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# Mobile Communication Basics - Cell Reselection Parameters

C1 = RX level RX Level Access Min + Power Offset Max [(MS_TX_PWR_MAX_CCH P), 0] Following parameter settings for our network,
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## Power Offset = 0 MS_TX_PWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm RX Level Access Min = -102 dBm

For GSM900 mobile P = 33 dBm Then, C1GSM = RX level GSM (-102) + 0 Max [ (33 33),0] C1GSM = RX level GSM + 102 + 0 Max [0,0] C1GSM = RX level GSM + 102 For GSM 1800 mobile P = 30 dBm Then, C1DCS = RX level DCS (-102) + 0 Max [33-30,0] C1 DCS = RX level DCS + 102 Max [3,0] C1 DCS = RX level DCS + 102 3 C1 DCS = RX level DCS + 99 C2 = C1+ CRO TO* H (PT-T) According to Huawei default parameter settings, TO = 0 PT = 0 Then,

C2 = C1 + CRO C2 GSM = RX level GSM + 102 + CRO C2 DCS = RX level DCS + 99 + CRO According to our network settings, CRODCS = 8 (16dB), CROGSM = 0 (0dB), Then, C2GSM = RX levelGSM + 102 + 0 C2DCS = RX levelDCS + 99 + 16 C2GSM = RX levelGSM + 102 C2DCS = RX levelDCS + 115 For reselection, C2target > C2serving (for 5 seconds) Some examples: Example1: If both cells are GSM cells (Cell A & Cell B) Then, C2A > C2B (for 5 seconds) to reselect to Cell A RX levelA + 102 > RX levelB + 102 Which means, RX levelA > RX levelB (for 5 seconds) is enough for a cell reselection If both cells are DCS, then it is same as 2 GSM cells. Example2: If one cell is GSM & other is DCS, find the requirement to reselect to DCS cell.

Then, C2DCS > C2GSM (for 5 seconds) to reselect to Cell A RX levelDCS + 115 > RX levelGSM + 102 RX levelDCS > RX levelGSM + 102 115 RX levelDCS > RX levelGSM 13 Which means RX levelDCS > RX levelGSM 13 (for 5 seconds) is enough for a cell reselection to DCS Cell If RX levelGSM = -80 dBm, then RX levelDCS > RX levelGSM 13 RX levelDCS > -80 13 RX levelDCS > -93 dBm

## How to improve Hand Over Success Rate

t is very important to maintain correct neighbour plan and do the basics. If you do not follow the basics of neighbour planning, it is very limited to possibilities to improve HOSR by using parameters. Edge, Layer, PBGT, Quality or Load sharing handovers will not work properly if we do not have correct neighbour plan. Therefore we must work on HO basics as the first step to improve HOSR. 1). Define correct neighbours Still it is found many neighbour relations are missing even co-located neighbours. Initially we can find missing neighbours by using Nastar. After that we should work on tools available in BSCs which give you real HO requirements in the field (Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurements in BSC32 and Neighbour Cell Optimization tool in BSC6000, unfortunately still we are not able to use these tools available with the BSC6000 & M2000). 2). Method of removing neighbours Based on HO statistics, this is the best and only method that I suggest to remove neighbours. We can remove HO relations which have fewer no of HOs and cells having poor HOSR, but it depends on the importance of the neighbour to avoid call drops). Further Nastar is not a good tool to remove neighbours.

3). Same BCCH & BSIC combinations Avoid same BCCH+BSIC combination is very important to improve HOSR. In this case it is better to keep maximum possible distance between same BCCH+BSIC combinations. I recommend keeping 6km distance in urban area. Again this checking should be done periodically since many new sites become on-air time to time. 4). External neighbour parameters This is very important since there are many BSC borders in the City area. Many hand over improvement can be achieved in the city area by improving inter BSC HOSR. This external neighbour parameter checking has to be done periodically. 4). Frequency plan Co-channel interference degrades HOSR. Proper neighbour relations will increase HOSR while improving all other KPIs such as CDR, Congestion and CSSR. I expect your support to improve HOSR by following above steps.

## Mobile Communication Basics - Location Update

Why location updates? Network has to identify where is the mobile is located to page it when an incoming call is received. Why cannot page the entire network? Millions of calls receive every moment, the capacity is not enough if network page all those millions of calls in each and every base station in the network. Therefore it is required to divide the network in to LAC. What is the suitable LAC size? It is depends on many factors. But smaller location area avoids paging channel congestions. But having many LACs would increase SDCCH traffic in LAC border cells. Therefore city centers, highways have to be avoided as much as possible to minimize number of location updates. What is the largest LAC?

Single MSC

What is the smallest LAC? Single cell Location Update Types Three types of location updates are defined in GSM standards.
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Normal location updating IMIS attach location updating procedure Periodic location updating

Normal location updating MS has to do a location update in new location area when it crosses a LAC border. IMIS attach location updating procedure
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When mobile switch ON it has to do a location update When moving from non coverage area to a coverage area MS has to do a location update if LAC is different from stored LAC When mobile switch OFF it has to detached from the network

Periodic location updating (T3212 timer is used) The network has to do a periodic location updates to update the subscribers in each location area.

How does the network distinguish between 'switched off' and 'not responding' when giving messages to the caller?
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Mobile detached from VLR when it switched off. Mobile registered in VLR but not in coverage area.

## Mobile Communication Basics -External Cell Parameters

t is required to define correct data in external cells to have a proper inter-BSC handovers & interMSC handovers, especially values of Layer, Layer Threshold and Minimum DL Power of the candidate cell. This might be happened after the cutovers or wrong initial configuration by BSS team. Anyhow this will cause poor HO performance while increasing call drops. Further it will affect traffic balancing in border cells as well. Therefore we should give more priority to maintain correct external cell data inside the city area since there are many BSC borders. Therefore, it is better to give more priority to maintain correct external cell parameters. Parameters mentioned in below tables are required to be checked such as layer, layer threshold, cell priority and Min DL level on Candidate Cell parameters of external cells. Concept behind this is external cell parameters must be equal to original cell parameters. In this case, your BSCs external cell parameters should be equal to neighbour BSCs original cell parameters BSC6000
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2G External Cell Name BCCH No. MNC MCC LAC CI NCC BCC Whether to Share MSC Layer Where the Cell Is Located Priority Level of Cell Inter-layer Handover Threshold Speed Penalty Value Speed Penalty Time Minimum DL Power of Candidate Handover Cell

When to check
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After a BSC cutover After define new neighbour plan After change frequency plan (BCCH+BSIC) After implementing a new LAC plan After change other parameters which mentioned above (it is better to do external cell parameter audit at least once every 2 week since it is difficult to monitor all these parameter changes in daily basis)

How to check
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Using Excel vlookup function Nastar import autocfg files of neighbour BSCs and your own BSC and run Frequency & Neighbour Config. Para. Check

## 4.3 Serial Parameters of Cell Selection and Reselection

4.3.1 cell_bar_access
I. Definition In the SI broadcasted in each cell, a bit indicates whether the MS is allowed to access the network in the cell, namely, cell_bar_access. II. Format The value of cell_bar_access includes 1 and 0. The value 0 indicates that MS is allowed to access the network from the cell. The value 1 indicates that the MS is barred to access the network from the cell. Actually whether to allow MS to access the network from the cell is determined by both cell_bar_access and cell_bar_qualify. III. Configuration and Influence The cell_bar_access is configured by equipment room operators. Usually the MS is allowed to access the network from all the cells, so cell_bar_access is configured to 0. In special situations, the operators want some cell for handover service only, so cell_bar_access is configured to 1 The MS usually works in microcells (you can configure the priority of cells and reselection parameters to enable this). When the MS is calling while moving fast, the network force MS to hand over to the base station G. The signals of base station G are stronger than microcell base station in most areas. When the call terminates, the MS just camps near base station G and at edge of microcell cells, the MS will not reselect a cell according to GSM regulations, therefore the MS cannot return to microcell. The capacity of base station G is usually small, so the previous phenomenon leads to congestion of base station G. To solve the problem, you can configure the cell_bar_access to 1, namely, to forbid MS directly accessing base station G. In area A, handover is allowed to base station G. IV. Precautions The cell_bar_access is used only in some special areas. For common cells, it is configured to 0.

4.3.2 cell_bar_qualify
I. Definition The cell_bar_qualify determines the priority of cells, namely, it enables MS to select some cell by preference.

II. Format The value of cell_bar_qualify includes 1 and 0. The cell_bar_qualify and cell_bar_access determine the priority state of cells, as listed in Table 1-4.

## Table 7-1 Cell priorities

cell_bar_qualify 0 0 1 1 cell_bar_access 0 1 0 1 Cell selection priority Normal Barred Low Low Cell reselection state Normal Barred Normal Normal

An exception is that the cell selection priority and cell reselection state are normal when the following conditions are met:
    

The cell belongs to the PLMN which the MS belongs to. The MS is in cell test operation mode. The cell_bar_access is 1. The cell_bar_qualify is 0. The access control class 15 is disabled.

III. Configuration and Influence The priority of all the cells are usually configured to normal, namely, cell_bar_qualify = 0. In microcell and dualband networking, operators might want MS to camps on the cell of some type by preference. In this situation, the equipment room operators can configure the priority of these cells to normal and other cells to low. During cell selection, when the proper cells with normal as the priority is not present (proper cells means that all parameters meet the conditions for cell selection, namely, C1 > 0, and the cell is allowed to access), the MS will select cells with low priority. IV. Precautions Pay attention to the following aspects:


When cell priority is used as a method to optimize network, the cell_bar_qualify only affects cell selection, without any influence on cell reselection. You must optimize the network by combining cell_bar_qualify and C2.  During cell selection, when the proper cells with normal as the priority is not present, the MS will select cells with low priority. Therefore when the level of the cell with normal priority is low, and cells with low priority and high level are present, the MS will access the network slowly while powering on.

## 4.3.3 Minimum Received Level Allowing MS to Access (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN)

I. Definition To avoid bad communication quality, call drop, and a waste of network radio resources due to MS accessing the network at low received signal level, GSM regulations prescribe that when an MS accesses the network the received level must be greater than the threshold level, namely, the minimum received level allowing MS to access. II. Format The value range of RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is from 110 dBm to 47 dBm. III. Configuration and Influence The recommended RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN needs to be approximately equal to the receiving sensitivity of MS. The RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN affects cell selection parameter C1, so it is important to traffic adjustment and network optimization. For cells with over high traffic and severe congestion, you can increase RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. In this way, the C1 and C2 of the cells decrease, and the effective coverage range decreases. You must not configure RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN over great, because this might cause non-seamless coverage and complaints for signal fluctuation. It is recommended that the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is smaller than or equal to 90 dBm. IV. Precautions Except for areas of high density of base stations and of qualified coverage, adjusting cell traffic by RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is not recommended.

## 4.3.4 Additional Reselection Parameter Indicator

I. Definition The cell selection and reselection by MS depends on the parameters C1 and C2. Whether C2 is the cell reselection parameter is determined by network operators. Additional reselection parameter indicator (ADDITIONAL RESELECT) informs MS of whether to use C2 in cell reselection. II. Format ADDITIONAL RESELECT consists of 1 bit. In SI3, it is meaningless, and equipment manufacturers configure it to N. The MS uses ADDITIONAL RESELECT of SI4.

When ADDITIONAL RESELECT is configured to N, the meaning is: if the rest bytes of SI4 (SI4RestOctets) are present, the MS must abstract and calculate parameters related to C2 and related cell reselection parameter PI.


When ADDITIONAL RESELECT is configured to Y, the meaning is that the MS must abstract and calculate parameters related to C2 and related cell reselection parameter PI.

III. Configuration and Influence Cells seldom use SI7 and SI8, so you can configure ADDITIONAL RESELECT to N. When cells use SI7 and SI8, and the parameter C2 is used in cell reselection, you can configure ADDITIONAL RESELECT to Y.

## 4.3.5 Cell Reselection Parameter Indicator

I. Definition The cell reselection parameter indicator (CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND) is used in informing MS of whether C2 is a cell reselection parameter and whether C2 is present. II. Format The value of CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND includes Y and N, with the meanings as follows:


Y: The MS must calculate C2 by abstracting parameters from SIs of cell broadcast, and set C2 as the standard for cell reselection.  N: The MS must set C1 as the standard, namely, C2 = C1.

III. Configuration and Influence The equipment room operators determine the value of PI. Configure PI to Y if related cells set C2 as the standard for cell reselection; otherwise, configure it to N.

## 4.3.6 Cell Reselection Offset, Temporary Offset, and Penalty Time

I. Definition After the MS selects a cell, without great change of all the conditions, the MS will camp on the selected cell. Meanwhile, it does as follow:

Starts measuring signals level of BCCH carrier in neighbor cells.  Records the 6 neighbor cells with greatest signal level.  Abstract various SI and control information of each neighbor cell from the 6 cells.


When conditions are met, the MS hands over from the selected cell to another. This process is called cell reselection. The conditions include:
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Cell priority Whether the cell is barred to access Radio channel level (important)

When the signal level of neighbor cells exceeds that of the serving cell, cell reselection occurs. The channel level standard used in cell reselection is C2, with the calculation as follows:

1) When PENELTY_TIME 11111: C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET * H (PENALTY_TIME - T) Wherein, if PENALTY_TIME - T (x) < 0, the function H(x) = 0; if x 0, H(x) = 1. 2) When PENELTY_TIME = 11111: C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
T is a timer, with 0 as the initial value. When a cell is listed by MS in the list of cells with maximum signal level, start T with step of 4.62ms (a TDMA frame). When the cell is removed from the list, the associated T is reset. After cell reselection, the T of original cell works as PENALTY_TIME. Namely, temporary offset is not performed on the original cell. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (CRO) modifies cell reselecting time C2. TEMPORARY_OFFSET (TO) is supplemented to C2 from starting working of T to the prescribed time. PENALTY_TIME is the time for TEMPORARY_OFFSET having effect on C2. When PENALTY_TIME = 11111, the MS is informed of using C2 = C1 CRO. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET, and PENALTY_TIME are cell reselection parameters.


When the cell reselection parameter PI is 1, the MS is informed of receiving values of three parameters on BCCH.  If PI is 0, the MS judges that the previous three parameters are 0, namely C2 = C1.

If the C2 of a cell (in the same location area as the serving cell) calculated by MS is greater than the C2 of the cell where MS camps, and this lasts for over 5s, the MS reselects to camp on the cell. If the C2 of a cell (in different location area as the serving cell) calculated by MS is greater than the sum of C2 of the cell where MS camps and cell reselect hysteresis, and this lasts for over 5s, the MS reselects to camp on the cell. The interval between two reselections is at least 15s, and this avoids frequent cell reselection by MS. C2 is formed on the combination of C1 and artificial offset parameters. The artificial offset parameters help MS camp on or prevent MS from camping on some cell. This balances the traffic of the network. II. Format

1) The cell reselection offset (CRO) is in decimal, with unit of dB. It ranges from 0 to 63, which means 0 to 126 dB (2 dB as the step). The recommended value is 0.

2) The temporary offset (TO) is in decimal, with unit of dB. It ranges from 0 to 7, which means 0 to 70 dB (10 dB as the step). The recommended value is 0. 3) The penalty time (PT) is in decimal, with unit of second. It ranges from 0 to 31. The value 0 to 30 means 20s to 620s (20s as the step). The value 31 is reserved for changing the effect direction of C2 by CRO. The recommended value is 0.
III. Configurationa and Influence The previous parameters can be adjusted accordingly in the following three situations:

1) When the communication quality is bad due to heavy traffic or other causes, change the parameters to enable MS not camps on the cell (the cell is exclusive from the MS). For this situation, configure PT to 31, so TO is ineffective. C2 = C1 CRO. The C2 is artificially lowered. So the probability for MS to reselect the cell decreases. In addition, the equipment room operators can configure CRO to a proper value according to the exclusive level of the cell by MS. The greater the exclusion is, the greater the CRO is. 2) For cells with low traffic and equipment of low utilization, change the parameters to enable MS to camp on the cell (the cell is prior). In this situation, configure CRO to 020 dB according to the priority. The higher the priority is, the greater the CRO is. TO is configured the same as or a little greater than CRO. PT helps avoid over frequent cell reselection, the recommended value of PT is 20s or 40s. 3) For cell with average traffic, configure CRO to 0, PT to 11111 so that C2 = C1. No artificial influence is on the cell.
IV. Precautions In whatever situations, the CRO must not be greater than 30 dB, because over great CRO leads to unstable network, such as complaints about signal fluctuation.

## 4.3.7 Cell Reselection Hysteresis (CRH)

I. Definition CRH affects cell reselection of cross location area. The MS starts cell reselection if the following conditions are met:

The signal level of neighbor cell (in different location area) is greater than that of the serving cell.  The difference between the signal levels of the neighbor cell and the serving cell must be greater than the value prescribed by cell reselection hysteresis.


The difference is based on the cell reselection methods used by MS. If the MS reselects a cell with C2, then compare values of C2.

II. Format CRH is in decimal, with unit of dB. The range is 0 to 14, with step of 2 dB. The recommended value is 4. III. Configuration and Influence If the original cell and target cell belongs to different location areas, the MS must originate a location updating process after cell reselection. Due to the attenuation feature of radio channels, the C2 of two cells measured at the bordering area of neighbor cells fluctuates much, so the MS reselect cells frequently. The interval between two reselections is over 15s, which is rather short for location updating. The signal flow of network increases sharply, radio resources cannot be fully utilized. During location updating, the MS cannot respond to paging, so the connection rate decreases. Adjust CRH according to signal flow and coverage. When signal flow overloads or location updating of cross location area is frequent, the cell reselection hysteresis is increased as recommended. You must avoid abnormal coverage due to over large location area. IV. Precautions Do not configure CRH to 0 dB.