1.

Discuss comprehensively why pre-conceptual care should be given to a woman/mother before the decision to bear a child? Preconceptual care is important because it includes: Informed choice, which helps women and men to understand health issues that may affect conception and pregnancy. y Women and their partners being encouraged to prepare actively for pregnancy, and be as healthy as possible. Identifying couples who are at increased risk of having babies with a genetic malformation.
y

Provide them with sufficient knowledge to make informed decisions Preconcentual care is a informed choice that help the mother and the father to plan and understand the problems during conception and pregnancy. This will prevent or reduce possible risk factors and abnormalities during early stages of pregnancy because it provide appropriate knowledge about healthy pregnancy. 2. Do you think genetic counseling is important during this period? If so, why? Discuss fully. Genetic counseling is the process of:
y y y y

evaluating family history and medical records ordering genetic tests evaluating the results of this investigation helping parents understand and reach decisions about what to do next

Genetic tests are done by analyzing small samples of blood or body tissues. It is important because it determine whether the couple, or future baby carry genes for certain inherited disorders. *This process is important because genetic counseling is a procedure by which patient and families give advice about the nature and consequences of inhered disorder. Genetic counseling evaluates and investigates family history about genetic problems. The procedure can help to diagnose and prevent possible chromosomal problem such as down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease and many more.

Exercise #2 (page 16) A. Discuss fully the importance of each of the following laboratory/ diagnostic procedures used to assess a pregnant woman: y 1. Rubella antititer test Rubella titer is a test that helps determine if a patient can develop German measles. This rubella antibody titer is a test that is very important for women who are of

4. Antibodies are usually a good thing and serve to protect a person from foreign invaders. If the titers are not elevated. on the other hand is the presence of sugar in the urine and this may indicate gestational diabetes that can cause macrosomia and abortion. Rh incompatibilities happen when Rh negative blood is exposed to Rh positive blood the Rh negative person begins producing antibodies to fight the invading blood. Glycosuria. Albunimuria is the presence or protein in the urine and this may signify presence of ecclampsia or preeclampsia. Such as amniocentesis or external examination. Urine culture is done to determine the type of bacteria present to the urine which is very essential in determining the appropriate type of antibiotic to be given to the pregnant woman. Serologic test for syphilis A serologic test for syphilis (VDRL or rapid plasma regain test is a blood test to find if syphilis is present. Syphilis is an infection that is spread through sexual contact. Antigens trigger your body to produce antibodies. Analysis and culture of urine specimen Urinalysis is performed to detect albuminuria. Antibody screen This can also be called Indirect Coomb s Test (determination if Rh antibodies are present). If syphilis is present during pregnancy. 5. an Rh negative woman will receive RhIg (RhoGaM) at 28 weeks of pregnancy and after any procedure that may cause placental bleeding. 2. Discuss the effects of ionizing radiation to the fetus. it is most likely that the pregnant woman with active syphilis will pass the infection to her unborn child and may cause stillbirth and death to infants. y 3. It is used to determine the presence of adequate protection within the body against the rubella virus. When is it therapeutic and or hazardous to the fetus? y y y y . glycosuria and pyuria. And lastly. This happens when the maternal IgGantibodies with specificity for the ABO blood group system pass through the placenta to the fetal circulation where they can cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells which can lead to fetal anemia and HDN RH determination is done to be prepared for Rh incompatibilities. Blood type and Rh determination Blood typing is done before pregnancy to be prepared for ABO incompatibility of the mother to the child for if this happens ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as ABO HDN) will occur. pyuria is the presence of pus in the urine which indicates urinary tract infection that may cause abortion and early labor. This test is repeated at 28 weeks of pregnancy.y child bearing age or pregnant. B.

In fact. an Rh negative woman will receive RhIg (RhoGaM) at 28 weeks of pregnancy and after any procedure that may cause placental bleeding. If the mother is Rh-negative. But the most important thing is that practically none of the diagnostic radiological procedures will affect an embryo at this late stage of pregnancy and certainly there is no risk for birth defects or miscarriage from the range of exposures that occur from diagnostic studies. This rubella antibody titer is a test that is very important for women who are of child bearing age or pregnant. It is used to determine the presence of adequate protection within the body against the rubella virus. when the fetus is completely developed. On the other hand. If the titers are not elevated. it has become more resistant to the developmental effects of radiation.Ionizing radiation is considered to be therapeutic when the procedure is beneficial to the mother for it helps in diagnosing a certain disease and to the the baby as long as the exposure of the embryo is less than 5 rad or 50 mSv. These anti-Rh antibodies may cross back through the placenta into the developing baby and destroy the baby's circulating red blood cells Antibody screen This can also be called Indirect Coomb¶s Test (determination if Rh antibodies are present). Blood teyping in pregnancy will help to find out if the newborn inflicted with ABO hemolytic disease. This is a condition that develops when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the baby in her womb has Rh-positive blood. Syphilis can transmitted through sexual contact but it can also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy that could lead to congenital syphilis or death of e newborn . ABO incompatibility is a reaction of the immune system that occurs if two different and not compatible blood types are mixed together. it is considered to be therapeutic when radiation exposure happens beyond the 20th week of pregnancy. Blood type and RH dermination. This test is repeated at 28 weeks of pregnancy. the fetus is probably no more vulnerable to many of the effects of radiation than the mother in the latter part of pregnancy. *rubella antitier test Rubella titer is a test that helps determine if a patient can develop German measles. her immune system treats Rh-positive fetal cells as if they were a foreign substance and makes antibodies against the fetal blood cells. Rh determination is a test to determine Rh incompatibility. Such as amniocentesis or external examination Serologic Test For Syphilis This procedure can help to diagnose someone who had infected of syphilis infection.

pertains to the previous or past state. type.pertains to information regarding current state. Exercise #3 (page 19) 1. Describe the risk assessment measures recommended for routine prenatal visits in uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies. Current Obstetric Status .Analysis and culture of urine specimen Examination of the urine can help to recognize problems during pregnancy. High sugar level in the urine may indicate gestational diabetes. High levels of protein may indicate an infection of the bladder. complications and anomalies related to pregnancy that is very essential in preventing the occurrence of same problems on the succeeding pregnancy Medical History .A way of life or style of living that reflects the attitudes and values of a person or groupfd .refers to history of illnesses or diseases occurred to a woman before and during pregnancy but not related to pregnancy or delivery. Risk Assessment Measures Obstetric History . type and anomalies that is related to pregnancy Lifestyle . PIH my occur during pregnancy if the mother has a high blood pressure and large amount of protein in the urine.

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