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Submitted By:Kavita Sharma MCA(5th Sem)-Morning Roll No.:-17 P.U.(chd)
Submitted To:Mr. Ajay Guleria Lecturer D.C.S.A. (PU)
Differences between HFS. ext2. UFS. ext3.4BSD Original operating system Linux. Hurd Linux Linux Limits File system Maximum filename length 255 bytes 255 bytes 256 bytes 31 bytes 255 bytes 255 bytes Allowable characters in directory entries Any byte except NUL and / Any byte except NUL and / Any byte except NUL and / Any byte except : Any byte except NUL Any byte except NUL Maximum pathname length No limit defined No limit defined No limit defined Unlimited No limit defined No limit defined Maximum file size 16 GB to 2 TB 16 GB to 2 TB 16 GB to 16 TB 2 GB 4 GB to 226 TB 512 GB to 32 PB Maximum volume size 2 TB to 32 TB 2 TB to 32 TB 1 EB (but user tools limited to 16 TB) 2 TB 226 TB 1 YB (10248 bytes) ext2 ext3 ext4 HFS UFS1 UFS2 . ext4 file systems General information File system ext2 ext3 ext4 HFS UFS1 Creator Rémy Card Stephen Tweedie various Apple Computer Kirk McKusick Year introduced 1993 1999 2006 1985 1994 Mac OS 4.
EXTFS With fuseYes ext2.6. EXTFS With fuseno ext2(partial) and ExtFS(full read/write) Yes yes With 3rd party app yes Metadata File System Stores file owner No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes POSIX Creation timestamps Last access Last content modification Disk copy created No Last metadata change timestamps No HFS UFS1 UFS2 ext2 ext3 ext4 No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Yes Unknown Yes Unknown Yes No Yes Unknown Yes .Supporting operating systems File system Windows 9x Windows NT Linux Mac OS Mac OS X FreeBSD Apple HFS Ext2 with 3 party app Unknown rd With 3 party app With Ext2Fsd (complete) or Ext2 IFS (partial) With Ext2Fsd (complete) or Ext2 IFS (partial) With Ext2Fsd(complete) or Ext2Read rd Yes Yes Yes No Yes ext3 Unknown Yes No Ext4 No Yes since kernel 2.28 No UFS1 Unknown Unknown partial No With fuseext2.
Features File System Hard Links Symbolic Links Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Block Journaling No No No No Yes Yes Metadataonly journaling No No No No Yes Yes Casesensitive No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Casepreserving Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes File Change Log No No No No No No HFS UFS1 UFS2 ext2 ext3 No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ext4 Allocation and layout policies File system Block suballocation Variable file block size Extents Allocate-on-flush Sparse files Transparent compressio n HFS Plus UFS1 UFS2 ext2 ext3 ext4 No No Yes Yes No Yes 8:1 8:1 No No No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No .
with the constraint that the block size will be at least block-size bytes. If omitted. or appears to be mounted. Extended options are comma separated. resize=max-online-resize Reserve enough space so that the block group descriptor table can grow to support a filesystem that has max-online-resize blocks. . then mke2fs will use heuristics to determine the appropriate block size. If omitted. -c Check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. then a slower. mke2fs automagically figures the file system size. read-write test is used instead of a fast read-only test. -f fragment-size Specify the size of fragments in bytes. If block-size is negative.g /dev/hdXX). 2048 and 4096 bytes per block. even if the specified device is not a block special device. The -E option used to be -R in earlier versions of mke2fs. The -R option is still accepted for backwards compatibility.ext3 a journal is created as if the -j option was specified.create an ext2/ext3 filesystem mke2fs is used to create an ext2/ext3 filesystem (usually in a disk partition).Some LINUX utilities Mke2fs:. Valid block size vales are 1024. This is useful for certain hardware devices which require that the blocksize be a multiple of 2k. -E extended-options Set extended options for the filesystem. -F Force mke2fs to run. Options -b block-size Specify the size of blocks in bytes. device is the special file corresponding to the device (e. and may take an argument using the equals ('=') sign. If this option is specified twice.mke2fs . If called as mkfs. blocks-count is the number of blocks on the device. The following extended options are supported: stride=stripe-size Configure the filesystem for a RAID array with stripe-size filesystem blocks per stripe. mke2fs block-size is heuristically determined by the file system size and the expected usage of the filesystem (see the -T option).
In all cases. If set to a greater value than the max-mountcounts parameter set by the -c option. If max-mountcounts is 0 or -1. A filesystem error detected by the kernel will still force an fsck on the next reboot. Options -c max-mount-counts Adjust the number of mounts after which the filesystem will be checked by e2fsck(8). cables. Staggering the mount-counts at which filesystems are forcibly checked will avoid all filesystems being checked at one time when using journaled filesystems.Tune2fs Name tune2fs . a filesystem error will cause e2fsck(8) to check the filesystem on the next boot. -C mount-count Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted. and kernel bugs could all corrupt a filesystem without marking the filesystem dirty or in error. Bad disk drives. but it may already be too late to prevent data loss at that point. memory. You should strongly consider the consequences of disabling mount-count-dependent checking entirely. error-behavior can be one of the following: continue . e2fsck(8) will check the filesystem at the next reboot. so it will not normally be checked.adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3 filesystems Description tune2fs allows the system administrator to adjust various tunable filesystem parameters on Linux ext2/ext3 filesystems. the number of times the filesystem is mounted will be disregarded by e2fsck(8) and the kernel. If you are using journaling on your filesystem. See also the -i option for time-dependent checking. -e error-behavior Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected. your filesystem will never be marked dirty.
The group parameter can be a numerical gid or a group name.check and repair a Linux file system Description fsck is used to check and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems. and the -A option is not specified. /home).Continue normal execution. Fsck fsck . a mount point (e. /usr. fsck will default to checking filesystems in /etc/fstab serially. /dev/hdc1. but that external journal is not available. or an ext2 label or UUID specifier (e. it is converted to a numerical gid before it is stored in the superblock.g. This option is useful when removing the has_journal filesystem feature from a filesystem which has an external journal (or is corrupted such that it appears to have an external journal). -f Force the tune2fs operation to complete even in the face of errors. panic Cause a kernel panic. the fsck program will try to handle filesystems on different physical disk drives in parallel to reduce the total amount of time needed to check all of the filesystems.g. This is equivalent to the -As options.g. /dev/sdb2). Normally. filesys can be a device name (e. -g group Set the group which can use reserved filesystem blocks. /. UUID=8868abf6-88c5-4a83-98b8-bfc24057f7bd or LABEL=root). . If a group name is given. If no filesystems are specified on the command line. WARNING: Removing an external journal from a filesystem which was not cleanly unmounted without first replaying the external journal can result in severe data loss and filesystem corruption. remount-ro Remount filesystem read-only.
and there is only a single filesystem given as an . They must have the format opts=fsoption. then only filesystems listed in /etc/fstab with the ro option will be checked. The fslist parameter is a comma-separated list of filesystems and options specifiers. Normally. This is a good idea if you are checking multiple filesystems and the checkers are in an interactive mode. If all of the filesystems in fslist are not prefixed by a negation operator.Usage or syntax error 32 . For compatibility with Mandrake distributions whose boot scripts depend upon an unauthorized UI change to the fsck program.Shared library error The exit code returned when multiple file systems are checked is the bit-wise OR of the exit codes for each file system that is checked.The exit code returned by fsck is the sum of the following conditions: 0 .Operational error 16 .File system errors corrected 2 . To make e2fsck(8) run in a non-interactive mode.File system errors left uncorrected 8 . you must either specify the -p or -a option. Options specifiers may be included in the comma-separated fslist. then only filesystems which contain fs-option in their mount options field of /etc/fstab will be checked.Fsck canceled by user request 128 . If the options specifier is prefixed by a negation operator. only filesystems that match fslist are checked. Options -s Serialize fsck operations.System should be rebooted 4 . then only those filesystems listed in fslist will be checked. For example. if you wish for errors to be corrected automatically. which requests that only those filesystems not listed in fslist will be checked. All of the filesystems in this comma-separated list may be prefixed by a negation operator 'no' or '!'. if a filesystem type of loop is found in fslist. the filesystem type is deduced by searching for filesys in the /etc/fstab file and using the corresponding entry. if opts=ro appears in fslist. If the type can not be deduced. When the -A flag is specified. then only those filesystems that do not have fs-option in their mount options field of /etc/fstab will be checked. If an options specifier is present. or the -n option if you do not. it is treated as if opts=loop were specified as an argument to the -t option. (Note: e2fsck(8) runs in an interactive mode by default.No errors 1 .) -t fslist Specifies the type(s) of file system to be checked.
fsck will attempt to check them in parallel. . a very common configuration in /etc/fstab files is to set the root filesystem to have a fs_passno value of 1 and to set all other filesystems to have a fs_passno value of 2. Filesystems with a fs_passno value of greater than zero will be checked in order. with filesystems with the lowest fs_passno number being checked first. filesystems will be checked in the order specified by the fs_passno (the sixth) field in the /etc/fstab file. System administrators might choose not to use this configuration if they need to avoid multiple filesystem checks running in parallel for some reason --. fsck will use the specified filesystem type. If there are multiple filesystems with the same pass number. then the default file system type (currently ext2) is used.for example. After that. If this type is not available. This will allow fsck to automatically run filesystem checkers in parallel if it is advantageous to do so. The root filesystem will be checked first unless the -P option is specified (see below). although it will avoid running multiple filesystem checks on the same physical disk. if the machine in question is short on memory so that excessive paging is a concern. This option is typically used from the /etc/rc system initialization file. Filesystems with a fs_passno value of 0 are skipped and are not checked at all. Hence. -A Walk through the /etc/fstab file and try to check all file systems in one run.argument to the -t option. instead of multiple commands for checking a single file system.
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