTransportationResearchBoard(TRB)Task2525completeda
comprehensivestudyin2006ofavailableassessmenttechniquesformodelinggreenhousegasemissionsin
transportationprojects(ICFConsulting,2006).Thisreportreviewsthebestavailabletechniquesandpolicy
recommendationsfortransportationplanners,andalsohighlightsvarioustoolsforcalculation,strategicplanning,
andenergy/economicforecasting.ThedocumentdiscussestheadvantagesandlimitationsoftheEPAMOVES
softwareforemissionsmodeling.MoreinformationisavailableinNCHRP2525(17),AssessmentofGreenhouse
GasAnalysisTechniquesforTransportationProjects.
TheEPAprovidesuptodateanddetailedstatisticalinformationaboutGHG,indirectGHG,andcriteriapollutant
emissionsduetofossilfuelcombustionandthetransportationsector.Additionally,theEPAprovidesandmanages
distributionofthefreeMOVES2010softwareandprovidespolicyguidanceforimplementinginSIPs.More
informationonthesetopicsisavailablehere:
x 2010U.S.GreenhouseGasInventoryReport:
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
x GreenBook:NonAttainmentAreasonCriteriaPollutants(includesNAAQSanddatalinks):
http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/index.html
x TheMotorVehicleEmissionsSimulator(MOVES2010)andallrelevantguidanceandtechnicaldocumentation:
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/index.htm
WhiletheUnitedStatesdidnotratifytheKyotoProtocol,manyindividualstateshavebecomeinvolvedatapolicy
levelinclimatechangeandemissionstargeting(Fisher&Costanza,2005;MayorsClimateProtectionCenter,
2009).TheMayorsClimateProtectionCenterlists1,016individualcitieswhosemayorshaveagreedtoreducelocal
emissionsfrom1990valuesby7%in2012.Therearealsomanyregionalinitiatives,suchastheRegional
GreenhouseGasInitiative(RGGI)andtheWesternClimateInitiativewhichhavestartedCO
2
budgettrading
programs.MoreinformationaboutlocalandregionalGHGinitiativescanbefoundhere:
x MayorsClimateProtectionCenter:http://usmayors.org/climateprotection/list.asp
x WesternClimateInitiative:http://www.westernclimateinitiative.org/
x RegionalGreenhouseGasInitiative:http://www.rggi.org/home
TheCongressionalBudgetOffice(CBO)recently(2009)publishedacomprehensivereviewofcongestionpricingin
theUnitedStates,UsingCongestionPricingtoReduceTrafficCongestion.Thisdocumentisavailableforfreeat
http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/97xx/doc9750/0311CongestionPricing.pdf
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GLOSSARY
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
Baselinecase Thebenchmarkusedtocomparealternativeemissionsscenarios
CAA CleanAirAct
CBO CongressionalBudgetOffice
Congestionpricing Aneconomictransportationplanningtoolincreasestheefficiencyofthe
roadwaybychargingforuseduringpeakperiods
Criteriapollutant Oneofsixcommonpollutantsinairthatareknownhavedetrimentalhuman
healthimpactsaswellaspotentialtodamageproperty
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
GHG Greenhousegas
Greenhousegas Alonglivedchemicalcompoundfoundintheatmosphereasaresultof
humanandnaturalactivities
ISTEA IntermodalSurfaceTransportationEfficiencyAct
NAAQS NationalAmbientAirQualityStandard
NCHRP NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram
Nonattainmentarea AreasoftheU.S.whereairpollutionlevelspersistentlyexceedthenational
ambientairqualitystandards
SAFETEALU Safe,Accountable,Flexible,EfficientTransportationEquityAct:ALegacyfor
Users
SIP Stateimplementationplan
Stateimplementationplan AplanforastatethatshowshowitistocomplywiththeCleanAirAct
TEA21 TransportationEquityActforthe21
st
Century
TRB TransportationResearchBoard
WHO WorldHealthOrganization

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Inventories|USEPA.AccessedDecember28,2009.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/oms/models/moves/index.htm
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2009,October8).ValuePricingPilotProgramTollingandPricing
ProgramFHWAOperations.AccessedDecember28,2009.Availableat
http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/tolling_pricing/value_pricing/
FisherB,&CostanzaR.(2005).Environmentalpolicy:regionalcommitmenttoreducingemissions.Nature.438
(7066),3012.
Haines,A.etal.(2009).Publichealthbenefitsofstrategiestoreducegreenhousegasemissions:overviewand
implicationsforpolicymakers.Lancet.374(9707),21042114.
ICFConsulting.(2006).AssessmentofGreenhouseGasAnalysisTechniquesforTransportationProjects.Prepared
forAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsStandingCommitteeonEnvironment
fortheNationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramTask2525(17).Fairfax,VA:ICFConsulting.
Krzyanowski,M.,KunaDibbert,B.,&Schneider,J.(2005).Healtheffectsoftransportrelatedairpollution.
Copenhagen:WorldHealthOrganizationEurope.Hecker,J.Z.(2003).ReducingcongestionCongestionpricing
haspromiseforimprovinguseoftransportationinfrastructure.(Testimony,GAO03735T).Washington,D.C.:
U.S.GeneralAccountingOffice.
MayorsClimateProtectionCenter.(2007)ListofParticipatingMayorsMayorsClimateProtectionCenter.
AccessedDecember28,2009.Availableat:http://usmayors.org/climateprotection/list.asp
PugetSoundRegionalCouncil.(2008).TrafficChoicesStudySummaryReport:aglobalpositioningsystembased
pricingpilotproject:evaluatingtravelerresponsetovariableroadtollingthroughasampleofvolunteer
participants.Seattle,WA:TheCouncil.Availableathttp://www.psrc.org/transportation/traffic
RegionalGreenhouseGasInitiative.(n.d.)RegionalGreenhouseGasInitiative(RGGI)CO2BudgetTradingProgram
Welcome.AccessedDecember28,2009.Availableat:http://www.rggi.org/home
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Traffic Emissions Reduction AE-4
Salizzoni,P.,Soulhac,L.,&Mejean,P.(2009).Streetcanyonventilationandatmosphericturbulence.Atmospheric
Environment.43(32),5056.
Solomon,S.etal.(2007)SynthesisReport.ClimateChange2007:SynthesisReport.FourthAssessmentReportof
theIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversityPress.
VerBruggen,R.(2008).TollTalkCongestionpricingisthecureforourovercrowdedhighways.NationalReview.60
(21),28.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology.(2009).2020Collaboration|ClimateChange|WashingtonState
DepartmentofEcology.AccessedDecember30,2009.Availableat:
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/2020collaboration.htm
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology.(2009).2009ExecutiveOrder|ClimateChange|WashingtonState
DepartmentofEcology.AccessedDecember30,2009.Availableat:
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/2009EO.htm
WesternClimateInitiative.(2009).WesternClimateInitiative.AccessedDecember28,2009.Availableat:
http://www.westernclimateinitiative.org/
Woodcock,J.etal.(2007).Energyandtransport.Lancet.370(9592),107888.
Woodcock,J.etal.(2009).Publichealthbenefitsofstrategiestoreducegreenhousegasemissions:urbanland
transport.Lancet.374(9705),193043.

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-5 Pedestrian Access
PEDESTRIAN ACCESS
GOAL
Promotewalkablecommunitiesbyprovidingsidewalkfacilitieswithintheroadway
rightofway.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
AchieveCreditAE3ContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS)anddescribetheneed,purpose
andappropriatenessforplanned,new,orupgradedpedestrianfacilitiesinthe
submitteddocumentationforCreditAE3.TheCSSdocumentshouldclearlynote
whetherpedestrianfacilitiesorimprovementsarerequiredorhaveotherwisebeen
requestedbythepublic.TableAE5.1showsthepointsavailableforthiscredit.
TableAE5.1:AvailablePointsforCreditAE5
Points Requirements
1 Implementnew(orimproveexisting)operationsortechnologiesfor
pedestrianfacilities.Thisincludesaddedsignageorminoraccess
improvementsforpedestrians,suchassignalizedintersectionsor
crosswalks,shelters,andwheelchairramps.
2 Implementphysicalorconstructedchangestotheroadwaystructure,
dimensionsorformthatprovidepedestrianaccesswithintheROW,suchas
asidewalk,raisedcrosswalk,bulboutorpedestrianbridgestructure.
Details
Pedestrianisdefinedasapersonwhosemainmodeoftransportationiswalking,
includingdisabledindividualsthatneedassistancedevicesforpersonaltraveland
mobility.
Sidewalkisdefinedasapavedsurfaceprovidedspecificallyforpedestriantravel
thatisseparatefromtheroadwayandlocatedwithintheroadwayRightofWay.
Sharedusepathwayisdefinedasamultiusepathwayforallnonmotorizedusers
includingpedestriansandbicyclists.ThismaybelocatedwithinaroadwayRightof
Wayyetmustbeseparatedfromtheroadwayandhavewiderwidthsthan
sidewalks.
Currentfacilitiesdonotqualifyforthiscreditwithoutadditionaleffort,suchas
upgrades,improvementsorconstructionofnewfacilities.Theattempttoprovide
pedestrianaccessmustbedeliberateandasadirectresultoftheproject.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyofthesectionthatfocusesonpedestrianfacilitiesintheCreditAE3:Context
SensitiveSolutionsdocumentation.Thissectionshouldaddress:
a. Purposeandneedforpedestrianaccessontheroadwayproject,includinghow
itfitswithexistinglandusesand/orexistingGeneralandTransportationPlans
b. Regulatoryorjurisdictionalstandardsaddressed,ifany
c. Resultsofpublicinputonproposedpedestrianfacilities,ifany
d. Totalcostassociatedwithneworimprovedpedestrianfacilities
e. Copyofthecontractspecificationsandplansforproposedpedestrianfacilities.
AE-5
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE4Traffic
EmissionsReduction
9 AE6BicycleAccess
9 AE7Transit&HOV
Access
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Economy

BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
9 ImprovesHealth&
Safety
9 ImprovesLocal
Economies
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Pedestrian Access AE-5
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Includeelementssuchassidewalksoradjacentsharedusepathsindesignswhenrequiredbydesignstandards,
orcommunitytransportationplans,orbycommunityrequest.
x Considerhowaneworredesignedroadwaywillimpacttheexistingorplannedpedestriannetworksand
integratedesignelementswithothermodalfacilities(e.g.bicycleandtransit)tomitigateoverallimpacts.This
maymeanprovidingconnectionsoradaptabilityforfuturepathways,sidewalks,andcrossingswithinthe
pedestriannetwork.Reviewlocalwalkingplansandmapsoftheexistingpedestriannetworkstounderstand
howtheroadwaywillinteractwiththeexistingandplannedpedestrianandbicyclesystem.Thismayinclude
sharedusepathsorparkplans.
x Includelocalpedestrianplannersandadvocatesinadvisorycommittees,projectdevelopmentormanagement
teams,ordecisionmakingcommitteesasappropriate.
x ConsultwithplannersandADAadvocatestounderstandhowtheprojectcansupportdevelopmentofthe
pedestriannetworktopromotewalkablecommunities.
x Designtheroadwaytoaccommodateexistingnewandplannedpedestrianfacilities.
x UpgradeorimproveexistingaccesspointsandsidewalkstomeettherequirementsoftheAmericanswith
DisabilitiesAct(ADA).GuidanceonADAtransitionplansisprovidedbytheFHWAhere:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/civilrights/programs/ada_sect504qa.htm#q10
x Relyontheassessmentoflocalplannersandadvocateswherenoexistingpedestrianplanexistsabouthowto
integrateexistingandfuturemultimodalfacilitiesintotheprojectdesign.AASHTOprovideshelpfulguidancein
itsAASHTOGuideforthePlanning,Design,andOperationofPedestrianFacilities.
Mulry Square New York City
In2001MulrySquareinNewYorkCitywasimprovedtoimproveandenhancepedestrianmobilitythroughthe
area.Asshowninthefiguresbelow,thecrosswalksweremoreclearlymarkedaswellassidewalksbeing
renovatedtoprovideamoresafeinteractionbetweenpedestrianandvehicletraffic(CSS,2005).
FigureAE5.1andAE5.2showthecleardifferencebeforeandaftertheintersectionimprovementsweremade.
Thepedestrianfacilitiesareclearlyimprovedinordertopromotesafertraveltopedestriansandmaketraffic
moreawareofpedestriansinthevicinity.

FigureAE5.1:MulrySquareBeforeConstruction(ContextSensitiveSolutions,2005)
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-5 Pedestrian Access

FigureAE5.2MulrySquareAfterConstruction(ContextSensitiveSolutions,2005)

POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Anumberofaesthetictreatmentstotheroadwayorthoroughfaremaybeconsideredpedestrianbenefits,
butthosetreatmentsarecoveredelsewhereinGreenroadsandarenotincludedinthiscredit.SeeAE8Scenic
ViewsandAE9CulturalOutreach.
2. Majorintersectionscouldseeanincreaseinpedestrianvehicleaccidents.
3. Manyruralareasdonothavesurroundingpedestrianinfrastructureormasterplanstosupporttheadditionof
newpedestrianfacilities.Shorttermandlongtermgoals,objectivesandgeneralpedestrianstrategyshouldbe
consideredwhenaccommodatingpedestrianswithintheseareas.
RESEARCH
Theinclusionorimprovementofapedestrianfacilitycandrasticallyimprovenotonlythequalityandcomfortof
howpeopletravel,butcanchangethemodeoftransportationused.Severalsustainabilitycomponentscanbe
addressedbytheimprovementofpedestrianfacilities,including:ecology,equity,andeconomy.
ReducedEmissions
Improvedaccessanddedicatedpedestrianfacilitiescanconvincepeopletochangetheirmodeoftraveltowalking
insteadofdrivingtheirvehicles.Withfewercarsdriving,therewillbeanobviousdecreaseinthegreenhousegas
emissionsassociatedwithfossilfueldrivenvehicles.
ImprovedHealth&SafetyandImprovedMobility&Access
Apersonstransportationmodechoicecanbebasedaroundseveraldifferentdecisions.Severalstudieslinkthe
comfortandsafetyofthetraveltotheoverallmodechoiceofatraveler(i.e.walkingonashoulderofahighway
versusasidewalk).Thereforeanimprovementofthesafetyofthecurrentpedestrianfacilitiesmeansthatpeople
willbemorelikelytotravelonfoot.
Designingfacilitiesthataresafeforpedestriansareoftheutmostimportancewhenconsideringpedestrian
mobility.Themaingoalistoensurethepedestrianshaveameansoftravelthatisseparatefromvehicletrafficto
avoidanypossiblecollisions.Typicaldesignstandardsallowfortimedcrossingsignalsatcrosswalks,sidewalksthat
areelevatedfromtheroadway,andothervariousmethods.Raisedsidewalksprovidenotonlyaslightbarrierof
separation,butalsoprovideaslightcomforttotheuserthattheyareseparatedfromtraffic(Ewing&Dumbaugh,
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Access & Equity Greenroads Manual v1.5
Pedestrian Access AE-5
2009).Othermeansofsafedesigninclude,increasingthedistancebetweenthestoplineandcrosswalkatan
intersectionandputtingupsomesortofnotificationtodrivers(signs,lights,etc.)thatpedestriansarelikelytobe
presentinthearea(Ewing&Dumbaugh,2009).
BenefitsofActiveTransport
Increasedpedestriantravelcanalsoprovidehealthbenefits.Arecentstudycomparedthecurrentstateof
travelandmodeledamoresustainabletypeoftravelusingmorewalkingandbicyclesandreducingtheamount
ofcarsontheroad.Thestudyfoundthetendencyforseveralchronicdiseasescouldbereducedbyhavinga
higherpopulationoftravelerswhomusewalkingorbicyclesastheirmainmodeoftransportation(Woodcock
et.al.,2009).
ConsiderationsforDisabledUsers
Thegoalofprovidingpedestrianfacilitiesistoprovideameansforeveryonetotravel,includingpeoplewith
specialneeds.SomeimprovementstosidewalksaremandatedbytheAmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA)of
1990andspecificguidelinesareavailableat:http://www.accessboard.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm.For
transportationfacilitiesthiscouldinclude:sidewalksslopedforeasyaccessornoisemakingdevicesinstalledat
intersectioncrosswalks.
BoostLocalEconomies&ImproveMobility
Theadventofnewfacilitiesonitsowncanalsoencouragetravelthroughoutthearea.Thisissimplybasedon
increasingtheoverallpedestriannetworkthroughoutthearea.Withgapsinapedestriannetwork,itcanincrease
thedistanceapedestrianisforcedtotravel,andcandiscouragethemfromusingwalkingasaprimarymodeof
transportation(Randall&Baetz,2001).
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayTransportationOfficials.(2004).AASHTO Guide for the Planning,
Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities.1sted.Washington,DC:AASHTO.
ContextSensitiveSolutions.(2005).NewYorkCity,MulrySquare.Accessedat:
http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org/content/case_studies/mulrysquare
Ewing,R.,&Dumbaugh,E.(2009).TheBuiltEnvironmentandTrafficSafety:AReviewofEmpiricalEvidence.
JournalofPlanningLiterature,23(4),347367.doi:10.1177/0885412209335553.
Randall,T.A.,&Baetz,B.W.(2001).EvaluatingPedestrianConnectivityforSuburbanSustainability.Journalof
UrbanPlanningandDevelopment,127(1),115.doi:10.1061/(ASCE)07339488(2001)127:1(1).
Woodcock,J.,Edwards,P.,Tonne,C.,Armstrong,B.G.,Ashiru,O.,Banister,D.,etal.(2009).Publichealthbenefits
ofstrategiestoreducegreenhousegasemissions:urbanlandtransport.Lancet.374(9705),19301943.
Zhou,H.,Zhao,J.,Hsu,P.,&Rouse,J.(2008).IdentifyFactorsAffectingNumberofStudentsWalkingorBikingto
School.InASCEConf.Proc.(Vol.330,p.253).Chengdu,China:ASCE.doi:10.1061/40996(330)253.
ADA AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct
Pedestrian Apersonwhomistravelingwithouttheuseofamechanicaldeviceandmain
modeoftransportationiswalking.
Sidewalk Asurfaceprovidedspecificallyforpedestriantravelthatisseparatefromthe
roadway
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-6 Bicycle Access
BICYCLE ACCESS
GOAL
Promotebicyclingincommunitiesbyprovidingdedicatedcyclingfacilitieswithinthe
projectrightofway.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
AchieveCreditAE3ContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS)anddescribetheneed,purpose
andappropriatenessforplanned,new,orupgradedbicyclefacilitiesinthesubmitted
documentforCreditAE3.TheCSSdocumentshouldclearlynotewhetherbicycle
facilitiesorimprovementsarerequiredorhaveotherwisebeenrequestedbythe
public.Inordertoachievethiscredit,abicycleonlyfacilitymustbepresentwithinthe
ROWatthestartofconstructionorresultfromconstructionofthisproject.TableAE
6.1showsthepointsavailableforthiscredit.
TableAE6.1:AvailablePointsforCreditAE6
Points Requirements
1 Implementnew(orimproveexisting)operationsortechnologiesforbicycle
facilities.Thisincludes(butisnotlimitedto)addedsignageorminoraccess
improvementsforbicycles,suchasinstallingbicycledetectorsindriving
lanesorgrantingsignalpriority,addingbicyclefriendlystormwaterdrains,
coderequireddimensionupgrades,resurfacingexistingbicyclelanes,or
addingnewstreetsidebicyclestoragefacilities(lockers,racks,etc.).
2 Implementphysicalorconstructedchangestotheroadwaystructure,
dimensions,orformthatprovidebicycleonlyfacilitieswithdedicatedaccess
withintheROW,suchasabicyclelane,orotherbikeway.Lanessharedwith
motorizedvehiclesdonotmeetthisrequirement.

Details
Forpurposesofthiscredit,thetermbicyclereferstoapedaldriven,human
poweredvehiclewithatleastoneseatforanoperator.Sharedusepathwayis
definedasamultiusepathwayforallnonmotorizedusersincludingpedestrians
andbicyclists.ThismaybelocatedwithinaroadwayRightofWayyetmustbe
separatedfromtheroadwayandhavewiderwidthsthansidewalks.
Currentfacilitiesdonotalonequalifyforthiscreditwithoutadditionaleffort,such
asupgrades,improvementsorconstructionofnewfacilities.Theattemptto
providepedestrianaccessmustbedeliberateandasadirectresultoftheproject.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyofthesectionthatfocusesonbicyclefacilitiesintheCreditAE3:Context
SensitiveSolutionsdocumentation.Thissectionshouldaddress:
a. Purposeandneedforbicycleaccessontheroadwayprojectdetermined
throughaprojectanalysisoraBicycleMasterplanningprocess.
b. Regulatoryorjurisdictionalstandardsaddressed,ifany
c. Resultsofpublicinputonproposedbicyclefacilities,ifany
d. Totalcostassociatedwithneworimprovedbicyclefacilities
e. Contractspecificationsandplansforproposedbicyclefacilities
AE-6
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE4Traffic
EmissionsReduction
9 AE5Pedestrian
Access
9 AE7Transit&HOV
Access
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Economy
BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 ImprovesLocal
Economies
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Access & Equity Greenroads Manual v1.5
Bicycle Access AE-6
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Includeelementssuchasbicyclelanes,separatedbicyclepathsoradjacentsharedusepathsindesignswhen
requiredbydesignstandards,orcommunitytransportationplans,orbycommunityrequest.
x Reviewlocalbicycleplansandmapsoftheexistingbicyclenetworkstounderstandhowtheroadwaywill
interactwiththeexistingandplanned,roadwaytransportation,andbicycleandpedestriansystems..Thismay
includesharedusepathwaysorparkplans.
x Includelocalbicycleplannersandadvocatesinadvisorycommittees,projectdevelopmentormanagement
teams,ordecisionmakingcommitteesasappropriate.Consultwithplannerstounderstandhowtheproject
cansupportthedevelopmentofthebicyclenetworkandtopromotecyclingincommunities.
x Designroadwayimprovementsandnewroadwaystoaccommodateexisting,newandplannedbicyclefacilities.
x Relyontheassessmentoflocalplannersandadvocateswherenoexistingbicycleplanexistsabouthowto
integrateexistingandfuturemultimodalfacilitiesintotheprojectdesign.
x Considerhowaneworredesignedroadwaywillimpacttheexistingorplannedbicyclenetworksandintegrate
designelementswithothermodalfacilities(e.g.bicycleandtransit)tomitigateoverallimpacts.Thismaymean
providingconnectionsoradaptabilityforfuturebicyclelanes,sharedusepathways,crossingsorotherfacilities
withinthebicyclenetwork.
Example: Dedicated Access on a Roadway
Below,FigureAE6.1showshowadedicatedaccessforbicyclesshouldbemarkedaccordingtotheManualfor
UniformTrafficControlDevices(FHWA,2009).

1point 1point

1point
FigureAE6.1:Examplesofappropriatesignagefordedicatedbicycleaccess.(FHWA,2009)

FigureAE6.2isanexampleoflanemarkingsthatpromotededicatedbicycleaccess(FHWA,2009).Asshownin
thefigure,bicyclistsareprovidedtheirownseparatelaneonaroadwayfortravel.
FigureAE6.3showshowaccessshouldbemarkedforbicyclesthatareutilizingthesamespaceasmotor
vehicles;howeverwhilethesignaboveearnsonepoint(ifnonepreviouslyexisted)becausethishelpsincreases
awarenessofbicycleusersonaroutewithmotorvehicles(andtheoreticallyincreasessafety),thelaneitselfby
definitiondoesnotprovideddedicatedaccessforbicyclists.
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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-6 Bicycle Access

FigureAE6.2:Examplesofdedicatedlanesforbicycleaccess.2pointsifneworimprovedtomeetor
exceedtheseminimumdimensions.(FHWA,2009)

FigureAE6.3:Accessforbicyclesinamotorizedvehiclelane.Nopoints.(FHWA,2009)
247
Access & Equity Greenroads Manual v1.5
Bicycle Access AE-6
Example: Case Study - Bridgeport Way University Place, Washington
BridgeportWaywasimprovedin2005toaccommodateamorecontextsensitiveroadwayinUniversityPlace,
Washington.Indoingso,thecityofUniversityPlacewasabletosignificantlyreduceaccidentsontheroadway,
whileprovidinganincreasedemphasisonpedestrian,bicycleandtransituseinthroughthearea.Asshownin
thefiguresbelow,therewasadrasticchangeinthechannelizationoftheroadwaytoprovideadequate
facilitiestobroadenthemodesavailableforusethroughthecorridor.Thenewdesignoftheroadwayproved
toreducetrafficspeedswhichcanencouragemorebicycleusethroughthearea(ContextSensitiveSolutions,
2005).Simplybyaddingthefacilitiestotheroadway,thecityofUniversityPlacehasencouragedtheuseof
bicycletravelaswellaspedestriantravel.

FigureAE6.4:BridgeportWayBeforeConstruction.(ContextSensitiveSolutions,2005)

FigureAE6.5BridgeportWayAfterConstruction(ContextSensitiveSolutions,2005)

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-6 Bicycle Access
POTENTIAL ISSUES
Encouragingcyclinginareaswheretherewaspreviouslynocyclingmayresultinincreasedbicyclecrashesand
collisions.Carefulplanningforbicyclesandmeetingengineeringandsafetystandardscanhelptomitigatethese
instances.
RESEARCH
Increasingthebicyclefacilitiesalongagivencorridorcanhaveabeneficialresultontheoverallsustainabilityofa
givenroadway.Thebenefitsofincludingbicyclefacilitiescanincludemakingamoreequitableroadway,
decreasingtheamountofcurrenttrafficontheroadway,andalsoprovidehealthbenefitstousersofthefacilities.
Bicyclesandpedestriansareoftengroupedtogetherbecausetheyareeasilydistinguishedfrommotorizedmodes
thatusearightofway.Also,bothwalkingandbicyclingareconsideredactivetransport(Woodcocketal.,2009)
modes.Therefore,muchofsupportingresearchforthiscreditandCreditAE5PedestrianAccessoverlap,andwill
notberepeatedhereforbrevity.Improvedmobilityandaccess,environmentalandeconomicbenefits,andhealth
improvementsoftheseactivemodesareaddressedinCreditAE5.
BicycleSafety
Thesafetyconsiderationsforbicyclistsaretypicallyinvolvedindrivingonthesamesurfaceasmotorvehicles.
Severalsafetymeasuresareavailabletoincreasesthesafetyofbothmotorvehiclesandbicyclists.TheAmerican
AssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsrecommendsthatbikelaneshavedimensionsofatleast
fourfeetinwidthandarelocatedbetweenthelaneoftravelandsidewalkorparkinglane.Thisreducesthechance
ofaccidentsbetweenbicyclesandvehicles(AASHTO,1999).
However,EwingandDumbaugh(2009)showthatthebestmethodtoincreasesafetyforbicyclesandpedestrians
isbyincreasingawarenessthroughnotificationorsignagealongarightofway.Theyalsoshowthatincreasesin
overallnumbersofbicyclists(andpedestrians)offersafetyinnumbersbecauseofheightenedawareness.
Furthermore,dedicatedaccessforbicyclesprovidescomfortabletravelwithoutlanesharingaswellasimproved
safety.Reynoldsetal.(2009)hasshowndedicatedaccesscanreducebicyclevehicleaccidentsbyupto50percent
comparedtoshareduselanes.
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(1999).Guideforthedevelopment
ofbicyclefacilities.Washington,D.C.:AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials.
ContextSensitiveSolutions.(2005).BridgeportWayUniversityPlace,Washington.Availableat
http://www.contextsensitivesolutions.org/content/case_studies/kentucky_bridgeport/
FederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA).(2009).ManualforUniformTrafficControlDevices(MUTCD).
Washington,DC:FHWA.Availableathttp://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/htm/2009/html_index.htm
Ewing,R.,&Dumbaugh,E.(2009).TheBuiltEnvironmentandTrafficSafety:AReviewofEmpiricalEvidence.
JournalofPlanningLiterature,23(4),347367.doi:10.1177/0885412209335553.
AASHTO AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials
Activetransport Walkingorbiking(humanpoweredtransport)
Bicycle Apedaldriven,humanpoweredvehiclewithatleastoneseatforan
operator
FHWA FederalHighwayAdministration
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Bicycle Access AE-6
Reynolds,C.C.,Harris,M.A.,Teschke,K.,Cripton,P.A.,&Winters,M.(2009).Theimpactoftransportation
infrastructureonbicyclinginjuriesandcrashes:areviewoftheliterature.EnvironmentalHealth:aGlobal
AccessScienceSource.8.
Woodcock,J.,Edwards,P.,Tonne,C.,Armstrong,B.G.,Ashiru,O.,Banister,D.,etal.(2009).Publichealthbenefits
ofstrategiestoreducegreenhousegasemissions:urbanlandtransport.Lancet.374(9705),19301943.

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Greenroads Manual v1.5 Access & Equity
AE-7 Transit & HOV Access
TRANSIT & HOV ACCESS
GOAL
Promoteuseofpublictransitandcarpoolsincommunitiesbyprovidingnewtransit
andHOVfacilitiesorbyupgradingexistingfacilitiesintheroadwayrightofway.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
AchieveCreditAE3ContextSensitiveSolutions(CSS)anddescribetheneed,purpose
andappropriatenessforplanned,new,orupgradedtransitandHOVfacilitiesinthe
submitteddocumentforCreditAE3.TheCSSdocumentmustdemonstratethatat
leastonemasstransitrouteand/orHOVfacilityexists,orisplannedtoexistwithin5
yearsofthestartofconstruction,thatisaccessiblefromtheprojectROWwithin0.25
mile.TableAE7.1showsthepointcriteriaforthiscredit.
TableAE7.1:AvailablePointsforCreditAE7
Points Requirements
Any
1
a. Enhanceatleast50%oftransitstation orstopamenities (lighting,trash
bins,benches,payphones,heatingand/orcooling,etc.)
b. Improveatleast50%ofthetransitandHOVfacilitysignage(relatedto
transit&HOV)andvehicularaccess(beyondbasicADArequirements)
c. Providetransitsheltersatmorethan50%ofthecorridorstations/stops
d. Provideaccesstonewpark&ridelotsinstrategiclocations.
2 Implementtwoormoreoftheimprovementsfromthelistabove.
3 Implementphysicalorconstructedchangestotheroadwaystructure,
dimensionsorformthatprovideHOVaccessorminordedicatedtransit
accesswithintheROW,suchasacarpoollaneforHOVvehicleorqueue
jumplanesfortransitvehicles.
4 Implementphysicalorconstructedchangestotheroadwaystructure,
dimensionsorformthatprovidededicatedtransitaccesswithintheROW,
suchasanonstreetbuslaneoranexpresswaybuslane.
5 Implementphysicalorconstructedchangestotheroadwaystructure,
dimensionsorformthatprovideexclusivemasstransitaccesswithinthe
ROW,suchasatgradeorgradeseparatedtransitways.

Details
ThepointcriteriaforthiscreditareroughlybasedontheFederalTransityAuthority
(FTA)criteriafromCharacteristicsofBusRapidTransitforDecisionMaking(CBRT)
andTCRP90,BusRapidTransitbyDiazandHinebaugh(2009).
DOCUMENTATION
x Copyofthesectionthatfocusesontransit&HOVfacilitiesintheCreditAE3:
ContextSensitiveSolutionswhitepaper.Thissectionshouldaddress:
a. Purposeandneedfortransit&HOVaccessontheroadwayproject,including
howitfitswithexistinglandusesand/orexistingGeneralandTransportation
Plans
b. Regulatoryorjurisdictionalstandardsaddressed,ifany
c. Resultsofpublicinputonproposedtransit&HOV,ifany
d. Totalcostassociatedwithneworimprovedtransit&HOVfacilities
e. Contractspecificationsandbudgetitemsaddressingtransit&HOV
AE-7
1-5 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 AE2Intelligent
Transportation
Systems
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE4Traffic
EmissionsReduction
9 AE5Pedestrian
Access
9 AE6BicycleAccess
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Economy
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesAccess
9 ImprovesMobility
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Transit & HOV Access AE-7
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Reviewlocalplansandexistingtransitserviceplanstounderstandhowtheroadwaywillinteractwiththe
existingandplannedtransitsystem.Becauseofthestrongconnectionsbetweenthepedestrianandbike
systemandtransit,thismayoverlapwithbikeandpedestrianplanning.Seerelatedcreditsforfurtherdetails.
x Includethelocaltransitprovider(s)inadvisorycommittees,projectdevelopmentormanagementteams,or
decisionmakingcommitteesasappropriate.
x Consultwithlocaltransitprovider(s)tounderstandhowtheroadwayprojectcansupporttheiroperationsand
futureexpansion.
x Considerhowaneworredesignedroadwaywillimpacttheexistingorplannedpedestriannetworksand
integratedesignelementswithothermodalfacilities(e.g.bicycleandtransit)tomitigateoverallimpacts.For
example,thismightmeanincludingapedestriancrossingonamajorarterialthatcouldbeabarrierto
residentsreachingatransitfacility.
x Surveyexistingroutesandaskstakeholdersforsuggestionsonhowtoimproveaccesstoexistingtransit
facilitiesduringthepublicinvolvementprocess.
x Locateenhancementstotransitstation/stopamenitiesatmorethan50%ofthestations/stopsalongthe
corridorbasedoncost.Amenitiescouldincludeinstallingsafetylighting,trashreceptacles,benches,pay
phones,heatingand/orcoolingandothersimilarenhancements.Thisshouldbereflectedsomewhereinthe
projectbidlistorbudget.
x InstallsignageandimproveaccessthatisexclusivelyfortransitandHOVvehiclesonlytoearnthiscredit.This
distinctionisnottodiscourageacomprehensivesignageprogram;however,signageforpedestrianand
bicyclesareaddressedinCreditAE5PedestrianAccessandCreditAE6BicycleAccess.Acomprehensive
approachtosignageandaccessimprovementsatatransitandHOVfacilitycanultimatelyincludeallmodes
andbeeligibleforpointsinmultiplecredits.
x Identifytroublespotsfortransitandcombinetransitsignalprioritywithqueuejumplanestocreateanefficient
transitfacilityatminimalcost.ThiscanalsoearnpointswithCreditAE2IntelligentTransportationSystems.
x Consideraddingacarpoollane,whichencouragesmultiplepassengersineachvehicleandcanimprovetransit
traveltimesandreliability.
x Improveaccessbeyondbasicrequirements,suchasADA.
x Improvesignagebeyondbasicrequirementswheresignagealreadyexists.Typesofsignageimprovements
couldincludeprovidingpassengerinformationamenities(maps,schedules,realtimesignage)atfacilitiesand
signsalongtheroadwaytodesignatetransitstations.
x Placeadditionalparkandridelotsinstrategictransitand/orcarpoolaccesslocations.
x Provideextrawidthonsidewalkstoaccommodatetransitshelters.
x Designtheroadwaytoaccommodateanexclusivetransitlane.
x Accommodateanyplannedfixedguidewaysbyconstructinggradeseparatedcrossings.
Example: Point Calculations
2points
Aroadwaywithseveralmajortransitroutesisbeingresurfacedandabovegroundelectricalwiresarebeing
buriedasacomponentoftheproject.Alongwiththeroadwayimprovements,all(100%)ofthemajortransit
stopsalongtheroutearebeingenhancedwithrealtimebusarrivalinformation,lighting,surveillancecameras,
areamapdisplaysandtrashcans.Thisprojectwouldearn2pointsbecauseitincludessignificant
improvements(over50%)toboth(a)amenitiesand(b)signage.
4points
Abusrapidtransitprojectincludesaroadwaywideningandrestripingtoaddanoutsidededicatedtransitlane
withsignalpriorityatintersections.Theprojectalsoincludesstationenhancementsatallthestationsalongthe
corridorwithnewshelters,gradeseparatedpedestrianaccess,realtimepassengerinformation,bicycle
storagelockersandseveralstationamenities.Thisprojectwouldreceive4pointsunderTransit&HOVAccess.
ThetransitsignalpriorityimprovementswouldbeeligiblefortheITScreditandpedestrianandbicycle
improvementswouldbeeligibleforthePedestrianAccessandBicycleAccesscredits.SeeFigureAE7.1.
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AE-7 Transit & HOV Access

FigureAE7.1:AnonstreetbuslaneinVancouver,Canada.4points.(PhotobyK.Watkins)
5points
SeeexamplesofagradeseparatedtransitwayinFigureAE7.2andanatgradetransitwayinFigureAE7.3.

FigureAE7.2:AgradeseparatedtransitwayinOttawa,Canadaworth.5points.(PhotobyK.Watkins)
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FigureAE7.3:AnatgradetransitwayinEugene,Oregon.5points.(PhotobyK.Watkins)

POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. ManytransitandHOVfacilities(suchasparkandridelotsandtransitcenters)willinvolveimprovementsthat
crossmultiplemodes.Inordertoawardcredithere,especiallywherenodrasticphysicalchangestothe
roadwaystructureorformareimplemented,improvementsandchangesshouldbeexclusivetoHOVand
transitusersanddistinguishable,viaabudgetitemforexample,fromotheramenitiesthatareforpedestrian
andbicyclists.Anexamplewouldbeimprovementstobusstopswherethesidewalkgradesareraisedto
accommodatebusrampsfordisablepassengers.Althoughtheintegrationoftransitwithbicyclesand
pedestriansiskeytoobtaininghigherridership,amenitieswhichareincludedinthePedestrianAccesscredit
AE5andBicycleAccesscreditAE6cannotbeappliedagainhere.
2. Thiscreditpresupposestheintegrityofthedesigner:appropriatesignageandsafetymustbepreservedwith
thehigherpointsavailableinthiscredit.ThismeansthatatransitorHOVfacilitysuchasadedicatedbuswayor
carpoollaneisassumedtobesignedappropriatelyandwillnotbedesignedtoincreasesafetyrisk.Additional
pointsarenotawardedforsignageandaccessimprovementsforthehighervaluecreditsforthisreason.
3. IntelligentTransportationSystems(ITS),transit&HOVoftengohandinhandbutareexplicitlynotcoveredin
thiscreditbecausetheyareincludedinCreditAE2IntelligentTransportationSystems.However,manyITS
applications,suchastravelerinformation,transitmanagement,andlanemanagementpairnicelywiththe
improvementsinthiscredit.
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4. AestheticimprovementstotransitandHOVfacilitiesorotherpublicart,whileconsideredamenities,arenot
includedinthiscredit.SeeCreditAE9CulturalOutreach.Itispossibletoincludeallofthesethingsandearn
pointsacrossmultiplecredits.
5. Lightrailorbuswayprojectscanqualifyforthiscreditiftheymeetthecriteriaandarecompletedwithinthe
roadwayrightofway.Ingeneral,manyofthecreditsavailableinGreenroadsarebroadlyapplicableandmay
alsobeappliedtothesetypesofprojects,buttheymaylackthespecificityneededtobeeffectiveasametric
forsuchfacilities.
6. Thiscreditfocusesintwoareas,runningwaysandstations.Thisisthesupportinginfrastructurefortransitand
HOVaccess,facilitiesandsystemservices.Corridorenhancementssuchasserviceimprovements(increased
service,neworspecializedservice,routerestructuring),branding,marketingandpartnershipprograms,
informationsystems,fareinnovations,andneworenhancedvehiclesareencouragedbutareoutsidethescope
oftheGreenroadsRatingSystem.
RESEARCH
Thesocietalbenefitsofpublictransportationarenumerous.Transitprovidesmobilitytothosewhocannotor
chosenottodrive,includingaccesstojobs,educationandmedicalservices.Transitreducescongestion,gasoline
consumptionandthenationscarbonfootprint(AmericasPublicTransportationAssociation:APTA,2008).In2007,
publictransportationsaved646millionhoursoftraveldelayand398milliongallonsoffuelintheU.S.,resultingin
asavingsof$13.7billionincongestioncosts(SchrankandLomax,2009).UseofpublictransportationreducedU.S.
carbondioxide(CO
2
)emissionsby6.9millionmetrictonsin2005(DavisandHale,2007).Theincreaseduseof
transitonapercapitabasisiscriticaltothenationseconomyandmeetingenvironmentalgoals.
Improvementstopublictransportationinfrastructurearecriticaltoanyplantoimprovethesustainabilityof
transportation.IntheUrbanLandInstitutesrecentlyproducedMovingCoolerreport(CambridgeSystematics,
2009),transitcapitalinvestmentshadtheabilitytoproducecumulativegreenhousegasreductionsof0.4to1.1
percentofbaselineemissions.Thereportidentifiespublictransportationimprovementsasoneofninekey
categoriesthatcanbebundledtoreduceemissions.Further,theWorldBank(Gwilliam,Kojima,andJohnson,
2004)identifiesmodalshiftstononSOVmodesasakeytoreducingtransportsectoremissions.Theypointout
however,thatmixingcars,othervehiclesandnonmotorizedtransportwithpublictransportvehiclesreducesthe
averagespeedoftrafficandmakesitdifficulttoestablishaneffectivebussystem.
Infrastructureimprovementsshouldincludemeanstoseparatetransitvehiclesfromgeneralpurposetrafficto
makethemodecompetitive(Vuchic,2005;2007).Withoutexclusiverightofway,transitvehiclesareheldcaptive
bythecongestioncausedbylowoccupancyvehiclesandcannotimprovetheefficiencyofthetransportation
system.Forthisreason,thiscreditincludeshigherpointvaluesastheexclusivityoftransitrightofwayimproves.
AdditionalResources
Twoofthemostusefulreferencestounderstandingtheelementsforthiscreditare:
x TheFederalTransitAdministrationsCharacteristicsofBusRapidTransitforDecisionMaking(CBRT)guidance
documentbyDiazandHinebaugh(2009),whichisavailableat:
http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/CBRT_2009_Update.pdf
x TransportationResearchBoardsTransitCooperativeResearchProgram(TCRP)90,BusRapidTransit:Volume2:
ImplementationGuidelines,byLevinsonetal.(2003).Thisdocumentisavailableat:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_90v2.pdf
Manyadditionalreferencesareincludedforconsiderationofotherapplicableplanninganddesignguidelines.
Althoughcreditsareobtainedforincludingelements,properdesigniscriticaltothefunctionalityofthefacilities
andtheReferencessectionattheendofthiscreditshouldbeconsideredastartingpoint.
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GLOSSARY
Atgradetransitway Roadsfortheexclusiveuseoftransitvehicleswithaccessallowedonlyat
designedpoints,howeverintersectionsandothercrossingsareatgradeand
subjecttosignalization
BRT Busrapidtransit aflexible,highperformancerapidtransitmodethat
combinesavarietyofphysical,operatingandsystemelementsintoa
permanentlyintegratedsystemwithaqualityimageanduniqueidentity
CBRT CharacteristicsofBusRapidTransitforDecisionMaking,anFTAdocument
describingthemajorelementsofBRTandimpactonsystemperformance
Carpoollane Aroadwaylanedesignatedforvehicleswithmorethanoneoccupant
Dedicatedlane AlanedesignatedforonlytransitoronlyHOVuse
Expresswaybuslane Buslaneonanexpresswaydedicatedtobususeonly
FTA FederalTransitAdministration
Gradeseparatedtransitway Roadsfortheexclusiveuseoftransitvehicleswithaccessallowedonlyat
designedpoints,includeoverpassesorothergradeseparateatcrossingsto
minimizeconflictswithothervehicles
HOV HighOccupancyVehicle avehiclewithtwoormoreoccupants
HOVfacility Aphysicalentity,structureorspacethatprovidesHOVaccessorservicesto
orintheROW,suchasaparkandride,carpoollaneortransitcenter
ITS Intelligenttransportationsystems theintegrationofinformationand
electronicstechnologyintotransportationinfrastructuretorelieve
congestion,improvesafetyandenhanceproductivity
Masstransit Seetransit
Onstreetbuslane Alaneonanarterialorcollectorstreetreservedforbususeonly
Publictransit Seetransit
Queuejumplane Alaneusedatabottlenecklocation(typicallyintersections)toallowtransit
vehiclestocometothefrontofwaitingtrafficandbypassthequeuesby
receivinganearlygreensignal
SingleOccupantVehicle Vehicleswithoneoccupantofdrivingage(thedriver)
Station Transitpassengerpickupanddropofflocationsthatserveastheentryand
exitpointfromthepublictransportationsystem
Runningway Thetrackorroadwayonwhichtransitoperates
TCRP TransitCooperativeResearchProgram aTransportationResearchBoard
researchinitiativeforpublictransportation
Transit Amodeoftransportationthat includesvehiclesopentopublicusesuchas
buses,lightrail,subways,ferriesandtrains
Transitsignalpriority Alterssignaltimingtogiveprioritytotransitvehiclesbyextendinggreen
time,givingearlygreentimeorprovidinganexclusivetransitphase

REFERENCES
AmericanPublicTransportationAssociation(2007).PublicTransportation:Benefitsforthe21
st
Century.Availableat
http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/twenty_first_century.pdf
AmericanPublicTransportationAssociation(2008).PublicTransportationFactsataGlance.Availableat
http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/facts_at_a_glance.pdf
AmericanPublicTransportationAssociation(2009).ChangingtheWayAmericaMoves:CreatingaMoreRobust
Economy,aSmallerCarbonFootprintandEnergyIndependence.Availableat
http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/america_moves_09.pdf
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CambridgeSystematics(2009).MovingCooler:AnAnalysisofTransportationStrategiesforReducingGreenhouse
GasEmissions.UrbanLandInstitute.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://www.movingcooler.info/
Cleghorn,D.;Clavelle,A.;Boone,J.;Masliah,M.&Levinson,H.(2009).ImprovingPedestrianandMotoristSafety
AlongLightRailAlignments.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport137.TransportationResearchBoard.
Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_137.pdf
Davis,T.&Hale,M.(2007).PublicTransportationsContributiontoU.S.GreenhouseGasReduction.Science
ApplicationsInternationalCorporation.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/climate_change.pdf
Diaz,R.&Hinebaugh,D.(2009).CharacteristicsofBusRapidTransitforDecisionMaking.FederalTransit
Administration.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/CBRT_2009_Update.pdf
FederalTransitAdministration(2009).TransitGreenBuildingActionPlan.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/Transit_Green_Building_Action_Plan.pdf
Gray,G.;Kelley,N.&Larwin,T(2006).BusRapidTransit:AHandbookforPartners.MinetaTransportation
Institute.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://transweb.sjsu.edu/mtiportal/research/publications/documents/BRT2006/BRT_06_02%20book.pdf
Gwilliam,K.;Kojima,M.&Johnson,T.(2004).ReducingAirPollutionfromUrbanTransport.TheWorldBank.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://www.cleanairnet.org/infopool/1411/articles
60133_resource_1.pdf
Hecker,J.(2003).FederalTransitAdministration:BusRapidTransitOffersCommunitiesaFlexibleMassTransit
Option.UnitedStatesGeneralAccountingOffice.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03729t.pdf
Hodges,T.(2009).PublicTransportationsRoleinRespondingtoClimateChange.FederalTransitAdministration.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/PublicTransportationsRoleInRespondingToClimateChange.pdf
Kittelson&Associates;HerbertLevinsonTransportationConsultantsandDMJM+Harris(2007).BusRapidTransit
PractionersGuide.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport118.TransportationResearchBoard.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_118.pdf
Kittleson&Associates;KFHGroup;ParsonsBrinckerhoffQuade&DouglasandHunterZaworski,K.(2003).Transit
CapacityandQualityofServiceManual,2
nd
Edition.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport100.
TransportationResearchBoard.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/Transit_Capacity_and_Quality_of_Service_Manual_2nd_153590.aspx
Korve,H.;Farran,J.;Mansel,D.;Levinson,H.;ChiraChavala,T.;&Ragland,D.(1996).IntegrationofLightRail
TransitintoCityStreets.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport17.TransportationResearchBoard.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_17a.pdf
Levinson,H.;Zimmerman,S.;Clinger,J.;Gast,J.;Rutherford,S.&Bruhn,E.(2003).BusRapidTransit:Volume2:
ImplementationGuidelines.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport90.TransportationResearchBoard.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_90v2.pdf
Nelson&Nygaard(2006).ToolkitfortheAssessmentofBusStopAccessibilityandSafety.EasterSealsProject
Action.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://projectaction.easterseals.com
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Pucher,J.&Buehler,R.(2009).IntegratingBicyclingandPublicTransportinNorthAmerica.JournalofPublic
Transportation,Volume12,No.3.http://www.nctr.usf.edu/jpt/pdf/JPT123Pucher.pdf
Schneider,R.(2005).IntegrationofBicyclesandTransit:ASynthesisofTransitPractice.TransitCooperative
ResearchProgram(TCRP)Synthesis62,TransportationResearchBoard.
Schrank,D.&Lomax,T.(2009).UrbanMobilityReport.TexasTransportationInstitute.AccessedJanuary5,2010.
Availableathttp://tti.tamu.edu/documents/mobility_report_2009.pdf
St.Jacques,K.&Levinson,H.(1997).OperationalAnalysisofBusLanesonArterials.TransitCooperativeResearch
ProgramReport26.TransportationResearchBoard.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_26a.pdf
TexasTransportationInstitute(1996).GuidelinesfortheLocationandDesignofBusStops.TransitCooperative
ResearchProgramReport19.TransportationResearchBoard.AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableat
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_19a.pdf
TranSystems;PlannersCollaborativeandTomCrikelairAssociates(2007).ElementsNeededtoCreateHigh
RidershipTransitSystems.TransitCooperativeResearchProgramReport111.TransportationResearchBoard.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_111.pdf
UnitedStatesDepartmentofTransportation(USDOT).(2010).ReporttoCongress:TransportationsRolein
ReducingU.S.GreenhouseGasEmissions.Volume1:SynthesisReportandVolume2:TechnicalReport.
Washington,DC:USDOT.605pp.Availableat
http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/32000/32700/32779/DOT_Climate_Change_Report__April_2010_
_Volume_1_and_2.pdf
UnitedStatesGeneralAccountingOffice(2001).MassTransit:BusRapidTransitShowsPromise.AccessedJanuary
5,2010.Availableathttp://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01984.pdf
Vuchic,V.(2005).UrbanTransitOperations,PlanningandEconomics.JohnWiley&Sons.
Vuchic,V.(2007).UrbanTransitSystemsandTechnology.JohnWiley&Sons.
Wright,L.&Hook,W.(2007).BusRapidTransitPlanningGuide.InstituteforTransportation&DevelopmentPolicy.
AccessedJanuary5,2010.Availableathttp://www.itdp.org/index.php/microsite/brt_planning_guide/

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SCENIC VIEWS
GOAL
FeatureNationalScenicBywaysProgram(NSBP)valuesinaroadway.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
EITHERrequirementmaybemetforcredit.
1Point:AnyportionoftheprojectispartoftheNationalScenicBywaysProgram
(NSBP)(http://www.byways.org)meaningithasbeendesignatedasoneofAmericas
Byways(NationalScenicBywayorAllAmericanRoad),aStateScenicByway,oran
IndianTribeScenicBywaybecauseofitsscenic,natural,and/orrecreationalqualities.
OR
2Points:Provideatleastoneaccessfromtheprojecttoadesignatedareaforvehicles
toexitthetrafficstream,stopandexperiencescenic,naturalorrecreationalfeatures
alongtheroadway.Theseareasmaybescenicviewpointsoroverlooks,welcome
centers,touristactivitiesorinformationcentersorrecreationareas.Theymustbe
identifiedwithsignageconformingto23CFR655(theManualonUniformTraffic
ControlDevices,currentrevision)Part2Signs.
Details
TheNSBPisabroadprogramthatcapturesmanyroadwayqualities.Thesecanbest
becategorizedasscenic,historical,cultural,natural,recreationalandarcheological.
Thiscreditcoversscenic,naturalandrecreationalqualities.CreditAE9Cultural
Outreachcovershistorical,culturalandarcheologicalfeatures.
DOCUMENTATION
Ifascenicroutedesignationisusedtosatisfythiscredit,providedocumentationof
national,State,orIndiantribedesignation.Alsoprovideapictureoftheroutethatbest
capturesitssceneryorotherimportantfeatures.
OR
Ifaroadsideaccesspointisusedtosatisfythiscredit,indicateinthesubmittedplans
andspecificationswheretheviewpointoroverlookisdrawnandspecified.Also
provideapictureoftheaccesspointandapictureoftherelatedattraction.
AE-8
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR11Educational
Outreach
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE9Cultural
Outreach
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x WorkthroughformalchannelstohavearoadwayorportionofroadwaydesignatedasaNationalScenic
Byway,anAllAmericanRoad,aStatescenicbyway,orandIndianTribescenicbyway..Thiscanbedone
throughtheNationalScenicBywaysProgramorthroughaStateorIndianTribeprogramthatformally
recognizesscenicroadways.
x Providelocations,suchasviewpointsorpullouts,wheredriverscanstoptoenjoyascenic,historic,cultural,
natural,recreational,orarchaeologicalfeatureoftheroadwayarea.
x ForAmericasBywaysandStatedesignatedbyways,applyforagrantwiththeNBSPtoenhanceoneofthe
abovequalities.
Example: National Scenic Byways Program
TheNationalScenicBywaysProgram(NSBP),partoftheFederalHighwayAdministration,hasamissionto
provideresourcestothebywaycommunityincreatingauniquetravelexperienceandenhancedlocal
qualityoflifethrougheffortstopreserve,protect,interpret,andpromotetheintrinsicqualitiesofdesignated
byways.(NSBP,2009).Theprogramformallyrecognizescertainroadsfortheirarchaeological,cultural,
historic,natural,recreationalandscenicqualities.TobecomeanofficialByway(theoverarchingtermthe
NSBPusestodescribetheseroads)aroadwaymustbenominated(thenominationcanoriginatefromany
personororganization)throughadetailedprocess.TheNSBPdefinessixintrinsicroadwayqualitiesthata
roadwaycanpossess.NationalScenicBywayspossesscharacteristicsorregionalsignificanceinatleastoneof
theseintrinsicqualities,whileAllAmericanRoadspossesscharacteristicsofnationalsignificanceinatleast
twooftheseintrinsicqualities(NSBP,2009).Thesixintrinsicqualitiesare(paraphrasedfromNSBP,2009):
x Archaeological.Physicalevidenceofhistoricorprehistorichumanlifeoractivitythatisvisibleandcapable
ofbeinginventoriedandinterpreted.
x Cultural.Evidenceandexpressionsofthecustomsortraditionsofadistinctgroupofpeople.
x Historic.Legaciesofthepastthataredistinctlyassociatedwithphysicalelementsofthelandscape,whether
naturalormanmade,thatareofsuchhistoricsignificancethattheyeducatetheviewerandstiran
appreciationforthepast.
x Natural.Thosefeaturesinthevisualenvironmentthatareinarelativelyundisturbedstate.Thesefeatures
predatethearrivalofhumanpopulationsandmayincludegeologicalformations,fossils,landform,water
bodies,vegetation,andwildlife.
x Recreational.Outdoorrecreationalactivitiesdirectlyassociationwithanddependentuponthenaturaland
culturalelementsofthecorridor'slandscape.Theyprovideopportunitiesforactiveandpassiverecreational
experiences.
x Scenic.Heightenedvisualexperiencederivedfromtheviewofnaturalandmanmadeelementsofthevisual
environmentofthescenicbywaycorridor.
FigureAE8.1showsamapofregisteredNationalScenicBywaysandAllAmericanRoadsintheU.S.as
classifiedbytheNSBP.TheNSBPwebsitegivesmapsandlocationsforByways(FigureAE8.2)thatcanbeused
todetermineifaparticularprojectencompassespartofone.
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FigureAE8.1:UnitedStatesScenicByways.(NSBP,2009).

FigureAE8.2:AnexampleofthemapsavailableattheNSBPwebsite(NSBP,2009).Thismapisforthe
ChinookScenicBywaynearMt.RainierinWashingtonState.
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Example: Oregon Scenic Byways
OregonhasitsownScenicBywaysProgramthatincludesfederal,state,cityandcountydefinedscenicroads
andhighways.SomeareintheNSBPandsomearenot.Thisprogramlistsitsscenicbywaysat:
http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/SCENICBYWAYS/index.shtml.Asanexample,theSilverFallsScenicByway
isa55mileroutenearSalem,ORthatgoesthroughSilverFallsStatePark.AlthoughitisnotpartoftheNSBP,it
stillqualifiesforthisVoluntaryCreditbasedonitsdesignationbythestateofOregon.
Example: Scenic Viewpoint
Roadwayscanofferopportunitiestosafelyviewscenerybyprovidingdesignatedpulloutsorviewingareasthat
allowmotoriststostopandexittheirvehiclestotakeinscenery.Theseviewingareascanbelargeconstructed
parkinglotswithvisitoramenities(FigureAE8.3)orcanbesimplewidenedshoulderpullouts(FigureAE8.4).
Ineithercasetheviewpointoroverlookshouldbeproperlysignedandidentified.

FigureAE8.3:ScenicviewpointshowingMt.St.HelensaccessiblefromForestHighway25
intheGiffordPinchotNationalForest.

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FigureAE8.4:Scenicpullout(slightlyleftandlowerfromcenter)onSR410inMt.RainierNationalPark.

POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Althougharoadwaymayprovidepleasingscenery,itcannotbeconsideredforthisVoluntaryCreditunlessitis
(1)formallydesignatedasascenicroadway,or(2)providesanareafordriverstopulloffthetravelledwayand
stoptoenjoythescenery.
2. Historicalroadwaysorthosewithaccesstospecificculturalorgeologicalfeaturesarespecificallyincludedin
CreditAE9:CulturalOutreach.Insomecases,aroadwaymightqualifyforbothAE8andAE9.
3. Providingsignageordirectiontoascenicviewpointoroverlookthatisnotdirectlypartoftheroadwayproject
doesNOTsatisfythisVoluntaryCredit.

RESEARCH
Sceneryisdefinedasthegeneralappearanceofaplaceandthefeaturesofitsviewsorlandscapes(Gallioano
andLoeffler,2000).InthecontextofthisVoluntaryCredititmorespecificallyreferstopredominantlynatural
featuresratherthanmanmade.Alongaroadway,sceneryisthenthenaturalfeaturesandbeautifulviewsthatcan
beseenfromornearbytheroadway.Inthecontextofsustainability,humansplacevalueonwhattheycanseeand
itsqualitysotheavailabilityofscenicviewsalongroadwayscancontributetotheequitycomponentof
sustainability(i.e.,scenicviewsaresomethingwevalueashumans).Therearealsomeasurablephysicaland
psychologicalbenefitstoattractivescenery(GallioanoandLoeffler,2000citeDriveretal.,1992;Ulrich,1984)and
humanpreferencefornaturallandscapesisidentifiableandmeasurable(GallioanoandLoeffler,2000citeMagill,
1992;Lee,1976;Litton,1984;Daniel&Boster,1976).Therefore,providingaccesstoscenicviewshasvalueand
cancontributetothesustainabilityofaroadway.Theexactnatureofthevaluecanbecomplexbutsuchvalueis
basedprimarilyonhumanperceptionandeconomicworth.Thenexttwosectionsbrieflysurveytheseideas.
AssessingVisualLandscapeQuality
Inabroadsense,visuallandscapequality(atermthatimpliesscenicviewsandaratingoftheirdegreeof
excellence)istypicallyquantifiedusingexpertdesignapproachesorpublicperceptionapproaches(Daniel,2001).
Expertdesignapproachesrelyontranslatinglandscapefeaturestoformaldesignparametersthatcanthenbe
relatedtohowhumansperceivethembasedonmodelsortheory.Publicperceptionapproachesrelyonhow
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landscapefeaturesfunctionasstimulitoevokehumanresponse.Eithermethodisfundamentallyrelatedtohow
humansperceivelandscapefeatures.Theseperceptionsare,onaverage,quiteconsistentinthatpeopletendto
prefernaturalappearinglandscapes(Lee,1976;McGuire,1979;Newby,1971;Noe,1988)andgenerallylikethe
samethings(Zube,1976).Therefore,inabroadsenseitispossibletopredicthumanpreferencesforvisualquality
andplanfortheminaroadway.Anoppositeapproachthatisgainingmomentumseekstodirectlyassessthe
ecologicalfunctionofthelandscapeanddeemhumanperceptionandpreferencesirrelevant(Daniel,2001).This
approachmayevenfindthatnotbuildinganyroadmaybethebestapproachtopreservingvisuallandscape
quality.
EconomicValueofScenery
Scenerycanalsobejudgedbasedonitseconomicvalue.Mostresearchinthisareainvestigateswhathumanshave
paidfortheprivilegeofenjoyingavieworwhattheywouldbewillingtopay.Forexample,inlookingatHong
KongapartmentsJimandChen(2009)foundthatpeoplearewillingtopayapremiumforattractiveviews;e.g.,a
broadharborviewofHongKongHarborcouldincreasetheapartmentvalueby2.97%orabout$15,173.In
somethingperhapsmorerelatedtoroadwayscenery,Batistanetal.(2002)lookedatthevalueofagriculturalland
inWyoming(nearYellowstoneandGrandTetonNationalParks)andfoundthatremoteagriculturallands,which
includewildlifehabitat,anglingopportunitiesandscenicvistas,commandhigherpricesperacrethanthosewhich
primarilypossessagriculturalproductioncapacity.Another,perhapssimpler,waytodemonstratetheeconomic
valueofscenicviewsistolookatthepricingofhotelrooms.LangeandShaeffer(2001)lookedatroompricingin
Zurich,Switzerlandandfoundtheretobesignificantvalueinviews(asomewhatobviousconclusionbut
nonethelesssupportedbyproperstatisticalanalysis).Sucheconomicanalysisisnotentirelyneweither.An1879
articleintheNewYorkTimes(Jarves,1879)providesanearlyviewintowhatsceneryisworth.InthisarticleJarves
looksattouristvisitstoSwitzerlandandclaims1.4millionvisitorshavespentover$45million,which,heargues,
canbeviewedastheinterestat5%on$900million,whichmaybeconsideredtheactualmarketvalueofthe
landscapealoneIn2009dollarsthatconservativelycomestowellover$20billion.
TheNationalScenicBywayProgram(NSBP)
TheNSBPchooseslessscientificallyrigorousmethodsforselectingroadwaysfordesignationasNationalScenic
BywaysorAllAmericanRoads.Thedefinitionoftheirsixintrinsicqualitiesthattheseroadshave(archaeological,
cultural,historic,natural,recreational,scenic)indicatesthattheNSBPdefinitionisbroaderthantheGallioanoand
Loeffler(2000)definitionofgeneralappearanceandthequalitiesofitsviewandlandscapes.Howeverareview
ofthesesixintrinsicqualitiesshowsthateachonemustessentiallyberepresentedbyaphysicalpresencethatcan
beviewedorexperienced.ThespecificrequirementsforscenicbywaydesignationareoutlinedbytheFHWAin
theirinterimpolicyonScenicByways(NationalScenicBywaysProgram,1995).Specifically,roadwaysnominated
should:
x Safelyandconvenientlyaccommodatetwowheeldriveautomobileswithstandardclearances.
x Accommodate,whereverfeasible,bicycleandpedestriantravel.
x Safelyaccommodateconventionaltourbuses.
x Haveascenicbywayscorridormanagementplan.ForAllAmericanRoads,theremustbeademonstration
oftheextenttowhichenforcementmechanismsarebeingimplementedbycommunitiesalongthehighway
inaccordancewiththecorridormanagementplan.
x Userfacilities(e.g.overlooks,foodservices,etc.)shouldbeavailablefortravelers.
x Havecontinuity.Roadwaysshouldhavetoomanygapsbutrathershouldbeascontinuousaspossibleand
shouldminimizeintrusionsonthevisitorsexperience.

Also,andimportantly,anyroadnominatedfortheNationalScenicBywayorAllAmericanRoaddesignationis
consideredtobedesignatedaStatescenicbyway.ManyofthescenicbywaysrunningthroughtheUnitedStates
arenotjustviewedaspartofthehowpeopletravel,butcanberecognizedasculturallandmarks(Youngs,White
andWodrich,2008).

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GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
Bastian,C.T.;McLeod,D.M.;Germino,M.J.;Reiners,W.A.&Blasko,B.J.(2002).Environmentalamenitiesand
agriculturallandvalues:ahedonicmodelusinggeographicinformationsystemsdata.EcologicalEconomics,
40,pp.337349.
Daniel,T.C.&Boster,R.(1976).Measuringlandscapeesthetics:thescenicbeautyestimationmethod.Research
Paper.RM167.U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,RockyMountainForestandRange
ExperimentStation,FortCollins,CO.
Daniel,T.C.(2001).Whitherscenicbeauty?Visuallandscapequalityassessmentinthe21
st
century.Landscapeand
UrbanPlanning,54,pp.267281.
Driver,B.L.;Brown,P.J.&Peterson,G.(1992).Benefitsofleisure.StateCollege,PA:VenturePublishing,Inc.
Gallioano,S.J.&Loeffler,G.M.(2000).SceneryAssessment:ScenicBeautyattheEcoregionScale.InteriorColumbia
BasinEcosystemManagementProject:ScientificAssessment,Quigley,T.M.,ed.PNWGTR472.U.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,PacificNorthwestResearchStation,Portland,OR.
Haefele,M.(2009).Sceneryholdseconomicvalue.TheWildernessSociety.http://wilderness.org/content/scenery
holdseconomicvalue.Accessed8December2009.
Jarves,J.J.(18October1879).MoneyValueofScenery;RevenuefromNaturalAttractions.NewYorkTimes.
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B0DEFD7103EE73BBC4C53DFB7678382669FDE.
Jim,C.Y.&Chen,W.Y.(2009).Valueofscenicviews:HedonicassessmentofprivatehousinginHongKong.
LandscapeandUrbanPlanning,91(4),pp.226234.
Lange,E.&Schaeffer,P.V.(2001).Acommentonthemarketvalueofaroomwithaview.LandscapeandUrban
Planning,55(2),pp.113120.
Lee,R.G.(1976).Assessingpublicconcernforvisualqualitylandscapesensitivityresearchandadministrative
studies.PSW19.U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,PacificSouthwestForestandRange
ExperimentStation,Berkeley,CA.
Litton,R.B.,Jr.(1984).Visualvulnerabilityofthelandscape:controlofvisualquality.ResearchPaper.WO39.U.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,Washington,DC.
AllAmericanRoad AroaddesignatedbytheNationalScenicBywaysProgramandpossessing
characteristicsofnationalsignificancewithinatleasttwoofthefollowing
intrinsicqualities:archaeological,cultural,historic,natural,recreationaland
scenic.
NationalScenicByway AroaddesignatedbytheNationalScenicBywaysProgramandpossessing
characteristicsofregionalsignificancewithinatleastoneofthefollowing
intrinsicqualities:archaeological,cultural,historic,natural,recreationaland
scenic.
Scenery Thegeneralappearanceofaplaceandthefeaturesofitsviewsor
landscapes.
ScenicView Apleasingsightorvistathatinvolvesalandscapepredominatedbynatural
(asopposedtomanmade)features.
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Magill,A.W.(1992).Managedandnaturallandscapes:Whatdopeoplelike?ResearchPaper.PSWRP213.U.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,PacificSouthwestResearchStation,Albany,CA.
NationalScenicBywaysProgram(NSBP)Online.(2009).NationalScenicBywaysProgram.Website.
http://www.bywaysonline.org.Accessed3December2009.
NationalScenicBywaysProgram,60Fed.Reg.26759(1995).
Ulrich,R.S.(1984).Viewthroughawindowmayinfluencerecoveryfromsurgery.Science,224,pp.420421.
Youngs,Y.L.(2008).TransportationSystemsasCulturalLandscapesinNationalParks:TheCaseofYosemite.
SocietyandNaturalResources,21,797811.

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AE-9 Cultural Outreach
CULTURAL OUTREACH
GOAL
Promoteculturalawareness,communityconnectivityandart.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
1point
Anypartoftheprojectoranyitemwithin10milesoftheprojectboundaryiseither:
x ListedintheUnitedStatesNationalRegisterofHistoricPlaces
x SubjectofaDeterminationofEligibility(DOE)madebyaStateHistoricPreservation
Officer.
x PartoftheNationalScenicBywaysProgram(NSBP)(http://www.byways.org)
meaningithasbeendesignatedasoneofAmericasByways(NationalScenic
BywayorAllAmericanRoad),aStateScenicByway,oranIndianTribeScenicByway
becauseofitscultural,historical,orarcheologicalfeatures.
AND
Installinformationalinfrastructure(e.g.,viewpoint,kiosk,sign,orothersmallscale
installationforvisitorsdetailinghistorical,cultural,orarcheologicalsignificance)to
explainthesiteordirectroadwayuserstothesite.Anexistinginstallationmeetsthis
informationalinfrastructureportionoftherequirement.
2points
Dedicateaminimumof1%ofthetotalprojectbudget(nottoexceed$200,000)toart
orcommunitycultureinstallationsalongtheroadwayrightofway(ROW).
Details
ManyNationalParkSystem(NPS)unitsareautomaticallylistedintheNational
RegisterofHistoricPlace.AsofDecember2009thoseinclude:internationalhistoric
sites,nationalbattlefields,nationalbattlefieldparks,nationalbattlefieldsites,
nationalhistoricsites,nationalhistoricalparks,nationalmemorial,nationalmilitary
parksandnationalmonuments.
TheNSBPisabroadprogramthatcapturesmanyroadwayqualities.Thesecanbest
becategorizedasscenic,historical,cultural,natural,recreationalandarcheological.
Thiscreditcovershistorical,cultural,andarcheologicalqualities.CreditAE8Scenic
Viewscoversscenic,natural,andrecreationalqualities.
ForthepurposesofGreenroads,artisbroadlydefinedasthebehaviorofmaking
thingsspecial.
DOCUMENTATION
1point
x AcopyoftheregistrationoftheitemorlocationintheUnitedStatesNational
RegisterofHistoricPlacesordocumentationofNSBPdesignation.Ascreenshotof
theitemlistedintheNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesontheofficialwebsite
(www.nps.gov/nr)isacceptable.Or,ifaDOEisused,acopyoftheofficialDOE.
AE-9
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR11Educational
Outreach
9 AE3Context
SensitiveSolutions
9 AE8ScenicViews
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Equity
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 IncreasesAesthetics
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x Amapshowingthattheitemorlocationisintheprojectareaorwithin10milesoftheprojectboundary.
x Aphotographoftheitemorlocationandtheinformationalinfrastructure.
2points
x Copyoftheprojectbudgetshowingaminimumof1%ofthetotalbudgetor$200,000(whicheverisless)has
beendedicatedtowardart.
x Atleastonephotographoftheinstalledartwork.
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Integratecontextsensitiveaesthetictreatments,asdeterminedbyparticipatingstakeholders,intothedesign
oftransportationfacilities.Examplesmayincludetreatmentstosoundwalls,structures,streetfurniture,
screening,fences,signage,piersorlighting.
x Setaside0.5%ofthetotalprojectbudgettowardartorculturalinstallations.Allowforcommunity
contributionsandsuggestionsduringthepublicinvolvementprocessduringprojectscoping.
x Encouragepublicengagementthroughmuralpaintingorotherparticipatoryactivities.
x InvestigateplacesontheNationalRegisterofHistoricalPlacestoseeifanymayhelptheprojectqualifyforthis
VoluntaryCredit.
x InvestigateregisteringanitemorplaceontheNationalRegisterofHistoricalPlaces.
Example: National Register of Historic Places
TheNationalRegisterofHistoricPlaces(www.nps.gov/nr)istheofficiallistofU.S.historicplacesworthyof
preservation.ItisauthorizedbytheNationalHistoricalPreservationActof1966andismaintainedbythe
NationalParkService.TheNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesprogrammaintainsanominationprocess(states,
tribesandotherfederalagenciesmaynominatepropertiesforinclusioninthelist);offersguidanceandhelps
qualifiedpropertiesreceivepreservationbenefits.Roadscanbeandareincludedintheregister.Forexample,
recordnumber336109concernstheColumbiaRiverHighwayDistrict,whichaddressedanhistoricalroadway
thattravelsalongtheOregonsideoftheColumbiaRiver.
Example: Historic Roads Website
Thisresource(www.historicroads.org)providesideasforwhatconstitutesanhistoricroadandresourcesto
assistwithdocumentationanddesignation/recognition.
Example: Wisconsins Rustic Roads Program
Establishedin1973,theWisconsinRusticRoadsprogram
(http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/travel/scenic/rusticroads.htm)helpscitizensandlocalgovernmenttopreserve
scenic,lightlytraveledcountryroads.Therearenow108suchroads,designatedwithanRinfrontofthe
routenumber(e.g.,R62orR108).AccordingtotheWisconsinDepartmentofTransportationaroadmusthave
thefollowingcharacteristicstoqualifyfortheRusticRoadprogram:
x Outstandingnaturalfeaturesalongitsborderssuchasruggedterrain,nativevegetation,nativewildlife,or
includeopenareaswithagriculturalvistaswhichsinglyorincombinationuniquelysetthisroadapartfrom
otherroads.
x Lightlytraveledlocalaccessroad,onewhichservestheadjacentpropertyownersandthosewishingto
travelbyauto,bicycle,orhikingforpurposesofrecreationalenjoymentofitsrusticfeatures.
x Notschedulednoranticipatedformajorimprovementswhichwouldchangeitsrusticcharacteristics.
x Have,preferably,aminimumlengthof2milesand,wherefeasible,shouldprovideacompletedclosureor
loop,orconnecttomajorhighwaysatbothendsoftheroute.
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AE-9 Cultural Outreach
Example: Percentage for Art Programs
Incorporatingapercentageoftheprojectbudgetforartorculturalendeavorsiscommoninmanymajor
municipalities.Examplesare:
x TheCityofSeattlehasaPublicArtOrdinance(passedin1973)thatdedicates1%ofconstructioncoststo
art.Importantly,theCitydefinesconstructionprojectasanycapitalprojectpaidforwhollyorinpart
bytheCitytoconstructorremodelanybuilding,structure,park,utility,street,sidewalk,orparkingfacility,
oranyportionthereof,withinthelimitsofTheCityofSeattle.(CityofSeattle,2009a).
x SoundTransit(inthePugetSoundregionofWashingtonState)administerstheStartPublicArtProgram,
whichallocates1%ofprojectconstructioncoststoart(SoundTransit,2009).
x WashingtonStatesArtinPublicPlacesProgramadds0.5%fortheacquisitionofartworktonew
constructionbudgetsforstateownedbuildings(WashingtonStateArtsCommission,2009).
x NewYorksCityArtProgramusesonepercentofatotalpublicprojectbudgetstofundartisticinstallations
atpublicbuildings(Heartney&NewYorkDepartmentofCulturalAffairs,2005).
x OregonsPercentforArtlegislation(passedin1975)guidestheacquisitionofOregonsStateArtCollection.
Itsetsaside1%ofthedirectconstructionfundsofneworremodeledstatebuildingswithconstruction
budgetsof$100,000orgreaterfortheacquisitionofartworkwhichmaybeanintegralpartofthebuilding,
attachedthereto,orcapableofdisplayinotherStateBuildings"(OregonArtsCommission,2009).
x HawaiisArtinPublicPlacesProgram(establishedin1967)wascreatedtoenhancetheenvironmental
qualityofstatepublicbuildingsandspacesthroughoutthestatefortheenjoymentandenrichmentofthe
public;cultivatethepublic'sawareness,understandingandappreciationofvisualartsinallmedia,styles
andtechniques;contributetowardthedevelopmentandrecognitionofaprofessionalartisticcommunity;
andacquire,interpret,preserveanddisplayworksofartexpressiveofthecharacteroftheHawaiian
Islands,themulticulturalheritageofitspeople,andthevariouscreativeinterestsofitsartists.(Hawaii
StateFoundationonCultureandtheArts,2009).

FiguresAE9.1throughAE9.3areexamplesofstreetscapeartinthegreaterSeattlearea.

FigureAE9.1:RichardBeyersPeopleWaitingfortheInterurban(1979)atthecornerofFremontAvenue
NorthandNorth34thStreet.Paidforbycommunitydonations,theSeattleArtsCommission(NowtheOffice
ofArts&CulturalAffairs)andtheWashingtonStateArtsCommission(CityofSeattle,1979).

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FigureAE9.2:JackMackiesDancers'Series:Steps(1982)foundin8locationsalongBroadwayAvenueinthe
CapitolHillareaofSeattle.PaidforbytheEngineeringDepartment(nowpartofSeattlePublicUtilities)1%for
ArtandprivatebusinessesintheBroadwayLocalImprovementDistrict(CityofSeattle,2009b).

FigureAE9.2:TomAskmanandLeaAnneLakesBallardGateway(2003)onthe15thAvenueN.W.approachto
theBallardBridge.PaidforbytheSeattleDepartmentofTransportation1%forArt,SeattleCityLight1%forArt
andMillenniumLightingFunds,DepartmentofNeighborhoodsMatchingFunds(CityofSeattle,2009b).
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POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Itmaynotalwaysbeappropriateorpossibletoincludeculturaloutreachorartonaproject.
2. Artcanbecontroversial.
3. Sometimesitisdifficulttospecifyexactlywhatartis.BeyondthegeneraldefinitionusedinthisVoluntary
Credit,somethingmorepreciseisgenerallyneededtoincludeincontractdocumentsinordertodefinewhat
qualifiesasart.
RESEARCH
Constructionoftransportationinfrastructurerepresentsalargepublicinvestmentinmanycommunities.Roadway
projectsnotonlyconnectplacesandeconomies,theyalsoconnectpeopletoplace.Roadwaydesignersand
contractorsareinpositiontooffermoretosocietythansimplymeetingbasicneeds,projectdeadlines,and
bottomlines.Designingaesthetictreatmentsthatreflectcommunityidentityorintegratingpublicartinto
transportationprojectsisanopportunitytoenhancecommunities,particularlythosewithoutresourcestopursue
independentpublicartorlandscapeprograms.Mostcivilengineeringworks,bydefinition,meetneedsandserve
tobetterthegreatergoodofthepublic.Inroadwayprojects,opportunitiesforpromotingthissenseofcommunity
canbeaccomplishedthroughincorporatinghistoricalandculturalinformationfacilities,connectiontonational
landmarksandcommunitycenteredartwork.Thisresearchsectionattemptstodefinewhatartisandwhyitmight
beviewedasimportant.
EthnologicViewofArt
ThefollowingdiscussionofArtislargelytakenfromtheworkofEllenDissanayake,anAffiliateProfessorinthe
SchoolofMusicattheUniversityofWashington.Shegenerallytakesanethologicalviewofart;thatisshe
approachesartassomethinglivingcreatures(humans)dointheireverydaylifethatsomehowhasanadaptiveor
selectivevalueinhumanevolution.
WhatisArt?
Dissanayake(1980)broadlydefinesartastheabilitytorecognizeorconferspecialness,alevelororder
differentfromtheeveryday.Inshort,artistheactofmakingspecial.Thisencompassesabroadrangeofitems
includingsong,dance,ritual,playandevenorganizedsports.Importantly,theideaofartdoesnotincludea
qualityjudgmentorinvolveanunderstandingofhowartmanagestoachievespecialness.
WhyisArtImportant?
Humanethologistsbelievethatcertainhumanbehaviorshavepersistedovertimebecausetheycontribute
positivelytotheevolutionandsuccessofthespecies(Dissanayake,1980).Intermsofart,thismeansthatasa
behaviorartexistsbecauseitissomehowimportanttothesuccessofthehumanspecies.Artwouldnotexist
universallyifitdidnothaveselectivevalue.Artisnot,asthemodernviewgoesforitsownsake(i.e.,no
practicalvalue).Artisalsonotjustforartists;itisacommonbehaviortoallhumans.
Itisthedegreetowhichartembodiesandcommunicatesexperiencethatmakesituniqueand
irreplaceable(givesitvalue).Althoughtherearelikelymanywhoappeartodojustfinewithoutart(aswe
knowittoday)itisonlyrecently(last100orsoyears)thatarthasbecomedetachedfromtherestoflife
andregardedforitsownsake.Formostofhistory,theactivityofgivingmeaningandembellishinglifewas
notanimpracticalleisuretimeactivitybutratherthewaythehumanmindworkedawayof
comprehendingtheworld.(Dissanayake,1980).
Artcontributesessentialsocialbenefitssuchasdocumentation,expression,storytelling,entertainment,display
ofwealthandpowerandrepresentationofcustomandtradition.Inotherwords,artgivesshapetoand
embellisheslife;whatmakesartuniqueandirreplaceableisthedegreetowhichartembodiesand
communicatesexperience(Dissanayake,1980).Onlyinthelast100yearsorsohasartbecomedetachedfrom
ritualandplayandbeenviewedasanindependentactivity.Formostofhumanexistence,theprimarytaskof
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artistswastogiveshapetoandembellishlife;tohelpfindmeaninginlife.Artistsrecordedevents,decorated
homesandembellishedceremonialobservances(Dissanayake,1980).
Insummary,therefourkeypointstotakeawayfromtheethologicalviewpoint:
1. Artistheabilitytomakespecial.Artrecognizesorconfersspecialness,alevelororderdifferentfrom
everyday.Equallyimportantisthebehaviorofappreciatingthatsomethingsarespecial.Theseideasare
fundamentalanduniversal.
2. Arthasselectivevalue,i.e.,insomewayitenhancesthesurvivalofthespecies.Artwouldnotexist
universallyifitdidnothaveselectivevalue.Itsnot,asthemodernviewgoesforitsownsake(i.e.,no
practicalvalue).
3. Thebehaviorofartisacommonbehaviortoallhumanbeings,notjustartists.Itsimportanttonotethat
artdoesnotmeangoodart.
4. Artisvaluablebecauseitgivesmeaningandembellisheslife.Ashumans,wesimplycannotbear
senselessnessorlackofmeaning.
HowArtisPublicallyFunded
Magie(1997)reviewedmajorsourcesofpublicfundingforthearts.Amongtheartfundingsourcesshediscussed,
thefollowingcouldapplytoroadwayconstructionartfunding:
Generalfundappropriations.Themostcommonpublicfundingmechanism.Artisoftenincludedasalineitemin
astate,city,county,etc.budget.Usually,generalfundallocationsrequirestrongadvocacyandpoliticalsupport.In
general,supportatthestateandfederallevelhasbeendeclining,howeversupportandthecity,countyandlocal
levelhasbeenincreasing.
Taxesandfees.Manypublicorganizationshavesetuptaxesorfeeswhoserevenuesupportorpartiallysupports
thearts.Specialtaxdistricts,salestaxes,propertytaxes,hotelmotel(transientoccupancy)taxes,entertainment
taxes(e.g.,theaters,concerts,sports),franchisefees(e.g.,fromcablecompanies),realestatetaxesandevena
portionoflottery/gamblingproceedshavebeenusedtogenerateartsfunds.
Endowments.Thisapproachcollectsmoneybysimilarpubicmechanismasthetaxesandfeessection,however
themoneyisheldontoandonlytheinterestpaymentsareusedtosupportthearts.
Bonds.Fundingforinfrastructurecanbelargeandmanypublicorganizationshaveissuedbondsfortheexpress
purposesofsupportingartandcultureinfrastructure.Forinstance,theRockandRollHallofFameandMuseum
wasbuiltlargelywithbondfunding.
Percentforartprograms.Theseprogramsspecifythatapercentage(often1%)ofcapitalconstructioncostsfora
neworrenovatedbuildingbesetasideforartwork.Theseprogramsbeganinthe1960sbutnowtherearemore
than135stateandlocallyfundedprogramsintheU.S.
Transportationmitigationorenhancementfunds.Whilepublicartinroadwayconstructionisstilldeveloping,
publicorganizationsoftensupportartthroughmitigationorenhancementfundsthatarededicatedtoaddvalueto
propertyandareasthathavebeennegativelyimpactedbyroadwayconstruction.
Corporatesupport.Corporatesponsorshaveoftenbeeninstrumentalinartprogramsandinfrastructureto
supportsuchprograms.However,corporatesponsorshiphasnotbeenheavilyusedinroadwayrelatedart.
ExamplesofArtinRoadwayProjects
Thefollowingfiguresshowsomeexamplesofhowarthasbeenincorporatedintoroadwayprojects.
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FigureAE9.3:ArtincorporatedintothefasciaforanI5freewaywallassociatedwithanexpansionprojectonI
5nearitsintersectionwithSR16inTacoma,WA.

FigureAE9.4:SeattletoBremertonferrytunnelinBremerton,WA.
PhotofromtheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation.
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FigureAE9.5:JamesAngus,EllipsoidalFreewaySculpture(2008)
Eastlinkfreeway:NunawadingtoFrankston,Melbourne.PhotofromtheRoslynOxley9Gallery
(http://www.roslynoxley9.com.au/artists/5/James_Angus/1116/41258).

GLOSSARY
Art Theactofmakingspecial.
UnitedStatesNationalRegister
ofHistoricPlaces
OfficiallistofU.S.historicplacesworthyofpreservation.Authorizedbythe
NationalHistoricalPreservationActof1966andmaintainedbytheNational
ParkService.

REFERENCES
AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers(ASCE).(2009).HistoricCivilEngineeringLandmarkProgram.
http://content.asce.org/history/ce_landmarks.html.Accessed22December2009.
CityofSeattle(2009b).PermanentlySited:Streetscapes.
http://www.seattle.gov/arts/publicart/permanent.asp?cat=3.Accessed22December2009.
CityofSeattle.(2009a).PublicArtOrdinance.http://www.seattle.gov/arts/publicart/ordinance.asp.Accessed22
December2009.
Dissanayake,E.(1980).ArtasaHumanBehavior:TowardanEthologicalViewofArt.JournalofAestheticsandArt
Criticism38(4),397406.http://ellendissanayake.com/publications/pdf/EllenDissanayake_5624714.pdf.
HawaiiStateFoundationonCultureandtheArts.(2009).ArtinPublicPlaces.
http://hawaii.gov/sfca/grants.php?article_id=17.Accessed22December2009.
Heartney,E.,&NewYorkDept.ofCulturalAffairs.(2005).Cityart:NewYork'sPercentforArtProgram.London:
Merrell.
Magie,D.(1997).ArtsFundingintothe21
st
Century.EssaypreparedforCreativeAmerica,areportbythe
PresidentsCommitteeontheArtsandtheHumanities,Washington,D.C.
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OregonArtsCommission.(2009).OregonsPercentforArtProgram:APublicLegacy.
http://www.oregonartscommission.org/pdf/oac_connections_percent.pdf.Accessed22December2009.
SoundTransit.(2009).PublicArtProjects.SoundTransit,Seattle,WA.http://www.soundtransit.org/x1250.xml.
Accessed22December2009.
WashingtonStateArtsCommission.(2009).ArtinPublicPlaces1/2of1%.http://www.arts.wa.gov/public
art/percent.shtml.Accessed22December2009.

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CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES


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CA-1 Quality Management System
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
GOAL
Improveconstructionqualitybyusingacontractorthathasaformalquality
managementprocess.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Theprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirmshallhavea
documentedqualitymanagementsystem(QMS)fortheentirecompanyoratleastthe
portion(s)ofthecompanyparticipatingintheproject.TheQMSmustbeinplacefor
thedurationofprojectconstruction.Asaminimum,theQMSanditsdocumentation
shallmeettherequirementsofInternationalStandardsOrganization(ISO)9001:2008
orISO9001:2000.
Details
Theprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirmis
consideredtohaveadocumentedQMSifitis:
x IsISO9001:2008orISO9001:2000certified
x HasaQMSthatmeetsISO9001:2008orISO9001:2000requirementsbutisnot
formallycertified
x TherecipientoftheMalcolmBaldrigeNationalQualityAward(anyyear)
DOCUMENTATION
Submitone(1)ofthefollowingitems:
1. DocumentationoftheISO9001:2008orISO9001:2000certificationfortheprime
contractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirm
2. Acopyoftheprimecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirms
QMSdocumentationtoinclude:
x Qualitypolicyandobjective
x Qualitymanual
x Listingofdocumentedprocedures
x ListingofrecordsretainedinaccordancewiththeirQMS
3. DocumentationoftheMalcolmBaldrigeNationalQualityAwardawardedtothe
primecontractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirm
CA-1
2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR1Environmental
ReviewProcess
9 PR4QualityControl
Plan
9 PR11Educational
Outreach
9 EW1Environmental
ManagementSystem
9 CA2Environmental
Training
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x HaveaprimecontractorwithISO9001:2008orISO9001:2000certification.
x HaveaprimecontractorwithadocumentedQMSthatmeetstherequirementsofISO9001:2008orISO
9001:2000.
x SelectaprimecontractorthathaswontheMalcolmBaldrigeNationalQualityAward.Asof2009,noprime
contractor,designbuilderorconstructionmanagementfirmhaswonthisaward.
Example Quality Manuals
WhileitisnotpossibletopresentanentireQMS,therearemanyexamplesofkeyQMSdocumentsavailableon
theWebincludingthefollowingqualitymanuals:
x R&DSystems:http://www.rndsystems.com/DAM_public/5722.pdf
x ContinentalSteel&TubeCo.:http://www.continentalsteel.com/pdf/continentalsteelqualitymanual.pdf
x Cirruslogic:http://cirrus.com/en/pubs/misc/Quality_Manual.pdf
x PARNuclearsupplierqualitymanual:http://www.parnuclear.com/PaRNuclear/docs/SQM.pdf
x WestinghouseNuclear:
http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/Our_Company/Quality_Management_System/docs/E6_qms.pdf

Therearealsocompaniesthatwillsellqualitymanualtemplatestoassistingettingstarted.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. SmallerfirmsmaynotbeabletoaffordtheISOcertificationprocess.
2. DocumentationofaQMSisnotthesamehashavinganeffectiveQMS,howevercollectionofdocumentation
(inlieuofanactualaudit)isanefficientwayofgatheringevidenceofaneffectiveQMS.
RESEARCH
AccordingtoISO(2009),aQMSisreferstowhattheorganizationdoestomanageitsprocesses,oractivities,so
thatitsproductsorservicessatisfythecustomer'squalityrequirementsandcomplywithregulations.Oneofthe
morecomprehensivedescriptionsofsuchasystemcomesfromISOintheir9000familyofstandards.
ISO9000
AccordingtoISO(2009),TheISO9000familyofstandardsrepresentsaninternationalconsensusongoodquality
managementpractices.Itconsistsofstandardsandguidelinesrelatingtoqualitymanagementsystemsandrelated
supportingstandards.Essentially,itisaformaldescriptionofaQMSandallthatisinvolvedinitscreation,
implementationanduse.JustasASTMInternationalortheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayand
TransportationOfficials(AASHTO)setstandards,sodoesISO.
Certification:ISO9001
WhiletheentireQMSstandardiscontainedintheISO9000familyofstandards,theactualrequirementsfor
certificationarecontainedinISO9001.Therefore,organizationsarecertifiedinaccordancewithISO9001;the
numberisappendedwiththeyearofthestandardthatappliedwhentheorganizationwascertified.Themost
currentversionisISO9001:2008,howevermanyorganizationsstillhaveISO9001:2000certifications(theprior
version).
ISOdoesnotcertifyorganizationsitself.Mostcountrieshaveformedformalgroupsorcertificationbodies,
whichauditorganizationsapplyingforISO9001certification.Throughmutualagreementsthesebodiesensure
thatcertificationauditstandardsarerelativelythesameworldwide.Certification,oncegranted,mustbe
renewedatstandardintervals;oftenthreeyears.
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ISOdoesnotrequirecertificationandmanyorganizationsjustchoosetofollowISO9000requirementsbut
foregocertification.However,itiscommonpracticeinmanypartsoftheworld(e.g.,westernEurope,China,
India,etc.)torequireISOcertificationasaprerequisitefordoingbusiness.Therefore,countriesthatrequire
thisusuallyseethehighestcertificationrates.
ArgumentsforCertification
Argumentsforcertificationtypicallycitethegeneralideathatpropermanagementofqualityimproves
business,whichcanbemeasuredbylargermarketshare,salesgrowth,highermargins,competitiveadvantage
andothermetrics.
ArgumentsagainstCertification
Argumentsagainstcertificationclaimthattheactualactofcertificationandexistenceofdocumentationdo
not,inandofthemselves,guaranteeimprovedbusiness.Further,theypointoutthatISO9001certificationcan
beanexpensiveprocessthatdoesnotguaranteeresults.
CertificationCost
AccordingtothesurveycompletedbyYatesandAniftos(1997),thecostoftheISOcertificationprocessranged
from$0to$500,000,butcertificationcostsgenerallyrangefrom$300,000to$400,000.Thisreporteddata
rangeisunclearduetohowthesurveyquestionwasposed.Itispossiblethatsomecompaniesreported
additionalcostsincludinginternaltrainingbudgets,neglectedthecostofthecertificationitself,orthatsome
didnothaveanyadditionalcosts.CertificationthroughISOrequiresapproximately12to18months,on
average.
WorldwideISO9001Certification
Datafrom2006showworldwideISO9001certificationsat625,742in170differentcountriesandgrowing(Figure
CA1.1).InDecember2006theU.S.had44,883certifications,whichrankedsixthworldwide(FigureCA1.2).ISO
9001certificationisfarmorepopularinEuropeandtheFarEast(EasternAsia)with46%and34%ofworldwide
certificationsrespectively.NorthAmerica(consistingofonlytheU.S.,CanadaandMexico)comprisedalmost7%of
theworldwidetotal.AccordingtoYatesandAniftos(1996,1997),verylittleparticipationbyorganizationswithin
theUnitedStateshasbeennoted.ThemajorityoftheISOstandardstakeholdersareintheEuropeancommunity
andthebulkofinfluenceontheglobalizationofsuchstandardscomesfromagroupcalledtheEuropean
CommitteeforStandardization(CEN).
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FigureCA1.1:ISO9001certificationworldwidegrowth20022006(datafromISO,2006).

FigureCA1.2:Top10countriesintermsofnumberofISO9001certificationsin2006(datafromISO,2006).

ISO9001CertificationintheU.S.ConstructionIndustry
ISO9000enjoyssubstantialworldwidepopularity,howeverrelativelyfewU.S.constructionfirmsarecertified.The
2006ISOSurveyofCertificationsreported80,432constructioncompaniescertifiedworldwide.Ofthe39industrial
sectorslistedconstructionrankedfirstwith12.9%ofthetotalcertifiedcompanies.However,relativelyfew
167,124
497,919
660,132
773,867
897,866

100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
900,000
1,000,000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

I
S
O

9
0
0
1

C
e
r
t
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

W
o
r
l
d
w
i
d
e
Year
162,259
105,799
80,518
57,552
46,458
44,833
40,967
40,909
21,349
18,922
20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000
China
Italy
Japan
Spain
Germany
USA
India
UK
France
Netherlands
NumberofISO9001Certifications inDecember2006
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constructionfirmsintheU.S.haveadoptedISO9000standardsandbecomecertified(Chini&Valdez,2003).
ReasonsgivenforthislackofadoptiontendtofocusontheideathatISO9000isnotpromotedorrequiredbyU.S.
clientsorgovernmentlikeitiselsewhere(Ahmedetal.,2005)sothereisnoperceivedadvantageofformal
certification.ChiniandValdez(2003)showevidenceofthiswhentheyfound36%ofU.S.certifiedconstruction
relatedfirmswerelocatedinMichiganandanother14%inOhio.Notcoincidentally,thesestatesarewhereU.S.
automakers,companiesthatrequireISO9001certificationfromthosetheycontractwith,arelargelylocated(at
leastin2000).
EvidencetosupportthepositiveoutcomesofISO9001certificationgenerallycomesfromsurveysoforinterviews
withcontractorsthatarealreadyISOcertified(e.g.,Ahmedetal.,2005;Chini&Valdez,2003;MoatazedKeivaniet
al.,1999)soitisnotsurprisingthatresultsindicateageneralbenefittoISO9001certification.Evenso,thereis
ampleevidencetosuggestthatISO9000isatleastapplicabletoconstructionandcanbeadopted(Nee,1996;
Chung,1999)andargumentshavebeenmadethatitcanhelpstandardizecorporateprocedures(Chung,1999),
reducewaste,improvequalityandprovideindependentverificationthatsuchthingsarebeingdone(Love&Li,
2000).AcomparisonoftheU.S.andHongKongconstructionindustries(Ahmedetal.,2005)foundthatpromotion
ofISO9001certificationamongstclientsandgovernmentisminimalintheU.S.whileitisprominentinHongKong.
GLOSSARY
ISO InternationalStandardsOrganization
QMS Qualityprocessmanagementsystem
Quality Degreetowhichasetofinherentcharacteristicsfulfillsrequirements.Thisis
abroaddefinition.Notethatinthiscontextisdoesnotrefertoadegreeof
excellence.

REFERENCES
Chini,A.R.andValdez,H.E.(2003).ISO9000andtheU.S.ConstructionIndustry.J.ofManagementinEngineering,
19(2),pp.6977.
Chung,H.W.(1999).Understandingqualityassuranceinconstruction:apracticalguidetoISO9000,E&FSpon,
London,UK.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO).(2006).TheISOSurveyofCertifications2006.ISO,Geneva,
Switzerland.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO).(2009).ISO9000essentials.ISOwebsite.Availableat
http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/management_standards/iso_9000_iso_14000/iso_9000_essentials.htm
Accessed29October2009.
InternationalOrganizationforStandardization.ISO9001:2008QualitymanagementsystemsRequirements.1st
ed.2008:IHS.
Ketola,J.,&Roberts,K.(2008).ISO9001:2008Update:Theyear2008revisionofISO9001hasmadeitswaytoa
FinalDraftInternationalStandard.QualityDigest.20,3336.
Love,P.E.D.&Li,H.(2000).Overcomingtheproblemsassociatedwithqualitycertification.Construction
ManagementandEconomics,18(2),pp.139149.
MoatazedKeivani,R,;GhanbariParsa,A.R.,&Kagaya,S.(1999).ISO9000standards:perceptionsandexperiences
intheUKconstructionindustry.ConstructionManagementandEconomics,17,pp.107119.
Nee,P.A.(1996).ISO9000inConstruction.Wiley,NewYork,NY.
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Yates,J.K.,&Aniftos,S.(1997).InternationalStandardsandConstruction.JournalofConstructionEngineeringand
Management.123(2),127.
Yates,J.K.,&Aniftos,S.C.(1996).InternationalStandards:TheUSConstructionIndustry'sCompetitiveness.Cost
Engineering:aPublicationoftheAmericanAssociationofCostEngineers.38(7),32.
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CA-2 Environmental Training
ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING
GOAL
Provideconstructionpersonnelwiththeknowledgetoidentifyenvironmentalissues
andbestpracticemethodstominimizeenvironmentalimpacts.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Provideanenvironmentaltrainingplanthatiscustomizedtotheproject,including:
1. Listofthetypesofprojectpersonneltobetrained.Thismaybealistbyjobtypeor
byemployerneednotcontainactualemployeenames.
2. Descriptionofthetypes,goalsandobjectivesoftrainingtobegiven.
3. Aprocesstotracktrainingefforts,includingdates,means(e.g.,online,classroom,
fieldtraining),topics,theidentificationofthoseparticipatingintraining,and
attendancenumbers
4. Aprocesstomeasureoftrainingeffectivenesssuchasselfassessment,pretestand
posttest,andproductivitymeasurement.
Details
Theenvironmentalawarenesstrainingplanshalladdressthefollowingtraining
elements,orstatewhyanyareinappropriate:
a. Permitconditions,performancestandards,environmentalcommitments,and
environmentalregulationsrelatedtotheproject
b. Overallimportanceofenvironmentalissues(i.e.,ecologicalimpactofactions)
c. Identifyingworkactivitiesthatpresentthegreatestriskforcompliance(i.e.,
specificenvironmentalsensitivitiesoftheproject)
d. Requiredenvironmentalqualificationsandcertifications
e. Environmentalrecordsmanagement
f. Environmentalcompliancemonitoringandreportingprocedures
g. Unanticipatedhistoricresourceorarchaeologicaldiscoveries
h. Environmentalnotificationtriggersandemergencyresponseprocedures
i. Oilspillpreventionandresponseprocedures
j. Constructionstormwatermanagement(includingmonitoringsitesand
monitoringandreportingprocedures)
k. Erosionandsedimentcontrolprocedures(includingdustmitigation)
l. Inwaterwork
m. Reductionofairpollution
n. Managementofknownorsuspectedcontamination
o. Wastemanagementandrecycling
p. Hazardousmaterialsmanagement
q. Managementofnoiseimpacts
r. Litteringandgoodhousekeeping
s. Planfortrainingsubcontractorsandfieldpersonnelnotimmediatelyinvolvedat
projectstartorplanning.Thesepersonnelmustalsoreceivetraining.
DOCUMENTATION
x Acopyoftheenvironmentaltrainingplanandanyupdatestothatplanthatoccur
throughouttheconstruction.
x Asignedletterfromanownersrepresentativestatingthatthecontractor(s)
followedtheenvironmentaltrainingplanassubmittedandupdated.
CA-2
1 POINT
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR11Educational
Outreach
9 EW1Environmental
ManagementSystem
9 CA1Quality
ManagementSystem
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
9 Expectations
9 Experience
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesWater
Pollution
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Provideenvironmentaltrainingaspartofstandardorientationtrainingtoaconstructionproject.Donein
combinationwithconstructionhealthandsafetytrainingcanensurethatallpersonnelarereachedbefore
enteringtheworksite,andcanreducetrainingcostbyavoidingmultipletrainingsessions.
x Deliveractivityspecifictoolboxortailgatetalktopicsonsite,targetingthepertinentconstructionpersonnel
priortoeachnewactivity.Toolboxenvironmentaltalksmightrelyoncommerciallyavailablepresentations,
supplementedbycustomizedprojectandworklocationspecifictopics.
x Deliverenvironmentaltrainingonregularorasneededbasesviateleconferences,periodicemail
environmentalalerts,environmentalawarenessmeetings,designreviewmeetings,weeklyprojectmeetings,
preconstructionmeetingsforeachworkphase/activity,andfielddiscussionsduringsitemonitoringand
inspection.
x Focusenvironmentaltrainingcomponentsontargetaudienceswithappropriatefrequenciesasfollows:
x EnvironmentalStewardshiptraining:Discussstewardshipprinciplesattheconstructionkickoffmeeting.
x Baselineenvironmentalawarenesstraining:Provideenvironmentalorientationforallfieldpersonnel,
personallydeliveredpriortoentryintoworkphasesviaaconsistentaudiovisualpresentation;address
permitconditions,performancestandards,environmentalcommitments,environmentalregulations,and
overallimportanceofenvironmentalissues.
x Environmentaldesigntraining:Deliverthistrainingtodesignersatdesignreview/validationmeetingsduring
theconstructionphase(i.e.,designbuildprojects).
x Projectmanagementteamtraining:Conducttrainingduringsteeringmeetings.Discussupcoming
constructionscheduleandcorrespondingenvironmentalcompliancechallenges.Addressenvironmental
commitmentsandapplicablecontentofenvironmentalguidancemanuals.Orientdiscussiontothespecific
andappropriateworkstages,timeofyear,orworkactivity.
x Constructiontraining:Meetonsitetogiveconstructionworkerstoolbox/tailgatetraininginspecific
activitiespriortoinitiatingconstruction.Highlightpreconstructionandawarenessofcomplianceneedsand
howtosupportthezeroviolationsgoal.Providepreactivityenvironmentalcompliancepocketchecklists
forimprovedenvironmentalperformance.
x Environmentalstafftraining:Providetheenvironmentalteamwithbiweeklyorasneededspecific
instructioninmonitoringtasks,performancedocumentationandcompliance,andenvironmental
compliancesupportprocedures.
x Skillandneedspecifictraining:Ensurecompetencyamongselectedenvironmentalstaffandcrewsin
waterqualitymonitoringprocedures,erosionandsedimentcontrolinspections,inwaterwork,etc.
Examples
WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)
WSDOTsEnvironmentalManagementSystemdeliversenvironmentaltrainingtoprovidetoolsandinformation
toassiststaffinensuringthatprojectsstayincompliancewithenvironmentallaws,regulations,andpolicies
(WSDOT,2008a).AkeycomponentoftheirConstructionEnvironmentalManagementProgramistrainingthe
appropriatepersonnelontheapplicableprocedurestoensurecompliancewithenvironmentalrequirements
duringconstruction.Trainingsessionstargetvariousaudiences,includingenvironmentalpractitioners,
constructionstaff,andmaintenanceandoperationsstaff.Forexample:
x Drainagedesignleadengineerswhoareresponsibleforstormwaterdesign(includingdownstreamanalysis,
bridgescouranalysis,andfloodplainfillandhydraulicimpactmitigationevaluations)mustcomplete
WSDOT'strainingcourseintheHighwayRunoffManual.
x WSDOTtrainscontractorstoensurewaterqualityismonitoredinaccordancewiththeHighwayRunoff
Manualprotocols,projectspecificpermitconditions,performancestandards,andenvironmental
commitments.
x Erosionandsedimentcontroldesignmustbepreparedbyanindividualwhohassuccessfullycompleted
WSDOTsConstructionSiteErosionandSedimentControlcourse.
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Sometypesofenvironmentaltrainingarerequiredbyregulation.Forexample,spillprevention,containment,
andresponsetrainingforallspillrespondersisrequiredinWashingtoninaccordancewithWashington
AdministrativeCode(WAC)296824.Hazardousmaterialssurveys,includingasbestoscontainingmaterials/lead
basedpaint(ACM/LBP)mustbecompletedbyanAsbestosHazardEmergencyResponseAct(AHERA)certified
inspector.
MeasuringPerformanceofEnvironmentalTraining
Researchsuggeststhatenvironmentaltrainingasacomponentofenvironmentalmanagementsystems(e.g.,
ISO14001standards)improves:(1)employeeawareness,(2)operationalefficiency,(3)managerialawareness,
and(4)operationaleffectiveness(Rondinelli&Vastag,2000;Sroufe,2003).
DOTspreparequarterlyandannualreportsonprogramwideenvironmentalperformance.Forexample,
WashingtonDOTsGrayNotebookindicatesenvironmentalperformancethroughEnvironmentalCompliance
Assurancemetrics(WSDOT,2008b).WashingtonDOTbelievesthatitsEnvironmentalComplianceAssurance
Proceduresandtheenvironmentalcomplianceforconstructioninspectorstrainingcoursehaveraisedthe
generalawarenessofnoncomplianceevents,witheventsbeingcitedandquicklyresolvedwithincreasing
numbers.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Constructionpersonnelmayturnoverduringtheproject.
2. Somesubcontractors,operatorsanddriversmaybeonsiteonlyonceorinfrequently.
RESEARCH
Thisresearchsectioncoverstheideaofenvironmentaltrainingintwodistinctsections.First,thevalueoftraining
ingeneralisaddressed(e.g.,whyshouldanyorganizationspendmoneyontraining?)andthenexamplesofand
reasonsforconstructionrelatedenvironmentaltrainingarediscussed.
TheValueofTraininginGeneral
Knowledgeisavitalorganizationalasset.Thisistheessentialunstatedassumptionassociatedwithalmostall
trainingdiscussions.WhileAmericancorporationsspendinexcessof$50billionannuallyontraining(Galvin,2002)
andnumerousauthorsespousethevirtueandnecessityoftraining,fewmakeanefforttoactuallyshowitsvalue.
Thissectionhighlightsthefundamentalpremiseforcontinuedandevenincreasedsupportfortraining:itisan
investmentinavaluablecommoditythatproduceshighreturns.
KnowledgeisValuable
Today,intheinformationage,organizationsareroutinelyvaluednotontheirphysicalbutrathertheir
intellectualcapital.EdvinssonandMalone(1997)defineintellectualcapitalasthepossessionofthe
knowledge,appliedexperience,organizationaltechnology,customerrelationshipsandprofessionalskillsthat
provide[anorganization]withacompetitiveedgeinthemarket.BassiandVanBuren(1999)pointoutthat
intellectualcapitalistheonlysourceofcompetitiveadvantagewithinagrowingnumberofindustries.For
instance,themarketvalueofMicrosoftfarexceedsthevalueofitsphysicalassets.Tobesure,muchofthis
valueisbasedonspeculation,butmuchisalsobasedonMicrosoftsintellectualcapitalwhatitknows.
Trainingisoneofthechiefmethodsofmaintainingandimprovingintellectualcapital.Becauseofthis,an
organizationstrainingcanaffectitsvalue.BassiandVanBuren(1999)foundtrainingasapercentageof
payrolltobesignificantlycorrelatedwiththemarkettobookvalueofpubliclytradedcompanies.Wherethe
averageU.S.employerspentabout0.9%ofpayrolloneducationandtraining(Bassietal.,1996),training
magazines2002top100trainingcompaniesaveraged4%withPfizerrankingfirstat14%.
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TrainingisanInvestment
Generalaccountingstandardsclassifytrainingasanexpense.However,trainingisreallyaninvestment:an
organizationtypicallyinvestsupfronttotrainitsemployees(intheformofenrollmentfees,travelexpenses
andopportunitycostoftheemployeestime)and,inreturn,expectsfuturereturns(intheformofincreased
knowledge,skillsandproductivity).Aswithanyotherinvestment,ifthereturnsoutweightheinvestment,
trainingisaworthwhileendeavor.
Trainingisalsoaninvestmentfromtheemployeesperspective.Trainingincreasesskillsandknowledge,which
canleadtobetterpayorpromotion.Sowhobenefitsmostfromthetraininginvestment:theemployeewith
increasedwagesand/orpromotionortheemployerwithincreasedproductivity?LoewensteinandSpletzer
(1998)researchedthisquestionandconcluded,...theeffectofanhouroftrainingonproductivitygrowthis
aboutfivetimesaslargeastheeffectonwagegrowth.Therefore,employersreapalmostallthereturnsto
companytraining(Bartel,2000).Thismaybeoversimplifyingbecauseemployeesgenerallyviewtrainingas
eitheragiftfromtheemployeroratleastasignofcommitmentonthepartoftheemployee,whichis
importanttojobsatisfaction(Barrett&OConnell,2001).
Insum,boththeemployeeandemployerbenefitfromthetraininginvestment.Thequestionnowshiftstoone
ofmeasurement:dothereturnsontrainingoutweightheinvestment?
TrainingReturnonInvestment(ROI)
Whencalculatedusingsoundmethodology,traininghasbeenshowntoprovidesignificantreturnon
investment:ontheorderof5to200percent.TheproblemisthatmethodsusedtoquantifytrainingROIcan
oftenbesuspectorevenoutrightselfpromotion.Furthermore,itisoftenverydifficulttoquantifytheeffects
oftraining.Forinstance,oneoftrainingseffectscanbeincreasedjobsatisfaction,whichisdifficultifnot
impossibletoquantify.Intuitivelyweknowthisisimportantinretaininggoodemployees;howeveritwillnot
showuponaROIcalculation.
In2000,Bartelprovidedoneofthebestobjectivelooksatthevalueoftrainingtotheemployer.Shelookedat
10largedatasetsurveysand16individualcasestudiesinanattempttodeterminetheemployersreturnon
investmentforemployeetraining.Shefoundthefollowing:
x MethodsusinglargedatasetstocomparemanydifferentorganizationsestimatedtrainingROIfrom7to50
percent.
x IndividualcasestudiesestimatedtrainingROIfrom100to5900percent.BartelbelievesthehighROIsin
thiscategoryarebasedonfaultymethodology.Herindepthanalysisoftwowellconstructedinternalcase
studiesrevealeda100to200percentROI.
Therefore,eventhemostconservativeestimateputstrainingsROIat7percentanacceptablerateofreturn
bymoststandards.Additionally,althoughitisnotappropriatetogeneralizebasedontheresultsoftwocase
studies,itcanbesaidthatbasedonBartelsindepthanalysisoftwowellconstructedinternalcasestudies,
trainingsROIcanbemuchhigher:approaching100to200percent.
Summary
Trainingisavaluablecommoditythat,ifviewedasaninvestmentratherthananexpense,canproducehigh
returns.Whileitistruethattrainingcostsmoneyandusesvaluableemployeetimeandresources,studies
tendtoshowtrainingprovidesapositivereturnoninvestmentsometimesintheneighborhoodofseveral
hundredpercent.Therefore,althoughtrainingmightseemlikealuxuryexpenseintightfinancialtimes,itis,in
fact,oneofthemostsureandsoundinvestmentsavailable.
EnvironmentalTraining
Environmentaltrainingis,forthemostpart,aresponsetopublicdemandforbetterenvironmentalperformancein
infrastructureconstruction.Thisisgenerallyseenintwoways:(1)publicowneragencieshavebeguntorequirenot
onlythatprojectsmeetenvironmentalregulationsbutalsothattheyincorporateemployeeenvironmentaltraining
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inordertoimproveunderstandingandcompliance,and(2)privatefirms(e.g.,constructionfirms)usingtraining
programsasawaytogaincompetitiveadvantagebasedonownerrequirementsandalsoasacomponentintheir
approachtoaddressingownerandshareholder(inthecaseofpubliccompanies)demandsforenvironmental
accounting.
OwnerAgencyTrainingandRequiredTrainingforContractWork
Manystatedepartmentsoftransportation(DOTs)provideenvironmentaltrainingtotheiremployeesandsome
arebeginningtorequiretrainingofcertainkeypersonnelfromcontractorsworkingonpublicprojects.Ina
2002surveyofstateDOTs(VennerConsulting&ParsonsBrinderhoff,2004),24wereperforminggeneral
natureresourcesand/orregulatorytrainingforengineersand/orconstructionpersonnel;whileabout60%
offeredgeneraltrainingintheNationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct(NEPA),publicinvolvement,environmental
processesandbestmanagementpractices(BMPs)formaintenanceandwaterquality.
Itisalsobecomingmorecommonforowneragenciestorequirecontractortraininginstormwaterpollution
preventionmethods,commonlyreferredtoastemporaryerosionandsedimentcontrol(TESC)onconstruction
sites.TypicallyasupervisorNPDEStohaveatrainederosionandsedimentcontrolpersononsitetomanagea
projectstemporaryerosionandsedimentcontrolefforts.Forexample,forconstructioninhighqualityor
impairedwaters,Tennesseerequiresthecontractorserosionpreventionandsedimentcontrolinspectorand
environmentalsupervisortohavecompletedaspecifiedformalcourse(orequivalent)(TDOT,2005).
ConstructionFirmTraining
Constructionfirmshavebeguntorecognizeaneedtoformallymanagetheirimpactontheenvironmentand
haveincludedtrainingprograms(bothcompanywideandprojectspecific)tohelp.Reasonsforhavingan
environmentaltrainingprograminclude:
a. Compliancehelp.ThenumberandcomplexityofexistingU.S.environmentalregulationsandtheir
associatedcostlyfinesifviolated(seeU.S.EPA,2005)necessitatesanorganizedapproachtounderstanding
andcomplyingwiththeseregulations.InaHongKongstudy(Tametal.,2006)managementandtraining
wasidentifiedasthemostimportantevaluationfactorforassessingenvironmentalissuesinconstruction
projects.
b. Showingcommitmenttothepublic.Publicallyheldcompanies,especiallythoselistedinEuropean
exchanges,areunderpressuretoshowtheirsustainabilityeffortstotheirstockholders.Theseofteninclude
environmentalmanagementsystems(EMS)seeEW1.AfundamentalcomponentofanEMSisan
employeetrainingplan(Christinietal.,2004).Thus,thosecompanieswithEMSsorthoseprogressing
towardsthemhaveaneedforenvironmentaltraining.
c. Competitiveadvantage.Somepubliccontracts,especiallydesignbuildones,haveascoringsystemthat
awardsenvironmentalconsiderationsbeyondregulatorycompliance.Also,someclientsmaysoonrequire
contractorstohaveanEMS(includingthetrainingcomponent)inplace(Christinietal.,2004).
REFERENCES
Barrett,A.&OConnell,P.J.(April2001).DoesTrainingGenerallyWork?TheReturnstoInCompanyTraining.
IndustrialandLaborRelationsReview,54(3).pp.647662.
Bartel,A.P.(July2000).MeasuringtheEmployersReturnonInvestmentsinTraining:Evidencefromthe
Literature.IndustrialRelations,39(3).pp.502524.
Bassi,L.J.&VanBuren,M.E.(1999).Valuinginvestmentsinintellectualcapital.InternationalJournalof
TechnologyManagement,18(5/6/7/8).pp.414432.
Bassi,L.J.;Gallagher,A.L.&Schroer,E.(1996).TheASTDTrainingDataBook.AmericanSocietyforTrainingand
Development.Alexandria,VA.
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Environmental Training CA-2
Christini,G.;Fetsko,M.&Hendrickson,C.(2004).EnvironmentalManagementSystemsandISO14001Certification
forConstructionFirms.J.ofConstructionEngineeringandManagement,130(3),pp.330336.
Edvinsson,L.&Malone,M.S.(1997).IntellectualCapital:RealizingYourCompanysTrueValuebyFindingits
HiddenBrainpower.HarperBusiness.NewYork,NY.
Galvin,T.(October2002).2001IndustryReport.Training,38(10).pp.4075.
Loewenstein,M.A.&Spletzer,J.R.(November1994).InformalTraining:AReviewofExistingDataandSomeNew
Evidence.NationalLongitudinalSurveysDiscussionPaper.U.S.DepartmentofLabor,BureauofLabor
Statistics.Washington,D.C.http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/nl940050.pdf.
Tam,V.W.Y.;Tam,C.M.;Yiu,K.T.W.&Cheung,S.O.(2006).Criticalfactorsforenvironmentalperformance
assessment(EPA)intheHongKongconstructionindustry.ConstructionManagementandEconomics,24(11),
pp.11131123.
TennesseeDepartmentofTransportation(TDOT).(2005).RulesofTennesseeDepartmentofTransportation
ConstructionDivision,Chapeter168052ContractorQualificationsforConstructioninHighQualityorImpaired
Waters.http://www.state.tn.us/sos/rules/1680/168005/16800502.pdf.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2005).ManagingYourEnvironmentalResponsibilities:APlanning
GuideforConstructionandDevelopment.OfficeofCompliance,OfficeofEnforcementandCompliance
Assurance,U.S.EPA,Washington,D.C.
VennerConsulting&ParsonsBrinderhoff.(2004).EnvironmentalStewardshipPractices,Procedures,andPolicies
forHighwayConstructionandMaintenance.NCHRPProject2525(04),TransportationResearchBoard,
Washington,D.C.
WSDOT.2008a.EnvironmentalManagementPrograms.WashingtonDepartmentofTransportation,Olympia,WA.
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/EMS/ems_training.htm#enviromental.Accessed7December2008.
WSDOT.2008b.Measures,MarkersandMileposts.TheGrayNotebook28.WashingtonDepartmentof
Transportation,Olympia,WA.

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SITE RECYCLING PLAN
GOAL
Minimizetheamountofconstructionrelatedwastedestinedforlandfillandpromote
environmentalstewardshipthroughgoodhousekeepingpracticesattheworksite.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Establish,implement,andmaintainaformalSiteRecyclingPlanaspartofthe
ConstructionandDemolitionWasteManagementPlan(CWMP)duringconstruction.
TheSiteRecyclingPlanmustclearlydescribetheplanforimplementing,
communicating,monitoringandmaintainingappropriaterecyclinganddiversion
practicesonsite.Thefollowingtopicsmustbespecificallyaddressed.
1. Expectedtypes,quantities,processingordisposalfacilities,locationsofreceptacles
andproperhandlingforrecyclable(orreusable)roadwaymaterialsgeneratedfrom
roadwayconstructionprocessessuchas(butnotlimitedto):
x Pavingprocesswaste(e.g.hotmixasphalt,concrete)
x Millingwaste,concretesloughandgrindings,cobble
x Excesssteelrebarandothermetalproductsorscraps
x Excessplasticpipesandpackaging
x Excavatedsoilcuttingsandboulders
x Landclearingdebrisandtopsoil
x Woodandpaperproducts(e.g.packagingmaterials,cardboardandpallets)
2. Expectedtypes,quantities,processingordisposalfacilities,locationsofreceptacles
andproperhandlingforrecyclable(orreusable)materialsgeneratedfrommobile
office(e.g.jobtrailer,siteoffice)activitiesandpersonalworker(household)waste
suchas(butnotlimitedto):
x Paper,copierpaper,paperproducts
x Plastic
x Aluminumandvarioushouseholdmetals
x Glass
x Householdtrashorcompostables
3. Communicationexpectationsforjobsitehousekeepingpracticesforthegeneral
contractor(alsointendedforanysubcontractors)regarding:
x Littercontrol
x Expectedtypesofsiteandworkergeneratedrecyclables.
x Collectionpracticesforsiteandworkergeneratedrecyclables.
x Locationsofrecyclingreceptacles.
x Trainingrequirementsforallsiteemployeesandmeansofcorrectiveaction.
DOCUMENTATION
x CopyoftheSiteRecyclingPlan.
CA-3
1 POINT
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR6Waste
ManagementPlan
9 PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
9 EW1Environmental
ManagementSystem
9 MR4Recycled
Materials
9 CA2Environmental
Training
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesSolidWaste
9 ReducesManmade
Footprint
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x IncludetheSiteRecyclingPlaninagencycontractdocuments,bidpackages,and/orspecifications.
x SetwastereductiongoalsandexplicitlystatethemintheSiteRecyclingPlan.
x Locatereceptaclesineasilyaccessibleorhighlyfrequentedlocationsonthejobsite.Receptaclesshouldnotbe
placedinareaswheretheymaycauseharmtoworkersorthelocalenvironment.SeePR7PollutionPrevention
Planformoreinformation.
x Clearlylabelreceptaclesandrecyclinglocations.Largecolorphotosofwhatisrecyclableandwhatisnotare
oftenveryhelpful,especially,formultilingualworkenvironments.
x Providewastereceptaclesthataresmallerthantherecyclingreceptacles,slightlymoredifficulttoopen,or
slightlymoredifficulttoaccess.Thisprovidesavisualorbehavioralcueindicatingthatthetrashissupposedto
belimitedandthereareamplerecyclingalternatives.
x Includeinstructionsorwarningsonthewastebinsuchas:AreYouSureThisIsNotRecyclable?
x Manyrecyclingfacilitiescanacceptcomingledrecyclables,whichmeansthatlesssortingandfewer
receptaclesarerequired.However,quantitiesofthesecomingledmaterialsareoftenhardertotrackand
requiredetailedreceiptsfromthewastetransportagencytoassessthecompositionofcomingledstreams.
x Designateaparticularpersonorafewpeopletobethesitemonitorforhelpingworkersrecycleproperly.
x Reviewlocalenvironmentalmaintenanceplansusedforlittercontrolandroadwaycleanupactivities.These
plansmaybehelpfulreferenceswhendevelopingtheSiteRecyclingPlan,oratminimum,reducepotentialfor
conflictbetweenexistingpolicyandpractice.SeealsoPR10SiteMaintenancePlan.
x HireacontractorwithanEnvironmentalManagementSystem(EMS)inplace.(SeeCreditEW1Environmental
ManagementSystem).Theseemployersalreadyhaveinternalofficeproceduresestablishedtoreduceoffice
relatedpollutionandmaybefamiliarwithlocalagencyrecoveryeffortsandrecyclingorsalvagefacilities.
x Developanddelivertrainingtoworkerstoeducatethemonwasterecoveryeffortsbeingimplementedonsite
andcompliancewiththegeneralCWMPandtheSiteRecyclingPlan.Thisstepwillbecriticaltoallprojects.See
CreditCA2EnvironmentalTrainingformoreapproachesandstrategiesforeducationprograms.
x Createanincentiveorrecognitionplanforworkerstoengageactivelyinrecyclingeffortsofpersonaltrashthat
rewardspositiveandsuccessfulbehavior.
x Hireanexperiencedwastetransportcompanytomanagesitewasteandmonitorwastestreamsfor
unacceptablematerials.
x Identifylocalfacilitiesthatacceptrecyclablesorsalvagedmaterials.Thisisimportantindesignatingtypeof
wastetoseparate,andinmakingarrangementsfordropoffordeliveryofmaterials.
x Identifyexistingrecyclingcollectionfacilitiesthatmaybedecentralized(i.e.recyclebinsalongacitystreet).
Manyurbanizedareaswillhaveaccessorprovisionsforlocalrecyclingprogramsandmayhaveresources
availableforuse.
x The2007ContractorsGuidebytheKingCountySolidWasteDivisionandSeattlePublicUtilitiesprovidesmany
helpfulwastemanagementandreductionstrategiesfortheentireproject.Asamplewastemanagementplan
adaptedfromthisguideisprovidedintheexamplesbelow.
Example: Sample Specification Language for Site Recycling Plan
x TheKingCountySolidWasteDivision(KingCounty,2009)providessomehelpfultoolsforwritingclearand
manageablerecyclinganddiversionexpectationsintocontractdocumentsathttp://www.greentools.us.A
sampleofSection01505(or1524)ConstructionWasteManagementisprovidedatthelinkbelowin
ConstructionSpecificationsInstitute(CSI)MasterFormat(KingCounty,2008):
http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/documents/Sect01505_const_wastemgmt.pdf
x Communicatingtheplanexpectationswithsubcontractorsisequallyimportant.Followingisasample
clauseforsubcontractoragreements:
"Thesubcontractorwillmakeagoodfaithefforttoreducetheamountofwastegeneratedonthejobsiteand
recyclematerialasperthecontractor'swastemanagementplan.Thesubcontractorwillfollowthedesignated
handlingproceduresforeachtypeofwastegeneratedonsiteandprovidedocumentationtoverifymaterial
reuse,recyclinganddisposalasindicatedinthewastemanagementplan."(KingCounty,2008)
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Example: Sample Construction Waste Management Plan with Materials Recovery
Thefollowingexamplecontenthasbeenadaptedfromthe2007Seattle/KingCountyContractorsGuide,which
isavailablehere:http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/documents/ConGuide.pdf.Projects
teamsshouldconsidercustomizingtheSiteRecyclingPlaninformationbasedonprojectgoalsandagencyor
clientexpectations.

SITE RECYCLING PLAN
GeneralContractor:
ProjectName:
SiteRecyclingCoordinator:
Phone:
DebrisCollectionAgency:

SiteRecycling/DiversionGoals:

Stepstoinformcontractors/subcontractorsofSiteRecyclingPlanpolicies.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C&DMaterialsExpectedtobeGeneratedandProposedDiversionMethod
Thefollowingchartsidentifymaterialsexpectedtobegeneratedbythisprojectandtheplannedmethodfor
divertingthesematerialsfromdisposalasawaste.
DECONSTRUCTION&DEMOLITIONPHASE
Material Quantity(units) DiversionMethod&Location HandlingProcedure






CONSTRUCTIONPHASE
Material Quantity(units) DiversionMethod&Location HandlingProcedure











FigureCA3.1:Samplesiterecyclingplanformat.
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POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Acentrallocationforcollectingrecyclablesonaroadwayprojectmaynotbefeasibleforjobsitesthat
consistentlychangestartinglocationsonadailybasis(i.e.severalmilesdowntheroadwayawayfromthe
collectionarea).Thismayresultinunnecessaryvehicleorworkertripstoandfromaparticularlocationjustto
depositsomethinginacorrectrecyclingreceptacle.Theauthorsareunawareofanypracticesthathavebeen
usedonroadwayconstructionprojectsthatcouldsolveoravoidthisproblem.
2. Thereisatradeoffbetweentransportcosts(includingenvironmentalcostsfromemissions)andtheoverall
utilityorvalueoftherecycledorsalvagedmaterials.Somelocations,especiallymanyruralareas,mayhave
difficultyfindingrecoveryfacilitiesthatarelocatednearenoughtotheprojecttobefinanciallyor
environmentallycosteffective.
3. Technologyisquicklydevelopingforrecyclingofmaterialsintoreconstitutedbuildingmaterials(SeecreditMR
4).However,newtechnologiesmaynotbeavailablelocallyorinruralareas.
4. Carelessbehaviororlackofstewardshipmaybeanissuethatcanresultinrecyclablesbeingdisposedofin
wasteonlyreceptacles,orviceversa,especiallyifobjectivesofaSiteRecyclingPlanarenotmeaningfulor
communicatedwelltoworkers.Thisbehaviorcancontaminatetherecyclablesstreamandmakeanentire
receptacleunsuitableforreprocessingorsalvage,oraccidentallysendrecyclablestoalandfill.
5. Properhandlingofrecyclablematerialsisakeysafetyissuefornewandunfamiliarrecyclingactivities.
Communicationandtrainingiscriticaltominimizeriskandpreservesafety.
6. Safetyandsecurityconsiderationsshouldbetakenintoaccountrelativetoonsitestorageofrecoverable
materialsofhighvalue.Opportunitiesfortheftmaybeincreased,especiallyforsometypesofmetalsthatare
commonlyusedininfrastructureorelectricalutilitieslikecopperwire.
7. Storageareasmustcomplywithrelevantregulationsandthepollutionpreventionplan(seeProject
RequirementPR7).
8. Atthistime,pointsarenotavailableforachievingwastereductionbasedonpercentageoftotalwaste.Thisis
duetolackofdataregardingwastemanagementforroadwayconstructionactivities.
RESEARCH
Thissectiondescribesknownchallengesaboutimplementingarecyclingandrecoveryplanatroadway
constructionsitesandexploresthepotentialenvironmentalbenefitsofsuchplans.Fordetailedbackground
informationonwhatisknownaboutconstructionanddemolition(C&D)wastemanagementforroadways,the
readerisreferredtoProjectRequirementPR6WasteManagementPlan.Similarly,fordetailedinformationon
planningforbulkroadwaymaterialsrecycling,recoveryorreuse(thefirstrequirementfortheSiteRecoveryPlan),
thereaderisdirectedtowardtheMaterials&ResourcesCreditsMR2PavementReuse,MR3EarthworkBalance,
andMR4RecycledMaterials.Thesecreditscontainmanyapproachesandstrategiesthatmaybesynergisticwhen
pursuingthiscredit.
Thissectionaddressestwokeypointswhicharenotaddressedintherequirementsorcreditsnotedabove:whatis
knownaboutthestateofrecyclinghousekeepingpracticesandmunicipalsolidwaste(MSW,alsoknownas
householdorpersonalwaste)generationonconstructionsitesandthebenefitsandcostsofapplicable
constructionmaterialsrecoveryactivities.Helpfulresourcesarealsolistedattheendformoreinformation.
StateoftheRoadIndustryRecyclingPractice
Whileseveralagenciesandauthorspromoterecyclingmaterialwasteproductsusedinroadwayconstruction,
informationontherecyclablematerialwastesgeneratedbyroadwayconstructionanddemolitionprojectsishard
tolocate.Thefollowinglistidentifiesareasofconstructionactivitiesforwhichthereiscurrentlylittleorno
relevantdata:
x Wastemanagementplansfortransportationcontractors
x Sorting,segregationandprocessingactivitiesforroadwayconstructionwaste,andwheretheseactivitiesoccur
(i.e.onsite,offsite)
x Behaviorsandstewardshippracticesofroadconstructionemployees
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x Generationratesandquantitiesofpersonaltrash
x Generationratesandquantitiesofofficerelatedtrashforconstructionsiteoffices
x CostsassociatedwithC&DandMSWmanagementfromconstructionworksites
Existingregulatoryrequirementsfocusmainlyonstormwater,sedimentanddustcontrolandotherstandard
pollutionpreventionactivities,suchastheNationalPollutionDischargeandEliminationSystem(seealsoProject
requirementPR7PollutionPreventionPlan).SomeagenciesmayalsohaveEnvironmentalManagementSystems
(EMS)inplace(seeCreditEW1EnvironmentalManagementSystem)whichofteninstitutepersonalandoffice
wastemanagementpolicies,butnoinformationisavailablerelativetowhethertheseEMSplansareimplemented
andfollowedattheconstructionsite.
Thelackofinformationislikelypartlybecauserecyclingactivitiesrepresentamaterialsfeedbackloopatmany
levelsoftheroadwaysystem,fromdesignandconstructiontostartandendofthesupplychain.Waste
managementandrecoveryofresourcesfitneartheendofthepollutionpreventionscheme,buttheseactivities
themselvescaninjectmaterialsintovariouslifecyclephasesoftheoverallproject(EPA,2009b).Thismakes
environmentalcostsandbenefitsofrecyclingdifficulttoquantify,characterizeandcomparebetweendifferent
projects.Someenvironmentalcostsofmaterialsandproductsduetoextractionandinitialproductionare
effectivelyextendedintoasecondservicelifethroughdowncyclingrecoveryactivities(wheresomeoriginalvalue
islost),generalrecyclingorupcycling(valueisgained)practices.(McDonough&Braungart,2002)Italsomeans
longrangeandupstreamplanningandreductionstrategiescanoftenprovidemoreevidentreductionbenefits
laterinthelifecycle(EPA,2009b).
RajendranandGambetese(2007)estimatedwasteratesforC&Dmaterialtypesbasedonliteraturereviewand
quantitativemodeling.Theirestimates,however,donotincludeMSWmaterialsgeneratedfrompersonaloroffice
activitiesorbehaviorsofsitestaff(theirestimatedratesareitemizedinTablePR6.1).Solidwasterecoveryfor
constructionanddemolitiondebrisisaddressedinPR6andMR4.
CostEffectivenessofConstructionRecyclingPrograms
Afewauthors(Seydeletal.,2002;Kourmpanisetal.,2008;Schultmann&Sunke,2007)haveattemptedto
quantifycostsandperceivedbenefitsassociatedwithconstructionwastemanagementpractices.Thosethathave
donesosuccessfullyhaveonlyfollowedconstructionofbuildingsandbuildingsiteinfrastructurecomponents.
Becausebuildingsitesarerelativelycompactcomparedtothelinearnatureofroads,andbecauseofthevast
differenceintheexpectedtypesofmaterialquantities(e.g.hotmixasphaltandconcretematerials),therelevance
ofthesestudiesmaybeminor.However,therecyclingactivitiesandmethodsusedforbuildingsprojectsvary
widely.Manydifferentwastemanagementorwasterecoveryprocessesmayalsobeapplicabletoroadwayand
bridgedemolitionandconstruction.Additionally,noquantitativecostmodelswerebasedonU.S.data.
SchultmannandSunke(2007)usealifecycleenergyanalysismodeltoshowthatrecoveryofwasteconstruction
materialsreduceslifecyclecosts,mostlyduetoreducedenergyuseduringextractionofmaterials.Thesesavings
appeartotranslatewelltoroadwaymaterialsbasedontheenergyanalysisforroadwayconstructioncompletedby
RajendranandGambetese(2007),whichdoesuserelevantU.Sdata.SchultmannandSunke(2007),aswellasthe
ConstructionIndustryResearchandInformationAssociation(CIRIA,2004),alsonotethatclosedloopdesignand
planningfordeconstructionactivities,alsoknownascompleteselectivedemolition(Kourmpanisetal.,2008),
insteadofdestructionactivitiespresentsavaluableroutetopotentialcostsavingsformanymaterialproducts.
Kourmpanisetal.(2008)alsosuggestthatacombinationofconventionaldemolitionanddeconstructionactivities
(partialselectivedemolition)andcompleteselectivedemolitionofbuildingscanlowermaterialhandlingand
transportcostsandincreasedrecoveredvalueofmaterials.However,transportcostsandmachinerycostsforon
siteactivitiesmustbeweighedbecausetheyarehighlyvariablebetweenprojects,especiallybylocation.
Seydel,WilsonandSkitmores(2002)study(whichtrackedonlythreematerialsinonebuildingprojectinAustralia)
demonstratedthatrecyclingandsortingpracticesrequireheightenedenvironmentalawareness,moresupervision
ofhandlingoperationsandmoreoverallsortingthatisperceivedtobeinadditiontonormalenvironmental
controls.Theirhighesteffortrecoveryscenario,includingsortinganddisposal,reducedtransportanddisposal
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costsofthewasteby18%fromtraditionalpracticesand9.5%fromminimallycontrolledwaste.However,the
bottomlinecostwasincreasedduetothemorecomplicatedwasteplanandmoretimespentmanagingand
monitoringcontractoremployeewasteactivities.Theauthorsstatethattheoverallpotentialforthewaste
recoveryplantobesuccessfullycosteffectiveandenvironmentallybeneficialwasnotrealizedduetocontractor
inexperiencewithsuchplanning.Additionally,theysuggestthataddedplanningandenvironmentalstewardship
couldincreasecostcompetitivenessamongconstructioncontractors.
Poonetal.(2001)statethatsourceseparation,whichtakesplaceattheconstructionsite,isheavilydependenton
anenvironmentallyeducatedworkforce,includingsubcontractors,thathasbeentrainedinpropermaterials
handlingandsortingprocedures.Formostofthem,itisusuallyalonglearningprocesstobefamiliarandfeel
comfortablewithperformingwasteseparation.(p.169).Propertraininghascostimplicationswhicharediscussed
furtherinCreditCA2EnvironmentalTraining.Crudeseparation,however,lowerstheoverallvalueofthe
recoverablematerial,becauseitoftenreducesthesortingefficiencydownstreamandrequiresspecialized
employeestocompletetheseparationatanoffsitelocation(Poonetal.,2001).Offsitewastesortingistypically
thepreferredoptionofmostbuildingcontractorsbecauseitdoesnotrequireadditionallaborforce,supervised
workonsite,noadditionalfacilities,oraddedtrainingcosts(Poonetal.,2001).Putsimply:outofsite,outof
mind.Becausethismanagementoptionavoidsonsitestewardshippracticesentirely,thismethodisnot
recommended(Poonetal.,2001).
NotableRecyclingStatisticsforMSW
NoneofthestudiesnotedaboveconsiderMSWstreamsoriginatingfromanytypeofconstructionproject.What
followsinthissectionaregeneralstatisticsthatmaybeusefulinidentifyingandcharacterizingtheMSWportionof
thewastestreamgeneratedonroadwayandbridgeconstructionsites.
Generally,intheU.S.municipalsolidwastegenerationhasincreasedoverthelastfivedecades,butrecyclingand
compostingrateshavealsoincreased(EPA,2009b;EPA,2009c).ThewastestreamforMSWlandfillshasbeenwell
studiedandcharacterizedbytheEPA.DatabelowisfromtheEPAsMunicipalSolidWasteGeneration,Recycling,
andDisposalintheUnitedStates:FactsandFiguresfor2008andincludesstatisticsforwastetypesthatmaybe
potentialencounteredatconstructionsites.
x Outof250milliontonsofMSWdisposed,about83milliontonswererecycledorcompostedin2008.Ofthe
totalwastegenerated,theEPAestimatesthatapproximately35%to45%wasfromcommercialand
institutionallocationsbutthemajoritywasresidentialorigin.
x TheU.S.wastestreamwas31%paperandpaperproducts(beforerecycling).SeeFigureCA3.2.
x Approximately54%ofallMSWisdiscarded,while33%isrecoveredforrecycling,andtheremainderis
burnedatlandfillsforenergyproduction.FigureCA3.3showsthetrendsanddistributionsofMSWsince
1960to2008.
x Byweight,paperandpaperproductsarethelargestsourceofwaste,withthehighestoverallrecovered
weight(55.5%recovered),thoughothermaterialshavehigherratesofrecoveryandlessrecoveredmass.
Specifically,71%percentofofficerelatedpapermaterialswererecovered.
x FigureCA3.4showsatableofEPA2008statisticsthatincludesallmaterialscharacterizedinthewaste
streamsmonitored.Manycouldbecommonlyfoundinsiteofficesandpersonalbelongings,includingfood
products.Infact,vegetativewastesanddebris,containers,andpackagingaccountfor44%ofthetotal
MSWstreamsenttolandfilland15%ofwoodpackagingwasrecovered(whichwasmostlypallets).
x AsnotedinPR6WasteManagementPlan,somemunicipalsolidwastelandfillsalsoacceptconstruction
anddemolitiondebris(EPA,2008a;EPA,2008d).Materialssuchashotmixasphaltandconcretemakeupa
smallpercentageofthetotalMSWwastestreamandarecategorizedinFiguresCA3.2andCA3.4as
Other.
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FigureCA3.2:Compositionof2008U.S.MSWwastestream,
250milliontonstotal(beforerecycling)(EPA,2009c).
FigureCA3.3:DisposaltrendsforMSWintheUnitedStates,19602008(EPA,2009b).
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FigureCA3.4:GenerationandRecoveryofMaterialsinMSW,2008(inmillionsoftons
andpercentofgenerationofeachmaterial)(EPA,2009c).

BenefitsofRecyclingMSW
TheEPA(2009c)states,Recyclinghasenvironmentalbenefitsateverystageinthelifecycleofaconsumer
productfromtherawmaterialwithwhichitsmadetoitsfinalmethodofdisposal.Asidefromreducing
[greenhousegas]emissions,whichcontributetoglobalwarming,recyclingalsoreducesairandwaterpollution
associatedwithmakingnewproductsfromrawmaterials.In2008,the83milliontonsofMSWthatwere
recoveredrepresent182millionmetrictonsofcarbondioxideequivalentemissionssavedannually.Thisissimilar
toremovingtheairemissionsimpactgeneratedby33millionpassengercarsinoneyear(EPA,2009c).
ForMSWproducts,paperandwoodproducts(organicmaterials)arethemostcommonmaterialsinthewaste
streamthatendupinlandfills.Diversionofthesematerialsfromlandfills,aswellasotherorganicssuchastopsoils
andlandclearingdebris,offersreducedmethaneemissionsduetofewerlandfillemissionsfromdecompositionof
theseorganicmaterials.Methaneisagreenhousegasthatcontributes21timesasmuchtoglobalwarmingand
climatechangeascarbondioxideemissions.(IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange,2007)Also,paperwaste
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iseasilyandcommonlyrecycled,reducingtheoverallneedforforestedmaterials.Therefore,theEPA(2008)states
thatbynotdecreasingtrees,morecarbondioxideisabletobestoredinforestresources,(EPA,2008)andpriceless
habitatispreserved.
TheEPApromotessolidwastemanagementthroughprevention(sourcereduction),recyclingandcomposting
(2008c)asthreeclearwaystoreduceclimatechangeimpactsduetogreenhousegasemissionsandenergy
consumption.Lessenergyisneededtoextract,transport,andprocessrawmaterialsandtomanufacture
productswhenpeoplereusethingsorwhenproductsaremadewithlessmaterial.(EPA,2009a).Asshownin
SchultmannandSunke(2001),materialsthatcanreducefossilenergyneedmeansfewerassociatedemissions
fromtheenergysectorwiththerecycledmaterialthanforanewmaterialthathasbeenextractedand
manufacturedfromvirginmaterials(EPA,2008b).Wastepreventionpractices(alsoknownaspollutionprevention
orP2:EPA,2008e),whicharesupportedbytheEPAasthemosteffectivewaytoreduceenvironmentalimpacts,
canreducelifecycleemissionsandenergyusethanconstructionanddemolitionandMSWrecycling(2008b).
FutureofthisCredit
Otherfamiliarsustainabilityratingsystems,suchasLEED(USGBC,2009)forbuildingsandtheSustainableSites
Initiative(2009),awardcreditforreductionofsolidwasteanddiversionpracticesforconstructionanddemolition
materials.Currently,nominimumrecyclingstandardordataonaveragewastegeneratedperprojectisavailable
forcommontypesofroadwayconstructionprojects.Atthistime,Greenroadscannotjustifyawardingpointsto
oneprojectoveranotherbasedonwastemanagementpracticesorgoalsettingwithoutaknownbenchmarkfor
thisbestpractice.
AdditionalResources
x CIRIA,theConstructionIndustryResearchandInformationAssociation,providessomehelpfulhintsfordesign
andconstructionbestpracticeformanagingwasteandresources(2004):
http://www.ciria.org.uk/cwr/good_practice_pointers.htm
x TheCaliforniaIntegratedWasteManagementBoard(CIWMB)offersanumberofresourcesandtools,including
videosofrecyclingbestpractices,(2009)availableat:http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Recycle/
x TheEPAsP2(PollutionPrevention)ResourceExchangeprovidescontactinformationforregionalagenciesthat
canhelpconnectprojectleaderstotherightresourcesandopportunitiesforcreatingnewwastemanagement
programs:http://www.epa.gov/p2/pubs/p2rx.html
x WasteCapResourceSolutionsofferstipsandtricksusedbythebuildingindustry.Ofparticularinterestand
applicabilitytoroadwayprojectsareprewrittenspecifications(free)andadditionallinksandresources.
Trainingvideosandreceptaclemagneticsignsarealsoavailableforasmallfee.WasteCapalsooffersanonline
documentationprogramforwastemanagementplanningcalledWasteCapDirect(pricenotspecified).More
informationisavailablehere:http://www.wastecapwi.org/resources/constructiondemolition
GLOSSARY
C&D Constructionanddemolition
CIRIA ConstructionIndustryResearchandInformationAssociation
CIWMB CaliforniaIntegratedWasteManagementBoard
Closedloopdesign Anapproachthatconsiderswastemanagementinprojectplanninginorder
toavoidoreliminateprocessesthatgeneratewaste
Completeselectivedemolition Seedeconstruction
CSI ConstructionSpecificationsInstitute
CWMP ConstructionWasteManagementPlan
Deconstruction Thewholeorpartialdisassemblyofaproducttofacilitate
componentreuseandmaterialsrecycling
Demolition Conventionalmeansofdisassembly,ortakingapart,aproductorfacilitythat
istypicallydestructiveandgenerallyunplanned
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Diversion Avoidingplacementinalandfillthroughrecoveryprocessessuchasrecycling
orreuse
Downcycling Recoveringaportionofausedproduct ormaterialinamannerthatreduces
theoriginalvalueoftheproductormaterialafterbeingreintroducedintothe
manufacturingorconstructionprocess(McDonough&Braungart,2002)
Partialselectivedemolition Engineeredareaswherewasteisplacedintotheland(EPA,2008)
Receptacle Abinorcontainer
Recycling(recyclable) Recoveringaportionofausedproductormaterialfromthewastestream
andprocessingsuchthatthosesamematerialscanbereintroducedintothe
manufacturingorconstructionprocess(CIWMB,2009)
Reuse(reusable) Recoveringaportionofausedproductormaterialfromthewastestream
thatrequiresminimal,ifany,processingtobereintroducedintothe
manufacturingorconstructionprocess
ROW Rightofway
Upcycling Recoveringaportionofausedproductormaterialinamannerthatincreases
theoriginalvalueoftheproductormaterialafterbeingreintroducedintothe
manufacturingorconstructionprocess
Waste Anymaterialthatmustbehauledoffsitefordisposalorreprocessing,or,if
disposedwithintheprojectROW,isnotintendedforengineereduseonsite

REFERENCES
CaliforniaIntegratedWasteManagementBoard(CIWMB).(2009).Recycle:CIWMB.AccessedDecember21,2009.
Availableathttp://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Recycle/
ConstructionIndustryResearchandInformationAssociation.(2004).CIRIA:ConstructionWasteandResources.
DesignandConstructionGoodPracticePointers.AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableat
http://www.ciria.org.uk/cwr/good_practice_pointers.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2008)Landfills|MunicipalSolidWaste|Wastes|USEPA.Accessed
December16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/landfill.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008b).ClimateChangeandMunicipalSolidWasteFactSheet|PayAsYou
Throw|USEPA.AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/tools/payt/tools/factfin.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008c).MunicipalSolidWaste|Wastes|USEPA.AccessedDecember21,
2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/municipal/index.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2008)Landfills|C&DMaterials|Wastes|USEPA.AccessedDecember
16,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/industrial/cd/cdlandfill.htm
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008e).P2ResourceExchange|PollutionPrevention|USEPA.Accessed
December21,2009.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/p2/pubs/p2rx.html.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009a).WasteHome|GeneralInformationontheLinkBetweenSolidWaste
andClimateChange|ClimateChangeWhatYouCanDo|USEPA.AccessedDecember21,2009.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/climate/climatechange/wycd/waste/generalinfo.html
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.OfficeofResourceConservationandRecovery.(2009b).MunicipalSolidWaste
Generation,Recycling,andDisposalintheUnitedStates:DetailedTablesandFiguresfor2008.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008data.pdf
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EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2009c).MunicipalSolidWasteGeneration,Recycling,andDisposalintheUnited
States:FactsandFiguresfor2008.(EPA530F009021)Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/pubs/msw2008rpt.pdf
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC).(2007).Pachauri,R.K&Reisinger,A.eds.ClimateChange
2007:SynthesisReport.ContributionofWorkingGroupsI,IIandIIItotheFourthAssessment.Reportofthe
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.IPCC:Switzerland,2007.104pp.
KingCountySolidWasteDivisionandSeattlePublicUtilties.(2007).2007ContractorsGuideKingCountySolid
WasteDivision.Availableathttp://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/documents/ConGuide.pdf
KingCountySolidWasteDivision.(2008).Designspecificationsandwastemanagementplansforgreenbuilding
projectsinKingCounty,WA.AccessedDecember20,2009.Availableat
http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/greenbuilding/constructionrecycling/specificationsplans.asp
KingCountySolidWasteDivision.(2009)GreenBuildingKingCountySolidWasteDivision.AccessedDecember
20,2009.Availableat:http://www.greentools.us
Kourmpanis,B.,Papadopoulos,A.,Moustakas,K.,Stylianou,M.,Haralambous,K.,&Loizidou,M.(2008).
Preliminarystudyforthemanagementofconstructionanddemolitionwaste.WasteManagement&Research.
26(3),267275.
McDonough,W.,&Braungart,M.(2002).Cradletocradle:Remakingthewaywemakethings.NewYork:North
PointPress.
Poon,C.S.,Yu,A.T.W.,&Ng,L.H.(2001).OnsitesortingofconstructionanddemolitionwasteinHongKong.
Resources,Conservation,andRecycling.32(2),157.
Rajendran,S.,&Gambatese,J.A.(2007).SolidWasteGenerationinAsphaltandReinforcedConcreteRoadwayLife
Cycles.JournalofInfrastructureSystems.13(2),88.
Seydel,A.,Wilson,O.D.,&Skitmore,R.M.(2002).FinancialEvaluationofWasteManagementMethods.Journalof
ConstructionResearch.3(1),167179.
Schultmann,F.,&Sunke,N.(2007).Energyorienteddeconstructionandrecoveryplanning.BuildingResearch&;
Information.35(6),602615.
SustainableSitesInitiative.(2009)TheSustainableSitesInitiative:GuidelinesandPerformanceBenchmarks2009.
Availableathttp://www.sustainablesites.org/report/
UnitedStatesGreenBuildingCouncil(USGBC).(2009).LEED2009forNewConstructionandMajorRenovations
RatingSystem.Availableathttp://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=220
WasteCapResourceSolutions.WasteCapResourceSolutionsConstruction&Demolition.AccessedDecember21,
2009.Availableathttp://www.wastecapwi.org/resources/constructiondemolition/

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CA-4 Fossil Fuel Reduction
FOSSIL FUEL REDUCTION
GOAL
Reducetheoverallconsumptionoffossilfuelsbynonroadconstructionequipment.

CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Reducethefossilfuelrequirementsofnonroadconstructionequipmentbyusing
biofuelorbiofuelblendsasareplacementforfossilfuel.Pointsareawardedasfollows:
1point
Reducethefossilfuelrequirementsofthenonroadconstructionequipmentfleetby
15%throughtheuseofbiofuelorbiofuelblendsasareplacementforfossilfuel.
2points
Reducethefossilfuelrequirementsofthenonroadconstructionequipmentfleetby
25%throughtheuseofbiofuelorbiofuelblendsasareplacementforfossilfuel.
Details
Forthiscredit,atleast15%(for1point)or25%(for2points)ofthefuelconsumed
bynonroadconstructionequipmentontheprojectshouldbefromasourceother
thanfossilfuel.Inmostcases,themoststraightforwardwayofachievingthisisby
usingabiofuel(B100)orbiofuelblend(e.g.,B20,B50)asonsitefuelforthe
equipmentfleet.
DOCUMENTATION
1. Asignedletterfromtheprimecontractorthatdescribesthefossilfueluse
reductionmeasuresusedandthepercentagereductionachieved.
2. Aspreadsheetsummarizingallreceiptsforallfuelusedinnonroadequipmentfor
theproject.Thespreadsheetshouldindicate(andreceiptsshouldshow)associated
biofuelblend(e.g.,B5,B20,B100)used.

CA-4
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 CA5Equipment
EmissionReduction
9 CA6Paving
EmissionsReduction
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Economy
BENEFITS
9 ReducesFossilFuel
Use
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Supporttheenvironmentalandhealthbenefitsofbiodieselbyprovidingeconomicincentivetothegeneral
contractor.Thiscanbedoneeitherbybudgetingforaddedcostsofbiodieselfuelsourcestohelpoffset
potentialcostsorthroughothercontractrelatedincentives.
x Purchaseandusebiodieselastheonsitedieselfuel.UsingB20astheexclusiveonsitedieselwouldbea
meanstoensureatleasta20%reductioninfossilfueluseisachieved.
Example
Someexamplescenariosareprovidedbelowbasedonahypotheticalnonroadconstructionequipmentfleet
thatconsumes1,000gallonsoffuelduringprojectconstruction.
Nopoints
x B5(afuelthatis5%biofueland95%petroleumdiesel)isusedforall1,000gallonsoffuel.Thisamountsto
a5%reductioninfossilfueluse.
x B100(afuelthatis100%biofuel)isusedfor100gallonsoffuelandpetroleumdieselisusedforthe
remaining900gallons.Thisamountstoa10%reductioninfossilfueluse.
1point
x B20(afuelthatis20%biofueland80%petroleumdiesel)isusedforall1,000gallonsoffuel.Thisamounts
toa20%reductioninfossilfueluse,whichexceeds15%butislessthan25%.
2points
x B50(afuelthatis50%biofueland50%petroleumdiesel)isusedfor200gallonsoffuelandB20isusedfor
theremaining800gallons.Thisamountstoa26%reductioninfossilfueluse.
x B50(afuelthatis50%biofueland50%petroleumdiesel)isusedfor500gallonsoffuelandB20isusedfor
theremaining500gallonsoffuel.Thisamountstoa35%reductioninfossilfueluse.
Example: Turner Construction Company Case Study
B99,a99%proportionofbiodieseltoconventionalfuel,wasusedduringtheconstructionoftheMicrosoft
WindowsLiveColumbiaOneDataCenterinQuincy,Washingtontofuelequipmentoperatedbysubcontractors
hiredbyTurnerConstructionCompany.DiscussionswiththeSafetyManagerassignedtotheprojectrevealthat
thereasonbehindtheswitchtobiodieselfortheonsiteconstructionequipmentwastoprovidearemedyfor
thenoxiousdieselfumesthatwereemittedbythenonroadconstructionequipment.Workersreportedno
issueswithairqualityduringthefirsthalfoftheproject,howeverthesecondhalfoftheprojectwaswhena
considerableportionoftheconstructionworkwasperformedwithinthesemienclosedshellandcore
structure.Itwasduringthisstagewhentheparticulatematterandcarbonmonoxidelevelsemittedbythe
nonroadconstructionequipmentbecameaconcerntotheoperatorsandlaborersworkingalongside.The
situationwaspromptlybroughttotheattentionoftheSafetyManager.
UpontheSafetyManagersrecommendation,TurnerConstructionnegotiatedtheuseofbiodieselfuelforthe
equipmentbeingleasedfromthesubcontractorwhowasprovidingtheequipmentfortheproject.Theproject
calledforapproximately1520piecesofconstructionequipmentwhichwasleasedfromRSCEquipment
RentalsbasedoutofEllensburg,Washington(NationalBiodieselBoard,2008).DiscussionswiththeTurner
ConstructionsSafetyManagerandtheEquipmentManagerfromRSCEquipmentRentalsconfirmedthatno
retrofittingwasrequiredfortheequipmentpriortomakingtheswitchtobiodieselfuel.
Asaproactivemeanstoprovidepreventativemaintenance,andasaresultoftheanticipatedcleansingofthe
fueldeliverysystemattributedtothesolventactionofbiodiesel,fuelfiltersforeachpieceofequipmentwere
replacedafterthefirstandthirdtankfulsoffuel.Observationsfromtheequipmentoperatorsdetectedno
noticeablelossinfuelefficiencyduringtheoperationoftheequipment.Fuelusewasnotmonitoredonan
individualequipmentbasisand,asaresult,dataisunavailabletocalculateandconfirmimprovementsor
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reductionstothefuelefficiencyoftheequipment.Furthermore,operatorsobservednosignificantlossof
powerfortheequipmentoperatingonbiodieselalthoughtheoperatorofaCAT330excavatornoticedasmall
powerlossnearfulloperatingload.Thelackofanoticeablepowerlossforthemajorityoftheequipmentwas
likelyduetotheequipmentnotbeingutilizedtoitsfullpowerpotential.
AirqualitydatawascollectedbyTurnerConstructionCompanyandtheWashingtonStateDepartmentofLabor
&Industriesshortlyaftermakingtheswitchtobiodiesel.Unfortunately,thedatacollectedbyTurner
ConstructionsSafetyManagerwaslostasaresultofdamagetotheSafetyManagersportablecomputer.
BasedontheSafetyManagersrecollectionhowever,thefollowinginformationpertainstotheairquality
managementproceedings:
x TheairqualitywasassessedduringtheoperationofconcretepumptrucksfueledwithB99biodieseland
measuredwhileoperatingwithintheconfinesoftheshellandcorestructure.Themeasurementwastaken
atthetruckexhaustusinganairmonitor.Readingswereasfollows:

x TurnerConstruction:2ppmCOattheexhaust
x DepartmentofLabor&Industries:34ppmCOattheexhaust
Airqualityregulationspermitcarbonmonoxideconcentrationsattheexhausttoapproach4045ppm.An
interestingsidecommentmadebyDepartmentofLabor&Industrytechnicians,andnotedbytheSafety
Manager,wasthattheproperfunctioningoftheirairmonitorswerecalledintoquestionbecausethecarbon
monoxidemeasurementswereunexpectedlylow.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Currently,biodieselinthemostcommonform,B20(a20percentblendofethanolandconventionaldiesel)
offersnosignificanteconomicadvantageandtheenvironmentalandsocialadvantagesareoftenoverlooked.
2. Theremaybeacostpremiumpergallonforbiodieseloverthatofconventionaldieselfuel.
3. Biodieseliscurrentlynotproducedinsufficientquantitiestomeetwidespreaddemand.
4. Enginemanufacturersmaynothonordieselenginewarrantiesifsuchenginesusebiofuels.Asof2009,most
enginemanufacturersallowB5andsomeallowuptoB20undertheircurrentwarranties.
5. Lackofindustrydataforengineperformanceleadstoskepticequipmentmanufacturers.
6. Limitedavailabilityofethanolfeedstockbecauseofthetradeoffwithintheagriculturalindustryforproduction
offoodversusproductionoffuel.
7. Therearealimitednumberofnonroadconstructionequipmentmodelsthatofferhybridelectricdriveengines.
RESEARCH
Afuelthatexhibitspropertiessimilartothatofconventionaldieselbutoffersseveralassociatedbenefitsresulting
fromitsuseisbiodiesel.Biodieselcanbeusedasadirectreplacementforconventionaldieselinitspurestor
blendedformsandisproducedfromtheestersofvegetableoilsandanimalfats(VanGerpenetal.,2007).Thisfuel
sourcecanbeusedtopowerdieselenginesandtypicallyrequiresnoequipmentmodificationsandisabletoutilize
thecurrentfuelinginfrastructurefordistribution(USDOE,1995).
Biodieselisproducedthroughthetransesterficationprocess.Thisprocessrequiresfeedstockmaterialswhich
includerapeseed,soybean,vegetableoilsandanimalfats(USDOE,1995).Theanimalfatorvegetableoilis
combinedwithalcoholinthefirststageoftheprocessinachemicalreactionwhichcombinesthefeedstock
materialwithanalcoholtoproduceanesterandglycerol(VanGerpenetal.,2007).Alcoholstypicallyusedinthe
processincludemethanolandethanolthoughmethanolismorecommonlyusedasaresultofitslowercost(You,
2007).Thisreactionisusuallycatalyzedtoimprovethereactionrateandthequantitythatcanbeproduced.The
byproductofthisreactionisglycerolwhichisremovedandseparatedfromthealcohol/estermixture.Thealcohol
isfurtherseparatedfromtheester.Itistheremainingesterswhichmakeuptherawbiodiesel(You,2007).
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Biofuelssuchasethanolandbiodieselarederivedfrombiomassandofferseveraladvantages.Theyareconsidered
renewableformsoffuelbecausetheiruseinvolvesaclosedcarboncycle(Puppan,2001).Inadditiontohelping
reduceourdependencyonforeignoil,theuseofbiodieselhasshownseveralenvironmentalandhumanhealth
benefitsassociatedwithitsuseasaconstructionfuel.Forexample,theuseofbiodieselmitigatestheimpactsof
globalwarmingandclimatechangesincethereisnonetproductionofcarbondioxideduringthelifecycleof
biodieselproductionanduse(VanGerpenetal.,2007).Furthermore,sincebiodieselisanoxygenatedfuel,it
producesfewerhydrocarbons,lesscarbonmonoxideandlessparticulatematterthanthatofconventionalNo.2
dieselfuelfromthecombustionprocessinadieselengine(VanGerpenetal.,2007).Asaresult,theuseof
biodieselpromoteslocalizedimprovementtoairqualityandworkerhealthfromthedecreaseintheemissionof
compoundsthatareclassifiedashumanhealthhazardssuchascarbonmonoxide,sulfurdioxide,leadand
particulatematter(Puppan,2001).
Otheradvantagesincludethelubricitypropertiesofbiodieselthatpermitittocontributetoenhancingthe
efficiencyofanengineaswellasimprovingthelifeexpectancyoftheequipment(VanGerpenetal.,2007).
Moreover,biodieselfeaturesadetergentactionorsolventpropertywhichimprovesengineefficiencybyremoving
sedimentationanddepositsfromanenginesfuelsystem(USDOE,2001).Thesefactorscontributetothe
possibilityofeventuallongtermcostsavingsasaresultofdecreasedmaintenancecostsoverthatobservedwhen
conventionaldieselisusedtofuelequipment.
Thecosttoretrofitequipmenttooperateonbiodieselistypicallynegligible.Usuallynoretrofittingofengine
componentsisrequiredtopermitequipmenttoutilizebiodieselforfuel.However,thefuelsystemfortheengine
shouldhavenorubberpartssuchasrubberhoses,sealsandgasketswhichcoulddeterioratefromanyphysical
contactwithbiodiesel(USDOE,1995).Rubbercomponentstypicallyexistinequipmentmanufacturedpriorto
1994andenginedamageasaresultoffuelsystemfailureresultingfromthedeteriorationofenginecomponents
couldresultfromthesolventactionofbiodiesel(USDOE,2001).
Animportanteconomicadvantagetotheuseofbiodieselisthatitcanbeusedinitspureform(asB100)or
blendedwithpetroleumderiveddiesel.Assuch,theuseofbiodieselrequireslittletonomodificationstothe
currentfuelinginfrastructureorvehicleengineandfueldeliverysystemsinpreparationforitsuse(USDOEClean
CitiesFactSheet).
Theresultsofalimitedscopelifecycleassessment(LCA)oftheconstructionofonelanemileofportlandcement
concreteroadwayusingagenericsetofnonroadconstructionequipmentrequiredtoplacetheconcrete(i.e.a
pavingmachineandtexture/curingmachine)indicatedthattheproductionandutilizationofbiodieselconsumes
moreenergythanthatrequiredtoproduceandutilizeconventionalorultralowsulfurdieselfuel.However,based
onthedatacollectedfromtheLCA,itisclearthatbiodieselisthefuelsourcethatistheleastcontributingtothe
potentialforglobalwarming.Inotherwords,conventionaldieselandultralowsulfurdieselcontributemoreto
globalwarmingthanbiodiesel.Thedifferenceinthelevelofcontributionbetweenconventionalandultralow
sulfurdieselwasfoundtobealmostnegligible.Ontheotherhand,biodieselwasdeterminedtobringabouta
largercontributiontosmogformationduetotheincreasedformationofNO
X
andfurtherreactionoftheNO
X
with
VOCstoformsmog.Differenceinthecontributiontosmogformationbetweenconventionaldieselandultralow
sulfurdieselwasfoundtobenegligible.
GLOSSARY
Biofuel Renewablefuelsderivedfrombiologicalmaterialsthatcanberegenerated.
Thisdistinguishesthemfromfossilfuelswhichareconsiderednonrenewable.
Examplesofbiofuelsareethanol,methanol,andbiodiesel.
Hybridelectric Apowersystemthatcombinesaconventionalinternalcombustionengine
(e.g.,diesel)andanelectricmotorand/orstoragesystemtoprovidethe
primarypowerforthevehicle.
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B5,B20,B50,B100 Shortnotationtodescribeablendofbiodieselwithtraditionalpetroleum
diesel.Thenumberdescribesthepercentageofbiodiesel(e.g.,B20is20%
biodieseland80%petroleumdiesel).

REFERENCES
BioPowerLondon.(2006).FrequentlyAskedQuestions.Availableathttp://www.biopowerlondon.co.uk/index.htm.
EnergyInformationAdministration.(2010).GasolineandDieselFuelUpdate.Availableat
http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/gdu/gasdiesel.asp.
EuropeanBiodieselBoard.(2010).Statistics.Availableathttp://www.ebbeu.org/stats.php.
Frentress,Dave.BiodieselandOtherGreenInitiativesatGlacierNorthwest.Stone,Sand&GravelReview,(Jan/Feb
2008):5053.
Heijungs,R.&Suh,S.(2002).AComputationalStructureofLifeCycleAssessment.KluwerAcademicPublishers,
Netherlands.
NationalBiodieselBoard.(2008).Availableathttp://www.biodiesel.org/.
Radich,Anthony.(2004).BiodieselPerformance,Costs,andUse.EnergyInformationAdministration.Availableat
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biodiesel.
Sawyer,Tom.(December3,2007).DevelopersChallengetoConstruction:InnovateforDestiny.EngineeringNews
Record,2427.
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy.(1995).NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory.Biofacts:FuelingaStrongerEconomy.
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy.(2001).EnergyEfficiencyandRenewableEnergyOfficeofTransportationTechnology.
CleanCities:AlternativeFuelInformationSeries:TechnicalAssistanceFactSheet.
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy.(2008).EnvironmentalProgramsOnsiteAirQualityAssessment.
U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.(2007).FederalTransitAdministration.BiodieselFuelManagementBestPractices
forTransit.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2004a).OfficeofTransportationandAirQuality.EPA420P04005,Median
Life,AnnualActivity,andLoadFactorValuesforNonroadEngineEmissionsModeling.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2004b).OfficeofTransportationandAirQuality.EPA420R04007,Final
RegulatoryImpactAnalysis.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2005).OfficeofTransportationandAirQuality.EPA420R05022,Nonroad
EnginePopulationEstimates.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2007).OfficeofTransportationandAirQuality.EPA420R07005.Diesel
RetrofitTechnology:AnAnalysisoftheCostEffectivenessofReducingParticulateMatterandNitrogenOxides
EmissionsfromHeavyDutyNonroadDieselEnginesThroughRetrofits.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008a).AirandRadiation.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/oar.
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Fossil Fuel Reduction CA-4
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2008b).ClimateChange.http://www.epa.gov/climatechange.(Accessed
Sep.29,2008).
U.S.DepartmentofLabor.BureauofLaborStatistics.(2008).ConsumerPriceIndex.Availableat
http://www.bls.gov/cpi.
UnitedStatesGeneralAccountingOfficeReporttoCongressionalCommittee.(1999).MassTransit:UseofAlternative
FuelsinTransitBuses.
VanGerpen,J.H.,Peterson,C.L.,&Goering,C.E.(2007).Biodiesel:AnalternativeFuelforCompressionIgnition
Engines.AmericanSocietyofAgriculturalandBiologicalEngineers.Presentationatthe2007Agricultural
EquipmentTechnologyConferenceon1114February2007.
You,YiiDer,et.al.(2008).EconomicCostAnalysisofBiodieselProduction:CaseinSoybeanOil.EnergyandFuels22,
no.1:1829.
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CA-5 Equipment Emission Reduction
EQUIPMENT EMISSION REDUCTION
GOAL
Reduceairemissionsfromnonroadconstructionequipment.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Useemissionreductionexhaustretrofitsandaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesthat
achievetheEPATier4emissionstandardfornonroadconstructionequipment.Points
areawardedasfollows:
1point
Atleast50%ofthenonroadconstructionequipmentfleetoperatinghoursforthe
projectareaccomplishedonequipmentwithinstalledemissionreductionexhaust
retrofitsandaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesthatachievetheEPATier4emission
standard.
2points
Atleast75%ofthenonroadconstructionequipmentfleetoperatinghoursforthe
projectareaccomplishedonequipmentwithinstalledemissionreductionexhaust
retrofitsandaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesthatachievetheEPATier4emission
standard.
Details
Forthiscredittobeimplementedsuccessfully,workersmayrequireadditional
trainingonhowtokeeptrackofequipmentoperatinghoursaccurately.Seealso
CA2EnvironmentalTraining.
DOCUMENTATION
Providealistofallnonroadconstructionequipmentusedontheprojectthatcontains
thefollowinginformationforeachpieceofequipment:
1. Makeandmodelofeachpieceofequipment.
2. Operatinghoursassociatedwiththeproject.
3. ForequipmentachievingTier4emissionsstandards,documentedevidencethatthe
equipmenteither(a)meetsEPATier4emissionsstandards,or(b)hasinstalled
emissionreductionexhaustretrofitsandaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesthat
achievetheEPATier4standard.

CA-5
1-2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 CA2Environmental
Training
9 CA4FossilFuel
Reduction
9 CA6Paving
EmissionsReduction
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Retrofitexhaustequipmentonnonroadvehicles.
x Replaceengineswherethisoptionismorecosteffectivethanretrofit.
x Switchtouseultralowsulfurdiesel(ULSD)inconjunctionwiththeaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesinstalled
intheequipmentfleet.
Example: Scenarios
Someexamplescenariosareprovidedbelowbasedonahypotheticalnonroadfleetoperatingforatotalof
1,000equipmenthours.
Nopoints
x 400of1,000totaloperatinghours(40%)areassociatedwithequipmentthatachievetheEPATier4
emissionsstandard.
1point
x 500of1,000totaloperatinghours(50%)areassociatedwithequipmentthatachievetheEPATier4
emissionsstandard.
2points
x 800of1,000totaloperatinghours(80%)areassociatedwithequipmentthatachievetheEPATier4
emissionsstandard.
Example: Case Studies Documented by the U.S. EPA
TheEPAdescribesseveraldieselengineemissionreductioneffortcasestudiesat:
http://www.epa.gov/diesel/construction/casestudies.htm
Example: Washington State Department of Ecology Strategy
OneexampleofanoverallstatewideapproachthatthisVoluntaryCreditisconsistentwithistheWashington
StateDepartmentofEcologysDieselParticulateEmissionReductionStrategy.Thegoalsexpectedunderthis
approachare(Ecology,2006):
1. Installemissionreductionexhaustretrofitsonfiftypercentofthepubliclegacydieselfleetinfouryears.
2. Installemissionreductionexhaustretrofitsandaddonfuelefficiencytechnologiesonfiftypercentofthe
privatelegacydieselfleetineightyears.
3. Evaluate,developandimplementanidlereductionprogramthataddressesandremediesunnecessary
idlingthroughonboardretrofits,onthegroundinfrastructureandantiidlingregulations.
4. Replacetwentyfivepercentofolder(pre1996fornonroad)legacyvehiclesintheprivatefleetineight
years.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Retrofitsandreplacementsofenginescanrepresentasignificantaddedcosttothecontractor.
RESEARCH
Constructionairemissionsarelargelyfromthreemainsources:(1)dustandparticlesfromtheconstruction
activities,alsocalledfugitivedust,(2)emissionsfromconstructionequipmentexhausts,or(3)emissionsfrom
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CA-5 Equipment Emission Reduction
constructionmaterials(suchasfumesandvaporsfromhotasphalt).ThisVoluntaryCreditaddressesconstruction
equipmentemissionsingeneralandspecifically,dieselexhaustemissionsfromnonroaddieselequipment.
NonroadEngineDefined
40CFRPart1068(theGeneralComplianceProvisionsforNonroadPrograms)definespreciselywhatanonroad
dieselengineisandisnot.Insummary(40CFR1068hasexactdefinitionsandexclusions),anonroadengineis
definedtobeanyinternalcombustionenginethatis:
1. Inoronapieceofequipmentthatisselfpropelledorservesadualpurposebybothpropellingitselfand
performinganotherfunction.
2. Inoronapieceofequipmentthatisintendedtobepropelledwhileperformingitsfunction.
3. That,byitselforinoronapieceofequipment,isportableortransportable.
Ingeneral,dieselpoweredselfpropelledandportableconstructionequipmentwithaninternalcombustionengine
areconsideredtobenonroadengines.
HealthEffects
Dieselenginesemitacomplexmixtureofgaseouspollutantsandfineparticlesandareamajorsourceofair
pollution.Particularemissionsarenitrogenoxides(NOx),particulatematter(PM),sulfuroxidegases(SOx),and
othertoxicairpollutantswhichcontributetoseriousadversehealthandenvironmentaleffects(EPA,1995;ICF,
2005).Emissionsfromdieselengineshavebeenfoundtoincludeoverfortycancercausingsubstances,andthe
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)hasconcludedthatdieselexhaustislikelytobecarcinogenicto
humansbyinhalationatoccupationalandenvironmentallevelsofexposure(EPA,2002).InWashingtonState,the
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcologyhasidentifieddieselexhaustastheairpollutantmostharmfultopublic
healthinWashingtonState.Theyfoundthat70%ofthecancerriskfromairbornepollutantsisfromdieselexhaust,
mainlyduetothePM2.5emissions(WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,2006).Untilthemid1990s,
emissionsfromtheseengineswerelargelyuncontrolled.Inordertocombatthehealtheffectsofdieselemissions,
theEPAstartedaprogramin2007toreducedieselengineemissionsintheU.S.(EPA,2004).Theplanisestimated
toreduceemissionsbymorethan90%by2030.
ContributionofNonroadDieselEnginestoEmissionsInventory
AccordingtoEPAsNationalEmissionInventory(2008yeardata)(NEI,2009),nonroaddieselengines(usingthe
categoryofoffhighway)areresponsiblefor26%ofNOxemissionsnationally(4,255,000tonsperyear),andfor
5.8%offineparticulateemissions(PM2.5)(283,000tonsperyear)nationally.Thesepercentagescanbe
considerablyhigherinsomeurbanareas.InWashingtonState,theDepartmentofEcologystatesthatconstruction
activitiesareresponsiblefor18%oftheStatesPM2.5emissions(2002data)(FigureCA5.1).
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FigureCA5.1:
(WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,2006).
1.
ImprovementEfforts
Recognizingthelargeimpactthatdieselengineexhausthasonhumanhealthandtheenvironment(e.g.,CARB,
n.d.),therearesubstantialeffortstoreducedieselexhaustemissionsthroughburningcleanerdieselfuels(e.g.,
ultralowsulfurdieselorULSD),installingexhaustretrofitstoreduceemissionsfromexistingenginesand
producingnewdieselenginesthatemitless.
PaceofChange
Althougheffortstoreducedieselemissionsareunderway,significantimpactsmaybeyearsaway.Nonroad
dieselequipmentcanlast20to30yearsandtypicalnewemissionsstandardsarenotrequiredtobemetby
existingequipment.Therefore,theimpactsofsuchchangesarelikelytobefeltasamajorityofequipment
fleetsageandarereplacedbyequipmentmeetingnewer,morestringentregulations.Furthermore,change
anditspacewilllikelybecontrolledbytheprivatesectorastheyownnearly90percentofdieselvehiclesand
dieselengines(WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,2006).Thus,effortstoincenttheprivatesectorto
changeaheadofnaturalequipmentturnoverratesmayhelpmakedieselemissionreductionshappensooner.
CostConsiderations
Amajorityofconstructioncompaniesaresmallfirms.Toretrofitorchangetheirequipmentrequireslarge
capitalinvestments,whichtheymaynotbeabletobear.Formanyprivatesmallerconstructioncompanies,this
costissignificantandinterfereswiththeenvironmentalbenefitsthiswouldachieve.Alsothecostofusing
alternativefuelorlowsulfurfuelisanissue.
TheEPAestimatestheincrementalcostofproducing500ppmfueltobeonaverage2.5centspergallon,and
15ppmaround5centspergallon.(Thistakesintoaccountallthenecessarychangesinbothrefiningand
distributionpractices,howeverthisestimatedcostsvarywidelyforequipmentofdifferentsizesandfor
differentapplications)(EPA,2003).Forthevastmajorityofequipment,thecostofmeetingemissionstandards
willberoughly12%comparedwiththetypicalretailprice.Asanexample,EPAestimatesthatfora175hp
bulldozer,itwillcostanadditional$2,600toaddtheadvancedemissioncontrolsystemstotheengineandto
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designthebulldozertoaccommodatethemodifiedengine.Anew175hpbulldozercostsapproximately
$230,000(EPA,2003),sotheincreasedcostsareabout1%ofthetotalpurchaseprice.Costscouldbehigher
forsometypesofequipment.Asabenefit,enginesrunningonlowsulfurfuelwillhavereducedmaintenance
expenses(EPA,2003).Asincentive,thereareseveralgrantprogramsavailableatlocalandfederallevelfor
companiestoretrofitorchangepartoftheirequipmentfleet(WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology,2006;
EPA,2009).
Inthebroadercontext,thebenefitstosocietyofreducedhealthcostsresultingfromfeweremissionsare
substantial.TheEPAestimatedthebenefittocostratio(healthbenefitstocompliancecost)of30(CARB,n.d.).
Ingeneral,theCaliforniaAirResourcesBoard(CARB)reportsbenefitcostratiosintheliteraturefrom2to8.
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
CaliforniaAirResourcesBoard(CARB).(nodategiven).HealthEffectsofDieselExhaustParticulateMatter.CARB.
Availableathttp://www.arb.ca.gov/research/diesel/dpm_health_fs.pdf.Accessed14December2009.
ICFConsulting.(2005).EmissionReductionIncentivesforOffRoadDieselEquipmentUsedinthePortand
ConstructionSectors.PreparedforEPA.Availableathttp://www.epa.gov/sectors/pdf/emission_20050519.pdf.
Accessed14December2009.
NationalEmissionsInventory(NEI).(2009).NationalEmissionsInventory,AirPollutantTrendsData,Average
annualemissions19782002,allcriteriapollutants.Availableat
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends/index.html#tables.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(1995).CompilationofAirPollutantEmissionFactors,Volume1:
StationaryPointandAreaSources,Chapter13.2.3HeavyConstructionOperations,AP42,FifthEdition.U.S.
EPA,Washington,D.C.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2002).HealthAssessmentDocumentforDieselEngineExhaust.
NationalCenterforEnvironmentalAssessment,OfficeofResearchandDevelopment,U.S.EPA,Washington,
D.C.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2003).SummaryofEPA'sProposedProgramforLowEmission
NonroadDieselEnginesandFuel.EPA420F03008,U.S.EP,Washington,D.C.http://www.epa.gov/nonroad
diesel/420f03008.htm.Accessed14December2009.
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2004).CleanAirNonroadDieselRule.RegulatoryAnnouncement,
OfficeofTransportationandAirquality,EPA420F04032.U.S.EPA,Washington,D.C.
Tier4emissionstandard EPAstandardsthatrequireemissionstobereducedovercurrentTier2and3
standards.Reductionsofparticulatematter(PM)forenginesabove19kW
andnitrousoxides(NOx)forengineslargerthan56kWaresubstantial.
Hydrocarbonlimitsarealsosubstantiallyreducedforengineslargerthan56
kW.Suchemissionreductionscanbeachievedthroughtheuseofcontrol
technologiesincludingadvancedexhaustgasaftertreatment.Tier4
standardsaretobephasedinovertheperiodof20082015.
Ultralowsulfurdiesel(ULSD) Standardtermfordieselfuelhavinglessthan15ppmsulfur.Asof2009,most
onhighwaydieselfuelsoldatretaillocationsisULSD.Thepreviousstandard,
lowsulfurdiesel(LSD),allowed500PPMsulfur.
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U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).(2009).NationalCleanDieselCampaign.U.S.EPA,Washington,D.C.
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/diesel/index.htm.Accessed14December2009.
USEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.(2003).DraftRegulatoryImpactAnalysis:ControlofEmissionsfromNonroad
DieselEngines.EPA420R03008,U.S.EPA,Washington,D.C.
WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcology(2006).DieselParticulateEmissionReductionStrategyforWashington
State.WashingtonStateDepartmentofEcologyAirQualityProgram.

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CA-6 Paving Emissions Reduction
PAVING EMISSIONS REDUCTION
GOAL
Improvehumanhealthbyreducingworkerexposuretoasphaltfumes.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Placeatleast90%ofthehotmixasphalt(HMA)ontheprojectusingapaverthatis
certifiedtohavemetNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH)
emissionguidelinesassetforthinEngineeringControlGuidelinesforHotMixAsphalt
Pavers,Part1:NewHighwayClassPavers(DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices
(NIOSH)PublicationNo.97105,April1997printing).
Details
Ifmorethanonepaverisusedonaproject,thepercentageofHMAplacedbyeach
pavershallbedeterminedusingthetotalweightofHMAplacedbyeachpaver.Use
EquationCA6.1tocomputethetotalpercentageplacedbytheNIOSHpaver.
CalculationsshouldbedonebyweightofHMAplaced.Forthepurposesofthis
calculation,allplacedbituminousasphalticmixtures(e.g.,hotmixasphalt,warm
mixasphalt,opengradedasphalt,stonematrixasphalt,etc.)shallbecountedas
HMA.
EquationCA6.1:

DOCUMENTATION
x Copyofthemanufacturingcertificationprovidedwiththepaver(s)when
purchased.Page5oftheNIOSH(1997)documentprovidesanexampleofthe
certificationwording.
x Signedstatementbyapavingcontractorrepresentativeindicatingthatthecertified
paver(s)referencedinthefirstdocumentwas(were)usedonthejobanddidplace
atleast90%oftheHMA.
CA-6
1 POINT
RELATED CREDITS
9 CA4FossilFuel
Reduction
9 CA5Equipment
EmissionReduction
9 PT3WarmMix
Asphalt
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Equity
BENEFITS
9 ReducesAir
Emissions
9 ReducesGreenhouse
Gases
9 ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety

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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x UseapaverthatmeetsNIOSHengineeringcontrolguidelines.Aquickcheckcanbedonebylocatingthe
exhauststackorrequired3by5inchinformationplate(FigureCA6.1)onthepaverbeingused.These
informationplatesarerequiredtobeattachedbythemanufacturer.
Example: Photos
FiguresCA6.2andCA6.3showexamplesofpaverswithandwithoutexhaustventilationsystems.

FigureCA6.2:Thelargeblackexhauststacktotherightoftheoperator
ispartofaNIOSHcompliantexhaustventilationsystem.

FigureCA6.1:Exampleofamanufacturerinformationplate(fromNIOSH,1997).
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FigureCA6.3:ThispaverisNOTequippedwithanexhaustventilationsystem.

Example: Calculation
Anurbanpavingprojectplacesa1.5inchoverlayona2lanecityarterialstreet.Theoverlayincludes
overlayingsmallareasoneachcrossstreet.ApaverhavingaventilationexhaustsystemmeetingNIOSH
guidelinesisusedforpavingthearterialwhileasmallpaver,notequippedwithaventilationexhaustsystem,is
usedtopavethecrossstreetareas.Oncompletionoftheproject,areviewoftruckticketsshowthattheNIOSH
paverplaced4,250tonsofHMAwhilethenonNIOSHpaverplaced200tonsofHMA.





Therefore,thisprojectqualifiesfor1pointsince95.5%exceedsthe90%requirement.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. HavingaNIOSHcompliantpaverbuthavingamalfunctioningexhaustsystemornotusingtheexhaustsystem.
2. HavingaNIOSHcompliantpaverwithanexhaustsystemthatnolongermeetsNIOSHrequirementsforindoor
captureefficiency.
RESEARCH
WhilemanypaversbeingusedinconstructionhaveNIOSHengineeringcontrolsonthem,notalldo.Currently,
mosthighwaypavers(manufacturedsince1997)havefumecontrolsinstalledin/ontheminaccordancewith
NIOSHstandards.However,smallerpaversarenotrequiredtohavesuchcontrols.
Theseengineeringcontrolsarebasicallyanexhaustventilationsystemthatcollectsfugitiveemissionsnearthe
augers(FigureCA6.4),andreleasesthemthroughanexhauststackthatishighenoughsuchthatworkersarenot
exposedtoemissionsfromthatstack(FigureCA6.5).Thisreducesworkerexposuretoasphaltfumes.Accordingto
NIOSH(1997),eachnewselfpropelledHMApaverweighing16,000poundsormoreandmanufacturedafterJuly
1,1997shoulddevelopandinstallexhaustventilationsystemswithaminimumcontrolledindoorcapture
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efficiencyof80%...TheNIOSH(1997)document,whichwasdevelopedinconcertwiththeNationalAsphalt
PavementAssociation(NAPA),describesthedetailedrequirementsfortheexhaustventilationsystemincluding
theperformancetestingcriteria,labeling,certification,operation,maintenanceandtraining.

TheNIOSHsummaryofhealtheffectsofoccupationalexposuretoasphaltfumesgenerallyindicatesthatthereare
acute(immediateorshortterm)andchronic(longterm)impactstohumanhealth.Whilenotallstudiesagreeon

FigureCA6.4:Drawingofthecollectionhoodsusedtocollectfumesneartheauger
(fromConstructionInnovationForum,2006)
FigureCA6.5:Drawingoftheexhaustventilationsystemwithkeypartslabeled
(fromConstructionInnovationForum,2006).
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theeffectsortheirsignificancethereisgenerallystrongenoughevidencetoshowthatsucheffectscanbepresent.
Giventhat,itisbeneficialtoreduceasphaltfumeexposuretopavingworkersevenifitisbelowestablishedlimits.
Establishedexposurelimitsaregenerallytopreventacuteeffects;insomecasestheydonotfullyaddresschronic
effectsanditisverydifficulttodoso.
MoreinformationisavailableinthefullNIOSHdocumentonthewebat:http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/asphalt.html
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
ConstructionInnovationForum(CIF).(2006).2006NOVAAwardNomination12:HighwayAsphaltPaverFume
Controls.ConstructionInnovationForum,Walbridge,OH.Availableathttp://www.cif.org/nom2006/Nom12
2006.pdf.Accessed6January2009.
NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH).(April1997secondprinting).EngineeringGuidelines
forHotMixAsphaltPavers:Part1NewHighwayClassPavers.DHHS(NIOSH)PublicationNo.97105.U.S.
DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,PublicHealthService,CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention,
NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth,Cincinnati,OH.Availableat
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/asphalt.html

HMA Hotmixasphalt
NAPA NationalAsphaltPavementAssociation
NIOSH NationalInstituteofOccupationalHealthandSafety
WMA Warmmixasphalt(seealsoCreditPT3)
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CA-7 Water Use Tracking
WATER USE TRACKING
GOAL
Generateprojectlevelinformationaboutconstructionwateruse.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Createaspreadsheetthatrecordstotalwateruseduringconstruction.This
spreadsheetshouldidentify,atminimum:
1. Datesofuse.
2. Amountsofuse.
3. Locationsandsourcesofwaterused.
4. Potabilityofwatersource(s).
5. Eachconstructionactivityrequiringwateruse.
6. Totalwaterquantityusedineachconstructionactivity.
7. Methodofmeasurementtodeterminetotalquantityused.
8. Disposalpracticeforunusedwater.
9. Typeofwaterusepermit,ifany.
10. Totalcostofwaterusedfromeachsource,ifany.
Details
Waterusecanbemeasuredbymeter,hosecapacity,numberofwatertanks,
pumpingrateovertime,orotherappropriatesourcedependentestimates.
Thecreditdoesnotrequirespecificperformancecriteriaforwaterconservation.
Eventually,waterusedatawillbecompiledtoestablishbenchmarksforroadway
constructionwaterefficiencyandtodevelopguidelinesforappropriatewater
conservationpracticesandprinciplestoreducepotablewaterusageandnegative
impactstotheenvironment.
DOCUMENTATION
x Copyofthespreadsheetusedtorecordconstructionwateruse.
CA-7
2 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR7Pollution
PreventionPlan
9 PR10Site
Maintenance
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Expectations
9 Exposure
BENEFITS
9 Improves
Accountability
9 IncreasesAwareness
9 CreatesNew
Information
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APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
x Askindividualworkerstorecordwateruseontheirdailyreports.
x Providecopiesofthetrackingspreadsheetatlocationswherewaterisusedandmeasuredforgathering
consistentrecordings.
Example: Sample Spreadsheet
SamplespreadsheetentriesfordifferentconstructionactivitiesthatcommonlyusewaterareshowninTable
CA7.1forthreedifferenttypesofprojects.Notethateachactivityhasaseparatecolumnandassociateddata.
Notethat,realistically,thedatafortheprojectwillrequireinformationforeachactivityontheprojectthat
useswaterandwilllikelybelargerthanthesmallsampleshown.
TableCA7.1:SampleWaterUseSpreadsheetEntriesforDifferentTypesofProjects
ProjectType Urban Rural(DeliveredWater) Rural(Well Water)
Date(s) 6/1/09 6/12/09 January May 2009 August2009
ConstructionActivity Dustsuppression Mixingconcrete Equipmentcleaning
WaterVolumeUsed 12,000 27,000 3,500
VolumeUnit Gal gal Gal
MeasurementMethod Citywatermeter 750gallontanks Hosemeter
WaterLocation/Source Hydrant Tankdelivery Onsitewell
PotableWater? Yes No Yes
DisposalPracticeofUnusedWater Stormdrain Storage Groundsurface
WaterUsePermitType Hydrant None None
WaterCost(pergal) $8.13 $0.08
WaterCost(perccf) $4.00
TotalCost $64.16 $219,510.00 $280.00
Notes Hydrantpermit
feesnotincluded.
Includesdelivery
charge

SomecommonlyusefulconversionsforwatervolumeareshowninTableCA7.2.
TableCA7.2:TypicalUnitsofWaterVolume
U.S.CustomaryUnits MetricUnits(S.I.)
1cubicfoot(cf)=7.481gallons(gal) 1liter(L)=0.001cubicmeters(m
3
)
100cubicfeet(cf)=1centumcubicfoot(ccf) 1cubicmeters(m
3
)=1000liters(L)

Example: Monitored Water Sources for Road Construction in the U.S.


x Montanalimitswaterleasesforconstructionto60,000gallons/dayor120,000gallons/day/project
(Overcast,2001).Requestsformorewatermustbeaccompaniedbyananalysisofpotentialadverseeffects
andadescriptionofplannedmitigationactionsattheproposedpointofdiversion.
x Oregonallowspublicagenciestoregisterawateruseforroadandhighwaymaintenance,construction;in
lieuofapermitforawaterright(OregonWaterResourcesDepartment,2007).
x TheCityofBend,Oregonrequireshydrantusepermitsforwatermeasurement,protectionofdrinking
waterquality,watersystemoperationalprotection,andfirehydrantintegrityandmaintenance.The
permitsapplytowaterobtainedbynormalmeterinstallation,dailyfillstationuse,monthlyhydrantmeter
andbackflowunits,orcustomwatersupplyinstallation.
x TheCityofSouthlake,Texasregulateswateruseonlyduringdroughtconditions.
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POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Trackingwateruseonroadwayconstructionprojectsmaybeunfamiliartositeworkers.Trainingmaybe
necessarytoaccuratelytrackallrelevantwaterdata.
2. Wateruseforroadconstructionmayberegulatedbylocaljurisdictions.Checkwithauthoritiestodetermine
wateruserequirements.
3. Whereroadwayconstructionincludestheuseofnonpotablewater,thereisanobligationtoensurethat
workplacehealthandsafetyisnotnegativelyaffectedbytheuseofthewater.Thismustincludethe
managementofanyrisksarisingfromtheuse,handling,storage,transport,anddisposalofthewateratthe
projectsite.
RESEARCH
Growingcitiesareputtingstressonavailablewatersupplies,anddemandforwaterisgrowingfasterthanthe
humanpopulation.Arecentgovernmentsurveyshowedthat,undernormalconditions,atleast36statesare
anticipatinglocal,regional,orstatewidewatershortagesby2013,anddroughtconditionswillexacerbateshortage
impacts(GAO,2003).Communitiesinwatersupplychallengedregionsoftheworldhavebeguntoaddressthe
ongoingissueofpotable(ordrinkingquality)wateruseonroadconstructionandmaintenanceprojects(CFV,MAV
andIPWEA,2007).Criticaltounderstandingtheissueistodetermineexactlyhowmuchwaterisusedduring
roadwayconstructionandmaintenance.
WaterUsesinRoadwayConstruction
Waterhasmanyusesforroadwayconstruction.However,thereislittleinformationavailableontheamountof
waterusedduringroadconstruction.Sandandgraveloperationsaremajorusers,andcementproductionrelies
heavilyonwater.Onsiteconstructionusesofwaterinclude:concretemixing,concretecuring,dustcontrol,
constructionequipmentwashing,vegetationestablishment,geotechnicalborings,addingwatertobackfill
material/soilcompaction,pipeflushingandpressuretesting,andsitecleanup.
WaterSourcesforRoadwayConstruction
Typicalwatersourcesincludenaturalwaterbodies,potablewatersupplypipelines(e.g.,hydrants),nonpotable
waterfromstormwaterorindustrialdischarges,andreusedwaterfromwastewatertreatmentplants.Water
withdrawalsfromthesefacilitiesmayormaynotberegulatedbythegoverningjurisdiction.Frequently,wateruse
frompublicsuppliesrequiresatemporarywaterrightorpermitallowingthelocaljurisdictioncontroloverthe
amountandmethodofwaterwithdrawnforapprovedconstructionuses.Manyregionsalsoregulatepotential
harmtofishfromwaterwithdrawalfromnaturalwaterbodies.Forexample,theNationalMarineFisheriesService
(NMFS)developedintakepumpingandscreeningcriteriaforfishprotectionthatmustbeinstalled,operated,and
maintainedwhenprotectedaquaticspeciesarepresent(NMFS,2008).Occasionally,thesepoliciesrequirewater
systemstomeasureandaccountforallwaterdelivered.However,thesesystemsarealsolikelytobeprovidedby
privatewatersuppliers.
Estimatesofactualwaterusebyprojectactivityareneededformakingmoreinformedwaterusedecisions.To
enableinformationsharingforimprovedwatersourcingdecisions,someregionsaredevelopingacentralized
WaterAtlasofallalternativewatersources,includingqualityandquantityinformation,toreducedemandon
potablesupplies.Also,indevelopmentisanIndustrialWasteWaterExchangetomatchproducersofsuitable
industrialwastewaterwithusersofwaterforconstructionpurposes,allowingindustrialuserstohavetheirwaste
waterdisposedofandreused,resultinginpotentiallylowercostsforbothpartiesandlessoverallpotablewater
use.(CCFV,MAVandIPWEA,2007)
WaterPotabilityandQualityIssues
Largevolumesofpotablewaterarecommonlyusedinroadconstruction,butdrinkingwaterissubjectto
competingdemandsbyhumanpopulations.Also,manymunicipalitieschlorinatetheirwatersupply,andthelevel
ofchlorineinchlorinatedtapwater(ashighas1.0milligramofchlorineperliterofwater)istoxictofishandother
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aquaticorganisms(GreaterVancouverRegionalDistrict,1997)andmaybeunsuitableforroadwayusewithout
priormitigation.
Alternativewatersuppliesalleviatedemandforpotabledrinkingwaterthroughmanagementofrelatedhealthand
environmentalrisksassociatedwithconstructionworkactivities.Brackishandoilcontaminatedwatershow
promiseforroadconstructioninwaterlimitedregions(Tahaetal.,2005;KansasDepartmentofHealthand
Environment,2000).Constructionsitemanagersareincreasinglyharvestingstormwaterfromtheirownsitesand
storingitforlateruse(QueenslandGovernment,2007a).Recycledwaterfrommunicipalwastewatertreatment
plantsisapotablewatersubstituteforoperationalandlandscapingpurposes(QueenslandGovernment,2007b).
DischargesofconstructionsitewateraregovernedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyNationalPollution
DischargeandEliminationSystem(NPDES)permits,orstateorlocalequivalentpolicies.
GLOSSARY
Brackish Waterwithmoresalinitythanfreshwaterbutlessthanseawater
Potability Waterthatissuitableforhumanconsumption

REFERENCES
CivilContractorsFederationofVictoria,theMunicipalAssociationofVictoriaandtheInstituteofPublicWorks
EngineeringofAustralia(CCFV,MAV,andIPWEA).(2007,March29).WaterUseonRoadworksACommunity
WideIssue.UseofPotableWaterforRoadWorksSummit.
GreaterVancouverRegionalDistrict.(1997).ConstructionWaterUseGuidelinesforReleaseofMunicipalTap
WatertotheEnvironment.GreaterVancouverRegionalDistrict,MetroVancouver,BC.Availableat
www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/ConstructionWaterUseGuidelines.pdf.
KansasDepartmentofHealthandEnvironment.(2000).KansasAdministrativeRegulations,Article47UseOfOil
andGasFieldSaltWaterinRoadConstructionandMaintenanceProjects(28471to28477).KansasSecretary
ofState.
NationalMarineFisheriesService.(2008).Anadromoussalmonidpassagefacilitydesign.NationalMarineFisheries
Service,NorthwestRegion,Portland,OR.
OregonWaterResourcesDepartment.(2007).RegisterWaterUseforRoadandHighwayMaintenance,
ConstructionandReconstruction.OregonWaterResourcesDepartment,Salem,OR.ORS537.040andOAR690
340040.
Overcast,Kim.2001.Waterrightsandroadconstruction.WaterResourcesDivision,MontanaDepartmentof
NaturalResources&Conservation,Helena,MT.WATERLINES.4(1),1.
QueenslandGovernment.(2007a).WorkplaceHealthandSafetyQueensland:ModelWaterManagementPlanfor
theCivilConstructionIndustry.Version1June2007.DepartmentofEmploymentandIndustrialRelations,
QueenslandGovernment,Australia.Availableat
http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/resources/pdfs/model_watermgt.pdf.
QueenslandGovernment.(2007b).Guidetotheworkplaceuseofnonpotablewater,includingrecycledwaters.
WorkplaceHealthandSafetyQueensland,DepartmentofEmploymentandIndustrialRelations,Queensland.
www.nebo.qld.gov.au/council/Nonpotablewater_guide.pdf.
RoadsandTrafficAuthority.(2004).WaterPolicy.RoadsandTrafficAuthority,NewSouthWales,Australia.
Availableathttp://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/environment/downloads/wpolicy.pdf.
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Taha,Ramzi,AmerAlRawas,SalimAlOraimi,HossamHassan,&MohammedAlAghbari.(2005).TheUseof
BrackishandOilContaminatedWaterinRoadConstruction.ENVIRONMENTALANDENGINEERING
GEOSCIENCE.11(2),163169.
UnitedStatesGeneralAccountingOffice(GAO).(2003).FreshwaterSupply:StatesViewsofHowFederalAgencies
CouldHelpThemMeettheChallengesofExpectedShortages.U.S.GeneralAccountingOffice,Washington,DC.
GAO03514.

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CA-8 Contractor Warranty
CONTRACTOR WARRANTY
GOAL
Incorporateconstructionqualityintothepubliclowbidprocessthroughtheuseof
warranties.

CREDIT REQUIREMENTS
Theprojectconstructioncontractshallinclude,asaminimum,a5yearwarrantyfor
constructedportionsofthepavementstructuretoincludesurfacing(e.g.,hotmix
asphalt,portlandcementconcrete,etc.)aswellasanyunderlyinglayers(e.g.,granular
basematerial).Otheritemsmayalsobeincludedinthewarrantybutarenotrequired
tobeforthiscredit.
Thetermsofthewarrantyshallbedefinedbytheownerandmayincludecontractor
inputifdesired.Asaminimum,thecontractualwarrantyspecificationsshallinclude:
x Definitionofwhatproduct(s)arewarranted
x Lengthofthewarrantyperiod
x Responsibilitiesoftheowner
x Responsibilitiesofthecontractor
x Responsibilityformaintenance
x Conflictresolutionprocess
x Contractorqualitycontrolplan
x Measurementmethods
x Performancebasedrequirementsandassociatedthresholdlevelsthatrequire
correctiveactionbythecontractor
x Requirementsforremedialcorrectiveaction
x Requirementsforelectiveorpreventativeactions
x Basisofpayment
x Finalwarrantyacceptance

Details
Theintentionofthiscreditistoincludeashortterm5yearpavementwarrantyin
thecontractspecifications.Thiswarrantydurationisintendedtobelongenoughto
coveranypavementperformanceissuesduetopoorqualityconstructionbutshort
enoughsoasnottocreatewarrantybondingissuesassociatedwithcontractor
assumptionofriskforundulylongperiodsoftime.
Ultimately,warrantiesmustmeetallapplicablelocalandfederalregulations.
Federalregulationsaredescribedin23CFR635,SubpartD,Section413,Guarantee
andWarrantyClauses.
DOCUMENTATION
x Acopyofthewarrantyspecificationsincludedinthecontract.
CA-8
3 POINTS
RELATED CREDITS
9 PR4QualityControl
Plan
9 PR9Pavement
ManagementSystem
9 CA1Quality
ManagementSystem
9 PT6Pavement
Performance
Tracking
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS
9 Ecology
9 Economy
9 Extent
9 Expectations
9 Experience
BENEFITS
9 IncreasesServiceLife
9 ReducesLifecycle
Costs
9 Improves
Accountability
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Contractor Warranty CA-8
APPROACHES & STRATEGIES
Developastandardwarrantypolicy(oraspecificonefortheprojectinquestion)thathasbeenvettedwith
industrythatincludes:
x Thetypesofworktobecoveredbythewarranty(i.e.thesurfacecourseorentirepavementsection)
x Thewarranteeguaranteeandbondingrequirements
x Anoutletforconflictresolutionforbothcontractorandowner
x Pavementdistressthresholdsandremedialaction
x AgencyMaintenanceResponsibilities
x Methodofperformancebasedmeasurementformonitoringthepavement
x Finalwarrantyacceptance
x Aselectionprocessofprojectsforwhichwarrantieswillbeincluded
TheNCHRPProject1068GuidelinesfortheUseofHighwayPavementWarrantiesfinalreportshouldserveasan
excellentsourceforviableapproacheswhenreleased.AsofOctober2010,itisstillinfinalediting.
Example: Wisconsin Department of Transportation Asphalt Pavement Warranty
NCHRPReport451(Anderson&Russell,2001)describesastandardprocessmodelforwarrantycontracting
(FigureCA8.1)andthenshowsacasestudyofWisconsinDepartmentofTransportation(DOT)warranted
asphaltpavementsinitsAppendixAasanexample.
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FigureCA8.1:Flowchartprocessmodelforwarrantycontracting(fromAnderson&Russell,2001).
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FigureCA8.1(continued):Flowchartprocessmodelforwarrantycontracting(fromAnderson&Russell,2001).

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FigureCA8.1(continued):Flowchartprocessmodelforwarrantycontracting(fromAnderson&Russell,2001).

Specificsofthecasestudycanbeviewedat:http://144.171.11.40/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5476.
POTENTIAL ISSUES
1. Usingawarrantyclauseinroadwayconstructioncontractsistypicallyaprogrammaticdecision(mustbe
implementedasstandardpracticewithinanowneragency)andnotaprojectspecificone.
2. Warrantyprovisionsasamatterofstandardpracticecanreducecontractorcompetitionassuretiesdecide
whichcontractorstobondandwhichonesnotto.Experiencetodatehasbeenthatbondingforshortterm
warranties(likethe5yearwarrantyinthiscredit)havenotbeenanissuewhendonecorrectly.
3. Longtermperformancewarrantiescanreducecontractorbondingcapacitybecauseoftheincreasedriskthey
mustcarryontheirbooks.
4. Warrantiesarenotfree.Theyaregenerallypricedbasedontheriskorperceivedrisktheytransfertothe
contractor.
5. Performancemeasuresonwhichacompletedprojectistobejudgedcanbedifficulttoagreeupon.Itcanalso
bedifficulttofirmlyestablishalinkbetweencontractorconstructionandperformanceparameter
measurement.
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6. Institutinganewwarrantyprogramcanbedifficultbecauseofthelearningperiodinvolvedwhereboth
contractorsandownersadjusttothewarrantyclause,itsimplementationandinterpretation.
7. Awarrantydoesnotguaranteeimprovedquality,however,mostresearchtodatecitesbetterqualityasan
outcomeofcontractorwarrantyprograms.

RESEARCH
Awarrantyisafairlycommontoolinconsumertransactions.Essentially,awarrantyisanassurancebytheseller
thatpropertyorgoodsareasrepresentedorpromised.Thisassuranceisoftenbackedbyaspecificallystated
remedyintheeventthepropertyorgoodfailstomeetthewarranty.
ABriefHistory
Inroadways,warrantieshavebeenusedinassociationwithpavementsforquitesometime.Theearliestpavement
warrantiesaroseinthelate1800s;oneexamplebeingthe15yearwarrantyofferedbytheWarrenBrothers
CompanyontheirpatentedWarreniteBitulithicPavement(FHWA,2009).Inthe1900swarrantiesfelloutoffavor.
Forinstance,priorto1991alongstandingFHWApolicyusedtorestrictedwarrantiesonfederalaidprojectsto
electricalandmechanicalequipmentbecauseitwasfeltthatwithoutthisrestrictionfederalfundscouldbeused
forroutinemaintenance,whichwasillegal(FHWA,2007).Inthe1990spavementwarrantiesbegantomakea
comeback.Rulechangesandanevolvingviewofwarrantiesledtoseveralagenciesexperimentingwithandthen
usingwarrantiesonaregularbasis.Althoughtheyarestillmorecommonelsewhere(e.g.,Europe)warrantiesare
commonforsomeowneragenciesintheU.S.Forotheragencies,theyareeithernotusedorexpresslyforbidden.
ReasonsforWarrantyUse
Warrantyusecanbeviewedasdrivenlargelybytwoforces:(1)thedesiretoimprovepavementqualityand
durability,and(2)thedesiretoreduceowneroversightduringconstruction(AGC,n.d.).Thefirstconcern
(improvedquality)canalsobeaddressedbyothernonwarrantysolutionssuchasaqualitycontrolspecificationor
tighterspecifications.Also,awarrantyrequirementdoesnotdirectlyensureanygreaterquality;itonlyrequiresa
contractortoprovidearemedyifcertainparameters(e.g.,smoothness,cracking,rutting)arenotmet.Aswithall
warranties,apavementwarrantyispricedandbidaccordingly.Inanextremesituation,acontractormaychoose
toincludethecostofanentireoverlayorpartialreconstructionintothebidpricetomitigatetheriskofcorrective
actionsrequiredbythewarranty.Thesecondreason(reducedoversight)maynotberealizedbecauseowner
personnelareusuallyneededtooverseewarrantedpavements(AGC,n.d.).
TypesofWarranties
Ingeneral,therearethreebasictypesofpavementwarranties:
x Materialsandworkmanship.Almostallconstructioniscoveredbyashortduration(usually1year)materials
andworkmanshipwarranty.Thistypeofwarrantyassignsrisktothecontractorforfollowingagency
specificationsinregardstomaterialsandworkmanship.Ifaproblemordefectisdetectedwithinthewarranty
period,theagencyusuallyusesaforensicanalysistodeterminethecause.Ifitisdeterminedthatspecification
noncompliancecausedtheproblem,itisrepairedatthecontractor'sexpense.Otherwise,theagencyassumes
repaircosts.Thistypeofwarrantyisalmostuniversal,rarelycollectedonandisusuallycoveredbysuretiesat
noadditionalchargetothecontractor.
x Shorttermperformance.Awarrantybasedontheperformanceofthefinishedpavementproductthatlasts
for27years.Thesewarrantiesspecifyanumberofperformanceparametersthatthepavementmustmeet
overtime.Iftheyarenotmetthecontractorisrequiredtorepair/replacethepoorperformingpavement.The
generalintentoftheseshorttermperformancewarrantiesistoplacetheriskofpoorconstructiononthe
contractor.Inmostsituations,poorpavementconstructionwillmanifestitselfinpoorpavementcondition
withinabout25years.
x Longtermperformance.Awarrantybasedontheperformanceofthefinishedpavementproductthatlastsfor
upto20yearsandbeyond.Thesewarrantiesspecifyanumberofperformanceparametersthatthepavement
mustmeetovertime.Iftheyarenotmetthecontractorisrequiredtorepair/replacethepoorperforming
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pavement.Theselongtermperformancewarrantiesessentiallymakethecontractorresponsiblefor
maintenanceandrehabilitationofthepavementinquestion.
BenefitsandMarketRealitiesofWarranties
Mostoften,ownerspursuewarrantiesbecauseofaperceivedbenefit.However,theuseofcontractedwarranties
alsocreatesanumberofmarketconditionsthatmayormaynotnegateanyperceivedbenefits.Thefollowingisa
brieflistingofwarrantybenefitsandmarketrealities.
Benefits
Allowevaluationbasedonperformance.Warrantycontractsoftenprovidelittledirectioninmaterialsand
methodsandrelayinsteadondefiningperformanceovertimeasthekeycontractelement.Thisallowsowner
agenciesandcontractorstoconcentratetheireffortsonendresultsratherthanmethods.Thisalignsowner
evaluationofconstructionwiththepublicperceptionoftheconstructionaswellasallowscontractors
substantiallatitudetoinnovatesincemethodsarenotdefinedinthecontract.
Improvedquality.In2004,Bayraktaretal.(2004)showed13stateswereexperiencedwithwarranty
contractingwithvaryingdegreesofsuccess.Michigan,Ohio,Florida,andSouthCarolinahadthehighest
amountofwarrantycontractseachhavinga10to30percentofconstructioncontractscontainingapavement
warranty.Inthesamestudy,69percentofthestatedepartmentsoftransportationthatresponded,notedan
improvementintheoverallqualityofthefinalproduct(BayraktarM.etal.,2004).
Reducedownerrisk.Warrantiestendtoplacemoreoftheriskofpoorconstructiononthecontractor.
Typically,evenapoorlyconstructedpavementislikelytolast1year(thetypicaldurationofamaterialsand
workmanshipwarranty)infairlygoodcondition.Withawarranty,anownercancollectfromacontractorfor
poorconstructionbasedonpavementconditionmeasuredoverthelifeofthewarranty.
Inclusionofconstructionqualityinacompetitivebid.Inmosttraditionalcompetitivelybiddesignbidbuild
pavementcontracts,pavementqualityisassumedtobeaminimumstandardtobemetratherthanthesubject
ofcontractorcompetition.Warrantyrequirementsusuallywillrequirecontractorstobuildtheirperceivedcost
ofthewarranty(theirpricefortheriskincurred)intotheircompetitivebid.Therefore,contractorsthatbuild
highqualitypavementandhavegoodknowledgeoftheirconstructionqualityaretheoreticallyabletoreduce
theirbidamountbecauseofaknownlowerrisk.Inessence,pavementqualitybecomesacompetitivelybid
item.
MarketRealities(AGC,n.d.)
Limitingcompetition.Askingcontractorstoassumeriskforpavementsaftertheyarebuiltgenerallymeans
thatsuretiesarerequiredtoprovidewarrantybonds.Suretiescanbeselectiveintheirissuanceofwarrant
bonds,whichmaylimitcompetition.
Reducedbondingcapacity.Thevalueofthewarrantybondsacontractorcarriescanreduceitsbonding
capacity,thuslimitingthenumberandvalueofjobsitcanbid.Longtermpavementwarrantiescanespecially
taxbondingcapacityandsuretiesbecausethelongdurationtheymustbecarried.Also,thereisconsiderable
pressureonsureties;thosewhobondcontractors.Withawarrantyessentiallyholdingacontractoratriskfor
thewarrantyperiod,thesuretywillalsobeheldliableforthewarrantyperiod.Therequirementofaseparate
warrantybondhasbeenthecommonpracticeforcontractorsparticipatinginpavementwarrantycontracts.
Suretieshaveaverydifferentresponsibilitywhenevaluatingcontractorsbiddingonwarrantycontracts.Some
suretiesviewtheprocessasadifficultsituation.Forinstance,theyareessentiallyrequiredtopredictthatthe
contractorsthattheyinsurewillbeinbusinessfortheentirewarrantyperiod.Forsureties,themajorsources
ofriskwhenevaluatingcontractorsforwarrantyprojectsincludewarrantyperiod,financialstrength,project
experience,andpastperformance(Bayraktaretal.,2006).
Increasedcost.Warrantiesmayincreaseconstructioncostsbecause(1)higherqualityconstructionmaycost
morebecausebettermaterialsormoremeticulousmethodsareused,or(2)thecostofwarrantiesarebidinto
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contracts.Ultimately,awarrantytransfersrisktothecontractorandthatriskispriced.Theinclusionofa
warrantyprovisioncanincreasecontractcostsby510%(BayraktarM.etal.,2004).However,warrantieshave
alsoledtolowerpavementlifecyclecosts(Singhetal.,2007).SpecificallyinIndiana,someestimateshave
shownanincreaseofoverthirtypercentintheexpectedcosteffectivenessofawarrantyprogram(Singhetal.,
2007).
Difficultyinsettingobjectiveperformancemeasures.Itisdifficulttosettleonanobjectivesetofperformance
measuresbywhichanownercanjudgeapavementanddetermineifdefectsareduetocontractor
construction.Typicalperformancemeasurescanberoughness,rutdepth,surfacefrictionandcracking.Itis
oftendifficulttoestablishthatsuchitemsaredirectlyrelatedtoconstructionqualityandnotsomeotherfactor
suchasheavierthananticipatedloadingorpoorsubgrade.
Difficultinginstartingawarrantyprogram.Outsidestatesusingwarrantiesregularly,contractorexperienceis
limited.Themajorityofowneragenciesusingwarrantieshaveseenasimilarnumberofbiddersonprojects
comparedtoprojectswithoutwarranties.However,whenWestVirginiabeganitswarrantyprogram,ithad
manyprojectsthatcontainedasinglebidder(BayraktarM.etal.,2006).Contractorsshowedatendencyto
eithernotbidduetobeingconcernedabouttherisk,ortochargemoreonagivenbid.Ultimately,theremay
besometimeinvolvedwherecontractorsandowneragenciesbecomefamiliarwiththetermsofwarranties
andhowthesetermsareenforced.Duringthistime,itisnotuncommonforcontractorstobidhigherto
compensateforincreasedrisk.
StateofthePractice
TheFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)maintainsawebsiteonconstructionwarrantiesinfederalaid
contracts.Theyalsoincludeasubsectiononpavementwarranties(FHWA,2009).TableCA8.1listsvariousstates
withwarrantyexperienceinroadwayconstruction.
TableCA8.1:WarrantyProvisionsUsedbyVariousStates(FHWA2007)
Forfurtherdiscussionofwarrantycontracting,seeNCHRPReport451GuidelinesforWarranty,MultiParameter,
andBestValueContracting(Anderson&Russell,2001).
GLOSSARY
HMA/RubberizedHMA 38years AL,CA,CO,FL,IN,ME,MI,MO,MS,OH,NM,UT,WI
HMACrackTreatment 2years MI
PCCPavement 510years KY,ME,MI,MS,UT,WI
BridgeComponents 510years WA,ME,NM
BridgePainting 210years IN,MA,MD,ME,MI,NH
ChipSealing 12years CA,MI
ITSComponents/Buildings 23years VA,NC
Landscaping/Irrigation 1year WY
Microsurfacing 2years CO,MI,NV,OH
PavementMarking 26years FL,MT,OR,PA,UT,WV
SignSheeting 712years WV
Roofing 10years HI
Warranty Acollateralassuranceorguaranteebyasellerthatapropertyorgoodsareas
representedorpromised.Thisassuranceisoftenbackedbyaspecifically
statedremedyintheeventhepropertyorgoodfailstomeetthewarranty.
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