History of the Normans

{ Gesta Normannorum }
by Dudo of St. Quentin 960 - 1026


A powerful work of semi-imaginary history which gave the Normans a past, present, and future at the outset of their triumphant century. Completed in or soon after 1015 by a visiting French scholar, it is a study in verse and prose of one family's rise from defeat and exile in the world of the heathen Vikings to an honoured place among the great territorial rulers of France. It recounts two campaigns in England by the founder, Rollo, and a series of stirring political, military and religious events on the Continent, most notably the dreadful murder of Rollo's son William, and the kidnapping, escape and precarious early career of Dudo's first patron, Count Richard I.

Dudo of St. Quentin

DUDO, or DUDON, Norman historian, was dean of St Quentin, where he was born about 965. Sent in 986 by Albert I. count of Vermandois, on an errand to Richard I., duke of Normandy, he succeeded in his mission, and, having made a very favorable impression at the Norman court, spent some years in that country. During a second stay in Normandy Dudo wrote his history of the Normans, a task which Duke Richard I. had urged him to undertake. Very little else is known about his life, except that he died before 1043. Written between 1015 and 1030, his Historia Normannoruin, or Libri III. de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum, was dedicated to Adalberon, bishop of Laon. Dudo does not appear to have consulted any existing documents for his history, but to have obtained his information from oral tradition, much of it being supplied by Raoul, count of Ivry, a half-brother of Duke Richard I. Consequently the Historia partakes of the nature of a romance, and on this ground has been regarded as untrustworthy by such competent critics as E. Dummler and G. Waitz. Other authorities, however, e.g. J. Lair and J. Steenstrup, while admitting the existence of a legendary element, regard the book as of considerable value for the history of the Normans. Although Dudo was acquainted with Virgil and other Latin writers, his Latin is affected and obscure. The Historia, which is written alternately in prose and in verse of several metres, is divided into four parts, and deals with the history of the Nornians from 852 to the death of Duke Richard I. in 996. It glorifies the Normans, and was largely used by William of Jumiges, Wace, Robert of Torigni, Wiffiam of Poitiers and Hugh of Fleury in compiling their chronicles, and was first published by A.Duchesne in his Historiae Normannorum scriptores antiqui, at Paris in 1619. Another edition is in the Fatrologia Latina, tome cxli. of J. P. Migne (Paris, 1844), but the best is perhaps the one edited by J. Lair (Caen, 1865).

Introduction Felice Lifshitz

Translator's Prefatory Statement The primary aim of this translation is to make available to students a primary source to serve as an introduction to a period in European history, namely the tenth century, which is very poorly supplied at present with material suitable for classroom use. If my own experience in classrooms can be taken as a guide, introductions to translations for teaching purposes can often be venerated by students out of all proportion to their value, and tend to remain influential for much longer than their orientations can be said to match the mood of the professoriate utilizing the texts. In hopes of avoiding encouraging such a development, I will confine myself in this introduction to explaining the rationale behind the translation, while providing only minimal "guidance" concerning the author, his period or his project. The Date of Composition of the Text If we can believe Dudo himself, writing in the dedicatory letter to bishop Adalbero of Laon (note 1), which serves as a preface to the work, duke Richard I of Normandy commissioned a history from the cleric of St. Quentin and, after Richard's death, other members of the Norman ducal house continued to patronize the author in the hopes that he would complete the task. Dudo writes that the commission was delivered two years before the death of Richard I. According to the oldest manuscript copies of Dudo's narrative, that doleful event took place either in 996 or 1002. The former year, 996, is the one that is usually deemed acceptable by scholars; however, it is symptomatic of the difficulties involved in studying the period in question that the later date, 1002, was both

preferred by the scribes of the oldest extant manuscript copies of the text (Bern, Bürgerbibliothek, Bongars 390 of the early eleventh century and Berlin, Staatsbibliothek - Preußischer Kulterbesitz, Philipps 1854 of the late eleventh century) and was left "uncorrected" by the owners of the Berlin manuscript, namely the monks of the Norman monastery of Fécamp, the very place where duke Richard died and was buried. If determining the date at which Dudo began to write is difficult, determing the date at which he finished writing is even more problematic. Returning to the author's dedicatory epistle to bishop Adalbero, we find that Dudo there possesses, in the salutation, the title "decanus" (dean) of the community of canons of St. Quentin in the Vermandois. Because this same Dudo is called simply a "canonicus" (canon) of St. Quentin in a charter of duke Richard II which dates from 1015, (note 2). it is usually concluded that Dudo completed his Norman history late in 1015, after receiving a promotion to "decanus." (note 3). Because the charter itself survives in the original, and not in some later copy, its own authenticity is not in doubt. (note 4). Nevertheless, the reasoning behind this particular terminus post quem ("limit after which") is not iron clad. Let us consider the charter of 1015. Dudo himself wrote the first four lines of the 1015 charter, calling himself the "capellanus" (chaplain) of duke Richard II. (note 5) Another scribe wrote the rest of the charter and called Dudo a "canonicus." The appellation does not, therefore, have the kind of authority which it would have had had it come from Dudo's own pen. Yet, even if Dudo did use the title "canonicus" in 1015, that would not in and of itself preclude his already having become the "decanus" of the congregation. When a canon became dean of St. Quentin, he did not thereby cease to be a canon of the community; witness the following verbal construction from a typical charter in the cartulary (collection of charters) of St. Quentin, which refers to "the dean and the other canons of the church of blessed Quintinus." (note 6). The 1015 charter represents, in a sense, Dudo's will, whereby he is guaranteed by Richard II that he may

bequeath to his monastic family certain benefices which he had been given by Richard I; at this moment, it is understandable that Dudo would have emphasized his status as a member of the familia or community of the monastery, rather than his official position over it. Finally, if Dudo was not the dean of the community at the time of the 1015 charter, there is no reason to assume that he necessarily became dean after drawing up the charter rather than that he had been dean before drawing up the charter. The deanship of a canonry is not a lifetime position from which one cannot abdicate; indeed, it is precisely the sort of position from which one might resign in order to become the "capellanus" of Richard II, the position which Dudo describes himself as holding in the charters of 1011 and 1015. To complicate matters even more, let us add to the evidentiary calculus materials beyond the dedicatory epistle and the two ducal charters. Can we be certain that we ought to trust the salutation of the dedicatory epistle when it refers to Dudo as the "decanus" of St. Quentin, whether in 1015 or at any other time? The dedicatory epistle does appear in a number of the earlier manuscript copies of the text; however, none of those is separated from the date of Dudo's own writing by fewer than several decades. On the other hand, the Annals of St. Quentin, written in a ninth-century manuscript from St. Quentin and then updated by tenthand eleventh-century hands contemporary with the events recorded, describe the rule of "abbates" (abbots) and "custodes" (guardians) throughout the period in question, with no reference to anyone named Dudo, or indeed to any "decani." (note 7) Against a background of such uncertainty, it is difficult to see how we can assert anything more specific than that Dudo wrote the history which is translated here during the late tenth and/or early eleventh centuries, while associated in a variety of ways with the ruling family of ducal Normandy.

The Text Used on Which the Translation is Based Dudo's history of Viking Normandy, like the vast majority of texts written before the age of the printing press, survives in a fairly large number of manuscripts, all of which differ from one another in a variety of ways, but most of which were copied during the eleventh or twelfth centuries, the hey-day of the popularity of the text. (note 8) This translation renders, for the most part, the copy produced, in the second half of the eleventh century, at Mont-St.-Michel, a monastery just off the French coast near the "border" between the regions of Normandy and Brittany. The manuscript was owned, in the twelfth century, by the Norman monastery of Fécamp, also on the Channel coast, and is listed in the twelfth-century library catalogue of that house under the title "Gesta Normannorum" or "Deeds of the Normans." (note 9) That manuscript is now Berlin, Staatsbibliothek - Preußischer Kulturbesitz Philipps ms. 1854. I decided, in the course of making this translation, not to "re" construct and translate "the" text as it hypothetically left the pen of its author, but to make available "a" text of Dudo's history that was actually read, or which (at least) was actually present in someone's library collection. The first few drafts of the translation, made in the late 1980s, in fact did render that composite version of the various manuscripts (i.e. the "edition") created by Jules Lair and published in 1865. (note 10). The next few drafts rendered my own attempt at a "critical edition," that is yet another composite version of the various manuscripts, evolved in part through consultation with Gerda Huisman of the National Library of Groningen in The Netherlands. However, the final few drafts and ultimately the version here presented, were the result of my becoming, in approximately 1993, absolutely persuaded that "editions" of medieval texts can only be, at best, misleading. I was first introduced to the debate over the value of so-called "critical editions" approximately ten years ago, when Joseph-Claude Poulin of the Université Laval gave me a copy of an article by Leonard Boyle. (note 11)

when dealing with pre-1450 texts. It now seems to me to be irrelevant whether we can or cannot accurately re-construct the version of a text produced by a given author at a particular moment. (note 12) I do not deny the reality or the importance of the person of Dudo of St. breathless. a chance to get a cup of . s/he could succeed. I did render each chapter as a continuous. begging for a break. none of the manuscripts. Quentin. we offer to our readers a text that no one ever saw. run-on paragraph. taking into account every possible clue offered by the various manuscript witnesses. we fail. as is more likely." The chapter divisions. the arabic numerals assigned to the chapters are my additions. But a reader (of a grant proposal) complained. At the time I was persuaded by his arguments. Boyle's arguments soon came to appear. we succeed. by grace of some mysterious cosmic luck. where new paragraphs are indicated by extra-large. At one more courageous point in time. (note 13) Unfortunately (perhaps). contains paragraph divisions. to my mind. sentence divisions and intra-sentence punctuation of the translation are those of the Berlin manuscript. If. However. and it was under the influence of his call for scrupulous transcriptions that I began my own attempt to establish "the" text of Dudo's narrative. my courage has sometimes failed me. including the Berlin one. a figment of our own imaginations. completely beside the point. However.Boyle argued that despite the enormous difficulty inherent in any attempt to "re-create" the "original" version of a pre printing-era text as it left the pen of its author. but I do insist that we shift our focus. if. colored initials. Furthermore. if the editor were careful and painstaking enough. in a number of ways. sacrificed "authenticity" for "readability. away from the "modern" construct of the edition and towards the pre-"modern" concrete reality of the manuscript. except on the first few pages of the text. I have made concessions and compromises and have. Some of the more radical participants in recent literarycritical debates have attacked the very idea of an "author" for preprinting-era texts. we will still only offer to our readers a text that almost no one ever saw.

" Every time I have "overridden" the readings of the Berlin manuscript. have any relevance to the Frankish world around the year 1000. whereas the substitution of the readings from some other manuscript suddenly made the passage perfectly clear. the occasional concessions to "readability" are not tantamount to a complete capitulation before the siren-song of the "edition. The manuscript version to which I have appealed most frequently was . another scholarly convention). both of which are standard features of "modern" scholarship and which have caused me to number the chapters for the convenience of readers (as well as to harass the text with precise Biblical citations in the form of footnotes. Sometimes. Coffee is itself a "modern" drug. it is well to be aware that neither arabic numerals in general. the vast majority of capitalized words which do not begin new sentences (most significantly words referring to the God of the Christians) are a result of my concessions to "modern" conventions. I have indicated that fact in a note. no matter how hard I puzzled over the text. but there are. Therefore. in determining how a given text is read. However. Likewise. I must emphasize that this has been a technique of last resort. always a reluctant concession.coffee. and they are totally of my own creation. (note 14) the reader should not be able to forget the artificiality of the text at those moments. I therefore made the (extremely difficult) decision to use alternate manuscripts on certain occasions. therefore I urge the reader to keep in mind the artificiality of the breaks in the translation.and twelfthcentury Latin scribes rarely capitalized anything. I could not understand the version in the Berlin manuscript. Paragraph structure can play a large role in determining meaning. introduced into Europe around the same time as the printing press and the edition. eleventh. Yet there is a more dramatic way in which I have departed from the Berlin manuscript. Finally. nor the convention of citing texts by numerical indicators. sacrificing (to repeat the formula) authenticity for readability. There should not be coffee breaks built into this translation.

this translation. or at least the awkwardness.produced in the second half of the eleventh century at St. and reproduced only the prose sections. as for instance he veers between redundant repetitiveness to make sure a line is sufficiently long. A few isolated words or short phrases are in Greek. Despite the fact that my approach to the base text to be translated has been completely transformed over the years. and of most copies made during the thirteenth century and after. includes (as it had to) both prose and verse. it is now Cambridge. which are often maddeningly obscure. I have attempted to render neither the metre nor the rhyme-scheme. Bürgerbibliothek Bongars 390). of the Latin text itself is often attributable to Dudo's desire to express himself in metred verse or in rhymed prose. Augustine. (note 16) From a very early date. they too have been translated into English. Corpus Christi College 276." Only a few short passages bear no clearly discernible signs of some sort of rhyme scheme or versification. (note 15) The translation. and ambiguous elipses to make sure a line is sufficiently short. my principles of translation . Most of the text is written as an alternation of rhymed prose with even more elaborately metred verse. The Principles of Translation Most of the text is in late-Carolingian Latin. is a modified version of a single manuscript of Dudo's Gesta Normannorum. Canterbury. The difficulty. the latter in any case being effectively non-reproducible in a non-declined language such as English. therefore. with an indication in the notes that the original was Greek. certain copiests rejected the verse portions of the narrative. intended as it is to give students a feeling for one cultural sphere of Europe around the year 1000. a style known as "prosimetrum. representing a compromise between my desire to teach students something about tenth century Francia and my desire to teach students something about manuscript culture. this is true even of the oldest surviving copy (Bern. However. Nevertheless.

I was. the idea that medieval Europe was "feudal" does not in the least correspond to my understanding of the period. with the explicit intention of providing a text which could be used in university classrooms by professors who (like me) considered "feudalism" to be a worse-than useless historiographic construct. Therefore this translation is dedicated to him. a translation whose primary guiding principle has been not to read the characteristics of post-twelfth-century legal ideas of feudal tenure anachronistically into the tenth-century situation. whose primary expertise lies in the centuries before 1100." I therefore undertook to make a translation of one of the texts which has often been seen as central to the debate over feudalism. and continue to believe. most it not all the sources available in translation for undergraduates seemed to be devoted to demonstrating the centrality of "feudal relations" to the "middle ages.M. writing my doctoral dissertation under the direction of J. through the numerous brain-twisting. Bean. he himself initially suggested that I undertake it.W. at the time. which I began in late 1987. for someone like myself. "the law of fiefs" (note 17) has some relevance to understanding European society after the twelfth and particularly after the thirteenth century. . that "feudal tenure" (or. in 1987. I have long believed. head-cracking assignments for written and oral presentations on "feudalism" which he gave me between 1980 and 1984. he has exercised an enormous influence on the way I myself conceptualize medieval socio-political relations and structures. following the preferred phraseology of Susan Reynolds's recent study. "feudal relations" do not begin to offer a way to understand "medieval" Europe in general. Furthermore. Furthermore." the subject of the majority of his own published research. "feudalism. However. While I cannot say that he in any way endorses the tack I have taken in producing this translation.have remained stable throughout the entire project. Yet. I undertook this translation. after completing a number of years of close study with him concerning every (?) medievalist's nightmare.

technical "feudal" meanings in the tenth century. legalistic meanings on words such as "beneficium. Fortunately. Richard and Henry have been fully Anglicized. the recent publication of Susan Reynolds' Fiefs and Vassals has rendered it unnecessary for me to justify this approach by discussing here. Quentin) . St.and tenth-century personages have only been slightly Anglicized. being kept as close to the Latin as possible (e.g.g." "possessio" and the like. Eligius. 4) place names are given in their modern vernacular equivalents (e. legal. the problems and confusions which have been created by historians who have translated pre-twelfthcentury texts as though a whole series of words and phrases had single. Other conventions adopted by the translator include: 1) extremely familiar personal names such as William." "officium." "honor. 2) relatively unfamiliar personal names of ninth.g. Quintinus). precise. the interested reader is therefore urged to read her treatment of the issue.My "a-feudal" orientation aroused hostility on the part of evaluators of the translation during a series of failed attempts to acquire grant support for the project. Medardus. well-defined." "tenere. Reynolds' discussion of the issue of "feudal" vocabulary is far better than anything I could ever have hoped to produce. Those who are less impassioned by the problem of "feudalism" can content themselves with the knowledge that this translation has been informed by the desire to avoid imposing unwarranted technical. but are left unchanged in the Latin (e. at length. Rodulfus is Rodulf and Anstignus is Anstign). 3) names of saints already long-dead when Dudo wrote are not Anglicized at all." "fidelis.

" said to have been the "decanus" in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. Paris. 86 . Leah Shopkow. Bethmann. 1. Caen. Seine-Maritime ms. 4. Archives Départementales. R. as "capellanus" another extant charter of Richard II (Recueil des chartes ed. 1038 1054). Biblioteca Apostolica ms. however. He also wrote.508. 3. L.ecclesie beati quintini decanus ceterique canonici" (Paris. 7. 14 H 915A). Bibliothèque Nationale. latin 11. 1859) coll. Brown).070 no. present the governance of the house to have involved lay abbots and deans throughout the period.102. 911 . see the map on p.NOTES 1. Fauroux no. 5 . Scriptores XVI (Hanover. 1961) no. . Marie Fauroux (Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie 36.. "Notes on the Manuscript Tradition of Dudo of St. 6. ". 8. ms.. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. 507 . 100 .A. latinus 645 ed. Bibliothèque Nationale. 74 folio 86r). they provide no source for "Vivianus. in contrast. ed. Maur. Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1983. Quentin's Gesta Normannorum" Anglo-Norman Studies 6 (1984. Quentin" Journal of Medieval History 15 (1989). Vatican City. ______. Recueil des chartes des ducs de Normandie.1066 ed. 13 pp. before Dudo (Gallia Christiana IX (Paris. 1751) coll. which also survives in the original (Rouen. 18 pp.89). Collection de Picardie 352 no. The Benedictines of St. For this and other locations referred to in the introduction and in the text itself.. "The Carolingian World of Dudo of St. Gerda Huisman. 2.

12. 1992). . Dudo of St. 122.. 10.1100 (Oxford. To indicate every time I "corrected" the case of a proper name would be intrusive even beyond the level of potential gains made in the direction of revealing certain features of a manuscript culture. 11. 1994). Huisman "Notes on the Manuscript Tradition" p.G. There is a single exception: because proper names were frequently added (by a "rubricator" writing in red) after the body of a text had already been written out. however. on occasion. 40. Masters Esthétique et manuscripture. For detailed discussion of the problems of proper names in the manuscripts. Bernadette A.9. "Dudo's Historical Narrative and the Norman Succession of 996" Journal of Medieval History 20 (1994) pp. Jules Lairs (Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie 23. 1865). that Masters does not merely attack the idea of an author so much as she proposes a completely new way to conceptualize the pre-"modern" author as a collective person. Quentin. Le 'Moulin à paroles' au moyen âge (Heidelberg. note. 235.. as it is in many of the other manuscripts. 1970) pp. This sort of error is almost ubiquitous in the Berlin manuscript. Alexander Norman Illumination at Mont St. Two recent examples of this approach are: Libro del Buen Amor. "Optimist or. an entirely inappropriate name is inserted by the rubricator.-Michel. De moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum ed.J.. see Felice Lifshitz. 966 . J.. Caen. I have only noted periodically that I am "correcting" the proper names. Therefore. 13. 14. For instance. and Pamela Gehrke Saints and Scribes: Medieval Hagiography in its Manuscript Context (Berkeley.". proper names are frequently given in the wrong grammatical case and.120. 101 .

. Jezebel. Fiefs and Vassals.. Susan Reynolds. The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted (Oxford.. 1994). where none made sense. On one occasion. ___. to Dudo's evident source. also duly noted in the apparatus. 16.15.. 17. see p. . I have gone "over the heads" of all the manuscripts. The distortions and obscurities required by the desire to stick to a metre are discussed by Jan Ziolkowski.

AND EXCUSATORY. FROM DUDO. whom eminent deeds celebrate as such and so great a person. WHOM HIGH BIRTH ADORNS. sacerdotal ornament. SITTING ERECT IN THE EPISCOPAL CHAIR OF THE HOLY CHURCH OF GOD AT LAON. namely the divine holy spirit. illustrious ideal of rectitude. incomparable model of a crystal-clear life. whatever . Wherefore are you. DEAN OVER THE CONGREGATION OF SAINT QUENTIN. proclaimed more widely than the earth's broad out-stretched length and spacious outspread breadth. THE FAME OF YOUR MOST GLORIOUS NAME. is there as an inciter. Whichever of the multifarious virtues.[1] THEORY REHEARSED IN A PRAISING. is acquired by the continual and vigilant zeal of each and every servant of god. the spirit blows where it will. for. LETTER TO THE ILLUSTRIOUS AND DUTIFULLY TO BE VENERATED BISHOP ADALBERO. abides in the grottos of your innocent breast and in the depths of your uncensured heart. distinguished summit of sanctity. AS IT IS EXALTED QUITE DISTINCTLY BY YOUR BRIGHTNESS TO A SUPERLATIVE SUMMIT HIGHER THAN THE [CEDAR] (note 1) OF LEBANON. the right hand of the one enthroned on high has indeed disposed to exalt with the office of such and so great a prelacy. indescribable light of the entire church. daughters of that same charity. unbending column of all goodness. No one who understands the words of the lord speaking to Nichodemus. with its manifold offspring. does not know. having become for everyone an adequate relief and having been made all things to all people. is publicly prominent. worthily hallowed for your merits with this truth-telling assertion. as is made evident to human sights by your revealing lustre. the illuminator of minds. you surpass the loftiness of all other prelates through the seed of your high birth and the bounty of your merit. For you. pontifical apex. WHOM WISDOM GRACES. since divine charity. A POSITION OF LEADERSHIP OF A FLOCK THAT HAS BEEN ENTRUSTED TO HIM IN THE SIGHT OF DIVINE MAJESTY.

can result from the most holy service to those virtues is seen to reign in you by divine influence. since you have certainly been perceived as having at many times. you seem to have been besprinkled from heaven with the nectar of the holy spirit. from the beginning until now. most reverend bishop. as is evident to this time. while like a mystical torch you. . from the squallings of a tender boyish age. in the fullness of your virtues. past and future. and the source of all charity has wonderfully placed the entire pile of those same virtues in the residence of your breast. from such deeds is something astonishing understood. have. it is known as certain to all who have the capacity for theory. to the sanctuaries of the starry fatherland. But who bears a breast so stony. neither like chief nor follower. my father and lord. having considered your marvelous deeds. are inflamed by a solar light. But indeed. for from the very cradle of life itself you have been seen to ascend. in its singular marvelousness and its marvelous singularity. dedicated your breast as a throne for the supernal spirit. in your mind. and has a heart muffled by such a great covering of darkness that. have. and to abide in a star-filled residence through the magnitude of your exploits. through the grades of the virtues. Since. Thus. whole-heartedly sacrificed the living host to the eternal priest with internal contrition of your heart. lived in heaven for. the outstanding intention of your delightful spirit is not considered to have turned away from the straight road. oh pontiff of marvelous wonder. among the bishops of this world. indeed. as the result of any inundation or of the wickedness of any vices. if this has been granted to you by divine influence. that you be made the greatest exemplar of good for the whole world. Nor is it astonishing. that you felt such concern for your zealous exertions that. that you have. he would not turn away immediately from his perversity to a celibate life? Indeed. to become comrades in your way of life is the sole aim of all who endeavor to deliver themselves from the crooked road of that most bitter foot-path whereby many are harshly led to death and to which the deceiving wisdom of this world directs the way of those whose disposition substitutes the joys of fleshly delight.

you be unable to be faulted by the perverse whisperings of unjust sophists. to the others who are exalted to the height of that number. so will you yourself be found to be both equal and unequal. even because of another. but equal in name. who are destined for the number of all bishops. and exalted by divine allotment to the summit of that rank that is within the number twelve. that is if its qualities are reduced into one. And just as a thing is said to be odd because of one part. you will be set over many things when your lord has come for. In reality twelve is called by mathematicians. A thing is correctly asserted to overflow its own parts. Deservedly have you been alloted the rank of apostolic merit. that is because through the commands of the decalogue you. Indeed you. you labored to perform it yourself in order that. just as a mina is valued at one hundred drachmas. a good servant and fidelis about to enter into the joy of your lord as the result of a few things. (note 4) For just as that number possesses both the same signification as do those of which it is composed and another which they do not have. bearing in your right hand the maniples of justice. so do you gain both the strength of the way of life which they have. you never suffered an interval of one hour to pass. it is in every way destined for your loftiness. a worthy table companion. Unequal in sanctity. composed equally out of what is even. converted yourself to god. (note 3) odd even. you will bring back to the table of the invisible and immortal bridegroom a hundredfold fruit. and out of what is uneven. just as those . you will have joys that will endure without end. that is as a result of the gift of the five talents faithfully stewarded and of the victual stewardship judiciously apportioned. having embraced the precepts of that life which struggles always towards the steeps. joined to the company of the supernal virtues. no sooner said than done.if anywhere on earth some fear of god reigned and it burst upon your ears by report of some native man. and another from god. for if the secrets of that very number are considered. Indeed when the lord has come back the single mina (note 2) entrusted to you will bring back through your sacred trade ten minas to the treasury of the highest master of the house.

so the twin observation of twin precepts namely love of god and neighbor. this is the cause. if the marks of your sanctity are bound together. For that reason after an illustrious report wrung out from your astonishing actions . Having searched through all the parts of gaul having surveyed the territories of all christians in every quarter I ascertain no one to whom the tributes of total esteem should be assigned with equal dignity as they should be to you. through proportions of one-and-one-half to eight. crowned by an unfading crown will sing a new canticle to the one residing on the throne. woven from eighteen different lyres. and the fourth. among those elders you. and one-and-one-third to nine. that is the number six which as has been said lacks superfluity and defect.qualities surpass the sum of the origina• quantity. and joined you to the nine companies of angels. But by the same procedure whereby the number twelve itself through multiplication by two passes through to the total twenty-four. according to the five tetrachords. so with the surpassing of merits. by an accumulated multiplication by two. nothing superfluous. But what is represented by the same reckoning in musical measures. itself perfect. something which through multiplication by two achieves the concordant harmony of the whole octave? And what is proven through your climbing. Just as the number twelve itself grows into the number eighteen once its half has been added to it. has added you to the twentyfour supernal elders with whom you. it increased the eight beatitudes in your life. hearing nothing defective. if not the loftiness of so great a patron? What else is that very number twelve wont to signify by some proof of its own. likewise will efficaciously delight in the charms. if not the immense perfection in you of the double increase? Indeed that number maintains the harmonies of the fifth. if not the perfecting of the number six. you will be found to be greater than the others within that number waging war for god. of the rank of this number. for at that time when promotion to that very number raised you up to pastoral rule. Where all this is leading. as they render an office of honeyflowing song with sweet-sounding harmonies of complete harmonic modulation.

should be brought to light through you. that it is fitting to have so great a patron in order that the obscurities resulting from its own darkness which are seen in this book. so that you might become the consolation of my exigency. nor three times. nay rather repeatedly am I joining entreaties to entreaties. and is plunged into a vast whirlpool of darkness. and to whom as was said above all esteem is owed. I am approaching the sight of your majesty. and having approached with lowered neck of both body and heart. for as long as I am overwhelmed by bodily infirmity and as long as I am hindered by the unavoidableness of secular affairs. my mind's eye is stifled embracing of its own accord blindness rather than light. But from the very beginning until the present time I am suffering this exigency. Two years before his . so that you do not suppose that I willingly stuck to this work. that I have not hit upon anyone to whom I might display this despicable and contemptible trifle of a composition for correction. nor twice. so that not a name for the penurious and inglorious composer: But praise for the eminent corrector might be obtained. seems to have the least regard for any useful pursuit unless it be weeded by you the reaper of the wild thistles of superfluity. I want to render you certain. be lopped off utterly and from the root. Or that I began it of my own free-willed will. for you will satisfy desires as I have learned from the very spreading abroad of your name everywhere.burst upon my ears. and is bereft of desires for bodily joys. However much it be imputed to me as folly. beyond you whose praise seems to touch the heavens. not just once. memorable father. that every jagged edge of wrongful uncertainty. I am brooding in my heart on an esteem that is so great and of this type and I am determined in my own mind. laying hold of the ardor of boldness through my confidence in this letter. Almost the half part of this work. I greatly wish that eye which since I am saying it is destitute of the assistance of the right light. it incessantly afforded my spirits with incentives to turn aside to you. to be illuminated by you (note 5) who busy yourself with the precepts of sacred speech. by your sharpest battle axes which are composed of the purest steel of complete wisdom.

But at length moved by so much beseeching. And although it kept being publicly declared that it was beyond the possibility of my strength to recount all this. I was astounded as though out of my senses. become an imitator of that command. which instructs us to stand firm to act manfully and to be strong moreover that all our deeds be done in charity. he began to embrace me with the arms of a most compassionate love. nay rather to denounce me and to swear in charity that if I had been capable of any consideration. had died. I did lay the yoke of that great burden on my neck. but also battering the limbs of my whole body. transformed into the vice of double-tonguedness by any filth of falsehood. that I carry out what duke Richard of memorable life had enjoined by his own entreaty. In grief for this leader I would have postponed this entire project because of the very great weeping. Both keep persisting in entreaties. as frequently was my habit I was with the exceptional duke RICHARD. yea indeed the rights which [Richard's son Richard] (note 6) asserted in the realm of his great-grandfather ROLLO. and denying these requests for a number of days I refused. I would have attended to his long-desired intentions. when alas what grief a tearful report announced that Richard a leader for the whole world. had it not been hurried on by his most distinguished son the still surviving patrician RICHARD and by the extraordinary count Rodulf. and to soften me up with delightful entreaties. Approaching me one day. because of the innumerable boons. had not yet reached the first parts of the work. which without any merit of my own he had deigned to bestow upon me. Our inexperienced pen. and unbearable wailing. with difficulty I bent my intention to having the weight of so great a burden layed on my shoulders. wanting to render to him my obligation of service. rather than to be valued . And to attract me with his most charming speeches. which were not only tormenting my heart. son of MARQUIS WILLIAM. and keep calling me to witness lest the intention which I had pledged to him seem to be defiled. and fatigued by so many entreaties.death. that is to say that I would have described in writing the customs and deeds of the Norman land.

And though seals should hold you back in modest places of study Loathing for secrecy is pulling mischievous you out to us For the bronze tower hardly protected danae from the golden shower. I have disposed to send it to your majesty.in the deep marrow of my understanding. might establish you adorned with an everlasting garland among the choruses of all the saints as a senator of the heavenly court. You are perceived to be arranged according to a very weak plot. AN ADDRESS TO THE BOOK (note 8) SUNG IN A SINGLE STROPHE OF CORIAMBIC VERSE (note 9) Book lacking in all theory of rhetorical sweetness. If foolhardy you come now among the multitude with nimble step You will be discussed in the face of a great commotion as so many . just as he has raised you up as a pillar of his holy church. who has placed the exceptional marquis Richard (note 7) in the paradise of his glory. When I examine you with my inward little eye. And because you are mocked by an arrogant and crafty uproar. nor rhetorical arguments. so that the falsities might be lopped off. Or linger yet shut up in frankish schools I fear that a facetious mocking grimace will rise up before us Were impatient you to resist the key now that the bolt has been removed Let you not also rush into the mouths of a mentally-acute populace The normans would crush the unwilling bard with a lashing. As fulgentius relates in the myth Whether you proceed now nimble to norman schools. Assenting to their injunctions and entreaties I have carried out the labor although it boasts neither the dialectics of syllogism. it be confirmed by your authority in order that the marvelous recompenser of rewards. It pains my soul that you long to bring to the masses The shapes which have been fruitlessly arranged by our pen. and if there be any truthfulness in it.

scorn you. For in your error you did not know whether you were to bring forward All clothed in writing ginger or a small amount of nard-balsam And costum and pepper from the unguent-shop (note 12) The instructor stood aloof (note 13) and moved away from our deliberations Recall by perpetually remembering that he did not attend to you with concern Cheated you seek protection Let outstanding quintinus whom I honor first of all approach The stinging outer side of the volume where a wavering title sits up in front Let him make known the road which he created like the heavens out of ruins Let him as duke seal the commencement with these these his own merits hereby you will perhaps be able to defy defenseless masses Of brawling common people or even a thousand hazards For the arrogant hosts would hardly dare to have rejected you Given the barrier of a name flashing with such merits . And with lifted feet. will repeatedly toss up (note 10) soil Another investigating one will note its minor faults aloud If still nothing irreproachable ever appears once its squalors have been driven off by the hissing Then some learned one will certainly turn his attention to the falsities As a result of which he will become even more profligate and impious And out of his senses he will rave more vehemently than the other ones against all this madness And you will be contradicted (note 11) willy-nilly and finally cut Beneath all the derision of his mocking grimace. One will spit out the foul thing from puckered lips And will chime in revise this unspeakable thing And another will clap out great disapproval with impious hands.

AND THREE TROCHEES. SON OF RICHARD THE GREAT. Go (note 15) with that sacred duke to the seven-fold holy spirit A fortunate book perpetually protected. A VERSE TO RICHARD. hesitating with great sobbings. A DACTYL. Feed your heart and breast on what has been recounted So that you might have the strength to fasten upon these things BOTH CONSTERNATION AND DISSUASION BEFORE THE FUTURE SUBJECT MATTER At this the mind. A CONSTANT SPONDEE. drawn-back lips (note 14) and bared teeth. By the resounding (note 16) merits of the bountiful martyr quintinus Do not feel vexed that you once went away uninstructed And entrust yourself to the fates because a suppliant should not yield to doubts And oh that better things would ensue for me with your wished-for goodwill. THE VERSE IS FALLEUCIUS. fortified and aided. O you as magnanimous compassionate moderate O you as extraordinary god-fearing O you as eminent upright kind O you as wonderful good and righteous O you as peace-making and as the progeny of god O you as generous Sacred moderate O you as very bright merciful Richard O you as patient judicious Richard O you as extremely celebrated graceful Richard O you as a judge mild Richard O you as deserving charming Richard All nations do fittingly celebrate Discreetly remember what you perceive in this book. .Before such a duke their frenzy grows sleek and they refrain From becoming very raw with spit. uneasy.

Be able to recount in elegant speech. Toiling in the easy effort of some frolicsome use But he does not know how to fight when a duel arises The bird whose mother has not gone before it as a duke will Nonetheless depart it will not remain in the space conceded to it (note 18) Someone unacquainted with the erudition and art of sailors Who rushes into the open marine main in a little skiff Will move to and fro. either hither. or often be swallowed up The horseman who is usually accustomed to sitting on a wild ass [without horse-trappings Is now cast down headlong by a nimble course. Be able to heap up this accomplishment which is being entrusted To me by divine will and supernal command I who can neither in private nor by misfortune in public Utter with my little mortal lips accomplishments arranged in order Whoever takes up a weight that is heavy beyond his ability Suffering very great and facetious derision Expends himself in capricious chattering Often both his own audacity and the impassibility of the thicket Undoes the hunter who is heedless of the art of hunting wild beasts Thus does the young recruit bear his shield as a souvenir of war. or thither. It is useless for someone bereft of all art theory and advice . And the very alarmed heart also withers with its very fibres damaged And the benumbed spirit sighs in its bitter wailing And now the silly tongue shudders stammers Babbles sticks within the slightly hoarse passages of the gullet And parched through inactivity barely prates some noisy words And how will I a slothful (note 17) talent puny in intelligence And hard of understanding. and alas filled with folly.Wavers amidst varied whirlpools and countless misfortunes And the inopportune vicissitudes of volatile affairs And the changeable flights of a harassing fate.

May I approach and accomplish whatever I shall be able Trusting in the lord ruling the world with his authority And doing whatever he wills in heaven earth and sea.To go to the marketplace to buy who does not know What he wants to bid having carefully weighed his gain. And he redeemed the world after he submitted to the brands of the cross. Unless he be sustained by the erudition and goodwill of teachers Therefore am I again now being pricked by the foulness of my ignorance (note 19) Not knowing what I shall do about this lest I accomplish it lest I leave it undone Nevertheless the author's sluggish sense of innate chattiness may Relying on no one else's strength. Thus is he who repeats what he has not been able to terminate with moderation Torn in some different direction by everything that floats by. A RECIPROCAL ELEGIAC DACTYLIC METER WHICH IS ALSO CALLED A "REPARACTERIUM" (note 20) Venerable prelate receive the deeds of your greatgrandfather And receive the deeds of your richly endowed grandfather And also of your father known for his merits in heaven above Yea indeed feed your spirit Upon the good and kind merits of that comrade of christ And working diligently verse yourself in his good qualities Contemplating his wonderful actions made known again in speech And contemplating his wonderful addresses . He forced one accustomed to braying fully to produce words And to carry on a dialogue with her rider And he revived lazarus after the sepulchral office And commanded the dead man to run alive after his funeral. arrange in order Something of a plot that is unpleasant coarse unseemly.

And his abilities vanquish the advocate . Like valiant vehement mars he would break fierce peoples. the lord god in his heart. And he would perchance tread down fierce peoples. what he worthily did With exceptional efforts be mindful of his habits And recollect them with exceptional efforts Reading again willingly imitate his lawful labor And being diligent examine his lawful labor You know that he always venerating deeply loved god's strongholds You know that he venerating esteemed god's strongholds He himself was his fatherland's defending wall not breakable by a battering ram And its hard gate. the orphan the exile the destitute all He erected churches he made pagans believe He built shrines.And recall recall his memorable causes Now recall recall. the destitute. he was even dearer He would enrich honorable ambassadors with various presents Yet humble ones likewise with various presents. the exile. would obtain a widow's aid And relief. overwhelming the untameable dacians And through it all as the ornament of our rank and grade And the prop of our rank and grade A sleek effigy of the virtues celebrated for his rousing eloquence Mild in words celebrated for his rousing eloquence His goodnesses now vanquish me the advocate. he erected churches With all his strength he loved the lord god in his heart and His neighbor as himself. not breakable by a battering ram The orphan. A steed apportioning draperies gold and pelts A bountiful one apportioning draperies as a present He would flatter the untameable dacians with friendly And severe words. He would command dukes with laws and a friendly word To the kings and dukes in the realm.

reigning with christ That you might abide in the elysian field with your awesome father.A sure sign of his uprightness endures A sign endures and signals still glow red Whether I speak further or I remain silent about those deeds which were witnessed Whether I speak or I remain silent. behold will prate I will bellow roaring with a vehement cry reconsidering in my heart. O worshipful compassionate. prelate Robert Examine the mindful and forgetful victories of your father And hunt down the forgetful actions of your father And may you sustain yourself on your father's awesome words And observing sustain yourself on your father's acts May the present prayer continually succor your father And may it continually succor his uninterrupted wishes That you might have strength O might flourish mightily through the ages O that you might flourish. Let modern magnates and likewise ancient patriarchs Such as scipio pompey and cato who each by the glory of rome Its might made universal everywhere in this flaming world Dominating an eminent dignity and a glittering empire Increased his own virtue and renown by the realm's carried-off things Yield conquered by the uprightness of count Rodulf The Roman world was skilful when they were consuls Now the norman apex Richard's summit of honor . Behold my account will prate about whatever it can And my tractate likewise. (note 21) O venerable compassionate worshipful reverend patron. What he recounted when still alive I will bellow roaring with my cry. That you might abide in the elysian field of the empyrian fatherland. in time to come. A VERSE TO COUNT RODULF APPELLANT OF THIS WORK.

Receive what has been arranged in order by my understanding . And the worthy salvation Of our grade. O you fortunate soul who advise the actions of the fatherland As an aid prop and ornament of the realm Based on whose appeal I thunderstruck quivering sluggish uneasy undecided Have arranged in order whatever stands written (note 24) in this book. Glorified as you are by kind manners and merits. May you have the highest honor as christ reigns through the ages. our highest office Of the churches. An urn that is the source of the nectar of fertile advice You pour forth from your bountiful mouth the good sense of your tranquil breast And in this way you also produce victuals of understanding like a billow of salt water Lively with talent mild with red-glowing eloquence In this way you warm everyone under your garment-tails as the sun here does the world In this way you revive (note 23) the hearts of your followers as the nile does egypt The norman land has deserved you a red-glowing light Everywhere you radiate brilliance you who flash with your heart's torch. And may your present and future life be with the saints ANOTHER VERSE TO ARCHBISHOP ROBERT Extraordinary and venerable prelate Eminent summit.Flourishes and is rich in goods as long as you Rodulf survive (note 22) devoting time to it. founder of a holy order. And our patron Light and distinguished ornament. Being as you are the virtue dignity and power of the whole realm Extremely strong due to the seriousness of your deep spirit and heart.

goodness to a count So worthy And so celebrated So equitable and good. And uprightness. Flashing with judgment And in justice More magnificent than that realm In the time of The great king LOTHAR. And of duke HUGH. And greatest concern For that extraordinary father And charming bountiful Great patrician. Recall his disbursements. made us write He flourished famed for goodness. What he enjoys (note 25) And to advance Into a higher company As a fortunate beautiful lamb With shining white fleece Joined to those who dwell in heaven In perennial peace The pontifical apex and honor Flashing from an extraordinary summit With the deserved glory of bishops The greatest shepherd of the lord's flock Nobly inflamed by peace-making compassion To the compassionate obligations Of the rank and Grade of the church. And compassion. and awesome RICHARD Celebrated in this tottering world Mighty by right. And so moderate So holy compassionate And so worshipful And justly to obtain. Words and deeds. Whereby you may rightly have the strength To be likened Now in worthy similar. .Touch with your sacred hand what I the suppliant offer Things unattempted by the knowledgeable in grammatical art And reading examine those accomplishments Which our sweet love. in the eternal fatherland Although for only a short while. and judicious in mind. Afterwards king Wise in heart. Strong with directness.

salvation. Nourish your spirit on these banquets And on the salvation-giving (note 26) fruit of these grain fields And verse your heart in such things So that you might be likened to his actions Might have the strength to run alongside the older man Alongside the father alongside the sacred sire May you have longlasting Glory life. Deeds revealed in a truth-telling address Following the order of a prosaic plotline With its wavering subject matter By my stupid dull and sluggish talent And ignorant inept senseless utterance Recall the good qualities with which you meet.The glory and the ornament and the faith the salvation And the head of the christ-worshipping populace Eminent aid of the fatherland A sacred man to be venerated for merits As you read by reflecting for a long time Capture and see The charming generous deeds Of the eminent warrior the great-grandfather Of the grandfather Radiating in martyrdom And of the father An extremely exceptional duke. (note 28) Beloved And awesome And venerable And fearsome prelate . uprightness With a healthy body nay rather a healthy soul Through the countless ages And after the ruin of a mournful (note 27) end May you flourish in the elysian fatherland Partaking divinely in heaven.

With a wise heart And a pure mind . Of the wonderful Families.Whose name This poetical measure Does not even anywhere embrace. Unless this line having been released Is missing Receive the deeds. Of your forefathers Of your father and grandfather And now of your greatgrandfather Now recalling sufficiently By the light of shining Goodness The goods which each one Alive Did in the world While the limbs of the body Still thrived with life The sacred and Salutary stimulus For indeed the reverend summits Of the wonderful Churches Which your father once Built In a beautiful shape Are flashing Who has the power to see All the good things Which he did.

Martial francia Now bewails him And a simple meal Groans and wails Over the mournful And grievous and alas Doleful death Whatever needed to be gladdened He would cheer With his richly-endowed Gift Alas by his death (note 29) The order of sacred Churches Everything which he would refresh By the sacred gift Of manifold Piles of goods By holy stimulus And speech Is now disconsolate Indeed the crowd Of wandering widows And the destitute exile And the hungry And those of you who are thirsting Deprived of light And of advice And uncovered by vestments Overwhelmed by the cold And plague-ridden Also the crowd Of the richly endowed .

O triple (note 31) ideal High virgin three one god . Your body always Healthy sacred And after your mournful And deathbringing Lamentable loss May you enjoy peace In your everlasting residence. And pray unremitting With stooping prayer And subject heart And pure mind With bountiful strength. Whereby he might rest Enjoying peace In the supernal heaven And advance while exulting A fortunate lamb Of white fleece And may you be saved (note 30) For all time And may you have Long life Through countless years. The summit Of the pontifical office The king and the magnates The greek and the indian The frisian and the breton The dacian and the angle The irish scot The cleric dedicated By his master's allotment The reverend order The beautiful morning star And the west And the violent Sicambrian warrior Each has wept bitterly Splendid prelate Summit and apex And peak And light of the generations Of your family And high pontifical Love Now imitate them.The good and the evil Wealthy in everything.

Preferring the reading "a mathematicis" of Cambridge. 4. The numerical and musical theory in which Dudo was trained (and a knowledge of which he took for granted in his audience) included a . 2. A silver Greek coin. 276 (hereafter CC 276). Corpus Christi College ms. from St.30. And indeed how the fertile land of the norman populace rested by right Throughout fruitful years in the peaceful time Of that highest patrician and compassionate christ-worshipper Richard known for his merit in heaven above While you god who alone are always at hand perceiving all things Reign and live and abide without end Notes: 1. briefly the ignorant [misfortunes Which mad barbarism brought about under duke Anstign And which under ROLLO christ-worshipping in the end And how his offspring WILLIAM did good IN the entire empire Having calmed it by means of the law. Preferring to add the "cedris" of Rouen 1173 et. 3. a manuscript of the second half of the eleventh century. Dudo alludes here to the parable of the Good Servant in Matthew 25:14 . Augustine of Canterbury.Distinguished divine will celestrial pillar Ornament and sequence of causes in the concord of the world Deprived of a beginning and abiding without end Mind and word stimulus patron and author of this outstanding world Archetype of the terrestrial star-filled world Desiring to obtain the wishes of my prayers I beg with a humble prayer That you might approve these quivering beginnings So that I might make known if I am able in a prosaic plotline The actions and events of affairs. al.

is based on reading Martianus Capella's De nuptiis philologiae et mercurii. Six could be obtained both by adding and by multiplying one. Although I will. such as twelve. so that six. the odd odd and the even odd. not purely arithmetical. the number representing the feminine principal. reasons. My own understanding. through the numbers six and twelve) is that each octave had six tones (and two half-tones). For instance. Six was also considered a perfect number. Six was also considered perfect for other. represented heterosexual love. set forth here in terms which I hope a contemporary reader can understand. therefore twelve is both an even even number and an odd even number. Six was also the product of three. so that any discussion of manipulating the number six effectively symbolized the harmonious manipulation of musical tones. I hope it will be a useful and justifiable exception if I attempt to explain a bit of tenth-century musical and numerical theory in this note. the odd even. Tenth-century theory distinguished four kinds of numbers: the even even. points which Dudo himself apparently considered to constitute some of the fundamental theory behind his writing. There were considered to be six natural properties that everything possessed (shape. A few numbers. such as two. and two. as the conjunction of the two. Six was both an "odd even" and an "even even" number. Six. the number representing the masculine principal. the best-known textbook for musical and mathematical theory in Dudo's own lifetime. . two and three.). were considered perfect because they could be divided either into pairs of other even numbers (thus. two times six is twelve) or into pairs that included odd numbers (thus. avoid authoritarian editorial interventions in this translation. etc. or Venus.symbolic or mystical level which has been largely drained from the scientistic understanding of numbers predominant in late-twentiethcentury academic circles. the number four is an even even because it can be divided only by other even numbers. Few readers of this translation will be equipped to understand fully the points Dudo is about to make. as a rule. three times four is twelve). color. The connection with music (which Dudo makes. size. after a few lines.

which is the number of sounds in a full octave. Dudo has himself at this point become completely confused and attempted to correlate two different types of measurement which are not comparable.517). A coriambic verse is one whose metres are composed of one spondee. one finds further evidence of perfection in certain proportionalities and ratios. 5. six multiplied by four. Preferring the "a te" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses.120.multiplied by the "prime mover" (namely two. the engenderer. the number of hours in a day. Twelve divided by three renders four. is twelve. Germanus of Auxerre (BHL 3458. St. in which Dudo discusses musical intervals (such as fifths and fourths) alongside Pythagorean proportions (such as 3:2 or 1 and 1/2). Finally. ed. 8. namely three. Preferring the "monokolo monostropho" (in Greek letters) of CC 276. the first number that can affect another number). The next passage. L. turns out to be the mother. according to the singers in the medieval music group "Gothic Voices. of six to nine is one and one half and of six to eight is one and one third. 101 . 6. of all harmonies. "Dudo's Historical Narrative and the Norman Succession of 996" Journal of Medieval History 20 (1994) pp. which turns out to be the difference between twelve and eight. see Felice Lifshitz." who performed at the 1996 Haskins Society Conference. Six. 7. The "address" is almost entirely copied from Heiric of Auxerre's (841 876/77) preface to his metrical biography of the fifth-century bishop. and therefore Venus. for the relation of six to twelve is the octave. is even more difficult to follow. Nine is crucial as being as much less than twelve as it is more than six. . For the text and translation of this passage. which is the difference between six and twelve. makes twenty-four. and also being itself the product of three times three. Preferring the "Richardum" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. 9. Playing then with six and twelve. Traube MGH Poetae 3 (1896) 428 .

Dudo's verses represent a wide variety of styles and display his metrical erudition. Preferring the "temetque" of CC 276. 14. Preferring Heiric's "myrokopoi" (Greek). 437). Preferring the "recreas" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. Reading "retondis" for "_etondis. 15. all varieties of metrical feet. 23. 19. and will not regularly identify or comment on the various verse types. Preferring the "antilegonta" (Greek) of CC 276 and of Heiric. the metre remains the same. Preferring the "abstiterit" of Heiric and CC 276. Metrical feet are defined according to stressed and unstressed syllables. I have made no attempt to reproduce the metres of his verses. 22." 17. Preferring the "voce boabo fremens" for both lines of CC 276. 12.three coriambs and a pyrrich. 13. Preferring the "inscitiae" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. Preferring the "socors" of CC 276. 16. Heiric's vita Germani (p. . Preferring the "succutiet" of Dudo's source. 10. Preferring the "labraque" of CC 276. 18. Preferring the title and separation into a new verse of CC 276. The verse is "reciprocal" in the sense that when the words are reversed. Preferring the "Ales non quo versetur patulum sibi cessum" of CC 276. 21. 20. Preferring the "liber i" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. 11.

25. . Preferring the "fruitur" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. Preferring the "lugubre" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. 27. Preferring the "salutiferam" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. Preferring the "conscripta" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. Preferring the "theothen ouranukan" of Rouen 1173. Preferring the "ha nece" of CC 276. Preferring the "trinum" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. 28. 29. 30. Preferring the "salve" of CC 276.24. 31. 26.

having described the huge bulk of the entire world and accurately measured the circumference and surface of the land that is surrounded on all sides by an unbroken girdle of ocean. also known as Goths. Sarmatians and Amacsobii.[2] Cosmographers. Europe and Africa) by means of a celestial boundary line in the quadripartite sky. which they had measured by their understanding. a river rising from the apex of mount Adnoa. have divided all the land into three parts (reckoning them as Asia. namely the Getae. which are said to have burst forth in manifold variety like a swarm of bees from a honeycomb or a sword from a sheath. Europe is cut by the beds of many rivers and denominated into various provinces. There the Hister is called the Danube. Of those parts. do there inhabit fierce and barbarous nations. Dacia is the middle-most of these. from the island of Scania. and the extremely wellsupplied region of Dacia. Thus. greatly inflamed by lascivious unchastity. raging warlike peoples inhabit those tortuous bends of extensive size. With Mars' forewarning. The most ample of these. from south to east and separating Germania from Scythia until it is taken back into the Black Sea. it is enclosed by a separating (note 1) boundary within various fatherlands. Protected by very high alps in the manner of a crown and after the fashion of a city. is named Germania. and also very many nations who live by cultivating in the Baltic marshes. as is the barbarian custom. For indeed there is there a tract for the very many people of Alania. the most plentiful of all the rest in its numerous crowd of innumerable men. Tragoditae and Alans. (note 2) For these nations. spread over the plentiful space from the Danube to the neighborhood of the scythian Black Sea. surrounded in different directions by the ocean. and the very extensive passage of Greece. by performing in . tempestuous. increasing profusely in a large number of streams and passing. and ravishing very many women with singular baseness.

slipping away from their own borders. venerating their god Thor. but they would sacrifice human blood. as did. Besmearing their own heads and those of their followers. to butt manfully like rams against kings. that one would be thrown to the ground and the filament on the left side of his heart. several victims would at the same time be struck abominably in the head by a team of oxen and. Indeed.this way. savagely fighting against their fathers and their grandfathers or more often amongst themselves. they swiftly launch the canvas sails of their boats to the winds and. for instance. horsemen were to depart. to gain their banquets from strangers. they would raise up the martial banners of battle. They are deprived of the estates of . they would at some future time offer sacrifices. they would swiftly ply the oars of their boats. And thus. reckoning that they have appeased the winds by such business. the Getae. who would have been superfluous had they continued after they had come to maturity by holdings of goods to dwell in the inadequate land which they inhabited. on the other hand. are driven out by lot the multitude of those reaching puberty having been brought together according to long-standing usage (note 3) . They would not propitiate him by some offering of cattle or sheep or wine or grain. If. into the realms of foreign nations to obtain for themselves in battle realms whereby they might be able to live in never-ending peace. men beget from them countless filthy offspring through mingling in a union of unlawful sexual union. as is their custom. they live in exile from their fathers. that is the bloodvessel. after a more important casting of lots. These offspring. in accordance with the prior determination of a soothsayer priest. as the completion of their expulsions and departures. would be hunted down. and therefore. reckoning it the most precious of all offerings. They are sent away from their homes. destitute. once the brain (note 4) of whichever one had been chosen by lot in that land was dashed by a solitary blow. Besides. with his drained blood. they would conceive a deadly plan for the extortion of other nations. Goths who pillaged almost all of Europe up to where they now reside.

wild. to partake with those born in foreign lands. and they boast that they are descended from Antenor. everywhere on guard. this lewd. death-dealing. to hunt. Exiled. for the sake of exchanging ravished gain. Thus do they pillage all the places which stand against them. The fierceness of the youths is aroused for the purpose of demolishing nations. seductive and foolhardy deceiver. They beg for harbors as part of a negotiated peace. He has attacked a powerful lordship in Gaul. to claim for themselves the spoils of the lands. The fatherland is delivered. battling. Other provinces suffer greatly. destructive and inconstant. perhaps not to be seen by their mothers. this double-faced hypocrite and ungodly. have savagely landed with duke Anstign where Francia extensively spreads out its tracts. to give thanks for the holdings of foreigners. He has profaned the priesthood. He has defiled nations. cleansed for its own residents. They are separated from their own nation. rebellious traitor and kindler of evil. They are forsaken by their fathers. vilely poisoned by so numerous an enemy. rude. With words and . destructive. ferocious. He entered with his followers the Illyrian borders. and he has claimed their wealth for himself and his followers.) For these Dacians.their own families. extremely cruel and harsh. he has unlawfully appropriated the Frankish realm for himself. having slipped away from the midst of the Achaeans who pillaged Troy. So much does this accursed and headstrong. they are banished. contentious rascal. unbridled. They are thrust out from their own homes. fleeing hither and thither. aggravate towards the starry height of heaven an increase of destructive evil and an augmentation of deceit (note 5) and through such accursed deeds is he more monstrous than all the rest. that he ought to be marked not by ink but by charcoal. infamous. (Thus the Dacians are called by their own people Greeks or Danes. They sail close to the coasts of the sea. conceited and lawless. they escort to another. troublesome. to be calmly hired for those of others. once ejected from their own lands by means of the reported rite. brash. arrogant. he has tread in the sacristy. Whatever they ravish from one realm.

exiled far and wide along with the young. It mourns. as a lion does stags. withdrawn in fear within their garrisons. is led away. girded with religious objects. captive.deeds he has challenged the king of the Franks who. Christ's champion. As evil rages. The monastery of Dionysius. with his followers. It becomes a carnage. Francia is foresaken. has been consumed by the very same abominable ones. The rest of the nation. punished by a cruel death. Every girl is dishonorably deflowered by them. ah grief!) has been slain with his deacons on the fourth day before the kalends of May. The shrine. of the martyr Quentin. The sacred church of the holy virgin Genovefa. He accounts the Franks. in which it had once been extremely richly endowed. which they snatch from the sacred altars. not tilled by the ploughshare. known for his merits in the heavens above. increased by many evils. almost all the other churches located outside a rampart are consumed. It wails. Bishop Emmo of Noyon (alas. It moans that it has been abandoned by its residents and deprived of its farmers. have been burned up by the very same impious men. He pursues them all. The clergy is tormented. foreigners. located in Paris. The mad frenzy grows. Whomever he meets. He rages around the walls of the garrisons as does a wolf around the pens of sheep. And. Impious men deck themselves out in chasubles. ravished by many men. has dolefully remained inside the cities. has been reduced to ashes by vanquishing Vulcan. He wears the alb. as the disconsolate are slaughtered by the spear. and uncultivated by the plough-coulter. Wives. feeble in arms. confessors of Christ. (note 6) They reduce every living being to a cash value. The earth grows listless by resting. The basilicas of Medardus and Eligius. is led captive to the ships. are lamentably led away. nearly emptied. spread throughout Francia. of slight value. And the whole nation. he butchers. The old are dragged away. is torched. discovered distant from the garrisons. . destitute of wine or grain. dedicated to the office of the mass. foresaken. Whoever takes up arms against them is slain in a cruel manner. And so are all the other churches located in the territory of Vermandois.

he sent a messenger to the count of the city and to the bishop. the bodies of those lying buried in the calm of a forgetful deep sleep. It is not unknown to you that we. delivered by the whirling motion of the marvelous high waves of the sea. let us go to Rome and subject it to our lordship. which is called Luna. taking everything as booty and never in all of Francia meeting with the combats of battle. poured forth such words before them. Thus the leaders of the city. they would return to the garrisons of their ships. were carried around all the seas through the wave-driven main to the realm . once the sails have been selected by the booty-takers. As time rolls on. Thus. fields grow thick with a class of woods and shrubs and trees. Those very same Dacians would take to the waters in navigation and. springing forth from there. The thoroughfares are not even recognized. judging that the city could not be captured by all the arms in the world. devised the deceitful measure of a most abominable fraud. The blasphemer Anstign. For indeed. standing in their sight. mistress of nations. They would attack. If it does not displease you." This advice was very pleasing to them all and. not beaten down by the footsteps of men. The messenger. wishing to arrive secretly at Rome. send you faithful service. saying: "Anstign duke of the Dacians and likewise all his followers. having been carried far and wide over the deep billows and having claimed for themselves lands on both shores. Safety is bewailed as lost and confidence for life has passed away from men. ejected with him by lot from Dacia. Thus. fortified the town with very many armed men. spoke for all of them: "The breezes we have wished for are becoming frequent and gentle favorable winds are blowing a path for us. After everything that met their eyes had been ravaged. terrified at the fearful assault of such men. they sailed to the town of Lux. the most vile one of all.not worked by the exertion of oxen. at night. as we have Francia. they turn their prows away from the Frankish shores. to say the following words to them. when all had been summoned to consult concerning what to do about their business. Anstign. would pillage the adjoining lands. ejected by lot from Dacia.

wishes to be redeemed by you through the salvation-giving font. once the negotiated peace has been enacted. but it will not benefit the treasonous one. to return to the land of our birth. fall prey to death. He is received from sacrosanct baptism by the bishop and the count. We beseech you to grant us a negotiated peace. saying: "We are in favor of making with you a pact of never-ending alliance and of making your lord a Christian. both through many agreements and through many purchases and also through common assemblies. malevolent deviser of the deceitful measure. he is escorted as though he were sick. having been fatigued by so many dangers." Hearing this. we attacked this realm. let us be permitted to buy what is needful. to be buried in this city through your mercy and your compassion. The imposter Anstign. Meanwhile the bath is being readied by the bishop. nor to escort the booty of your district to our boats.of the frankish-born nation. He is not physically ill. Anointed with sacred chrism and oil. deceitful. he enters the font. bruised first by unfavorable north winds. But wishing. enfeebled and filled with much grief. granted to us by the allotment of the gods. Also. is carried in. Treasonous. we much struggled with all our strength in battles against the frankish-born nations. he has received baptism. the prelate and the count replied to the go-between. afterwards by contrary west and south winds. We have not come to pillage your town by the sword. from them. Thus. everything he himself had said fraudulently to them and everything he had heard." Moreover the go-between reported to his lord. Impious. and we overthrew the whole region at the command of our lord. the treasonous pagans and the Christians have dealings with one another. when all had been subjugated to our authority. And should he. all unwilling we barely swam to your borders. and to become a Christian. The waters are sanctified. which cleanses only his body. to the destruction of his soul. drained from the well's whirlpool. We do not have the strength for that. in this infirmity. Our lord. The tares are lit for the sacred mystery of the bath. that most abominable of all men. but a wretch mentally diseased .

with lamentations. notify the prelate and the count that I am dead and earnestly request. in their town. ensnared by such sophism.through the pursuit of treachery. He has made known to them the detestable secret which he had conceived. that they have me buried. he is carried off. has said: "Now. station yourselves in a ring around them. have said. have reported what they had fraudulently procured. Thus. Moreover." And they indeed. rejoicing over their replies. he immediately calls together the most vile ones of all to consult about his fraudulent deceit. and place me upon it as though I were dead. ah. summons the chief of each and every clan. Moreover the calamity-causing go-betweens. dying. bade be given to you. coming. Anstign. The prelate calls together from the flatlands the nation scattered . Go howling through the streets. having marched back. make a bier for me. and compel your followers bewail me. Let the cry of those who preside over the ships sound along with that of the rest of the troops. Place my arms in it with me and. weeping greatly. Bleached in body alone." Moreover they. when they had all been assembled. The mountains resound. and whatever is rightfully mine." What that calamity-causing one had commanded is no sooner said than done. Wretched. Display axes and swords adorned with gold and gems. The bawling of howlings and the roar of mourners is heard. as though sick. more vile than the most vile of them. we pray that you have him buried as in your monastery and take back those extremely great presents which he. Have armbands and belts borne before the bier. as had been bidden. a neophyte. Say that you will give them swords and armbands. Let your cry raise a tumult throughout our tents. the grief! has passed away. have pledged that his body would be taken back and properly interred in the monastery. to the ship's company. Then that insolent mischievous one. born of his mad heart: "When night is falling. ringing with the cries of deceitful moaners. wailing: "Our lord your godson. and almost blinded by the giving and receiving of presents. before the lords of the city.

Women stifle the groan in their hearts and pour out useless tears. is carried by the pagans. would beg for the bier and say.throughout the whole city. The pagans. that it ought not to be buried. Then Anstign has jumped down from the bier and snatched his flashing sword from its sheath. Then the frenzy of the pagans butchers the defenseless Christians. Likewise the leaders of that town. preceding their elders. and for all of them this lifetime is brief and irretrievable. The Christians would stand firm. All the Christians partake of the mystical sacrifice of Jesus Christ. All upon whom the enemy's fury hits are delivered to the slaughter. stunned by their replies. Anstign. They vent their rage within the enclosures of the shrine as do wolves within the pens of sheep. clad in religious garments. The mass is recited. That nation which was presiding over the ships is . He is carried. The last day of life befalls them all. Young men and maidens are bound together with thongs. The citizens are exhausted. with great bawling. by both peoples. The pagans have blocked the doors of the sanctuary. Of one mind they proceed to meet that monster placed on the bier. And the clergy comes. the clergy standing defenseless in the church as well. grieving as Mars vents his rage. These festivities of the mass having been properly completed and the pagans gradually assembled. who is holding a book in his hand. to the monastery where the tomb had been prepared for him. one after another. to be escorted into exile. solemnly celebrated. Those doing battle overthrow all the hardier ones with whom they meet inside the walls of the town. The calamity-causing one has attacked the prelate. the prelate has ordered the body brought forward for burial. The bishop prepares himself to celebrate a mass for his godson. who are to be crowned by martyrdom. The feminine sex is present. He is slaughtering the prelate and. having overthrown the count. so that no one can slip away. placed live on the bier. accustomed to singing most ceremoniously. The Christians to be butchered do not recognize the deceit of the deadly fraud. And in the choir stands the clergy. And the Christians encounter the pagans at the city's outlet. Schoolboys carry candlesticks and crosses.

Extravagantly intent upon compassionate and respectable obligations. trusty. He gives thanks that he holds the monarchy of the whole empire through that town which he would reckon as Rome. Let the tillers of the soil of this land feel that we have busied ourselves in their territory. alas. the company of Christians has been slain. gentle. mild. You. the attendant rejoices to comply with. They traverse the sail-winged sea. mighty and skilled in victories. which is the mistress of nations. Raging Anstign's frenzy is at rest because the leaders of the town have been overthrown. zealous in matters of warfare And excelling in all things. headstrong. distinguished. robust and circumspect. moved thus by anger. they load the ships with captives and spoil. Having obtained twice thrice three realms for your empire. at one time vanquishing so many arrogant nations in battle. the iron battle-line stands closely drawn. open in both directions. . Anstign would boast with his followers. captives are led to the ships. Now they turn the prows to lead them to the realm of the Frankish-born nation. courteous. Valiant. fighting on every side. From both sides they join those already battling. By sword and fire they ravage everything which has been in their presence. With sword-point glittering. steady. supposing that they have captured Rome. splendid. Conduct the captives and as much spoil as possible to the ships. ready for the slaughter. and vanquished by a most vile enemy.now at the gates. hardy. Once these things are completed. the head of the world. he has said: "Take booty from the entire province and torch that town. The greatest possible carnage is brought to pass. Francia. In a cruel manner they slay all with whom they meet who stand against them by force of arms. returning to the realm of Francia." What the loathsome one commands. For indeed the rest of the lamentable band is led away to the ships. At length the duel is drawn to a close for. The whole province is attacked. Law-giving. Vigorous. After he has learned that it is not Rome.

conceited. Downtrodden.Having moreover dominated a populace that wished to Scatter you like hairs and defile you in a fruitless effort. And let the sin of your public trial. you now lie prostrate. accursed. (note 7) having scorned the commands of the lord Who thunders beyond the stars. Fierce. Filled beyond measure with the heaped-up weight of such an accursed deed And with every filth. (note 9) Mischievous. celebrating and reigning without end! . Prosecuting martial battles with robust spears. dreadful in its many mistakes. And it will place your name and your empire on the level of heaven. reciting every one aloud. uneasy. Oh fortunate one. Another generation is being sent away from that Dacia To slide with vigorous oar through the arrogant billows. (note 8) sitting on your arms. shamefaced. But. resting in peace by a favorable alliance. It will grow tame. having neglected the law. infamous culprits. it will pound thousands of Franks. filthy. it will pound with a sword Those arrogant nations refusing to serve you zealously. oh three and four and a thousand times bountiful. Through time it will wage many combats against you. For. Cause you repentance. it will be at hand. arise speedily. Be well and hail. scorned and rebuked By troublesome. waging war. challenged. wild. Thunderstruck and stunned. Write down the commands of your God. restored to arms. draw swiftly nigh And now search for some measure that will be salutary for both you and yours. shame. sluggish beyond measure. disconsolate. disgust and horror. In the end. arrogant.

Preferring the "Legeque" of Rouen BM 1173 and other witnesses. 8. 6. 7. Preferring the "cum iuuenibus" of Rouen 1173 and others.Notes: 1. 4. . Preferring the "diremptionis" of Rouen 1173 and other mss. Preferring the "sceleratis" of Rouen BM 1173 and others. the "Meotic Marshes" are frequently the Sea of Azov but can also refer to the Baltic. Preferring the "cuncto spurcamine" of Rouen BM 1173 and others. 3. Preferring the "doli" of Rouen 1173 and others. Preferring the "in meotidibus" of Rouen 1173 and others. 2. 9. Preferring the "veterrimo ritu" of Bern Bongars 390 and other witnesses. Preferring the "cerebro" of Rouen 1173 and others. 5.

having slipped away in flight. as if a desert. on that account. according to the disposition of his own heart. deeply moved by the royal address. said of one mind that they would do battle. Let a lasting peace be procured from these ungodly men.[3] Whilst Francia was being abandoned. having been invited hither because of this menacing complaint. and the dreadful arrivals of the Normans were being dreaded like the hidden rumblings of bellowing thunder. If you perchance go forth to contend with them. he had summoned dukes and bishops. began to speak. he related and recounted what he had devised. that he would ally with that viler-than-the-vilest Anstign. Peace-making ambassadors are directed to harsh Anstign. extremely advantageous to himself and to his followers. Afterwards. And the king. will return to their ships. let you seek earnestly for the safety of the realm by examining this measure. either you will die or they. advising against such things. and that there would be peace between the two of them." But then the Franks. once an unshattered peace between the chiefs has been secured. waging war against the Normans. assuaged by the rendered payments of a tributary sum and gradually appeased by the weight of the tribute exacted from the Franks. counts and throngs of armed retainers. of his own accord. he is being escorted to the . When. by speaking out and declaiming thus: "Oh lords and masters. to me. with the storm of pillagings that had been assailing the whole realm having cleared. extremely swift. saying: "To commence a war against them does not." This measure revealed by the king's mouth was indeed very pleasing to all. and the king of the Franks did not have the wherewithal to resist the temerity of the pagans by force. seem wise. he meanwhile hit upon the measure. oh!. that the land may rest in our time. is giving it for a longer time! Thus. he is not rejecting the peace which was being requested but.

out-ofthe-way roads And entering fruitlessly upon the tortuous bends of slipperyroutes. adroit. look closely now. If. Epilogue Holding to wild. you are to have the strength to be led further. because of their cumulation of accursed deeds. That. you now leave off labor. they were deservedly condemned. And let it represent the truth of the matter. they are made. For indeed the Frankish nation. therefore let us quickly turn our audacious pen to its intended design. and during the course of that time it is released from enemy destruction. however unskilled. (note 1) And Francia rested. formerly reduced by manifold pillaging. of one mind. Let it avoid detours into offensive events. delivered from the ravaging of puffed-up pagans. briefly illuminate those things which were done at God's command and briefly relate how they happened. Book. We urge the reader not to shudder at the dishonor of the unfavorable misfortunes which beset the Franks. let it pursue instead the salvation that is to come. tributes for a four-year peace. that you now desist for a moment fromthe journey you have begun.king. Allied in turn by mutual will and by imperial agreements. they were justly punished. Thus let the reed-pen. was very full of filthy uncleanness. spurning the error of sophism. circuitous paths and proceeding along slippery. wearied by the uncertainties of the subject matter. for these misfortunes were not intended to ruin them but rather. which was crushed by the avenger Anstign. under an inextricable agreement. I earnestly request. unbelievers and faithless. united. For the road is exceedingly long. full of rocksthroughout. . to correct them. with whom he has fixed. Treasonous and oath-breaking. For us to pursue in our narration all the hardships of that time is long. scabrous.

Since they still have the good will. both slippery and rough. Notes: 1. Bertin. but their ability is very small.Grassy. without being harmed and perishing. who justly triumphs from on high. Then through him for whom we now sing the deeds that he himself exultingly accomplished. covered with foliage. wooded. And let them be more frequently thoroughly washed and wiped dry. According to the Annals of St. and the treaty was negotiated in 874. And feed grain to your horses. . If not with the help of God. already so lean. With nails join horseshoes to the bottoms of their feet And greatly adorn their backs with steadfast trappings And bind their jaws with stitched reins and bridles. Anstign spent the period after his return from the Mediterranan around Angers. In this way you will perhaps be able to traverse the splendid road Without going astray and tumbling down. Nor the intercession of the blessed witness Quintinus.

skillful And knowing in the sciences. And all around it. fleeing the Minoan ramparts in a marvellous act. And Icarus has submitted his body to the father's wings." (note 2) Fertile of field. and fickle in action and agreement. rich in treasure and population. Supposing that he. Generous with the profit of its varied wares. Sung in Heroic Metre. ascends towards the icy Great and Lesser Bear.[ 04 ] A Preface. Wishing to take after the father in his deeds. He has stood upon the Cumaean heights. called in olden times "hundredtowned. would be able to pass through the clouds. With great praise (note 3) it has begotten Daedalus. He has fastened wings to himself with wax. Crete (note 1) . though devoid of nimble wings. beyond what is sufficient. in different directions. to Which an Elegiac Section is Appended There is an island. The father Daedalus. Similar in all respects to a secure winged creature. (note 4) . fortunate. Imprudent fickleness has adopted as a partner his son. At one time. And then touches the ground with his feet. At length. are also many harbors Entangled with boats of diverse function. wearing the wings undaunted. indefatigable. knowing the way to survive in those fortunate cold climes. Encircled by the uninterrupted girdle of an immense whirlpool. Reckless.

And unequal numbers have been considered. Has approached more than is proper the steeps of the fiery (note 5) clime. . dissolved from each feather. Notorious Icarus. into the boundlessness. Reckless of the coming danger. With playful and facetious mimicking grimaces. If. striving greatly towards the steeps. To stretch out your wings to heaven. While a difficult subject matter forces you. If you understood the various harmonic qualities Which preserve the interval in three steps. with especially harmonic songs. through increased strength. quicker than Daedalus or Icarus You are forsaking the low-lying lands. And then has soon stripped off the salvation-giving wings. once different tones have been mingled. sunk in the wave-sounding whirlpool. It is to you that these portents relate and you that that fable has concerned.He has erected and dedicated a noble temple to Phoebus. up to the time when Rollo reaches manhood Whereas. stupid. and passing higher. All eight modes which (fixed in the five tetrachords) The fourth and fifth embrace And which. Soon the wax. less perfect in his skill. you were to possess the ability To match that desire which abides in your heart's mind. The Daedalian offspring. is liquid. Has given his name to the open sea he encountered. You would be able with a sweetly-singing sound To play the stringed cithara among the swans. At the beginning you are drawing forward the great deeds both ofadult Dacians And of youths.

fifth and the octave Can result from a doubled number. Entrust your heart's intention to the thundering Lord. The highest defender of the orphan and the exile and the destitute And the wandering widow and the sacred order. advantageous to yourself. And fertilize your understanding with rhetorical nectar And likewise intoxicate it with harmonic metre. trembling. And a peaceful 3/4 time binds the fourth. I am violently shaken by very great rancors. I pray. Whereby. along with other lyres. . The fifth and the octave from a tripled form. Now I am stung and I am pricked and. A lay for that patrician who is the eye of the blind (note 6) and the staff of the lame. Sacred to Ceres and eradicated of shrub and flintstone. The fourth. their thunderbolts urge you headlong. defended. quaking. I am goaded And. take this advice. And a melodious 2/3 time ratifies the fifth. rescued from snares. over the open deep On the bountiful wings of the sevenfold breeze And place you only in the fertile grove. the imprudent games of the multitude compel you. The ornament of the church and the sustenance of the poor. shatter their lightning flashes. may you be able To psalmodize on your lute. That he might destroy their games. Having thus obtained a hymn-singing voice. I pray. you may be able to protect yourself rightly: Let not. According to the law of the arithmetical art.Are formed from the dissonant content of the musical art. For a 9/8 time closes the tone. Behold. Let not. Gradually conduct you. And the octave from a quadrupled form.

bountiful spirit. I will briefly recount whatever I can in a prosaic recital. With your contribution. I pray. Assuredly it is a very great shame for us. Lat. 3 ed. 488 . with your authorship. Notes: 1. Traube pp. Preferring the "Creta" of CC 276. Apportioning the gifts of your heavenly nectar. quickening them. Slowly infuse the grottoes of my breast with poured out hopes. and. . 3. 2. 4. which reads "empirii" (in Greek letters). Heiric of Auxerre's Vita Germani (MGH Poet. wearied By a very heavy weight. But the newness of the subject matter tears us to pieces. with your leadership. beaming forth. Whereby I might be able to reach the high (note 7) peaks of a strength Great enought to produce copiously things unattempted by any pen.489). We are endeavoring to extend our course even further. Preferring the "multa sat laude" of CC 276. And it will be exceedingly facetious prating. Come.Although we have reached this spot with our feet full of sand And have come along a muddy course and a difficult path. Inflame dull understandings. And able to give form to all unformed things. Preferring the "ECTAPOLIS" (Greek) of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses to the blank in the Berlin ms. Correcting the corrupt readings of all the manuscripts of Dudo from Dudo's source. The town of Cumae on the island of Euboea. Indeed not to go forward and persist in our undertaking. L. Blow here. to abandon the bundle. 5. you who have furnished words in the past.

7.6. Preferring the "caecis" of CC 276. Preferring the "alta" of CC 276. .

which you ought to rule with peace-making sovereignty. enduring so very many evils. coming together to the king. is being annihilated. And be rebuilt by the service of those in whose action it had been valued little. it does not desist. care for this realm. through that usage of a former time. has compassionately perceived that the church which had been redeemed by sacrosanct blood and profusely cleansed by the liquid of sacred baptism. And be raised up to heaven by those through whom it had slipped into the precipice. and excellently anointed with the fluid of oil and of chrism. and shaken to its foundations by the crushing of our sons and nephews. touched supplicatingly by the uninterrupted prayers of the Christians. "For we have renounced our ancient-established usage. wherefore the populace of the Dacian nation. So that it might be manfully invigorated whence it had been lamentably reduced. from offering [that church] salvation-giving succor from the raging savageness of Dacian heathenism. Thus when very many throngs of young Dacian men have been formed by the human bond of sexual union and debauchery. king. Therefore. and are frequently exciting the fires of war among themselves and against their fathers and maternal uncles. at whose command all things do one thing then another through the varied alternation of revolving time. all the Dacians of greater age and power.[5] Since the supernal providence of the Deific Trinity. Be adorned by the gems and gold of those by a crowd of whom it had been abused. Be elegantly cloaked by the gift of those through whose booty-taking it had become tattered. is being immensely reduced by the misfortunes described briefly above. have said of one mind: "The state is being furiously overpowered by hostile attack. Let Dacia be purged of the baleful plague of its most vile enemies. so we who are left behind may be able to live and rest in perpetual .

a certain old man. and by force and power he subjugated the populace to himself through very many battles. full of doubt.peace. the king has ordered the viceroys of that land to come to him on a prescribed day to learn which nephews and sons the lot of expulsion has hit upon. well-versed in warfare. They would not know beforehand with certainty what sentiment was being meditated upon in the king's heart. Verily does solicitude. But when he died. most opulent with an abundance of all goods. Truly the older of them was called Rollo. a man who never lowered the nape of his neck before any king. the youths assigned to banishment by royal order said of one mind: "Bring us aid. the younger. Their uneasy hearts would waver and. begging with all their strength on bended knee and with lowered countenance and humble voice. going to Rollo and Gurim. and to rob us forever of our estates and beneficia. his two sons. their stunned spirits are brought to a standstill. Holding almost the entire realm of Dacia. Gurim. fatigue them. Report of this royal embassy has soon struck with consternation those reaching the age of puberty. but the other. But in the region of Dacia there was. come to our assistance. And. Have mercy. on the other hand. he was the mightiest due to his superior strength and the most distinguished due to his cumulated surplus of all the virtues. For. we pray. have mercy on us who are destitute of all hope and help. we will stay under your protecting care and be incessantly in your service. desirous of knowing the truth. to pieces. and surrounded on all sides by a crowd of innumerable warriors. vigorous in arms. Our king. and swiftly sending his enjoining ordinance throughout the land under his sovereignty. give way to alarmed sentiments." Then those two brothers replied. wishes to banish us from Dacia. he claimed for himself the lands bordering on Dacia and Alania. and uncertain hope does tear them. survived him. in body most fair. ignorant of future uncertainties. in those days. of all the easterners." Attentively assenting to their deliberations. As they perceive that the future is unknown. nor placed his hands in anyone else's hands in committing himself to service. . in spirit most hardy.

and restore them with hammers. I pray. Soon the fierce youth of Dacia. who had been assigned for banishment. says to all the leaders of his empire. that is to say leather helmets. the father of Rollo and Gurim. After calling together a host composed of men abounding in plentiful and proportioned manhood.saying to the youths who were praying supplicatingly: "We will aid you as best we can and will bring it to pass that you stay in Dacia and calmly occupy your properties. rejoicing over what their leaders had said. reaching the ears of the king of Dacia. who have been summoned to him: "It is not unknown to you that the father of Rollo and Gurim has died. recalling the evils which that duke had brought upon him previously. was enjoying his supreme lot." Thus. that is to say. and I will take revenge on the sons for the deeds of the father and I will be satisfied with their misfortunes only by crushing them. hearing these things. Meanwhile. Then the king. Indeed they even recast in furnaces weapons handed down to them from their fathers. some sharpen weapons and swords and hatchets. who have been disturbed by discussion of the report. Some adjust light brazen shields and shining arrows with the artisinal skill of an adult." They. and I will capture towns and encampments and fortifications. attending very closely to its passionate concerns. however. Report of this unexpected occurrence slips through to the ears of Rollo and Gurim. prepare yourselves and your followers for such labors. all went back with their followers whence they had come. namely hauberks woven of iron and gold chain. untroubled by royal threats. a truthful report of these events is published abroad. [Rollo] commands silence. The mightiest duke. Therefore I will go to their territory. and assembling a multitude of those. Others make safe coverings for the head. their right hands raised in greeting. With a whetstone. and immediately returned home. prepares whatever is appropriate for that advance. With the . others for the breast. kissed the feet of Rollo and Gurim. of middle age and older. once the date of departure for the future battle had been named.

grandfathers and great-grandfathers with intelligent design. however he has left those of the king's army behind. and gain strength. Thus. musing upon the fraudulent deceit conceived in his inimical heart. both in anticipating and in resisting his arrival. Then Rollo has interred the dead of his own army. and what your father held.murmuring of the bustling people completely calmed and himself loftily furnished with the platform of a becoming chair. I am addressing. for each one by turns. hearing this. the king in deceit has sent to [Rollo] with these peace-making words: "Let there be nothing between you and me except intimate esteem." Then Rollo and Gurim and their warriors and those who had been assigned for banishment have all praised the peace very much. let us. Rollo begins to speak. fleeing to the protection of the towns. his mouth flowing with honey: "It is you. Allow the republic to be at rest. to hold what is yours by right. And then. they are allied. occupy like an enemy the land under his own rule. and let you not scorn to join together harmoniously so that you might have the strength. I pray. If indeed the king of this realm is attempting to step over us and to attack the authority of our monarchy and to ruin us and all of you. proceeds to battle against Rollo and his brother and after contending with them for a while turns in flight. let you imitate your reverend fathers. you. in whom youthful ardor glows and who are in the flower of a superior mandhood. before he seizes the land of our hereditary lordship. unburied." However the king. so that I might be at liberty patiently to hold what is mine by right and what my father held. But when the war between the king and Rollo had continued for a period of one year. Grow manfully strong. moreover. And between you and me may peace and harmony be agreed upon through an inextricable alliance. enriched by reciprocal gifts. the treasonous king begins to fight. both come to a conference (note 1) at the time settled upon for swearing the alliance. moving against them at night with some of his assembled army and attacking their . to be their equal.

However. seeing himself between the two armies. Checking the grief in your heart. However. has been battling against [Rollo]. have been pursuing the king. has subjugated to himself the populace which has been battling against him. begins exceedingly to lament. and Gurim and those who were with him. despairing of himself. beseiging and capturing every town. Make yourself merry. deprived of that compassionate duke and patrician and that most hardy advocate. Finding the city emptied of armed men. they do set it afire. Then Dacia. springing forth from the city. shaken by great wailing. With very many from Rollo's side having therefore fallen. you who send your nurslings to the Gauls by lot. prophesied and deserved. But Rollo. has gone to the island of Scania with six boats. . who is putting the king to flight with hostile fierceness. the other having come out from its lurking-holes. and his dead brother mutilated (though only with great difficulty) by very many wounds. make for the city itself. not ignorant now of the future things That will be granted by the stars. the king. Then Rollo. desirous of a true promise. This is not a misfortune for his soul or a blow of stinging fortune. the one pretending to flee. and have carried off as their spoils all the household furnishings. Then the king. With sumptuous. a certain portion of the ambushers. Change shall have ever transformed this outrageous calamity. Thus.territory and concealing ambushes near the walls of one of their cities. But certain of the ambushers have been following Rollo. Rollo (with a few followers) separates from all of them. come out from their lurking-holes. prosperous gifts it will assign to him every good. his brother Gurim has fallen in battle. turning back. not having the power to remain in Dacia because of the king. once Rollo has passed beyond the location of the ambushes. perceiving that the town has been set on fire and that the ambushers have prevailed. who is turning in flight and pretending to flee. Apostrophe Dacia.

rather than damned. exulting in Christ its prince. . And under them churches will be everywhere made fruitful And in their new never-ending progeny those churches will rejoice. 2. Producing kings and pontiffs. Vast. And once the Dacians have been reconciled with the Franks. Immense throngs will be thereafter brought on high by them. Yea indeed. Preferring the "exporget" of CC 276. themselves formed From the seed of most noble worshippers of Christ. Placitum. Notes: 1. it will enrich and reward him.Enriching. counts and prelates From your blessed scions. fertile Francia will spread out (note 2) . once they have been thrice purified by three-foldbaptism. dukes. bring forth. Under them the world will be rich. put forth.

have brought together against him the greatest possible army. enveloped in a helmet wonderfully ornamented with gold and a mail coat. there you will hear that you will return healthy to the fatherland and that in it you will. has proceeded swiftly and without hesitation. turning in flight. But he. without defeat. a divine voice cried out to him. without hesitation. enjoy neverending peace. and very many whom royal heinousness (note 1) had chased out of Dacia were returning to him. he explained it with a speech of this type: "In the opportune course of time to come. swiftly flying across the sail-winged sea. again send out against Rollo the hardiest possible army and try to kill him or cause him to slip away in flight. proceed to the Angles." When he had recounted this dream to a certain wise and Christian man. struggled to avenge himself on his foes. he goes to the Angles and supposes that he will linger there calmly for a while. the peasants of that territory. you will be purified by sacrosanct baptism and will become an especially worthy Christian and at a future time you will come from the deception of this wavering world all the way to the Angles. sorrowful. his limbs. He has savagely overthrown thousands of them with a . wearied by exertion. against the armed throngs of those setting out and attacking him. And they have tried to chase him from their borders. hearing that Rollo the Dacian has arrived. going hastily across the deep in navigation. at Skania island and. At length many more peasants than before." But immediately outfitting ships and equipping them with oars and loading them with grain and wine and heads of swine. collecting in a mass. and has overthrown very many of them and has harassed with a spear the backs of the rest. Rollo. burning under the anxious compulsion of twisting wrath. saying: "Arise swiftly. He has gone to meet them in battle in his accustomed manner. that is the angels and with them you will have the glory of everlasting peace. However. overpowered by deep sleep.[6] AND WHILE HE LINGERED. well versed in the zealous exertions of war and extremely fierce in the exigencies of combat.

filled with the pestilence of musing? Why do you consume your heart. through battle. perplexed. and why. And you will capture the deserved crown as worthy recompense And you will deserve to benefit. Then he begins to anguish greatly and to be grieved. father. pursuing fugitives with a swift course and capturing many of the leaders and returning to the place of the battle. . a patrician blossoming with merits. loftier than the Frankish hall. filled with the squalor of concerns? Why do you mutter in your spirit. with a fixed gaze? Why do you reconsider in your mind. recalling doubts and darkness? And why are you astounded at your malign misfortune in your present lot? According to the fated order. A never-ending Christian. do you fear? Why do you torment your spirit.conquering (note 2) hand and. wavering. why do you meditate by musing now? Why are you stuck. Notes: 1. 2. Preferring the "immanitas" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. strike and claim for himself the English land. vacillating among three kinds of wandering. Preferring the "uictrici" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. You will have power by right. after many perils of war And after the marine swellings of the boiling main. he has placed the bodies of the slain in the earth and has carried off the rest. Rollo. in the deity. whether he should hit upon Dacia or should proceed to Francia or should. discolored by wounds and bound them captive to the ships. APOSTROPHE TO THAT VERY MAN Why do you tremble. from the highest good.

eat by turns. to apprehend the unexhausted outer edge of their multitude. to the fountain on the mount. At length. imbued with the faith of Christian reverence and bedewed with the presentiment of divine inspiration. and wash themselves with harmonious bathing. yielding to each other by turns. and he asked them what they felt was the secret meaning of this vision. and himself. For the rest. with harmonious gait and flight. and recalling the vision which he had seen. still present at the apex of the mountain. being washed in it and being purified by it. one night as sleep-inducing Lethean quiet crept slowly through his members. one of the captives. filled with apprehension by passions of this type. with his circumscribed and penetrating gaze. and a limpid and fragrant fountain at the apex of that mountain. as all were silent. spread far and wide. loftier even than the most eminent ones of Frankish habitation. and the men of that region subjugated themselves to his authority through an obligation and a bond of fidelity. made clear the secret . while he hesitated. amicably as it were. and build nests from branches carried there through their own hastening exertion. without the strife of any controversy.[7] However. He was not able. he unhesitatingly discussed the whole sequence of this vision with his greatest leaders. summoned to him. and with the leaders taken in battle. as birds are accustomed to do in time of rain and. he kept seeming to see himself placed on a certain mountain. he kept seeming to see many thousands of birds of diverse classes. Yea indeed he kept seeming to see them surrender willingly to an empire of his own conception. called together as well. of varied color but with red left wings. polluted by the infection and itching of leprosy. he kept seeming to see them travel. once all have been anointed with that marvelous wetting. in all directions around the base of the mountain. Then. in a common pasture. Awakened soon afterwards. in a harmonious assembly without distinction of classes or species.

on which you kept seeming to stand. Through the flying creatures of diverse classes with crimson left wings. with lowered faces: "Our lord and advocate Rollo. a populace polluted by the infection of the ancient fraud. back to their homes. guided the reins of the realm of the Angles. most compassionate. to be washed by symbolic baptism. Through the leprosy and the itching. they said with a respectful tone of voice. having reclined at your table. Birds of diverse species were obeying you. represents the Church of that land. is explained as the baptism of rebirth. having become your fideles. Through the winged creatures moistened in the fountain and washed in it by turns and eating in a common act of consumption. will yield obedience by serving you. you are to understand the ravaged town walls which are to be rebuilt. For at that time a most Christian king of the Angles. sends faithful service to . to be fattened by the nourishment of Christ's sacrosanct body and blood. especially worthy advocate of the sacrosanct church. Alstem by name. The fountain. whose most boundless outer edge you were not able to make out with your sight.meaning of that vision. you are to understand the accursed deeds and sins of your own perpetration. mightiest patrician of all and most distinguished duke of the Dacians. you are to understand men of diverse provinces with shield-bearing arms." Thus. an innumerable multitude of whom you will also see collected together. that you were being born again through the bath of sacred baptism and cleansed of all sins. and indeed he first announced. which was at the summit of the mountain. men of diverse realms. joyful. adorned with the tokens of every good. To him did Rollo send his ambassadors forthwith. endowed with various presents and diverse gifts. delighted by these marvelous explanations. Through the nests which they were building around the mountain. (note 1) That you were washed in that fountain and purged by it of the sickness of leprosy and itching. for their ears. what they were to say. by which you were corrupted. saying: "The mountain of Francia. Rollo released from their bonds both the explainer of his vision and the others whom he had seized in the war and sent them. Coming to Alstem.

resisted their temerity and captured many of them. We are seeking a negotiated peace for the purpose of buying and selling. and indeed even the fraudulent treachery of the king of Dacia. his cheerful coutenance bowed: "No region brings forth extraordinary men. in the realm of Dacia. although we kept trying to return to Dacia and avenge ourselves upon our foes. weakened by the high waves of swelling tempests. since we are going to depart for Francia in the impending springtime.you and the gift of unshattered friendship to your followers. Once they had . And the water did not offer us a propitious road. entirely hostile to us. the rivers. certain warriors abiding in the neighborhood of our arrival. and your misfortunes and hardships. nor in any way turn plundered booty towards our ships. lord king." The messengers moreover. formed a barrier to us. going away. and to solace him concerning his ills. the frozen winter opposed and hindered us and. held in check by a thick mass of frozen crusts. for I desire to look upon him. disarmed. No one is more just than your lord in deeds. stripped of the hope of any aid and safety. the king speaks out. alas. formed against us the greatest possible battle-line and attacked. Hearing this. no one greater in arms. the East Wind. using the integrity of our promise. put away your cares about this matter and be free from all ills. Untroubled by arms. Moreover. while icy coldness encrusted the earth and cast down the pliant stalks of grasses and trees. the grief! fraudulently banished from there. challenging us. to your territory. you compel your lord to deign to come to us. and ones actively instructed in arms. and having been. avoiding battles. You may sell and buy everywhere in the lands under our authority. in the battle. who was coming to meet him. Very many men have recounted to us the extended nobility of your lord's kin. reported to Rollo whatever they had heard. We having suffered great misfortune. Rollo at once proceeded boldly and unhesitatingly to the king. But we. having the power to sail neither below nor above the ice. having heard these things. we pray that." However. has driven us. we will not pillage your realm. more than does Dacia. However.

impudent. Bring such assistance as you are able. And I earnestly beseech you to remain in our territory And be purified of uncleanness through salvation-giving baptism. helping in a similar fashion. And if your wish is to depart for other climes. VERSES Then king Alstem was the first to speak: "Let us be joined in a single favorable alliance of faith. If at some time this savage. And my shield will cover you in our common struggle. just as I myself shall be. And loftier than all others in character and merits.embraced and kissed one another." Notes: 1. should fight against me. Neither preserving nor keeping the contents of its promise. Always be mindful of me in everything. Come. keep whatever you desire in the orbit of our authority. they sat down at a distance from the departing throngs of both armies. saving me with a steadfast effort. untamable nation. flashing with the light of deeds. And I will assist you. Be always. a part of my soul and my companion. . Potent in your noble stock. Preferring the "infectus" of CC 276 and other witnesses. I beg.

But although the navigation assembly would be brought by gentle winds to the middle of a calm smooth sea and they would see nothing but sky compassing the face of the sea. bring to pass everything you have recounted as needing to be done between you and me. from the lowest depths up to the stars and down again into the precipice." Absolutely inextricably allied through these words. awakening the wind's dangers and are lifting up great billows from the gaping deep. The sky has resounded with ever more frequent flashes and a black night of thick shadows has lied down over them. In whatever land I be. duke Rollo (so disposed to concern!) has caused the ships and expenses necessary for the journey to be prepared and has gathered warriors in the flower of youth. hither and thither as if through mountains and valleys. as I wish it. The ships move to and fro. knowing that those men were to be cleansed by baptism in the name of Christ and groaning that the men were to acquire the glory which they themselves had lost. each with his followers returned home. I will go to Francia. they allow all control to the winds. when an abundant supply of red-glowing flowers would gently smile. he has embarked. have gone to meet them yea indeed are rushing from their own residences. And they threaten . their strength drained. Moreover at the beginning of the summer season. united in an alliance of indissoluble esteem. as swiftly as I am able.[8] Then Rollo. and milk-white and fragrant lilies would shine white with purple-colored purples. delighted by the king's words. is said to have said: "I thank you. angles who had become his followers and were to travel with him. Thus. envious spirits. I will not linger very long in your realm but. for these willing boons and. For throughout the wintertime. With the oars cracked. marvelously enriched through these agreements about their mutual affairs. ever mindful of the vision admonishing him to set out for Francia. I will stay your friend till the end. having given sails to the fleet. the superior of all kings. the sails are not able to bear the frenzy of the winds.

. Preferring "faueto" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. snatching us from these misfortunes and this exertion. taming. favor (note 1) these prayers And. You who occupy heaven and earth throughout eternity And whose divine will compasses all things in their eternal turning. Wish troublesome me. with outstretched hands.everyone with sudden death. hold back and calm the deep. You who. Greatly billowing in a violent whirlpool. Rollo has lied down prostrate upon the ship and in a humble voice has poured forth words such as these: ROLLO'S PRAYER O omnipotent God filling the heavens with light. Notes: 1. Receive these wishes with good will and. restrain the fierce billows And. To become a Christian in the short turning course of future time. 2. Softening. filled with the vices of sin and with impurity. having calmed (note 2) their destructions. kind. Then. through the gift of a vision. Preferring the "sedatisque" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses.

and consumed it with fire. and he sent very many of them overthrown by violent death over to the lower world. Then he ravaged the whole land of the walgri. ambassadors enriched with the very greatest presents. and he either captured or put to flight the remainder. he chased both ragnar long-neck. However the walgri estimating.[9] Truly with the entreaties of these prayers having ceased the sea soon rests with the tempests calmed. the most christian king of the angles alstem recalling. Delighted with these gifts rollo sent back to the king as an act of thanks. and radbod the frisian. They steered with difficulty to the shores of the walgri. to their own strongholds. he swiftly sought out the frisians. and for radbod prince of the region of frisia. on account of the abundant supply of grain that had been fetched that rollo was going to linger in the waal region for all time. However the walgri hearing. he killed many thousands of them. sent over to the very lofty duke in the waal region. and hainault. unexpectedly assailed duke Rollo barely raised up from the stormy sea. Then the frisian inhabitants of the zuidersee quickly collecting in a mass a . the friendship by which he the most distinguished in uprightness of all kings had bound himself and rollo together in eternal alliance. and shortly they deployed the ships and those smashed by the storm over the vast tracts of calm smooth sea by means of a wished-for breeze. that a barbarian nation savagely battered by a storm at sea had been carried to their shores. Indignant after this because of the whole affair. And as he kept pillaging the waal region tarrying for a long while. called for ragnar long-neck duke of hesbaye. Stirred up in his accustomed manner he proceeded finishing the war against them. with an assembled multitude of peasants. and he sent word through them that he himself was about to attend the king. and with the amassed army of those other districts. they attacked rollo. twelve boats loaded with grain and wine and lard yea indeed the same number filled with an armed warband. As he had done many times he proceeded to war without hesitation. and began to ravage their land.

all despair of living. Truly ragnar has brought many battles to pass against him. and folded together with the glittering sword-points of a tight battle array. have been awaiting the commencement of the combat. A very powerful famine appears. the dacians have rushed upon him. and seized him fighting greatly. have begun the war. have attacked twelve of rollo's chief warriors.pile of many peoples. Thus one day as ragnar lies stealthily in ambush. wholly covered by a covering of oblong shields. yielding obedience in all things to rollo's precepts. and captured them by means . remaining in coverts in order to capture some of the dacians. venture in sped-up assault to attack rollo. The masses are weakened by scarcity. robbed of the safety of sustenance. Having rambled over the deep. and have led him vanquished back to rollo. he enters the bed of the schelde. but mighty rollo has emerged the victor from all of them. who with the already overthrown frisian walgri was present in the battle. The dacians truly springing forth. and pillaging the land on this side and that. They have surrounded him accosting from different directions. For indeed that same day ragnar's men. rushing upon them have overthrown them all the way to destruction. longing to rush upon the dacians. it will not benefit them. enduring the evils of both armies. with many prepared hosts. despairing. Therefore the frisians reckoning that their multitude is very small. Thus the remaining frisians. But rollo and those who were with him on bended knee and with the horror of arms assailing them. And they have captured very many leaders and have led an innumerable band back to their ships. longing to take revenge upon that very man. he thereupon launches high the canvas sails given to the ships. comes upon ragnar long-neck. have henceforth become subject to tribute. The land kept being ravaged. and turns the prows to the lands of ragnar broad-throat. they are exhausted by hunger and wars. and heaping upon their own forces a multitude of the common people inhabiting the neighborhood of frisia. at a certain abbey called by the name of cond•. for the earth is not rent by the plough. Once the tribute payment of frisia has been collected and accumulated and handed over.

Having received her embassy rollo immediately. and the frisians against me? Should you desire now to vent your rage. for you to have done battle along with the walgri. Yea indeed with suppliant and intercessory words she has sent to rollo. Your wife and your leaders have sent me in exchange for you whatever gold and silver they were able to recover. the arrows and armed retainers of war are wanting. Rest after this while growing mild. you cannot escape while entangled in fetters. has sent back to her saying. and I will send you back to your wife. I will hand over to you half of the accumulated tribute. rollo has immediately sent him back delighted . and moreover give me whatever gold and silver there is in his duchy. Soon ragnar's consort. That said ragnar's shins are released from their fetters. so that he might hand over her husband to her. Ragnar duke and fiercest warrior and one sprung from the arrogant blood of kings and dukes and counts. unless you first hand my companions over to me.of steady valor. has caused ragnar long-neck to come to him. along with the revenue of that duchy while swearing that she neither had more metal nor could she exact any. Should you wish to slip away from us in flight. distressed by this mournful embassy. and let there in no wise be discord. whatever had been granted to the sacred altars. between me and you but rather eternal peace friendship. Just as I did with the frisians I have retaliated for the evils. Ragnar will not be returned to you but he will be decapitated. has sent for rollo to return her lord to her in return for the twelve captured counts. Moreover he himself moved by compassion and by the cries of those supplicatingly beseeching him. yea indeed having handed over to him the moiety of the despatched tribute. Then ragnar's wife weeping and wailing. yea indeed the tribute payment of that region. which you brought upon me without cause. having called her leaders together concerning him. and addresses him with these peace-making words. what wrong have I ever done you. has sent the captured counts back to rollo. along with an oath of the christian way of life. and all the gold and silver which she was able to find. and having enriched him with extremely great presents and gifts. And having allied ragnar to himself.

With these matters having been settled by a peace in this way. APOSTROPHE Look rollo why do you remain tarrying in those lands? When you have taken more than enough revenge on all your foes? Stop refrain this decision is better for you That in the ready time of a coming age You will suffer the battles of the abominable frankish nation And be greatly harassed by aquitanian wars After this about to approach the moisture of the liquid and sacred font Drenched with chrism. what he should do. clever rollo mindful of his vision. . and renewed by the fluid of the oil You will capture rewards including the present of never-ending life.to his wife. asks. and always hoping that what he has seen in his dreams will come true for him.

and a name from the virgin's name has forever stuck to this chapel.ges. at the gate which is connected to the church of saint martin. (note 1) And seeing the monastery of saint peter and reckoning the place to be holy and embellished with abodes of monkish habitation. poor men and destitute merchants. came of one mind to bishop franco of rouen. and is often repelled. ascertaining that there lingered in the town and in its territory none except a defenseless mass. but steered his ships to the other side of the river. he saw its monuments laid in ruins. having traversed the deep where the cerulean whirlpool of the seine. according to the intervals of the moon.ges. Thus the inhabitants of rouen. gave the bishop a guarantee of safety on the strength of his own assurance. that he might give a guarantee of safety to himself and to those abiding in the district. by a more swollen billow of the sea itself. plentifully furnished with a very large (note 2) warband. going to the open main of the inundating sea. foresaking the bed of the river schelde on the advice of his fideles. But franco immediately sent to rollo. and the dwellers in that region. And then. discharges itself. and large stones torn . launched his sails before the ship-bearing winds and came by ship to jumi•auml. Moreover. which he had carried there with him. coming down off the ship and surveying the town at a swift pace. and he placed upon the altar of saint vedast the body of a certain virgin. And that place is called at saint hameltrude by the residents. hameltrude by name. Truly rollo.[ 10 ] Thus in the eight hundred seventy sixth year from the lord's incarnation. he hesitated to linger there. pursuing a course of navigation beneficial to himself. in order to take counsel about what to do. he came to rouen and secured his ships. flowing with its crystal-clear courses and lapping the fragrant grasses of its elevated banks and. noble rollo. to the chapel of saint vedast. hearing that a plentiful multitude of normans was at jumi•auml.

once the realm has been calmedby peace. Behold the mount (note 4) of the church where you kept seeing yourself rejoice. (note 3) recalling the vision which he had had beyond the sea. let the fierce wolf graze at the same time in the sheep's field. in the coming time of your descendants Fierce ages will grow tame. the strength of ungodliness having been undone. Marvelously. To the peoples in that town you will give laws and alliances And rights likewise. . with the fear of strict penalty. APOSTROPHE Oh rollo. Once the Franks have been devoured by war. wars having been banished. sitting on its arms. Through christ's gift this town will flourish under your leadership. and the populace broken.away from sanctuaries. mighty duke and most superior leader. And ungodly fury. This fatherland is to be built by your followers. It will be built at a future time. and he began to be perplexed in spirit. will challenge no one With its cry. then. themselves renewed in the font. And to fasten his sight in sole contemplation. Rather. and a small and defenseless band. Behold here the font of the bath where you were cleansed of leprosy. churches shaken from their foundations and walls smashed on every side.

along with Anstign (who has been summoned there. collected into an innumerable multitude in the bed of the Seine. begotten of that nation.[ 11 ] Having returned thence to the boats. announce that the Normans. (note 3) But the Franks. give us advice about these matters. to a place called Damps. with ships untied Rollo is carried upstream from Rouen towards Pont de l'Arche. himself formerly an invader of Francia) and with an assembled army of vast multitude. Anstign put this forward: "If you had sought advice from me with three days notice." Then Ragnold: "Go swiftly. copiously supplied with diverse kinds of wild game. to find out their . Then Ragnold. he is planning in his sagacious mind what he should do. prince of all Francia. said to Anstign. as stupefied by their arrival as by the sudden sound of thunder. And we will claim this land as our allotment (note 1) . advice resulting from thorough consideration. Then his followers. with the advice of his men." Replying forthwith to count Ragnold. are at the cross-roads of Francia. that exciter of all vileness: "You." Thus gladdened by his followers' replies. have come upon the point of descent of the river Eure. We will subordinate this land to our power. then I would have given it to you. but empty of armed men and warriors. having called together the leaders. have said aloud to Rollo: "This land is plentifully furnished with an abundant supply of all the fruits of the earth. because it is privy to affairs everywhere. so that the distant throngs we have left behind may rest. we pray. Perhaps the explanation of your vision referred to this territory. we will obtain through battle both villages and fortresses (note 2) and towns large and small of neighboring peoples. divided up by rivers filled with fish. Just send ambassadors to them to find out what they themselves say. as though prescient of the future and imbued with a presentiment of divine inspiration. shady with trees. Thereupon does common talk.

who sailed here with a numerous warband?" They replied: "We have heard of him. the sooner the better." Then Anstign. nor are we going to reveal to you what we shall do. they stood still. so strong in the flower of youthful age. wishing to know what they would say about himself. going away. turning towards Anstign: "Does it seem to all of you that a war will be started? You men are of their nation." Then a standard-bearer of the Frankish host. The favor (note 6) that would please us best is the one that we will claim for ourselves by force of arms and in the hardship of battle. and to draw many favors (note 4) from him?" They replied: "We will never subjugate ourselves to anyone nor cling to anyone's service nor take favors (note 5) from anyone. saying: "Counts of royal power command you to say who you are. through your own practice. of battling in the style of the Danes. we have come to take Francia by assault. is attacked. and to devote yourselves to his service. bolstered by poisonous and fox-like skill. For he was augured to be a good man and he made a good beginning." On the contrary. born in your homeland. tell us what should we do?" Then Anstign. so well-versed in arms. you are not ignorant. is addressing the army: "If this nation. Carried here from Dacia. the Dacians: "Go away." Again Anstign: "Are you willing to lower your necks before king Charles of Francia." Truly they replied: "We are Danes. and what you are planning to do." Yet they: "What authority does your lord discharge?" They replied: "None. for we care nothing for your doubletalk. for we are of equal power. is said to have said: "Why are you all looking to this man? A wolf will never be . named Rotland." But. and whence you have come. but he chose an evil end and finish." Anstign replied: "I will not go alone. and do not stand there any longer. But Ragnold said. and tested in many many battles. said: "Whose reputation has prompted you to come here? Have you ever heard anything about a certain Anstign.purpose." Then the Franks: "What are you going to do?~" After this. they promptly reported to the army what they had heard. they sent with him two warriors skilful in the Dacian language. Coming upon the riverbank. great peril will be created for us.

they quickly destroy Meulan. hearing mass there. Ho! let us occupy their fortresses (note 8) and towns. has said: "What evil have we done to the Franks? Why did they leap upon us? For what reason have they preferred to strike us down? It is they who have initiated this evil. Truly the Franks have come at dawn to the church of St. and have covered themselves completely with their shields. not the defender's. Anstign has said: "From now on. let us return like for like. along with the battle-line that was advancing in front of the army. turning their backs. we will be committing because their own deeds were a cause of offense." Having left behind the fortification of turned-up earth. they have attacked the ample entrance-gate alone. not his who defends himself. and the Dacians in the fortification of rent earth. now that such great evils have accumulated. Germanus and." Spurred on by these words." Meanwhile Rollo and those who were with him have made for themselves a fortification. Rotland. and he has begun to subdue them. Ragnold's standard-bearer. nor a fox by a fox. Riding hence.captured by a wolf. war will not be reviled by me. joyful. Contemplating all the dead there. the audacity is his who wishes to strike. and they have layed waste the entire . the fault is the attacker's. with duke Rollo's encouragement they have first attacked the inhabitants of Meulan. (note 9) With the leaders killed. in a moment have slain Rotland and his attendants. rising up. and an obstacle after the fashion of a fortress (note 7) (which is visible to the present day). But the Dacians. Rollo. has violently rushed upon them through the ample entrance of marvelous breadth. whatever evil we might do to them. sailing with a swift course. Henceforth. spread out in every direction on the ground of the fortress. defending themselves behind a circular bulwark of rent earth. seeing the boats on the riverbank. But the Dacians have lay down inside. having immediately called together those who were returning from the fleeing enemy. Ragnold and Anstign and the other counts have taken flight. they partake of the body and blood of Christ. In return for their offenses. and leaving ample space to act as a gate.

has begun to flee with a swift course. grieving over Botho. he has at one time even brought with him the daughter of prince Berengar." The people of Bayeux. that extraordinary Norman count. the booty. And he has said to his assembled fideles: "Go. Ragnold begins a war there that will not favor his own fortune. he makes for Bayeux. turning in flight. However the Normans have lay themselves down. surrounding Paris. proceeding unshattered through Ragnold's battle-array. so that their total number would be supposed very small. associated with Rollo. the . once the guarantee of security has been given. with an army greater than the one assembled earlier. that extremely fierce warrior. have sent to the people of Bayeux to say: "If you return Botho to us. let us sail now to Paris and seek those citizens who have fled from this battle. Moreover Ragnold. drawn together in deliberation. has been running out. Glad. we will give you a guarantee of safety for one year. Then Rollo. seized in far-off regions. Seeing their lord dead." Thus the Normans have untied their ships from the bank at Meulan and. have said to one another: "It is better for us to rest for the year than to pass the entire time in battle for the sake of a single count. pursuing them. massing closely together. But once Rollo has passed a year besetting Paris in the siege.province. have been overthrowing very many opponents with rough lashings. they have even captured Botho. The Normans instantly make for the Bessin (note 10) and." Thus. pierced through with his spear. But count Ragnold is trying to attack them a second time. have begun to storm the city. seeing his followers wanting. has killed many and has led many more captive to his ships. has stopped him and killed him. they have returned Botho. A certain Seine fisherman. Truly the Dacians. and he has taken possession of it by force and has utterly destroyed the entire city and has claimed for himself captives and spoils from the whole region. The Normans. As Rollo lingers long at the siege of Paris. Ragnold's men have made for their horses. However the citizens have resisted them like an enemy so that they would not stay there. seizing all its booty. have besieged it and have depended upon the booty of that province for carrying on the siege.

the army has attacked it and has seized spoils and very many of the populace. Sebar by name. he would be strengthened by the other's support and whichever of you unfavorable fortune might trample. speaking with lowered countenance. overwhelmed by an unexpected rising of the treasonous Angles. dealing blows in unsuitable wars. And he . he has sent his army to Evreux to capture the city and the bishop. has by God's will escaped. the most Christian king Alstem sent a certain count to Rollo. do not reckon that you will advance any closer to my lord's assistance. peacemaking king of the Angles. Truly the English land was being layed waste by the armies of the king and his opponents. casting off their promise. Wherefore. entwined in Frankish affairs. and has joined her to himself in sexual union. And they have laid waste the whole land. because the Angles. then fighting out the war around the walls of the town of Paris. seizing the spoils of the district (note 12) . At one time. remaining near Paris. he prays you to fleetly assist him with your might. the other would come to his assistance. and have immediately come back to Paris. But the bishop. Thus terrified by such things. beautiful in appearance. (note 11) And he has sired by her a son named William. greater than that of all others. presumptuously began to grow haughty and to contend against the king. knowing you to be hindered by the matter of the Frankish war. though very many have been resisting him. Afterwards. Since he did not have the wherewithal to resist the presumption of the Angles. Coming to him. hearing that Rollo had besieged the town of Paris and was held fast.maiden Popa. and estimating that he would not come to the assistance of his friend king Alstem. Coming to the city. you and Alstem. the count put forth: "Alstem king of the Angles sends you the dear present of inextricable friendship. grown strong from the arrogant blood of a very powerful man. But the Angles. my lord." But Rollo bestowed upon the king's ambassador whatever was needed and ordered him to wait for three days. pledged an alliance of mutual aid that whichever of you might be in need of help. very many of the peoples of Francia have been paying tribute to Rollo.

And he has sent that ambassador to the king and has notified him that he is there to help. Rollo has begun the day's combat and. Then king Alstem. has called for his abundantly large army and has proceeded hastily to meet duke Rollo. to my service and sharply . lord king. but they are hastening to prepare themselves for the battles of the coming day. Truly. Falling away from me. Seeing. so that they be brought back. elated and corrupted by rash haughtiness. rejecting me and my service. they have conspired among themselves and." Then the king has said in a prophetic voice: "I owe you the very greatest thanks for. However the citizens have not been willing to surrender the town to him or to give him hostages. at nightfall he has equipped his ships with sails and has left Paris behind and has came as quickly as he could to the land of the Angles. Thus I pray you to help me dash them to pieces and scatter them and crush them and tread down their insolent strength. for you sent to me among the Walgri twelve ships filled with distinguished warriors and the same number loaded with grain and wine and lard. with king Alstem's ambassador. are unwilling to obey my commands. and the dignity of my rule being brought to nothing. you left behind a realm given to you by God and hastily came to my assistance. indeed even snatch for themselves the profits of my small towns (note 13) . has cast down citizens in battle. for an entire day. that he has not captured the town through battle. completely deserved thanks. account me of slight value.began to examine with the assembled magnates what to do about the matter. And at once he has sent to the princes of the city either to surrender it to him or to give him hostages or to prepare themselves for a diligent defense. is being layed waste. which I rule and profit. gladdened by the ambassador's words. because of me. even if unwilling. rising at dawn at the time of the continuous conflict. Rollo has begun to address the king in a gracious voice: "I render to you. however. The two have met. for the Angles. Immediately. You are not ignorant of the reason why I have sent for you to aid me? This realm. embraced and kissed extremely amicably.

have come to Rollo and have said on bended knees: "Mightiest of the Dacians. so that the state be scourged no longer." At once each offending . that they will abide strictly by their promise to you. they proceed (of one mind) against the Angles who are opposing the king. I will take their wives and offspring captive and I will devour their herds. will accept for myself sureties of lasting fidelity." Having mutually brought these discussions to a close. inadvisedly. Moreover the Angles. hearing this. and I will of my own accord grant you half the store of all my household furnishings. seeing that they have not been prevailing against the king but. I will destroy their large towns and I will set fire to their villas and small towns. I will trample and scatter them. rupturing the ties of fidelity which we had promised him. we have transgressed against the king." Then Rollo: "Do accept those sureties. I will subordinate them to you and kill them. Duke Rollo has immediately replied to the king: "It is for you. We will give him sureties (note 16) that our trust will be preserved and faithfully serve him from now on. and the moiety of his own goods. He has pillaged many of those towns. lord. to command. And. even I. consumed by fire. let us together hold the realm and administer its goods. my friend. Therefore I will give you the moiety of my realm. have been being destroyed. failing. has said: "If you so advise. a foreigner who does not know the customs of the Angles. and those of the whole office (note 14) . Rollo has gone to king Alstem and announced to the king what the Angles had reported. I will crush whomever you wish." Thus. lord king. and for me to obey. we are prepared (note 15) to be reconciled and united with king Alstem for." Truly. I will accept them back into our service after they have given sureties. thus bound by an indestructible alliance of united friendship. king Alstem has given Rollo half the realm. devoting ourselves to him of our own accord. Truly. Then the king. Rollo has prosecuted many battles against the Angles and has besieged their towns. I will destroy whomever you may desire. moved by the dutifulness of his one-time followers.undergo whatever punishment they deserve.

Angle. namely large towns and fortresses (note 17) . and who are right here. bringing his share of the sureties before the king. I only pray that. others along the flowing Loire. you have given me. rejecting you. hearing that Rollo had subjugated the realm . he has sent some swiftly sailing to take booty from the provinces lying along the bed of the Seine. I will swiftly return to Francia and destroy and crush. is specifically designating for Rollo the moiety of his realm. Indeed." Amicably leaving the king. you not hold them back. yea indeed he is begging Rollo to allow himself to be redeemed in the sacred font and purified of his offences. should any men prefer to follow me. must you leave your realm. But. For you I will abase the king. However. he has said with a serene countenance: "I have. Rollo immediately comes across the deep to the Frankish realm with an indescribable multitude of assembled youths. part of my soul. has given one pledge to the king and another to Rollo. halls and palaces and his own household goods. has not assented to the king's prayers. obligingly bearing responsibility for the offense and the repentance. has said: "Most mighty duke." Rollo has replied: "In no wise. pacified by him as well. others along the torrent of the Gironde. bid that the hostages who are mine by right. coming himself once more to Paris. I will go with you. And so. they have become calm. Moreover the king. always mindful of his vision. ensnare you again. be taken back. beyond those goods. scatter and conquer my foes. estimating that Rollo will linger for all time in the English land. villas and small towns (note 18) . my lord king. Immediately dividing the counts of his army. lord. he has begun to storm the town and to lay waste the land of his foes. formerly lashed by Rollo. marvelling and giving thanks for these words. I return to you with this sword. However king Charles. However Rollo. which has twelve pounds of gold in its hilt. The realm which. being careful lest the treachery of their fathers and grandfathers. returned like for like in return for the goods which you laid out for me in the territory of the Walgri." However the king. which you ought to rule and profit with continual aid. dukes and counts.

sent to the king and counts. irritated by these insolent words. he has said to the company of Franks. perhaps. I am unable to hinder Rollo. has said to duke Rollo with must humble prayers: "The king of the Franks enjoins you to give them a three-month peace. The land is not rent by the plough. and to bishop Franco." Moreover. with the advice of the Franks asks bishop Franco of Rouen. banished from its own territory? If you would like. had requested safety from Rollo. At once Rollo. Wherefore am I asking and deprecating your paternal holiness to obtain for us from Rollo a negotiated peace of three months and if. the state is both taken captive and destroyed. hearing that the unwarlike Franks. with the deliberation of his followers Rollo gave the king a three-month pact." Truly Franco. by savagely and cruelly laying . namely Richard. having returned to Rouen after hearing this. now associated with Rollo. Truly for the interval of this very briefest time. when he had heard this. began to mangle and destroy and obliterate the populace." But the Franks. for I am daily deprived of my followers. assembled in order to take counsel about the pagans' great insolence. and Ebalus count of Poitou. perhaps some advantageous measure will be enacted between you and him. we will give him the very greatest favors (note 19) and repay him with great gifts. so weakened by unsuitable wars. saying: "Why do you allow the land you hold to be layed waste by pagans? Why do you not help those over whom you ought rule and whom you ought to profit? And why do you not resist this nation. to come to him. feeble in arms and almost womanish. Suffering greatly over the extreme poverty of his realm. who has already been called: "The realm which I to rule is deserted. we will aid you and will willingly be at your side if perchance some war should assail you. during that time he should wish to become a Christian. to the king and to himself. the land was at rest from the pagans.across the sea. reckoning that he was counted cheap by the Franks because of the safety which he had given them. However the Burgundians. began to wage war again on the pagans once the term of the peace had run out.

came back to meet Rollo at St. he has gone back to his followers." However as Rollo waits with the horsemen. has sent for Richard duke of the Burgundians and for Ebalus count of Poitou to come. to the assistance of that town. going to Etampes he ruined all the nearby land. looking back. let our foot-soldiers swiftly make for the road. fallen prey to imminent death. and has overthrown and crushed them to their utter destruction by a cruel violent death. lamenting and wailing and earnestly engaging in uninterrupted prayers. . has seen the air full of dust and thickly clouded by the repeated charge of foot-soldiers. whether of foot-soldiers or horsemen I know not. however. The great carnage completed. (note 23) But a certain most religious bishop. But. those who wish to ruin us. for the love of God. while the horsemen remain with us. he has said to his assembled leaders: "A crowd. His followers. horsemen with foot-soldiers.-Beno•t-sur-Loire. proceeding into Burgundy and sailing through the Yonne into the SÉone and. Benedict. and then hastened to return to Paris. however. nor did he suffer that province to be pillaged because of St. laying waste the county of Dunois and the Chartrain. Beno•t. was unwilling to defile it. has had charge of the town. At once Rollo has rushed upon the villagers (note 21) . laying waste the lands adjacent to those torrents on all sides all the way to Clermont-Ferrand. burning with a great fury and inflamed (note 22) with passion towards his foes. But afterwards. Rollo. seeing the strongest Frankish fighting men and the fiercest Burgundian combatants entirely annihilated. assembling an incomprehensibly numerous multitude fruitlessly bearing unaccustomed arms. the rustics. seeing the monastery of St. named Uualtelmus. He. pillaging all around. are trying to attack Rollo. Indeed.waste their provinces. took booty from neighboring lands. is following us. so that we might see how much courage they have. attacked the province of Sens (note 20) and. rustics. Rollo has made like an enemy for the city of Chartres and has remained with a great army. have drawn near. However Rollo. took very many captives. coming thence to Villemeux.

recovering their strength and taking the risk a second time. lest he fall prey to death. they have swiftly attacked Rollo. attack Rollo. who was then battling around the walls of Chartres. perceiving that he is now between two armies and is not prevailing. and that his followers are waning. struggling valiantly against them. when suddenly bishop Uualtelmus. crowned with the episcopal mitre as though about to celebrate mass and carrying in his hands a cross and the tunic of the sacrosanct Virgin Mary. Rollo has rushed steadily upon them and has vanquished them in his accustomed manner in the first effort of the war. Keeping close to count Richard. Apostrophe Rollo. procuring life for itself through exchanged blows. as it was in the past. who is roughly opposing them. No Frankish or Burgundian assembly Of manifold nations and hosts puts you to flight.The Liberation of Chartres However. But. And now your will and your ability shall go forward legally And shall recognize. But the Franks and the Burgundians. with very many Christians and pagans now fallen. But the nourishing tunic of the Virgin mother of God and Likewise amulets and relics and the reverend cross Which the reverend prelate carries in his worthy hands. at this very moment. has begun to turn away from them. lashes the backs of the pagans with spears and swords. . passing through their midst. he has also sent ambassadors with this sorrowful message to the Franks. however. Do not feel ashamed if you now are considered a runaway. Therefore. mighty and powerful and vigorous and most fierce in arms. Your will is still in your ability. fells you. Rollo. your human ability and will. bounding forth from inside the city surrounded by iron-clad battle-lines and followed by the clergy with the citizens. each army has been standing its ground in the battle.

with everlasting success. Thus far hardship has driven you about. which had been separated. After this you will gather in long-lasting joys. you will accomplish nothing. Joyous things will now follow so many rough ones. Each often obtains its ally violently. whatever you will. preserves some harmony. As nature. which endures the sad condition of a human creature Because of its ally. 2. Forthwith will it thenceforth offer you better things. . And once these two. Each often resists its ally behind an impetuous barrier. But without them. After these griefs you will have enough of the gifts of repose. Notes: 1.Your will shall now regard your ability as its ally And your ability shall itself stand ready for your will as its ally. Whence you have endured many kinds of threats and very great hardships. Another Apostrophe to Rollo Fortune has harassed you with many complaints. grief conquered. Castra. or not. Sors. tolerated for so long. have been united. For indeed many rewards take form as a result of burdensome hardship. an author of war. You will either bring to pass.

8. 7. 14. lay at the confluence of the rivers Seine and Eure. Oppida. 12.3. 16. Oppida. 9. The Bessin is the pagus or territory of the town of Bayeux. . It appears that the guarantees given by the rebellious Angles consisted both of goods in general (for which Dudo uses the feminine) and of the male offspring of the rebels. 15. Honor. just a few miles north of Paris. 10. Beneficia. where Rollo's band was encamped. Pagus. Beneficia. 17. Meulan lies on the Seine. Castra. . 4. 18. on the Cotentin coast. 13. who were given as hostages. . 5. Beneficium. "Obses" can mean either surety/pledge. Castrum. Castra. 11. Preferring the addition of "parati sumus" by BN nal 1031. or hostage. 6. Damps. Dudo sometimes uses feminine and sometimes masculine forms to modify the word. The term "connubium" employed here by Dudo is the same word used twice by Dudo to describe the wanton and lascivious sexual excesses of Dacian youths (see chapters 1 and 3).

leads into Burgundy. 20. but rather in the Auvergne. 22. 21. The river Yonne. through Sens and Auxerre. to rise in the heart of that province in the Morvan mountains near Autun. the Yonne does not intersect the SÉone nor does the SÉone lead to Clermont-Ferrand. 23. the region around Chartres. The county of Dunois. . Beneficia. . Villani. with its seat at ChÉteaudun. However.19. lies immediately to the south of the Chartrain. a tributary of the Seine. Preferring the "flagrans" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. nor does Clermont-Ferrand lie in Burgundy.

they who boast that they have escaped the peril of death. Ah. but the Dacians would resist him with darts. so that no one would be able to slip away. has come to duke Richard. Meanwhile. Ebalus thus attacks the Normans. But the Dacians would carry off from them those very walls and fences and would defend themselves by surrounding themselves with them. Let them feel that you have now arrived. exceedingly terrified. complaining without cause: "Something of the combat still awaits you. escaping perchance the peril of the battle. Ebalus' men would carry to the hill the walls and fences which the Dacians had made to try to capture the city.ves and stealthily approached the higher reaches of the hill. on the hill. And he is cursing the Franks and the Burgundians: "When you began the battle without me. Think of the Normans put to flight in the battle. Avenge the blood of the Franks and Burgundians lying. However. grief! I would have preferred to die with that host than to miss the battle. Therefore." At these words. and dash their arrogance to pieces. (note 1) Ebalus would cast missiles (note 2) thither. wherein you may quickly test yourself and your followers. you held me entirely of no account. cast them down headlong from the mountain. has come to L•auml.[ 12 ] One of the pagan battle-lines." Then the Franks and Burgundians have said to Ebalus. the grief! on this field. Ebalus' men would attempt to climb the hilltop. Thus Ebalus. Ebalus arrives in the evening with his followers. Ebalus would climb the hill with his followers. alas. the crowd of Franks has been waiting for the end of the strife. . seeing that the commenced combat would not profit him. gone to the top of that hill for protection. but the Dacians would injure his men with darts. who had pitched his camp in the battle-field. Then the army has surrounded the hill. Thus. after such and so great a warring combat has ceased. Rollo's men would cast them headlong to the base of the hill. I will be reviled by all nations who hear of these events.

However the Dacians. roughly vanquishing them. But the Normans have immediately killed the innumerable animals which they brought there with them and. will pass through their midst and hasten to go to our lord. they proceed. have said to one another: "If perchance we were to wait until tomorrow. some of us will descend stealthily from the hilltop and sound trumpet-blasts outside around their tents." They have replied: "You give advice that is appropriate and advantageous. seeing the mountain empty of foes. have attacked Richard. crossing stealthily through the tents and coming to the other side. they halt at a high place surrounded by a marsh. will rush upon the encampments of the leaders and. slipping fleetly from the hill. than to linger here. It is better for us to act thus. In terror of that. born of the Frisian nation. and be apprehended alive and distressed by diverse punishments. some of them have at once descended from the hill and. have begun to sound war-trumpets outside the tents and to strike sudden terror thereby. thinking Rollo at hand. But we. snatching and . with great uproar and great crashing of shields. coming upon the Eure." One man. For. once the sound of the war-trumpets is heard. believing that our duke Rollo is at hand. who has been trusted by them unconditionally. the army. and scattered here and there. pursues them to where they have been lingering. delivered. But the rest. in accordance with what has befallen us. fearful and struck senseless and quaking. descending from the hill." In the silence of the dark night. namely either to slip away or to die. Ebalus has even sought out the house of a certain fuller and has hid away in it for a while. they will flee. And so. and in this way we will escape the peril of death. seeing themselves surrounded by the populace. has said to those dreading death: "I am going to give advice that will benefit you. But the greatly terrified army has begun to move to and fro. battling savagely and crossing through the center of the army. sleeping deeply in his tent. However as daybreak begins to shine. we would all be slain by the sword. with quickened pace along the way which Rollo controls and. In the silence of the dead of night. wearied.

goats and sheep. the state is brought to nothing and the churches are foresaken. asses. the land in the Frankish region is almost a desert. seeing his warriors. not having the strength to resist the pagans and seeing all Francia coming to nothing." That said." Then the Franks: "If you would trust us. have made a fortress around themselves out of those very cadavers and have torn off the bloody skins. have come of one mind to the king and said: "Why do you not aid the realm which you ought to rule and profit with your authority? Why is a peace. oxen. stirred up by wrath. or perhaps taken captive. they have said to one another: "Who will attack those men? Whoever wishes to lose his life. if not by arms. so that neither senseless horses nor marvelling horsemen would approach. But Rollo. enraged by a most stinging madness. has begun to lay waste and obliterate and burn with fire the whole land. that may be appropriate and advantageous to the realm and to us. let him approach that marvelous fortress made of flesh. has said to them: "Give me some advice. everyone has gone back to his dwelling. then by conciliation. Instantly. Truly when the Franks and Burgundians who pursued them have arrived and seen the citadel hedged in by the bodies of horses. and have seen the bloody skins hanging on the outside. exceedingly reduced by . Moreover Rollo. for its populace is either dying by famine or sword. the haughtiness of the pagans raised up. which we are unable to acquire either by war or by any obstacle of diligent defense. and the Dacians to their ships." Then king Charles. In order that the populace. Protect the realm. we will give you advice that is both worthy and salvationgiving for the realm. not being obtained through conciliation? Royal official dignity and power are being put down. filled with prophetic inspiration. piling one hide on top of another on the outside of the fortress. all safety is bewailed as lost and no confidence in life is to be found.skinning the halved hides of the animals. has said to them with joy: "Oh men most strong and fierce in arms. how did you escape from those battles?" Then they have recounted for Rollo everything that happened. But the Franks.

scarcity. and he will also give you in wedlock (note 5) his daughter. from which bond you may be delighted by offspring. The most forbearing king Charles. most beautiful in body. most rich in gold and silver. If you wish to become a Christian. unremittingly surrounded by the thickest crowd of warriors. exceedingly ravaged by Anstign and by you. wishes to give you this maritime land. mild towards his followers. and ashes. a cruel foe to whomever he opposes. were you to fall prey to death? Whose creation are you? Do you think there is a God? Moulded from the mud. you will be able to enjoy both present and future peace and to be extremely rich on this earth. and dust? Be mindful of what you are and what you will be. and most discreet in public affairs. will you strive all your life. will you always do battle against them? What will happen to you. easily taught about affairs. for Rollo. and by whose judgment you will be condemned. Charles has without delay sent archbishop Franco of Rouen to Rollo. circumspect concerning secrets. prudent in deliberation. are you not a man? Are you not food for worms. duke of the pagans." Advised by them. of handsome countenance. a servant (note 4) of sagacious mind. nor will challenge anyone in battle again. let the land from the river Andelle to the sea be given to the pagan nations and join your daughter to Rollo in sexual union (note 3) and as a result of this you will be able to prevail against those nations opposing you. filled full with manly virtue. and more distinguished than all of them. as your wife. yea indeed he is abundantly supplied with every goodness. Gisla by name. You will. a trusty friend to whomever he has engaged himself. against the Franks. humble in conversations. I suppose. constant and gentle. respectable for his eloquence. born of the arrogant blood of kings and dukes. so that the peace and concord and friendship between you and him might endure . fiery at arms. in all things. he has begun to address him with these flattering words: "Superior to every duke. versed in speech. just in judgment. enjoy the Lower World. count. persuaded by the advice of his followers. benevolent in his actions. Coming to him. might rest in peace. as the circumstance demands.

it would be intensely fertile and fruitful. surrounded on one side by a sea that will provide an abundance of diverse things. not unacquainted with vines. crammed in places with trees. have said to Rollo: "This completely deserted land. Send word to him guaranteeing the safety of a three-month peace. as distinguished as the realm of Francia. most skilful in handicrafts. on the other by downward courses of waters that carry all goods by navigation. (note 7) this advice seems to us even more advantageous. to us it seems according to reason that we should rest and patiently enjoy the fruits of the land. during that interval of negotiated peace and. most elegant. And it would be adequate and appropriate for us to dwell in! The daughter whom he betroths to you. plentifully furnished with soils worked by the plough-coulter. (note 8) if he wishes. And you will hold this realm in perpetuity. through his own words and engagements. as we have heard. and to come to meet you at a conference. constant and steadfast and uninterrupted. not worked by the plough. if he should give you what he has promised.forever. suitable for her tall stature. to put you at ease about . rich in game. it will come true in this territory. Send the bishop back to the king to say that you are ready at his service. is a maiden most chaste. recalling the explanations of the dream. most courteous in speech." Hearing this. deprived of warriors. come forth royally from the seed of both lineages. Enough have we battled and vanquished the Franks. Then the Dacians. cut by rivers filled with diverse classes of fish. because of the fact that you will have the king's daughter in an alliance of wedlock. beneficial and unshattered by the strife of any deception. prudent in deliberation! Circumspect in the business of public affairs. if a crowd of men were in the habit of using it. Be mindful of the explanations of your dream and of its mystical meanings. in appearance. it is fitting that she be bound to you in sexual alliance (note 6) and. he calls together the older Dacians and sets forth for their ears what the bishop has recounted to him. In our opinion. indeed more distinguished than all maidens. most easy in conversation.

Enough have you proven your prowess. greatly strengthened through him. and that maritime land as an eternal holding from generation to generation. Truly the king. He has heard of the concord between you and the king. sends you a pact of love and inextricable friendship. as his consort. are recalling the symbolic meaning of his vision. duke of the Normans." Immediately Rollo has announced the aforesaid to the bishop and has sent him back to the king to say these things to him. subjugating himself for the sake of fidelity. setting it forth in order. However when duke Robert heard that king Charles had given his daughter to Rollo and they had been reconciled with each another and peace made for the whole world. with a time and place settled and a negotiated peace enacted. through the tie of an oath and of sworn unity. Coming to the king. settled and confirmed. as you said. of one mind. exceedingly delighted by these reports. And when he had arrived. are prompting the king to give his daughter and the land to Rollo. counts and abbots: "Rollo. Restore towns and walls. Enough . If you were to give him your daughter. duke of the Franks. indeed even of service. you will be able to grow strong and to check the commotions of those opposing you and and causing strife against you. And. he has said to the assembled company of bishops. Enough have you busied yourself in battles. and he is greatly delighted by it. Archbishop Franco of Rouen has gone to Rollo and expounded for him all that he did. He says that it is appropriate for you and your followers to rest and rebuild the land given to you. and live in perpetual peace. constrained by the prayers of the Franks. Once these fitting things have been done. and he will incessantly fulfill your service. each one has returned home. he will give you his hands.everything. Enough have you shown your manful arms. Thus Rollo and his followers. with peace-making words he sent a messenger to say the following words to Rollo. sends you faithful service." The Franks are rejoycing at what the bishop has reported and. he said to Rollo with these entreating words: "Robert. has given his daughter as a gage to the bishop in Rollo's stead.

immersed in the fountain. a deserving vessel. Give him some realm where he might collect food and clothing for himself.have you brooded over your many many perils. until the land you are giving him is filled with a mass of wealth and imparts the timely fruits of victuals. So they came at the established time to the prescribed place. Enough. men and animals. he will not be reconciled to you unless you have sworn by the land you are about to give. (note 9) However. Rollo's army settled down on this side of the river Epte. as a father does a son. Let him be as a father to me through paternal love. Let whatever is in my power be his by right. the duke even sends word for you to allow him to be your godparent when you are called to witness in the name of Christ and bathed in the fountain by salvation-giving baptism. and he will incessantly do service for the both of you and make the king benevolent towards you for all time. that he himself and his successors may occupy the . enough have you been praised. and whatever is mine by right be in his power. the two of you will henceforth be inseparably trusty friends. I him. Let him rejoice in my prosperity." On the advice of bishop Franco and of his counts. Clair. so let him come to the designated conference and redeem me. let him be saddened by my adversity. he said to all that: "I wish to accord with the king and with the Franks. Praying on bended knees. and deprived of the presence of men. as a son does a father. entirely stripped of flocks of sheep and cattle. There is nothing in it whereby he might live except by rapine and booty-taking. you and the archbishops and bishops. but the army of the king and Robert on the other side. which is called St. and no one will be able to stand against the two of you. the counts and abbots of the whole realm." The go-between accordingly reported to duke Robert what he had heard. Furthermore. if need be. If it please you. Let him assist me. by the whole world. with an oath of the Christian religion. I will be as a son to him through filial love. for the land which you wish to give him is untilled by the ploughshare. Immediately Rollo sent the archbishop to say the following words to the king of the Franks: "Rollo cannot make peace with you.

so that so great a populace. duke of the Franks. The warrior. ought to kiss the king's foot. and the counts and bishops and abbots who were there. attacker of all Francia. he has ordered a certain warrior to kiss the king's foot. have said to one another: "That is the duke. be annihilated by the assault of an inimical army. who is unwilling to kiss the king's foot: "Whoever receives such a gift. urged by the prayers of the Franks. has brought it to his own mouth and has planted . at once laying hold of the king's foot. having given hostages on the integrity of their Christian faith. If you do not surrender what he repeatedly demands from you for the sake of service. unless you give him what he covets. so honorable!." Immediately.land from the river Epte to the sea as their estate (note 10) and as their heritable estate (note 11) for eternity." Thus. Gisla by name. as a heritable estate (note 12) and as an estate. constrained by the words of the Franks. At once. they have brought him to king Charles. then at least give it to him for the sake of the worship of the Christian religion." And he: "I will never kneel before the knees of another. admiring Rollo. discharging advocating patronage in Christ's stead. The bishops have said to Rollo. caught in a net by diabolical deception. as his wife." Then the king wished to give him the Flemish land to live from but he was unwilling to accept it due to the hindrance of its extreme marshiness. so powerful! so valorous! so resolute and discreet! so hard-working! who has prosecuted such great battles against the counts of this realm. said to the king: "You will not keep this duke. (note 13) and all of Brittany to live from. And so the king pledges to give him Brittany. And so the king has given him his daughter. Robert and bishop Franco have reported all this to Rollo and. something which neither his father nor his grandfather nor his great-grandfather had ever done for anyone. might be obtained for Christ. whose most constant advocate and king you ought to be. Truly the Franks. he has placed his hands in the king's hands." Then Robert. nor will I kiss anyone's foot. which bordered the land already promised. And let not the pillar of your whole realm and of the church. as well as the prescribed land from the river Epte to the sea.

For the rest. Always enjoying peace. Nor will you ever be able to see the farthest away of these men with your power of sight. Observe the precepts of his mandates. and bequeath it to his heirs. Rollo.a kiss on it while standing upright. Free now from accursed deeds. Good duke. Leave behind Satan's damnable work. with an oath of the catholic faith on their life and limbs and the honor of the entire realm. bearing shields for you. king Charles returned home. pious duke and always reverend patrician. Preserve through nourishing baptism what you have already been promised. king Charles and duke Robert and the counts and chief prelates and abbots have sworn to patrician Rollo. they will taste the mystical sacred rites And make homes instead of nests around the ridges of the mount And build churches sustained by diverse tribute. You will stand at the highest apex of the mountain of the church. That completed just as was said. And now men. that he would have and hold the designated land. embrace the mystical teachings of your vision. and sanctioned rights to the learned. Robert and Franco remained with Rollo. Everything your spirit saw in the dream is now at hand for you. You will be purged in the salvation-giving font of the leprosy of accursed deeds. and that the succession of his descendants from generation to generation would have and tend it throughout the course of all time. Always seek the true God with suppliant vow and prayer. Give laws to the people. ascending the mountain of the church Will cleanse themselves in the font. Apostrophe to Rollo Come. yeah. and has caused the king to topple backwards. the fortunate populace residing and living . And so great laughter and great uproar is occasioned among the people. his toxic sacred rites. in place of birds.

4. The terms of the agreement traditionally. 11. uassallus. Conjugium. will in time take pleasure in everyone else. Notes: 1. "Conubium. 2. 3. 9. 8. 6. following Dudo. Fundus. Peace-making protector and aider and defender. Clair-sur-Epte have been much disputed by scholars. Some of the debate turns on the interpretation of particular words whose legal connotations in the late ninth and early tenth centuries are not clear.Under your authority. Highest defender of the church and helper of the indigent." the same word used for Rollo's relationship with Popa (see above p. Conjugium. . ___) and for the sexual wantonness of the Dacian youths. Connubialis amicitia. Governor. You will flourish with lively merits for all eternity. 7. Placitum. Jacula. 10. guide and founder of the realm. 5. Alodus. said to have been made at St. Missilia. And every brigand and thief will be broken to pieces by your snares.

12. Alodus. Fundus. . 13.

[ 13 ] In the nine hundred and twelfth year from the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. he has been carried off to Francia. converted to the catholic faith by St. prince of the apostles. For fear of your arrival. virgin and mother of our Lord Jesus Christ. and Robert. that is Rollo. but these are extraordinary. glittering greatly with miracles and virtues. is supported by the merits of St. Paul then sent to preach in Francia by blessed Clement." Then Robert: "Before the land is distributed among my leaders. duke of the Franks. (note 1) There are many churches placed under your authority. imbued with the catholic faith of the sacrosanct Trinity. Moreover Robert. Peter. there is the monastery consecrated in the name of St. archbishop Franco has baptized Rollo." Then Robert: "In the region bordering our power. dedicated in honor of the sacrosanct Mary. long suffering and lashed by the many whips of the pagans. has taken him up from the font of the Savior and given his own name to him and endowed him honorably with great presents and gifts. Dionysius. in which there used to recline a venerable archbishop of this town. Audoenus by name. calling bishop Franco to him. The sanctuary at Jumi•auml. at the last he suffered the punishment of death by blunted hatchets for the sake of God's love.ges. In the suburb of this city. which saint is considered particularly mighty due to his merits?" Franco: "St. which you approached earlier. called by the name of the Archangel Michael. has caused his own counts and warriors and his entire armed band to be baptized and instructed through preaching in the faith of the Christian religion. he asks which churches in his own land are considered particularly venerable and which are said to be particularly mighty due to the merit and patronage of their saints. By nation a Greek. successor of the apostle Peter. the prior of Paradise. The church placed on the mountain in peril of the sea. keeper of the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Then Franco: "The churches of Rouen and Bayeux and Evreux. I . After this. Peter.

to the church of St. restored sanctuaries that had been torn down by the crowd of pagans.ges. Peter and St. and it is fitting that you do this during the seven days when you are attired in the white vestments of the chrism and the oil. Audoenus. Mary at Bayeux. he enjoined upon the populace rights and eternal laws.desire to give a part of this land to God and to St. according to the phase of the moon. to be held in perpetuity. remade and increased the walls and towers of cities. in the land under his authority. for whose sake he had made peace by reconciling himself with the Franks. on the first day of his baptism Robert gave the very greatest amount of land. that they might deign to come to my assistance. to St. divested of his chrismal and baptismal garments. On the third. and he restored it. every two weeks. and likewise compelled them to abide in peaceful intercourse. crammed with his own warriors and with foreign nations. Mary and to the designated saints. to the church of St. And then he sent out a ban. Mary at Rouen. ratified and ordained by the will of the leaders. having made wedding preparations of great splendor. on the eighth day of his purification. On the seventh. affluently granted to him as a source of victuals. At last. (note 2) On the fifth. he began to mete out land to the counts in his own name." And so. he took to wife the king's daughter Gisla. periodically surrounded by the flooding tempests of the sea. with all its appurtenances. to St. to the church of St. he subjugated the rebellious Bretons to himself and tread down upon the whole Breton realm. and to give bountifully to his fideles. On the fourth. that is an interdict. On the second day. Peter and St. to the church of the archangel Michael. Thus. foresaken for so long. Mary at Evreux. He apportioned that land among his fideles and rebuilt it all. he gave Berneval. to God and the canons of the church of St. Aichardus of the church of Jumi•auml. He erected churches that had been utterly cast to the ground. Dionysius. On the sixth." Franco: "You are executing a measure inspired by divine communication. He gave a guarantee of safety to all the nations desiring to abide in his land. that is he prohibited anyone to be a thief .

did not find his plough fittings. Rollo. he forbade anyone to carry home plough implements. Rebuking him. Wanting nevertheless to make her husband anxious about the matter so that he would never again leave his tools in the field." And Robert to the manorial agent: "Go back .or a bandit or to be an accessory to any person of ill will. taking them away by stealth so that her husband would not see. he disclosed the situation to his complaining wife. but rather leave them in the field with the plough. it is marvelous to me that the one guilty of the theft did not become known to us when tried by fire in his name. and he forbade anyone to send a guard after a horse or donkey or cow so as not to lose it." But the estate steward tried all the inhabitants of that villa with the fire and. said: "If the God of the Christians. arising and proceeding to his field of labor. finding none of them guilty of theft. Her husband. reported back to duke Rollo. calling for archbishop Franco. came home to eat. is privy to events. with rough words and a resolute heart. as midday approached. thereupon. search out the author of the theft. because he had left behind the plough attachments in his place of labor. a certain farmer residing on the villa at Longpaon (note 3) left his plough utensils in a field and. she returned home as though coming from another direction. In dread of this interdiction. sated. You make for the villa as quickly as possible and. Immediately calling for a certain manorial agent. now go to duke Robert and let him turn you into a ploughman himself." Franco: "The fire has not yet touched the culpable one. she secretly made for the field as quickly as she could and took the reins of the yoke and the ploughshare and the plough-coulter and. Finally. she gave him something to eat. she began to say with scolding and sarcasm in her voice: "Useless man. Robert said to him: "Give this farmer five solidi (note 4) with which to replace what he has lost." He ran speedily to Robert and recounted to the duke how he had been defrauded of his plough fittings. in whose name I am baptized. through trial by fire. His wife began to rebuke him. Vexed and rebuking her husband all the while. returning home sad.

However. she sequestered them in a certain house so that they would not be seen by her consort Robert and caused them to linger there for a very long time. The farmer replied: "To my wife. This judgment terrified the inhabitants of the land. The one. And immediately.and in the name of Jesus Christ test the inhabitants of the neighboring villas with the ordeal by fire. king Charles once sent two warriors to his daughter Gisla. when Gisla saw her father's warriors." He immediately had them both hung by a noose and finished off by a cruel death. without thieves and bandits. The other. And thus was the land at rest. indeed." She came when called and the duke said to her: "What did you do with your husband's ploughshare and plough-coulter?" She denied that she had them." And Robert: "You will deservedly die under two ordinances. avoiding your presence. And no one afterwards dared to steal or to rob on the highway. After being soundly cudgled with a broom." Fulfilling the duke's orders. and it was still. bountifully giving them all goods. that you were an accessory to the theft and were unwilling to disclose it. she confessed to the theft before everyone. moved by wrath. Consequently all men. Then Robert to her husband: "Did you know that your wife was the thief?" He to Robert: "I knew. For. they are with your consort. the duke caused the . came to him and said: "Why have you not informed us what Charles' men said to you?" Robert said: "Where are my father-in-law's ambassadors?" They replied: "You are uxorious and womanish for. who had been joined in sexual union (note 5) with duke Robert. safe under Robert's authority." And so they were saying that Robert had not known her according to conjugal law. not fearing any hostile army. Robert's counts. that you are the head of the woman and you ought to have chastised her. he announced that he had found no one culpable. stripped of all seditions. were rejoicing in uninterrupted peace and long-lasting rest and were opulent in all goods. Robert immediately called for the ploughman and asked him to whom he had said that the plough utensils remained behind in the field. marvelling that warriors of king Charles would dally at Rouen and not enjoy duke Robert's company.

safe and calm. And as the leaders placed their hands within the hands of the young man William. . I do not want him to take on the rule. With a shattered helm and fractured oars. Living after that for one year. Simply destroy the king's holdings. However Robert. senseless. duke of the Franks. to whom is the honor for all eternity. he migrated full of days to Christ. I am carried along on a small ship filled with cracks and holes With a battered stern and a prow shattered by the swollen sea. astonished. (note 6) anxious. saying: "With your advice and aid.young recruits. began to oppose Charles and to bring him to nothing and to plunder his lands. patrician of the Normans. having called together the leaders of the Dacians and the Bretons. Epilogue An inexperienced sailor. setting sail for the deep open sea. had already died. gave all the land under his authority to his son William. the king's daughter. to be apprehended and led to the public marketplace and slaughtered there by the assembled populace. carefully concealed in their house. dull. undecided. And he sent an ambassador to Robert at Rouen. after undergoing the payment of mournful loss and the misfortune of inevitable death. Ship-wrecked. Robert bound them to him by a sworn oath of fidelity. What happened between Charles and Robert will not be related here." Indeed his consort Gisla. for it can be read elsewhere. devoured by old age and the very great labor of battles. And with all its sails rent by a violent storm. I wish to take the kingship from Charles and chase him from Francia. Robert. Poppa's son. unable to ride a horse due to his failing age and exhausted body yet keeping the realm pacified. hearing that the chains of peace that bound the king and duke Robert of the Normans had been released and broken as a result of the violent death of the two warriors." Then Robert of Rouen replied to the ambassador of the duke of the Franks: "Now your lord is wishing to ride and pass far beyond the law.

One flowing with the blood and ornamented with the glory of a martyr. Dissolve the baleful quicksands of my wandering heart And support the keel of my stormy talent So that. peacefully now But they are about to injure it in a baleful embrace with horrifying gusts of wind. I. traversing the middle of the sea. might be able to disembark at a tranquil port. I am held in bitter ravishment by the irate forces of the sea. Hostile seas lap the keep. there is sky everywhere. Pacify the swollen seas of my wave-driven mind. Ah. than to have perished here. Blocked by the greatest waves and encircled by violent winds. Because you are both moved and stable. whom truth-telling men call mobile when still. once the oars and helm and sails Of my puny intellect. a rash eyewitness. understanding and talent have been remade And the boiling open sea of this work safely crossed. Ah. there is open sea everywhere around me! I have barely managed to swim this far. I would have preferred not to have entered the high seas. ever wretched. And the tide batters the curved coasts. no way out lies open to me. . I cling now to the shivering tides. But let you.Entangled in quicksand. the seaman. and stable when moved. Lavish and glittering with the crown of all goods. O! (note 7) I do not know what is to be done now. The sea murmurs through the cracks beneath the inadequate stern While waves threaten in the foaming storm of the open sea.

Michael is perched. 3. that inundate the coastal island on which the church of St. . at the new and full moon. Preferring the "proh" of CC 276. 4. 6. Connubium. Today. Darntal." Dudo can hardly be referring to anything other than the twice-monthly high tides. and reads literally " at the disposition of the augmented number seven.suffragatum" of Rouen 1173. 7. 5. Preferring the reading "regni coelorum clavigeri" as part of a single sentence "Gimegias . A solidus was a gold coin in the Roman and the Carolingian systems of currency.Notes: 1. 2. Preferring the "hebes" of CC 276. The text is obscure.

winged with sails and wave-driven. Standing with dry feet on the fluid sea. Once bade his disciples To board a ship and go away To the other side of a lake. They do not know what they should do before their final death. trembling (note 3) greatly Before the baleful image of a violent death. hope and confidence are bewailed as lost By all the disciples. Soon the calm blue sea has boiled ominously In the adverse darkness of the cerulean night. (note 1) Soon he orders the innumerable multitude to withdraw (note 2) And. Cold terror quite batters their breasts. And presents himself to his trembling disciples. But now in the restless region of the fourth watch (note 4) Christ has entered the wave-driven main And hastens with dry soles on the liquid flood Over the calm surface of the passible sea.[ 14 ] Preface of the Third Book Omnipotent God. And then dread seizes the disciples' quivering limbs. Safety. Their astounded hearts are brought to a standstill. . scaling the high peaks of a mountain. Demands to know the divine will of the heavenly Father. Due to the unfavorable wind of a swollen whirlpool. whom our faith truly asserts to be the Word Incarnate. Begotten and sprung from a sacred Virgin of a mother. After God made himself known to his disciples. Their great outcry reaches the stars in heaven.

So far the undertaking dissatisfies and disgusts and displeases me. On every side the menacing cerulean fluid. Having regained his strength and vigor: "O you. by order of your invigorating command. And cries out: "God." And Peter. Christ the Highest.Peter then offered these ringing words to the Lord. If it is your holy Grace and your Protection." Then the sacred right hand of Christ has seized him. do you waver and doubt?" Then God and Peter embark together. he delights in these words. trusting in the Lord who has power over the seas. He has said: "You of little faith. God. Why now. Distrusting. snatch me away from these waves. and has replied: "Come. Immediately the harmful gales stop. To come with you over the sea. everywhere is seen the outspread sky. As long as he did not doubt. Generous and salutary towards everyone. Peter has repented greatly. faltering on the sea. But now dread so dolefully devours my breast. The calm smooth sea is supporting the huge bulk of my inexperience. I beg on the bended knees . that now approaches us. The swollen surfaces of the sea had supported Peter. who have power over the heavens and seas. Since the deep occasioned fierce hazards. Christ. A short while ago we too entered the swollen main By the divine will of Christ the Highest. We too almost got half-way across. And everywhere. This unheard of event had excited his quaking mind." Indulgent. Immediately leaves the vessel And places the soles of his feet on the waves of the calm smooth sea. Command me now. having been bodily submerged in the midst of the sea. While the disciples are still grieved by the whirlpool.

The seven first principles and all artifice likewise Are now well known. Let concision gleam in my articulation of each division. (note 5) reveal your face now. with the stimulus of your divine will. Turn your attention to my sunken hopes. That I too might be able to clamber up. May henceforth be concise and credible. With your leading guidance. And intelligible to the discerning man. Extend your holy hand to me. which we will reveal. So that the narrative of this history. Origin of light. Constant God. Outfitting my tongue likewise with trimodal utterance. From the font of advantageous knowledge. God. who. And let rhetorical method be applied in this enterprise. . Reign with the unbegotten Father and with the sacred Spirit. And let only a small number of facts be joined together For the description of a personage. now so alarmed Because savage dangers are present for me. sprung from the Virgin. sprinkle My mind with the nectar of the sevenfold (note 6) Spirit.Of my soul. to where there are shining deeds. under your highest leadership. Oration Supernal glory. Omnipotent pillar And sensation-producing stimulus. Celestial ideal. seeing all things. And my heart with the stimulus of the rhetorical whirlpool. having been ordained By your gift. And let resolution glitter in the whole work. Mighty heavenly divine will.

And to the Holy Spirit. And how This extraordinary witness of God Is killed by the treachery Of the malicious duke Arnulf. Trembling at first. Light from the sacred light. Of the unbegotten Father. And likewise to the Son. Oh nourishing Father And unbegotten God. Let he himself approve it.Beginning of all things and Famed sequence of causes And first offspring. Under your leadership let me now recite Your shining life. Glory to the Father. Oh begotten Son And God the Spirit. Suppliant. proceeding from them. Nourishing martyr. Sorrowful at my inexperience. Whereby I might be able to make clear To the world the good things that he did. Whose deeds I am reciting. Oh one God Oh Deity and force. I ask That you favor my prayers. Let it show itself despite sluggish understanding. And true God from God. . We extol you as one God. For there are not three gods.

Jn. indeed. and especially his own descendants. 14:22 .Simply one God. Throughout all the connected And continuous ages. for this reason. Here begins the prologue to the description of the life of duke William Because. is to illumine the great things of that one who has conferred on them the reward of victory in this world. contempt for this fading and deceptive world brought forth. Always from now on. 2.36. Notes: 1. may the foundation of our faith be enduringly strengthened. desire and love for supernal things profusely generated. Preferring the "cedere" of CC 276. For unbroken time. . Mt. in order that the oft-recited history of his deeds might excite the souls of all.52. Mk. to the rewards of celestial joys. And as the fruit of his salutory labor. written simply and in the plain language of natural utterance. and has granted them the benefit of unblemishable glory in the celestial realm. the incentive to sanctity increased.6:45 . and the gate of supernal contemplation penetrated by the salvation-giving road. the stages of advancement encouraged. to set out in order the bright praises of the most glorious martyrs and publish abroad their superior deeds. 6:15-21. The episode takes place on the Sea of Galilee. we have briefly composed the life and acts and triumph of the mighty duke William. the worship of our religion sagaciously nourished. and not sublimely girt about with pretentious words and the ornament of excellent oration.

The seven virtues were perceived as gifts of the Holy Spirit in accordance with the imagery of the Hebrew prophetic text. temperance. the gifts of the "sevenfold" Spirit were faith. justice and wisdom. 6. animi" of CC 276. The fourth watch of the night is the time just before dawn.3. namely pride." 4. The seven gifts of the Spirit were opposed in ecclesiastical thought to the seven deadly sins. avarice. gluttony. . envy. Preferring the "pande. Isaiah 11:2 ff. hope. Preferring the "praetrepidis" of CC 276 to the "perstrepidis. Augustine of Hippo. love. 5. lust. As officially systematized by St. fortitude. anger and sloth.

tall in stature. perhaps one might come . Openly. and men of the most respectable lifestyle. to a certain very wealthy count botho. engraved with pleasure by his stewardship of the ecclesiastical way of life. with a vigorous mind. glittering with every strength. as was described from beginning to end in the preceding book. Indeed he was of striking image. He was most charming in speech. aged in the uprightness of his manners. beginning to be of blessed memory and great promise. to all divine endeavors. near orthodox men. He would often reflect upon it in his soul. strong as a result of his abundant fellowship with four virtues at once. and he would be perplexed in his mind with frequent fixed considerings. he was most delighted in his visage. conquered. Truly he was becoming ever more profusely filled with divine grace. peaceful in his serene mind. and infused with great profusion by a nectar of honey-flowing sweetness. he was begotten of distinguished stock. and a frankish-born mother. most mild of comportment in business. committed him for fostering. His sire. what did christ want in this matter. to jesus christ. richly endowed with a plenteousness of all goods. (note 1) and he was daily becoming more willingly enriched by an abundance of merits.[ 15 ] Thus did william become born in the town of rouen. and he enslaved himself. He would investigate unremitting. and manfully avoid the pomp of the world. drenched by sacred baptism. plenteously animated by religious ordinances. and rich with a mosaic of all objects. and surrendered him for polishing as was fitting. He would search for a sign concerning the matter. a perfect man of faith. dedicated his youth. namely poppa. He would spurn the ostentation of this age. he was being copiously versed in divine dogmas. and ever more richly endowed with the wisdom of the seven-fold gift. that is of a dacian father namely rollo. and to become a monk at jumi•ges. He was longing to forsake this fleeting age. living intimately. And then that most beautiful boy. a most glorious duke and very mighty count and most esteemed athlete for the eternal king.

APOSTROPHE TO WILLIAM O SACRED WILLIAM. And he will consign the rewards of a bountiful gift to the righteous. He will direct as arbiter the eminent reins of the realm. and he would revive the poor with sustenance. Inflamed by the passionate fire of this ardor. go on in youthful health. bend and raise her form.to him from heaven. He will ascend with christ's leadership to the elysian field. One be adorned moreover with spilled celestial gifts. of his holy head. Worthy because of his mound of four-virtues-at-once action." . Notes: 1. For a splendid duke will be born from your seed. you will be indispensable to yourself and to us. A glowing red diadem. that he would wholly foresake the world. For the seven gifts of the spirit. Under his wonderful thumb will francia. he vowed that he would become a monk. Therefore he would devote himself unremittingly to tears. Everywhere bearing on the deserving top. How can you quickly execute the vow recounted by the present voice? Why do you wish with a swift vow to proceed to christ's place of refuge? Why does a ever-watchful guardianship guard tender years? Why does a rule now straighten your fleshly habits? Why does a law of chaste limbs bind fast your companions? Leave off these vows. punctuated with glittering beryls. After you pass over the straits to heaven through martyrdom. And he will weigh complaints balancing with a fair scale: And with fair judgment. see the Glossary under "septifarius. he will instigate torments for culprits. move and stir. and would austerely prop up his body away from food. Exultingly lead. A young man redolent of the flower of first youth. he would persist in vigils. Up all night.

and enfeebled by the bruises of very many blows. and are not able advantageously to succor yourself and us. who is both extremely fine in that his body is animated by invigorating health. and discussed with each other what they should do. and the leaders of the normans and the bretons of one mind came together as one. and snatch our goods for themselves. Among us division and dueling is active. whom we should place before us as our duke. Mightiest lord duke. and worn out by innumerable sleepless nights. incessantly exhausted by the great labor of wars. and therefore the annihilated state is being demolished. and weakened by the hardship of frequent sailing. with his father's approval. they came of one mind to robert. For he has a son descended from an extremely noble race of franks. and extremely skilful in that his understanding is informed by zealous exertions in very many different matters. and fatigued by the very many dangers of the heaving sea. and was copiously gleaming with the zealous exertions of sanctity. that accorded with the strengths of his chronological age. Thus once a resolution concerning this stewardship had been devised. and spoke to him with gentle speech. and to boldly preside over and benefit himself and us. and as our patrician and count. he no longer has the strength to aid and support the realm. although really due to the controlling clemency of omnipotent god. wearied by the debility of old age at his residence in rouen. you are annoyed by the inconveniences of senile age. acquired in battle. yea indeed devoured by the long duration of his aged inactivity.[ 16 ] When however with the leadership of divine grace he was rich in the tokens of goodness. We beseech therefore choose someone who might preside over and benefit . and whom he would set over us as a suitable chief. and comradeship is not steadfast in order that the realm might endure. Drained of strength emptied by infirmity. Our duke namely rollo who is also known as robert. foreign nations therefore now strike us. Let us ask whom he himself has chosen as heir to his realm. the counts. and lowered face.

enjoined botho the leader of the household troops. and protector. and so that we might compliantly and personally wage war for him. For I have a son arisen from a frankish-born seed of the noblest possible noble breed. It has been said to me that to religious affairs. Let him wisely succor you in deliberations. and to whom we might subordinate ourselves with esteem. william in the paternal office. patrician and count. the young man. and has adequately versed in the customs and zealous exertions of warfare. and as was right embraced him sweetly. he surpassed not a little the boyhood years. began with replies of this type. he wishes to be enslaved. Choose him I beseech as your duke. Moreover the duke merry at the words of his warriors. replied saying. and we will willingly subordinate ourselves to his authority. Then the kind father lovingly received his dearest scion. whom botho the leader of our household troops has fostered as a son. who approved his own purposes. BOTH WERE REJOYCING. And the distinguished father. and you perceive that I can no longer prevail. once the leaders of the entire realm had been summoned. both so that he might be duke and patrician due a degree of advocacy for us. to bring to him the hope of the people. in william's bountiful actions. let a duke be established for you. Since you are not ignorant that all good health has been forcibly taken away by old age. and with changed dress to be bound to things contemplative. nor benefit you. who might zealously preside over and benefit you as I have until now. And the . and make uninterrupted peace among you by force of law.us. and prophesied that with his spiritual mind. namely WILLIAM. That man will be a hereditary and meet duke for us. This one stooped with debility would rejoyce in the uprightness of the progeny. and steadily benefit you in battles. by your resolution and your judgment. Merry then at the import of this reply the counts. And we will courteously obey his injunction. To be sure botho swiftly brought WILLIAM to his father. Then rollo constrained by the extremely humble words of his followers. Let him protect you from opponents by force of arms. and we will make the realm of the frankish nation well-disposed towards him.

The other to be reborn to the world through his blessed sire. away from the future martyr. he sat erect. . These men would still taste the kisses of a honey-flowing mouth. Sire and offspring equally manifesting joy. The one soon to ascend to heaven. And reflecting sacred embraces with embraces.splendid offspring in the father of ancient age.

make him the promise of uninterrupted and indissoluble payment of dues and military service.[ 17 ] Then Rollo. our right and ordinance will not be effaced. behold the one who will be set over you. by an oath of allegiance to our faith. subjected themselves. to William. indeed. To him. vowed to Christ that he would assist the realm and do no damage to anyone. willingly. in his. behold the heir to our holdings. A year later. acquired through the hardship of combat and the sweat of battle. in order to preserve your fidelity. They bound themselves to him through the oath of a sacred promise. and they placed their hands. as long as he lives. said to them all in plaintive words: "Behold the one whom you have sought. He would hold as nothing ." (note 2) That said. place your hands in his and. let us describe his virtue and contemplate how great he will be. been happily crowned on a heavenly throne. For he was endowed with the ornaments of moral purity and magnanimity. both the Normans and the Bretons came together as one and. will be lord and master of this nation. ratified once more the contents of their promise to William. and a very worthy heir to our lordship. having secretly called together the leaders. He. surrounded most worthily by worthy counts and warriors. that most excellent duke and patrician. in my place. I pray. as representatives of their hearts. by increasing it. renowned for his fellowship with discretion and caution. with the support of our faith. with your approval. He will steadily assist you through our laws and statutes and. Therefore. he will not defraud you of the land which I have given you as your allotment (note 1) but. He. when Rollo had died and. will I bequeath this realm. and likewise the rest of the Bretons and the leaders of the Normans. under the guiding mercy of the Holy Spirit. will enrich you besides. of one mind. as we believe. In a prophetic spirit. And they vowed that they would wage war against and vanquish neighboring nations. Also. count Berengar. and Alan. having reached the summit of such high office and rank.

and the report of his good action. saying: "We will no longer wage war for you. however. They. to him at Rouen. But the land which we occupy was not given to him to be held by his heirs. would compel everyone by his own teaching of forbearance and fear of God. that they might swiftly recover their senses and hastily come. but was assigned to him in order that he might live from it until the ravaged land which he had received by the king's gift was rebuilt. There was truth and glory in his house. he would be a constant supporter. Let there be nothing between us and you except friendship and concord. was become frequent. the wisest mediator. he sent his ambassadors to the Bretons. would wisely guide the helm of ecclesiastical stewardship. made most bountifully public nearly throughout the entire world. he would hold. He would excel everyone in spiritual and physical virtue. entirely rejecting the contents of the promise which they had made. Even though he was. just as he had vowed in his boyhood. by the king's gift. Until now we have had a king. Although himself a layman. he would rebuke the idle with the harshest reproof. in prosperity. For indeed when the truthfulness of this unexpected rumor had come to the knowledge of the mightiest duke himself. would surpass all in his discretion concerning public affairs. to the rule of a blameless life. zealous. . determined by mutual will and mutual deliberation. we have not lacked for a leader and protector. sent the ambassadors back to duke William. moreover. But your sire Rollo once attacked Francia with throngs of barbarians and foreigners and obtained for you. so that he would be peaceful towards that realm. He would mould all by his own example of good will. for we have always lived under the empire of Frankish lordship. He would censure transgressors with the word of truth. He would actively rule the populace according to ancestral laws and would condemn the guilty to its penalties. the land which you now hold. nor will we obey you. foolishly persevering in their steadfast faithlessness. the Bretons began to be rebellious against duke William. his servants. abundantly rich in such works of supernal stewardship. In adversity. equity and justice in his works.the earthly things of this lifetime.

and we made them our tributaries. and we had proceeded on the winds to the land of the Walgri. With matters standing thus. He both gave his daughter in wedlock (note 3) to Rollo. we came to Francia. nor subjugated itself to the sovereignty of. then Ragnar of Hesbaye. by force and power. duke of the Dacians. and Botho. we attacked Radbod of Frisia. we returned to Francia with a larger army than before and crushed it with very many wars. But as we lingered at the siege of Paris. and their lands to our sustenance. we attacked them and subjugated them to ourselves in battle. seeing that he did not have power against us. and we harshly overthrew them. However king Charles. and we subjected his men. he willingly bequeathed this land to us for the perpetual possession of our heirs and he subjugated the Bretons to our service. marvelling at these legations. faithless and acting unlawfully. and we vexed it continuously with wars and we pillaged all that lay outside the ramparts of the towns. he recounted for their ears the sequence of that singular embassy. as an assurance of peace. Renewing their promise after the . Then a certain Bernard. privy to duke William's secrets. But once the Angles had been subjected to king Alstem by the our authoritative judgment. your father and. In your father's lifetime. Having been banished some time ago from Dacia with your father Rollo. we went back again to the Angles because of our love of king Alstem. they subjected themselves to you and to your service by the oath of an actual promise. the Walgri also wished to resist us with an amassed army. hearing the message of this Breton embassy. calls together the leaders of the Normans to take counsel about the matter." However William.Brittany has never devoted itself to the payment of dues to. said to all: "Both marvelous and astounding to us is the reply heard in this message. we defeated those Angles who wanted to rise up against us by resisting them by force of arms. As was fitting. and having barely arrived in the territory of the Angles across the open sea. After they had been peaceably calmed by king Alstem. sought peace and concord from us. a prince of his household. Finally. any land except Francia. to their utter destruction. Once they were collected.

whereby we are bodily invigorated. let us destroy their presumption in our prowess. sparing. restrain Both by force and by reason the barren. Being strong and bestirring yourself." Apostrophe Oh. For when they are torn to pieces by war. ferocious Bretons. And fiercely pound this abominable haughtiness. . blunt their malign deliberation. Let them gather in negotiations whereby they may thoroughly reconsider and recover their senses concerning their earlier replies. behold as William. becomes vigorous. toiling in sacred effort. worn out by pestilence and famine.mournful loss of your father. they have served you until now. You. they will obey you with awe. speaking out. fruitlessly tending to their own ruin and reproof. and let them know that our vigor is most hardy. Will overcome them with the steadfast effort of an oath of allegiance And. They reckon that we are harmless and entirely lacking in strength due to the nourishment of this land. recovering their senses. Sors. merciful. forgiving slights. Notes: 1. and let us crush their haughtiness with our might. we who have gone through so many and such great battles? They recognize that we are womanish and drained of force. And now what are we doing about the furiously raving and rebellious Bretons. therefore they have dared to send back such an answer. indulgent. Let them know that our strength has not melted away due to our frequent abode in this one realm. future martyr of Jesus Christ. Grows strong. And.

Servitium and militatio. 3. Coniugium. .2.

and he fought valiantly against them. we have disregarded your sovereign commands. nor to abhor our service in any respect whatever. Terrified therefore at his arrival. and unwilling to obey William.[ 18 ] Harshly moved and incited by this encouraging address. the bretons. we promised falsely by hitherto working wickedly against you. to the town of rouen. Blinded by the advice of perverse men. and that we have foresaken your service. seeing that they neither availed nor prevailed against William. quarrelsome and causing offense. intending to dominate the bretons. and grant us all kinds of peaceful happiness. Then William occupied with his army. May your fury be turned away from your servants. We beg you not to disdain us. William quickly assembled the armies of his entire realm. weakening them with hunger and scarcity. We served your father obediently. he gained a victory over his foes. and concerning the disregarded military service and obedience. For what we promised to you by a god-fearing christian oath of allegiance. devoting ourselves we also long to obey you. having followed close after him. Bend a kind ear of magnanimous compassion. and after very many of the breton leaders had fallen. with the leaders of the dacians having advised him on the matter. but take us back as a compassionate lord does offending servants. and he advanced beyond the river couesnon. with gracious compassion he took back duke berengar of . the withdrawm bretons lay hidden in the town garrisons. But once William retreated from brittany. having called back his entire army. and overpowering them by means of the greatest possible carnage. attacked and were ravaging the district of bayeux. And after this he ravaged their land. Moreover berengar and alan and the rest of the bretons. sent an ambassador to him with intercessory words. all the land of the bretons. Therefore William blocked their retreat. to vile servants. We repent that we have erred against you. and he destroyed very many ramparted places. For the very mightly duke William having indeed yielded to this embassy of designated humility.

the bretons. and he drove him with his followers out of the breton region. Flashing with an increase of divine success. Blooming with a splendid presentiment of a sumptuous recompense. and of service. most fitly appropriate in comportment. Truly for fear of duke William he was unable to linger in brittany. nor anywhere in all of francia. Of the right of the lawful bed by which you have pledged yourself in alliance. and of having to procure mercy. not with any human frailty of sexual desire besetting him. profusely prudent in deliberation. . Then William vigorously ruled the populace of both realms. Indeed even more worthily splendid than all others due to your merits. and of disregarded service. For indeed report of his goodness was being publicized throughout the climes of the world. he bound himself in the lust-producing right of renewing the succession to a certain most noble maiden. Therefore with his companions compelling him. nor would he devote himself to the allurements of begetting succeeding generations. but as a fugitive sought out the aid of athelstan king of the angles. most elegantly and artfully skilful in womanly administration. Elegantly resplendent with the uprightness of a glorious future. APOSTROPHE Clionian martyr blazing with innocent deeds. but lest an heir to so great a lineage and so great an office and position of leadership either be wanting. His chaste abstinence was being profusely published abroad. But he spurned and rejected alan. burdened though he was with the weight of causing offense. even more copiously circumspect in public affairs. And famed for an everlasting light of outspread goodness. most judiciously eloquent in speech. of extremely fine appearance. or be absent. Do not dread and do not fear trembling and being terrified. and he began copiously to flourish in might and virtue. who was the author and kindler of this quarrel and strife. and he bound him to himself by an oath of allegiance of steadfastly continuing fidelity.

Glorified by the gift of virtues. And under his hand there will be peace peace. and glittering with merits. Governing the populace conquered by his valiant authority. Duly directing and making them devote themselves to christ with all their efforts. With righteous reins he will direct the copiously-flowing nation. Nor has lust profaned the merit of your sacred heart. . concord peace peace.For this union is of sacred sensual delight. Intact faith has suffered no stain of shame. He will rule in the manner of a father. will exalt them. For indeed from your seed a splendid duke will succeed.

let us resist his temerity by force of arms. should he see any of us overpowered by him. as he would his very self. with perpetual help. was so very much strengthened and was gaining strength through the assistance of such friends. and let us make among ourselves the covenant of an eternal alliance. unshattered. scion of a most noble stock of the Frankish race. he will give the land which we hold to his own relatives to be held by their heirs. violently filled with the vileness of treachery. However a certain Riulf. Afterwards. but more beloved still by God and the inhabitants of heaven. Truly. his lord. if .[ 19 ] This most blessed athlete of Christ. with the anchor of a tenacious will. would be affluently enriched by an abundance of transient things. let us unexpectedly do to him as speedily as we are able. would be publicized in all the territories of the earth by a report of his goodness. he was also bound by the covenant of a transient friendship to the viceroy (note 1) Herbert. What that sly one is incessantly attempting with crafty cunning to do to us. announced in his deceitful voice to very many of the Norman leaders. seeing that duke William. succor and protect that one. Thus at that time he joined himself by mutual will and agreement to the friendship of duke Hugh. and he will endow them copiously with our tribute. he was beloved by all the inhabitants of the earth. Let us send some go-between to ask him that. and let us keep it. he is trying to drive us entirely out of the realm and roughly subdue the necks of those who remain with the yoke of servitude. should he wish to ruin us all at one time. whom he had called together: "Our lord William. going everywhere before him. Let each one of us. Moreover. Indeed. shining in the aforewritten ways and in other similar ways. obtains for himself Frankish friends. in an alliance that was not to endure. Indeed. Let us therefore sagely plan for ourselves some advantageous measure against the mere thought of such an attempt. that is. would be profusely endowed with an increase of divine grace.

he wishes to have us ready to serve him. and extraordinary swords marvelously adorned with gold. he. Whomever you instruct me to raise high. Therefore. hatchets. I will vehemently subdue. whatever you wish. and also battle-horses. leather cuirasses and leather helmets. namely armlets. deprived of an army. if you should voluntarily devote yourselves to my service. we will be endowed. and thus will your power surpass all others. upon your orders. allured by the rashness of his own presumption and caring little for the messages of duke William's most humble prayer. with peacemaking words he sent an ambassador back to Riulf to say the following things: "The land which you all seek from me I am not able to give to you. and whomever you instruct me to abase. This fatherland will be ruled and mastered with your advice. I will cruelly abase. the latter was utterly astounded at those words of singular audacity. You will enjoy my uninterrupted grace. and the glory of warfare in my household. he mightier than us in name alone. I will mightily raise high. recounted with his own fraudulently cunning mouth everything he had heard the . stood before William. having summoned his leaders in order to take counsel concerning such messages. Let how I live and what I know be henceforth in your power. and whomever you wish to humble. with a crowd of warriors. he bountifully give us the land all the way to the river Risle. and girdles. they sent messengers to William. And hereafter we will be mightier than he in prosperity and power. Whomever you wish to subdue. should he give it to us. who would say the abominable things which they had devised. having fulfilled the obligation of his embassy." And when the messenger of this man's humility had come to Riulf (so audacious!) and had set forth for him that embassy (so humble and mild!). only all the household furniture which I hold will I grant you all with pleasure. horses. And as the go-between. I will transmit my authoritative resolutions through your mouths and I will fulfill." Having devised this fraudulent measure. will be brought to nothing. He. nor will he try any longer to extend the force of his displeasure against us. I will completely humble.

say to what end you are hastening. once their leaders have been called together and united by an oath. lest we be ensnared. and crushed by the Frankish nations. to those leaders who. enemy of God. imbued with the poison of treachery and swollen by his own insolent mind." Apostrophe to Riulf Why. with his rash mouth he prated thus in those leaders' ears: "He foresees that we will become quiet and be stilled by words (so humble!) such as you have just heard. but let us go to him at the town of Rouen with a speedily-amassed army. Then. and in this way does he intend that the noble breed of his widely extensive Frankish kin shall be collected together above us. from beginning to end. To resist the will of that Lord who abides above the stars? Prithee. drained of strength. so that both he himself and his counsellors be thrust from Rouen. why do you treasonably Vent your rage. as your vicious guilt grows ever thicker. why do you display yourself. Instruct a whole host. to go ahead? . seduced by your crafty sophism. following his own audacious will. sweating with empty effort. Let him tread us under foot no longer with his cunning argumentation. do you rage in vain.ambassador say. and we will be safe. To what end you plunder fortresses and to what end you speed up your pace. enraged by bitter madness. proud Riulf. In the ornamented war-chariot of goodness of mind? Why do you swell with pride in your overly-inflated ostentatious haughtiness? And why do you try. And to what end you. And we will guard this town with even greater hope and confidence. Ah! you whom the bitter plague of treachery and envy pollutes With harmful force and abominable thoughts? Infected by vices. without regard for seditions. Let us therefore take heed. had been called together for that purpose.

Hasten your rushing pace. Notes: 1. But the humble forehead. prodigious mischievous one. Suffering through many unfortunate events And smitten by God's judgment. wreathed. with your arrogant gait. Satraps. . Herbert was the castellan of Vermandois. Towards a precipice and whirlpool of moist ruin. the brow having also been emptied. For it is especially proper to those who have exalted themselves To be raised up and hereupon to be greatly afflicted by sudden misfortune. The proudly elevated forehead is rubbed blank.But I suppose that you. bears a glittering crown.

stealthily going across the bed of the Seine." And when the go-between had hastily recounted to duke William what he had heard. Then William. however. whatever goods you wish. say to William and to all his followers. they pitched camp in a certain meadow hard by the town of Rouen. For he believes that he guards it with your help. for he is unsuitable for and harmful to us. that most vile exciter of this evil and a man enraged by the madness of diabolical fraud. Whatever you covet. which you are requesting to be given to you. he sends word that you shall share with him the official dignity of the whole fatherland and be distinguished beyond all others. dwell with him. which he has once again promised to us. he grants you with pleasure. For he will no longer be the heir of this land nor will he dominate us." Then Riulf. you may hold unhesitatingly. but even to the Seine. But the land. sent to them an ambassador to speak in these most humble words. not only up to the Risle.[ 20 ] When the army had been amassed by these words of baleful exhortation. he organized . amicably enjoying his encouragement. will not be given as his gift. Truly. glittering in the flower of youth. But if he prefers not to abandon the city. as the first and the greatest. you may have. He humbly prays you to come to him peaceably and. once it is taken. said to the ambassador before all who were there: "Return swiftly. which you will now hear: "Our lord William. we will attack it at all times and. Moreover that land. do not doubt that you are cherished and strengthened by his patronage. in advising him. wishes to be peace-making and benevolent towards you in all things. astounded at the novel development. we will crush William and his followers by the sword. that he should withdraw from the walls of this city (note 1) and speedily make for his Frankish relatives. fearing the sudden assault of the corrupt multitude. because what is not possessed in the first place cannot be given.

. and I will reside with him awhile. and stealthily approached the slopes of a mountain overlooking the city. And how can we be there. I will wipe them and their kindred off the face of the earth. with your father Rollo. said to the Dacian-born Bernard before the rest of the leaders: "In an unseemly manner have you torn me with rough and filthy words. and we overthrew many once the battling had begun. and even a nothing. we will return by ship to Dacia. perhaps he might be able to contend with them? Seeing. womanish. fathers and paternal uncles. because we feel the want of a duke and advocate. the land of our birth. and I will smash and demolish their encampments. and better supplied. sluggish and timid. but hastily follow me. before such foes? Would you rather. and not one person from their lineages will be left in the whole world. however. incited by these most bitter disputations. My sword will devour the flesh of the oathbreakers. Desiring to contemplate the army of his foes. and feeble in arms. (note 2) Let us linger no longer. and withdrew from the town with the collected army. because you fear the death that menaces you at the hands of these enemies. that the army of his foes was greater. With his advice and help I will recover this land. my maternal uncle. until he furnishes us some aid.the leaders whom he had summoned. and steadily crush that army of foes. he said to Bernard. live from another's table than rule and protect a realm? I and my companions will not follow you. a Dacian-born warrior: "I will go to Bernard of Senlis. do not have the strength to be set over us men. and with an army of Franks I will crush all these men by force of arms. since you have called me womanish. we at one time repeatedly fell upon her in war. You. nor will we go where you wish. than his own. Therefore. maternal and paternal aunts. Behold! hastily will I go before you to battle as the standard-bearer." William." Then the Dacian-born Bernard is said to have replied: "We will hasten with you to the river Epte but we will not enter Francia for. maternal first cousins and other relations of those who still survive. mean and useless. Indeed we have either slain or taken captive the grandfathers and maternal uncles.

Inconstant and unlike itself through love of novelty. admonished by a divine order And a supernal command. filled with filth. moreover. Pouring forth the many poisons of a viper-like man. Disgusted at the steady course of tranquil peace. For abominably and without cause does this nation. destructive and accursed and wicked. the haughtiness and frauds. Only let us ascertain who will go with you now to the battle. Of one mind they came before him and. Just as Gideon (note 3) Jerubba'al. But the rest of the nation. for what you now bid us to do is both according to reason and beneficial. Do not dread." Bernard. reckless. do not fear. making the sign of both alliance and trust in the manner of Dacian supporters. Under your leadership. the spear Of this people of treachery. Lavish with words. By terrorizing with three hundred excellent armed men. three hundred men were found who were ready to battle and to die with William. do not be angry at our rousing eloquence. but not lavish with deeds. feeble in arms. in a covenant of reciprocal will. the quarrels. The wars. fell back in swift flight to the protection of the town. untamable. the divisions. the duels. once crushed. infamous. The spoken contentions. and who will later come to your assistance. perceiving the ardor and virile constancy of duke William. rebellious." Moreover. brash. Perverse. . Apostrophe Patrician William. trembling. the disputes. Savage. struck their weapons together as one. malign. ashamed. it will be effaced by those few warriors. impious. fight against you. said to him in these most humble words: "Very mighty lord duke. through Bernard's inquiry. conceited. celebrated for your manners and your merits. the menaces. arrogant.and let us attack them as wolves do lambs. A death-dealing culprit.

worthily annihilated by those three hundred Deserving ones. Judges 6 . which kept the commands of the ethereal law. 3. [this nation] will be. having called together many of the people. With God's aid. Who. So likewise. Preferring the "civitatis" of Rouen 1173 and others. Had wished to pillage Israel. approved to be chosen by order of the ethereal judge.8. 2. Notes: 1.The arrogant nations of the Midianites and the Amalekites. . while you celebrate. Castra.

will direct the populace with just reins. Moreover the Seine gulped down very many of them. Riulf vanished in flight. a worthy crown will be given to you As recompense. already delighted by the accomplished battle and even more delighted by a son. Moreover that place. most distinguished of all warriors. is called until the present day "the war meadow. and not finding any of his own followers dead. and Botho. with three hundred men enveloped in iron. With William thus gaining the victory over his foes.[ 21 ] Then William. notifying him that a son had been born from his most esteemed consort. (note 1) . Then William. to have his son reborn and renewed by oil and chrism. suddenly rushed upon the inimical encampments of that rash multitude. Once his uprightness has been published abroad and his merits likewise reported. West and east. north and south Will worthily acknowledge his praiseworthy name. and the wood also ate up many of the mutilated. he sent bishop Heiric of the church of Bayeux. and torched the little tents of their warriors. who came to the assistance of those trusting in him. a certain warrior from F•camp went to meet him. Who. The part of the army following him was not able to apprehend him. Thus. in which the marvelous war took place. worthy of you. most holy indeed of all prelates. He smashed the tents of the leaders. because he was hidden by the thickness of the wood. APOSTROPHE Behold. crushing and tearing them to pieces with sword-points and lances. his sword overthrew whomever it hit upon and sent those who stood against him over to the lower world." When William was therefore returning from the battle. vigorous. the moisture of sacred baptism. an heir of your blood. surveying the field of corpses. patrician William. with his followers did glorify God.

. Preferring the "sparsis" of CC 276 and other witnesses.Notes: 1.

I preferred myself to discharge the business of the embassy. and feeble in arms. And the other one. To William of poitou frozen-gazed at these irritating words. and counts of the burgundians would obey him. untroubled by wars gained both the realm of the bretons and that of the normans. and herbert and of his own fideles. nor did anyone dare to dispute him. And one day. and also count William of poitou. the angles and the irish would submit to him. and to dine magnificently. It is not fitting that such a girl be had by them. For indeed the following day on the advice of counts hugh the great. and avaricious. when deer beset by lascivious unchastity do accost deer. and caused them to linger with him throughout the time of the delightful hunt. with royal gluttony. do you not know why we have come here?~~ He replied. with the advice of my fideles. respectfully received them with great state. . It is said that William of rouen. then replied playing. tents of ample size. For at the time of that very worthy hunt. came hastily to him there. Unwilling to send ambassadors to so worthy a count as you. and so that we might be reciprocally joined in an alliance of indissoluble friendship and esteem. Men from poitou are always faint-hearted. Thankful for their arrival William. So that you shall not be agitated I will on the morrow impart to you my reply concerning both matters. the dacian-born and the flemish. I have come. and hugh duke and prince of the whole realm.[ 22 ] Then William raised loftily high by the carnage destruction of so many. Having heard about this count herbert. Lord duke. And of one mind the rest of the nations inhabiting the neighborhood of their own realm would yield obedience to his sovereignty. Truly he respectfully escorted her. William of rouen then said. I am ignorant. he commanded to be prepared for him in the place which is called lyons-la-for•t. in order to conceive young by lust-producing right. William of poitou said to William of rouen. he gave his sister to duke William of poitou. both so that you might give your sister (note 1) to me as a wife. leaders of the frankish nation.

sent his ambassadors to him with the greatest possible offerings. and also that moved by mercy. cast out from brittany for the fault of causing offense. In marvelous nuptual state. on the advice of duke hugh the great. and robbed of the grace of his love. and the benevolent. artfully girded with horse-trappings. In whatever lands his name would be heard. already fallen prey to death in captivity. he would be greatly praised by all. to the poitevin court. and the malevolent. and elegantly bolstered by unheardof adornments of indescribable office and rank. he take back alan. respectfully would he raise high the humble. but would also direct neighboring realms with vigorous deliberation. However peaceful king athelstan of the angles hearing. By words and gifts he would bring pagans and unbelievers to the worship of the true faith. filled and loaded with silk vestments.honorably encircled with an abundant supply of wedding things. and surrounded on all sides by a multitude of invaluable horses. Angles would submit to his commands. and gifts. Harshly would he overpower the arrogant. laden with gold. franks and burgundians to his dictates. he would drive believers to praise of christ. embroidered with gold. Moreover herbert seeing that William of rouen was strong and was gaining strength. how William was distinguished in virtue and might. interceding in behalf of his own nephew louis. for love of [athelstan]. beyond all of the frankish nation. exalting him with the advice of the franks. and amber. that he call him back to the realm of francia. fairness and justice would incessantly glitter greatly. immediately did the mightiest duke of . along with a very great crowd of innumerable slaves of both sexes (note 2) . son of king charles the prisoner. On the advice of William duke of the normans. and establish him there forever. and surrounded by many chests. Holiness and discretion would shine bright in him. and carried by female horses. he would rule not only the monarchy which he himself held. and gleamed affluently in christ through both spiritual and bodily virtue and through very great deeds. William magnanimously conducted her to the citadels of the town of Rouen. gave his own daughter (note 3) to that man.

thereafter unfailingly stuck to William's commands. Indeed with humble entreaty. The reply to them. and anoint him for themselves as king of the peoples. king louis exhausted by the blows of many tribulations. having gathered together the bishops on the advice of the metropolitan bishops. of those residing in francia and in burgundy. asking for his assistance. Then William moved by compassion at the king's distress. Truly for love of king athelstan. just like a household member and servant.the franks hugh the great. and sticks to you. and herbert ruler of princes. Yea indeed. came to duke william of the normans at boisemont imprecating him to help. conducted him to his residence in the town of rouen. . except through duke william of the normans. APOSTROPHE Marquis mighty by right and worthily shining bright with merits. and honorably kept him there many times with all his followers. and moreover that he bind himself together with him in friendship forever. sent ambassadors to henry the king across-the-rhine. serves. and to support him against the rebelling franks. The dependent king esteems. And alan himself. William took back alan who had marched back along with louis. Each nation too has now fallen subject to you. To maintain himself by handouts and by your valor. obeys. hastily call louis back. These things having been thus reported. and to obtain for him the assistance and friendship of henry the king across-the-rhine. and weakened by the inconveniences of very many disasters. and considered worthless by the frankish-born people. suppliant and stooping he seeks. But within the space of one year after the anointing of the king. and would wait as a suppliant for his handouts. they tried to drive him from the realm. he would not be allied with the king of the franks. Moreover the king would reside in duke William's house. and handed over to him whatever he used to possess in the breton region. However the king seeing himself abandoned. the franks began to dispute him and to overpower him in many ways.

and a forerunner of salvation. of both sexes. 936/7. dukes. magnates and Likewise both the clergy and the masses. Preferring the "sexus" of CC 276 and others. William's sister (unnamed by Dudo) was known both as Gerloc and as Adela. 3. Notes: 1. according to later Norman historians. . according to other historians. The marriage took place c.Respectfully do bishops. As a messenger of peace. 2. Her name was Leyarda of Vermandois. Beg you to aid them with arms and with entreaty. counts.

William has received the latter with the marvelous reverence of inestimable awe and has inquired why that duke (so dignified! so honorable!) has come to him. William has sent for king Louis and imparted the pleasant outcome of the embassy. should some need beset one of them. he and king Louis of Francia might ally with each other and. to be steadfast and durable due to your involvement.[ 23 ] Without delay. merry over your success. Cono has replied: "You sent to our king Henry. he would be strengthened by the support of the other. But afterwards he has sent him." And Cono: "If I . and with him duke Cono. loaded with various presents and diverse gifts. back to duke William. what king Louis kept seeking from him. more than this. as you said. until you have returned and brought back the king. and he has instructed me to remain wherever you like as a hostage." And William: "You will go with me to the conference. For king Henry and duke William were united by a covenant of indestructible friendship and newly allied one to the other through reciprocal agreements. wishing to ascertain whether any darkness lurked in his heart. with his own armed band. because I do not distrust you. a leader of his household. king Henry has received Tetger honorably and has caused him to remain with him for an entire day. free from all adversity. the king has sent me to you so that you might conduct the king to a meeting. For I will send you to the town of Bayeux until." Hearing the message of this singular and invaluable embassy. we have returned unharmed. even to the Dacians subject to your authority. judging this advice to be salubrious for himself and for his followers and. so that. so that he would not hesitate to do. On the day set for departure. Truly. having assembled an innumerable multitude of legions. Moreover. has said to duke Cono of the Saxons: "Ready yourself for the road and quickly don your shinguards. through your judicious advice. privy to his secrets. William has sent a certain young recruit Tetgar. to the transrhenish king Henry. William." Then Cono: "Send me wherever you like.

I depart with you. who has joined himself to me in friendship?" He replied: "Very patient and equitable. he is zealous in administering the rights and ordinances of the orthodox Fathers. he dines splendidly with golden vessels and drinking cups and. very powerful and affluent. he has come directly to you. with a great army to meet king Louis. I will remain your trusty shield-bearer and your constant body-guard against the ambushes of your enemies. as I believe shall happen. no one . there is no one mightier in arms. with an innumerable army. and wishes to ask what should be done between you and king Louis. and possessed of great and unheardof honor and practical judgment. they will devour us as wolves do lambs. But king Henry was at a place called Vis•. saying to one another: "What comparison is there between our army and this one? If any strife should come between us and them. distinguished by such an immense multitude of warriors. marquis and duke of the Normans and Bretons sends you faithful obeisance in Christ. Seeing the Breton and Norman legions. Not wishing to keep me as a hostage against the keeping of your sacrosanct promise. There is no one more equitable in actions. I am. they go. of one mind." Then Hugh the Great and count Herbert each ordered his own followers to ride separately. William preceded him with five hundred warriors. while duke Cono. who awaited them in the district of Laon along with duke Hugh the Great and count Herbert. In his realm. at the latter's admonition. No king. your fidelis. duke Hugo and count Herbert were astounded. Zealously surrounded by a throng of leaders and young recruits. on the river Meuse. But as king Louis was still approaching the aforesaid conference location. and no duke or count is as eminent as William. surrounded by all types of servants (both nobles and slaves). and forbad any of them to mingle with William's army. But if.proceed to the city of Bayeux. except you." Then king Henry: ~"How powerful and dignified and honorable and good is this William. there is no one holier in speech." That said. unhesitatingly. has already gone to the king and reported his arrival in these words: "William.

so that I would come to you. not distrusting you. the inhabitants of the land live prostrate before the laws and. were saying and. smash and tear apart the walls. Notify the king what your prognostication is in this matter. began to break down. preceding him to the doors of the house where king Henry was abiding. with your active mediation. But on the next day. he rushed outside and faithfully received William's sword. and themselves to occupy the house by force and power. As soon as duke Cono heard of his arrival. ornamented and adorned with gold. a fugitive. saying: "How astonishingly affluent and powerful is the duke of the Norman and Breton region who. mocking him. But. William arrived with five hundred warriors. king Henry turned away. and. towards another house and said to Cono. with an incredible and innumerable army. went away and expounded for king [Louis] everything he had heard from king [Henry]. Harmonious. and conducted him with awe to king Henry. have myself come with him! You have said that you would not be united to king Louis by a bond of friendship and a tie of assistance. with you as his escort. Then William: "King Louis faithfully sends you the tribute of his deep love and esteem. as a sort of gage and hostage. understood a little of what they.dares to harm another. But William's men. except through my mediation. You sent duke Cono to me. all the principles of the hoped-for agreement will be advantageously accomplished by our and both of your fideles. fearing their assault. quickly rose and went to meet duke William and. William. remain regulated by the ordinances of the holy Fathers. of one mind. once they had kissed. no one to commit theft or sacrilege." Then king Henry: "Let king Louis come on the morrow. has arrived here with five hundred warriors!" But William. both sat down. King Henry. listening for the Dacian language. however." And while Henry and Cono were still conversing with one another. But see how I. moved for a moment by anger. privy to his secrets: "This conference . prevented king Louis from going to the conference." Meanwhile the Lotharingians and the Saxons began scoldingly and ironically to address Cono.

and tell them to go away. Moreover William. to carry and show as a signal to withdraw for that legion. their faces lowered before the sword. had done. in a hilt made from six pounds of gold. your followers were unwilling to leave the houses on my orders. on my orders. that richest of all dukes. they did not immediately become quiet. marvelously and artfully engraved with thin gold leafings and studs." They. when Cono. again making haste. However. in accordance with the promise that we keep between us. Then William to duke Cono: "Go. Soon king Henry. but they did readily abandon the houses. shining with gold and gems. who had preceded him. and return without a murmur to their duke. but will result in our downfall and destruction and. Go. who was coming to the conference. I suppose.is. forced by William. went to meet them. greatly pressing against one another in the course of withdrawing. bent down to the ground. neither efficacious nor appropriate for us. who was drawing near the conference with the rest of his legions. (note 1) mightiest duke. not only rejected the command of duke Cono when he arrived and begged them to go away." Then William gave Cono a sword. wheter occupying the houses or still demolishing houses. and recounted for him what his men." Springing up. they entered . lest some unheardof carnage be born among the populace. however. demolishing them with great vehemence and roaring. even our unheardof disgrace. Wherefore did Cono immediately with a rapid and fleet course again seek out duke William. moved forward to meet him and. to halt that vexed army from further smashing the walls or crushing the doors of our shelter. and he said: "William. but are hastening to smash (note 2) others! I am praying. said that king Louis was there. coming to king Henry. so that no strife shall be born between those who differ and vary in language and dress and arms. that you not allow such things to be done. but the ones who were still outside also attacked the rest of the houses. once they had kissed and clasped each other's hands. Cono soon encountered duke William. and showed them duke William's sword. tell William. indeed.

the Dacian language. there came to king Louis. who better than he?" The Saxons replied: "We were ignorant of his affluence. all unwilling. returning to Laon with duke William and the rest of the leaders. who richer. to their own lands. he said to duke William.the house and both sat down. and the duke of an innumerable multitude? With the exception of our king. and therefore we at first disparaged him with the false accusation of an unworthy reputation. in front of the aforementioned leaders: . they were joined and allied to each other." As duke Cono set forth the marvelous deeds and the opulent affluence of duke William. most distinguished of all dukes. and therefore did I learn it unwillingly." William: "`Unwilling' in what way?" Herman: "Because your lineage. through the resolution of duke William. captured in battle. prosecuted innumerable battles against me and brought (note 5) me. by an inextricable tie of friendship and support and help. Made even merrier by hearing this. while duke Hugh of the Franks (although present) had no role in their sworn union of esteem. the Saxons and the rest of those who were present began to extol him likewise in their own dialogues. While the kings were speaking together secretly. an embassy worthy of exultation. duke Herman of the Saxons (note 4) began to speak to duke William in the Dacian language. with which Saxons are unacquainted?~" He replied: "Your own mighty lineage of warlike and illustrious high birth taught me. When these matters had thus been reasonably terminated and fulfilled. Then William duke of the Normans to the duke of the Saxons: "Who taught you the language of the Dacian region." Meanwhile duke Cono mockingly says to the Saxons: "How does William (note 6) duke of the Normans and Bretons seem to you? Is he not a man of marvelous power and ability. announcing that a son had been born to him from his most beloved consort. who is mightier. Gerberga (note 7) by name. extremely often attacking the very many strongholds of my duchy. and Herbert leader of the viceroys (note 3) was unwilling to take part. And having endowed each other in turn with many agreements and various gifts and presents.

under my precedence in all things. grandfather and great-grandfather. and we will subordinate the necks of those who rebel. what is yours is mine. and he stood as godfather to the boy. be assured that whatever your will shall be. with sly hearts and fraudulent aims and sophistical disputations. in order that we. were thoroughly astounded by the words spoken. with my aid. indeed. you have consistently assisted me. And from then on they began vilely to ponder everything that might be destructive to William. annoyed by so very many inconveniences. by both of them. might delight in the reciprocal agreements of a single mind. from beginning to end. born yesterday. is said to have replied to the king: "Truly now and for as long as I shall survive. it will be done by me. hitherto vilely discolored by many blows. bound by a bond of even greater esteem and by fastenings of increased love."You have copiously helped me. all the clergy of the see of Laon and all the laity reverently received him along with the superior bishops. reborn in the font of sacred baptism. you will disarm those who refuse to serve you. Truly William. I will lift up those whom you desire to exalt. Therefore I pray you to be the godfather of my son. With prodigious religious exertions. named Lothar. because what is mine is yours." The leaders of the Frankish nation." Truly duke William. dominated. With my leadership. made speedily for Laon. and you have cherished me. by naming him and bearing witness that his name is Lothar. protecting me from the assembly of the wicked. (note 8) having left the king and his own army behind in the territory surrounding (note 9) Laon. indeed even by drawing out the greatest bounty from your own stores of wealth. I will diligently do your bidding. haughty. renewed . applauding the king's request. so appropriate for himself. against you and. to a place called Bi•vres. with me standing by. preceded by a troop of bishops of the Frankish nation. you will dominate the realm of Francia and the other realms which your father. even the father of your great-greatgrandfather. moved to anger in their hearts not on their faces. I will trample to the ground those whom you desire to thrust down.

Where the populace is governed by your sacred authority. But he himself. endowed with the very greatest presents and distinguished gifts. Preferring the "disrumpere" of Rouen 1173 and others. And then he left the child. without you. having now both Sown tranquil peace through the crossroads of the world. 3. until 1106. Apostrophe Duke. 2. Turn your steps and turn your swift steeds And return speedily to the land of your natal soil. Preferring the "Willelme" of Rouen 1173 and other witnesses. 4. went speedily back to the king and reported to the king what respectful treatment he had received. Moreover the king wished properly to honor William (note 10) with gifts (note 11) for all that he had done. Princeps satraparum.and purified by sacrosanct moisture and oil and chrism. distinguished by the organization of your own followers. the Billunger. And taken up that adopted progeny. Notes: 1. at Laon with his mother. And bound by the favorable and steadfast alliance of a king (note 12) Taking up that illustrious child from the nourishing waves Of salvation-giving baptism. Herman "duke of the Saxons" was confirmed in that title by Henry's son Otto the Great from at least 960. every affair falls into confusion. named Gerberga. the title remained hereditarily in his family. . It continually awaits the support of your worthy protection For. but he accepted none of them. with his own followers. valiant. rather with a gesture of thanks he sent everything back to the king.

Preferring the "William" of CC 276. 6. Lothar. was probably born in 941. the oldest son of Gerberga and Louis of Western Francia. 11. Gerberga was the daughter of king Henry I of Eastern Francia. . 7. 12. Preferring the "regis" of CC 276. Pagus. 8. Preferring the "Willelmus" of CC 276. 9. Preferring the "deduxit" of CC 276. Beneficia. Preferring the "Willelmo" of CC 276. 10.5.

given over to the burden of worthy martyrdom. while the king made for Laon. likewise when the king and William (note 1) had kissed and embraced each other with very great rejoicing. with lively merits. Then he will guard you by his worthy prayers and bountiful merits. Apostrophe O Rouen. Notes: 1. advance along the path of judgment Until. And he will deserve to profit from the Deity in the highest good. He will ascend. by his prowess in arms. crowned with a garland. to the Elysian field. Preferring the "et Willelmo" of CC 276.[ 24 ] When these matters had been duly set right. on every side. . William began to travel swiftly to the region of his own authority. behold! your worshipful duke comes to you And. having guided the realms of the Gauls with just reins. Now he guards you. He will scatter seeds of justice in great profusion among the Normans And will.

waiting for him at the gate of the city. But for you. received him exultingly with the reverence of religious custom. still not receive the same recompense and the same reward?" The abbot replied: "Each and every individual will receive his recompense according to his labor. which differ from each other.ges to pray. the whole city of Rouen. practiced diligently by the wonderful labor of lay . Moreover. however.ges a temple (how marvelous to tell! and of marvelous form!) bolstered profusely by a clergy of the monastic way of life. why will the offices of Christian religiosity. And as those of the female sex stood in the towers of the wall.[ 25 ] When. sprang forth towards him in an unexpected procession and sought out diverse byways in order to be able to see him." "It is certain that the whole of the Christian way of life is divided into a trimodal order. meditating in his soul upon what. For one day. saying to the most holy abbot Martin: "If the Christian way of life visits church according to a tripartite order. and he would pacify everyone by the laws or by agreement. I will reveal these things more plainly. He would settle contentions and complaints. the clergy. moved by very great joy. terminating them by law. he had conceived in his heart. for the sake of obtaining that foremost crown. faltering in fidelity concerning such matters. guarding the monks under the training of a rule constructed for meditative contemplation. Then he constructed at Jumi•auml. And immeditaly he began to busy himself with the laws and rights and paternal ordinances which had been slighted in his absence. he kept conversing with himself. longed-for return of duke William had smitten the minds of those dwelling in Norman territory and forewarned them that their duke (so eminent!) would be there. as those of youthful and middle age ran to meet him. swift report of the unexpected. a certain Martin was the most holy abbot of that monastery. having gone to Jumi•auml. as those of senile age stood in the crossroads.

hearing the declaration of that singular plan. suddenly became stiff and dragging his voice from the depths of his breast.' (note 2) constrained from all directions within straightened limits. leaving behind the world and with changed habit. as their duke. all unwilling. a Trinity in persons. with our inward purpose of unremitting exertion. But because I am now my own master and in my own power. named 'active' (note 1) . part of which. does not sail through level ground but. said: "Defendor of this fatherland. however. named 'contemplative. The perfect servitude of all three happily strives toward heaven at an equivalent pace.' But the other part. try to wrestle." William.people and canons and monks. hearing these things replied to the abbot. But if you . sighing. This road has also been named 'apostolic. nor will you perform what you are attempting to do. sails more freely and has deserved to be called 'canonical. deservedly a most distinguished abbot. but my father and his leaders appointed me. the way there (in the certain hope of true belief) is the double path of a double road. transfixed in a solitary retreat and glad for perennial privacy." However Martin. struggles always towards the steep. describing the God of this faith as one in substance. strictly bound from all directions.' which we sinners follow and with which we. I very much wished to barter away the freer and broader way and to substitute the one bound fast and confined within limits. why have you even explored doing such things? Who will cherish the clergy and the populace? Who will withstand the assault of pagan armies? Who will actively rule the populace according to paternal laws? To whom will you intrust and commend your flock? To whom will you bountifully give the ducal dignity of the Breton and Norman region? The will of divine providence will not concord with your forethought. I wish to arrive at the wrestling-place of the contemplative path. And although there be three orders in which one may cultivate the worship of the true faith. nor will I permit such a thing to be pondered any longer. under whose authority the lay order resides and lives. saying: "In the flower of youthful age.

that is victuals for this corporeal life. you would find me nowhere in your region. a triple ideal. Apostrophe The one God foreknows and predestines every good. nor did he assent to the offering of food. denied their requests. as William was passing through the entrance to the temple with abbot Martin. but does not destine." And in the face of these kinds of attempts at objection. And what I have vowed to God will be fulfilled as speedily as I am able. if you were to seek me. happy. . praying that he accept his daily allowance of food. a single vigor. a small host of monks tumbled down at his feet. still wrapped in the ignorance of puerile age. will stealthily approach your wish To know the glory of God' martyrdom. to make your profession in this monastery and. with the willing approval of my leaders. In Greek." However. He foreknows your happy wish. by force of your own power. For you. moved in his soul by the abbot's objections. duke William is said to have answered these thing: "My beloved son Richard. as your surpassing merits grows. 2.should prefer. Notes: 1. But he. He who remains a triadic whole. In Greek. every evil. to devote yourself to the rule of the contemplative way. will be in my stead the most powerful duke of this region. The one God foreknows. but he does not predestine it. but swiftly made for the town of Rouen. in God's benevolence. leaving the world behind.

carried out. replied to William. is said to have replied: "It will both be considered and.[ 26 ] Indeed that same night he began to be greatly roasted by grave pains. giving forth a reddish bile along with other fluids. joining themselves to him by the true promise of an oath of allegiance. and we will faithfully do what you ask. which he had already reported to abbot Martin. that you were exploring in the mind of your own heart? And if. with God's favor. who will guard us from the snares of the Frankish nation? Let this no longer even be considered. to the gathered leaders of the Normans and Bretons and to the boy named Richard (with such a fine mien!). with the intention of observing both fidelity and military service. in fact. with the Normans. you have in fact decided this (something which should never come to pass!). Therefore. place your hands in his hands. commend themselves to Richard. brought there with them." Immediately the Bretons. elect my son Richard as your duke while I still survive and." Forthwith did the Normans and the Bretons. But . the most noble leaders of the Breton and Norman region ascertained the unheardof and nearly monstrous design of duke William. I pray you to favor my resolutions and. transformed into a state of astonishment and amazement. for it shall never be carried out. through thorough consideration. disturbed by this barrier of resistance and dissuasion. reckoning that this evil had befallen him because of the slighted offering of food and drink which he had denied the deprecating monks." Then William. you ought not to resist the will of omnipotent God or oppose my intention. greatly wailing they said to him: "Why did you declare such things. of one mind. Because. why did you report it to anyone? Who will diligently defend us from attack by menacing pagans of baleful savageness? Or. William secretly made known the marvelous sacred secret of his mind. however the fortune of human affairs may perchance turn out. saying: "We have assented to this plan. And when.

the equanimity of the whole realm would be violated and very many would be deprived of their goods. (note 1) profusely discolored by the foulness of this poison. praying with repeated prayers that he assist him. and has disordered agreements (now pressed down by dread) of the church of peace. but has disregardfully kept him at the level of his young recruits. But still the instigator and exciter of accursed deeds has poured the virus of his cunning into the hearts of evil men. has taken the fortress which is called Montreuil from count Herluin. However. Wherefore a certain leader. would pursue duke Hugh of the Franks daily.William. However. deprived of the official dignity of this fortress. stirring the fires of strife. despairing of Hugh's support and perceiving himself as abandoned by his helping patronage. rejoicing that the human race is changed for the worse. so that they are not mindful of God's judgments. began to gain strength and to do daily with his accustomed care whatever he had been able to do before. that most notorious marquis of the Flemish region. much strengthened in force as the fluids of his indisposition became clear. Indeed. with this devil's poison gravely spread abroad throughout its members and with a hostile frenzy thickening ever more cruelly and with the injustice of perverse men vilely growing strong. as he was wont to do. the leaders of Francia would bear a weight of envy and hatred against William but would not dare to show the malevolent intention of their thoughts. for he was [Hugh's] count and his warrior. ready for every service. Arnulf by name. ejected from the offices due to their rank. he has gone to duke William of the Normans and Bretons and has fallen prostrate at his feet so that he . (note 2) with the swiftest course has sought the aid of duke Hugh of the Franks. nor do they even perceive them in their minds. Therefore he has awakened hatreds. that it is unable to return to the garden of delights. so that the latter would come to his assistance. But he. by a frenzy of cupidity he has roused the hearts of many. filled with the exigency of his great neediness. Duke Hugh has not received him respectfully. causing its supports to tremble. Thus. But Herluin.

Herluin has returned home to duke William and. do not wish to rend the tie of our concord and love and agreement on your account. affirming that he was deprived of any safeguarding relief. would supplicatingly seek his help with manifold requests." Moved in his mind by the words of this irremediable reponse of the duke. with much beseeching. foremost in my grace. he would be displeased. not support you as he does himself? And why does he not fulfill your needs after this calamitous ruin? March speedily back to him and ascertain. whether he shall ever wish to help you and whether. has diligently announced to William everything he had heard about the matter. if someone else were to assist you. Duke Hugh has said to him instantly: "I and Arnulf. whatever he needs. Immediately. your lord. hastened to help Herluin." Then duke Hugh of the Franks. Herluin has replied to Hugh: "Since you are in no way burning with desire to assist me in my need. he has called the men of Coutances to him and said to them: "If. pursuing the matter repeatedly. And as he stood by the fortress of Montreuil and looked up at it. it is now fitting that you not be vexed if someone else should aid me. a suppliant Herluin would. duke William is said to have replied: "Why does duke Hugh of the Franks. Soothing him. William has gathered the whole army of the Bretons and the Normans and. The following day. William has instructed that he be welcomed with honorables efforts and be given. Herluin." With this speech of desertion completed. and you will lead away . tumbling down at his feet. will not be acting unlawfully towards me." Having returned without delay to duke Hugh. with great reverence. entangled in a bond of sworn friendship. you wish excellently to enjoy both the glory of warfare and also greater office in my household. as would have been fitting.would help him concerning the afore-described matter. you will not hesitate to carry to me the stays of the palisaded rampart of the fortress of Montreuil. ask whether he were going to help him. coming before duke William. has said: "Whoever will offer you aid. because of the damage done by the Flemish duke Arnulf.

having amassed an army. so as to make use of judgment and justice and law. If he should. [I am] a willing benevolent helper to you. secured by the protection of impregnable towers and by the durability of its palisaded rampart. filling it with a fruitful and abundant supply of grain and wine. and they tear it to pieces. I will not accept this fortress because I am not able to guard or uphold it against duke Arnulf." And Herluin: "Lord. If however he should request the armistice of a negotiated peace. rebuilding it for you. carrying off before William the stays of the wall and at the same time bringing captives before him. he should wish to meet us at a conference. duke William has said to Herluin: "I will protect you by aiding you. By repairing this one. Dining in the fortress. of one mind. have attacked the fortress as wolves do lambs. consume by fire everything under his authority. lay waste your heritable estates. with a resolute heart. we will. duke William has said to count Herluin. If Arnulf's warfare should assail upon you. we will meet with him on your account. remain here with you. to pass judgment according to the opinion of our followers. But with the citadel of Montreuil taken and the roaring of baleful sedition calmed. surrounded by a crowd of their own warrios. moved by compassion." Then. Whichever of my leaders you select for yourself will. in the meantime. a docile hearer of your complaints. I am returning to you this fortress which the duke of the Flemings unjustly took away from you. But if. indeed a true bountiful giver of those goods which are . and they have withdrawn from fortress. I will swiftly assist you with the multitude of my armies. that can neither be taken nor destroyed.to me. and to be honorably served to him on royal treasures by Herluin himself. server of the banquet: "Behold. a defender against your opponents." At this word of encouragement. an attentive solacer of your losses. we will give it to him on the advice of our fideles. William has ordered dinner to be prepared for him on the other side [of the walls]. the men of Coutances. I will stuff it. I will defend you by helping and guarding you. those who oppose us and occupy the fortress. and I will defend it completely. captured. I will construct for you a fortress.

And meanwhile. Unwilling that any strife be initiated against you. the above-mentioned duke Arnulf of the Flemings. prompt and just in judgment. But having durably refortified the fortress and filled it with an abundance of grain and wine and hides of swine in rich abundance. with bent face and submissive voice they began supplicatingly to address him with peace-making words: "Our lord Arnulf sends you faithful (note 4) allegiances in Christ. Since. has (note 3) returned with his followers to the town of Rouen. himself. he wishes you to meet him at a conference and.appropriate for you. And when they were before William. Furthermore. and he would actively equip the churches. become frequent. moreover. publicized throughout all Francia and other realms. he no longer strives to dispute with anyone. he gleamed with increased zeal for all goodness. in the most abominable fraud of deceit. indeed having affluently embellished it with the very best warriors. however. who would say they were his fideles. swiftly with his own fideles. he would shine bright with tokens of all goods. he requests with most humble prayers some interval of negotiated peace. riding swiftly. he has sent to duke William ambassadors of a most fraudulent enterprise. Greatly distressed by gout and other infirmities. true to his word. He desires that his followers be . Herluin. most humble in comportment. in an alliance of indissoluble friendship. if that be pleasing. vilely filled with the poison of viper-like cunning and perniciously allured by the passionate fire of diabolical fraud and violently encouraged by the sly and wicked advice of certain leaders of the Frankish nation. and reports concerning so great a man. has begun to muse over and compass his (William's) mournful death. That same duke was. William. and he diligently administered the laws and ordinances of the orthodox authors and of his own father." Hearing these things. most mild in speech. Inflamed by the malice of this baleful poison. has immediately fallen prostrate at William's feet. to pardon your love Herluin who has displeased him and to become bound to you. if he wished to receive the present of their allegiance and affectionate friendship.

trapped by the tottering (note 7) course of the active life. devise with me a peace for all of our lands. and none of our followers will. Whereas the monarchies under your authority and his have been connected (note 5) by an uninterrupted and adjoining border." Moreover to Herluin he has said: "Do not dread. Pass judgment concerning what is better: to explore and to effect that which is good. annihilated through great booty-taking and blazes." And William. it is fitting that there be peace and concord between the two of you and between your followers.regulated by law or by agreement. More than enough evils have already taken shape through the stimulus of disputes. as quickly as you are able. to the rest of the gathered leaders: "Since you are not ignorant that I. for you will never be deprived of the relieving patronage of myself and my followers. and so that none of your followers will do any damage to any of ours. and he hastens to make peace for as long as he shall survive. to detriment of very many people. cause any loss for yours. has said secretly to count Herluin: "What seems to you to be the purpose of this proposal and embassy?" Herluin has replied: "My soul shudders that we might be ensnared or allured by the most humble prayers of those by whose treachery we have been so many times ensnared. ensnared by this fraudulent deceit of the detestable ambassadors." . they shall prevail. A duke of such great goodness and such great mildness should not deny this needful and meet request but should applaud it with all his might so that the state. nor be agitated. wish to confine myself to a cloister of the contemplative life. so that residents of both your realms might rejoice in such great leaders. Let us who are neighbors due to the relationship of our lands be harmonious and of one mind in law as well. for there is no offering nor any sacrifice as acceptible to God as the augmentation of peace. by force or power. or to cleave to and accomplish that filthy and abominable deed which is in fact not a created thing but is the absence of goodness?" (note 6) The very mighty duke William. let you. not slip away perniciously into destruction. should vileness continue this compulsion henceforward.

965). 5. daughter of count Herbert II of Vermandois. considered in a number of philosophical traditions to lack positive substance. that mightiest duke of all. . William. Notes: 1. Apostrophe Duke. Preferring the "labanti" of Rouen 1173 and others. and husband of Adela. Preferring the "connexae" of CC 276. Desirous of no one's aid. count of Flanders (918 . Castrum. defender and protector of a title imparted by Christ. By finding. 6. Arnulf I. Wearing the diadem of victory. 3. Namely that which is evil. 2. And very worthy of gaining an ethereal reward. Preferring the "fideles" of Rouen 1173 and others. not even that of Christ. son of count Baldwin II and Aelfthryth. At the appointed time of the imminent conference. Preferring the "est" of Rouen 1173 and others. by the glory of martyrdom. duke William has given count Arnulf a negotiated peace of three months. a worthy life of perpetual peace. and has sent word that he would come to the designated conference. and has departed for the district of Amiens. 7.Therefore on the advice of his fideles. You will let slip that mournful death for whose sake you now hasten. 4. daughter of king Alfred of Wessex. has called together the army of the Normans and the Bretons.


encounters William as he crosses in the boat with his twelve followers and begins to speak to him. and to ensnare him with most humble proposals: "I come to you. on the far bank of the river Somme. believing this embassy of corrupt deceit and favoring the prayers of that fraudulent one. your count. towards which Arnulf is moving in a boat with four treasonous followers. Arnulf. discolored with the malice of execrable deceit. you will hold authority over my realm. pretending that the most holy duke William is to be united with him. For there is also an island there. who has displeased . You indeed dominate the entire monarchy of Gaul with your advantageous measures. he has in deceit sent for duke William to come there with twelve of his warriors. suppliant. And with peace-making words. deceitful and treasonous.[ 27 ] But Arnulf. But then duke William. limping and leaning on two of his followers. that mightiest duke. I am unable to dominate and subdue the rebels of this land. But Arnulf. and sent a gobetween to duke William. compelled the the legions of his army to go there. I will be subject to pay tribute to you and my followers will serve you. has came upon the river (note 1) at Corbie with all his followers. glad and merry over the reports made to him. and. conquered by infirmity. praying that he come to meet him at Picquigny. for as long as I live. as servants do a lord. where the currents of the Somme would be an obstacle between the two armies. shamming. After my death. so that the unhappy one would not be impeded from committing the deceit on which he was resolved by the arrival of a Norman army. surrounded on all sides by the blue whirlpool of the foaming Somme. for you to bring together your and my followers and to be a helper for me against those who are faithless to me for. the one about to be martyred on the near side. and therefore I desire to have you as duke and marquis over me and my followers. has settled. Be my defender and advocate against king Louis and the leader Herbert and Hugh. I will willingly forgive Herluin.

much desiring to take revenge. William. having forgotten to mentio an even better plan. what grief!) and after this. in good faith by William but with treasonous hearts by Arnulf and the other leaders. But the Normans and the Bretons. want you now for a few moments. which he has coveted for so long. retreats with his twelve followers and enters a ship alone with only a rower. saying with sly voices. without his followers. he is kept back by the infirmity of gout. blameless William (alas. William (irreproachably trustworthy!). And I will at all times be benevolent and peace-making towards him. riding nimbly. having sailed with their lord (that most vile man of all!) across the river on a swift ship and connected up with their army. having kissed Arnulf. swiftly turns his boat and comes. turn the boat back for a little while for we. greatly mournful at the death of their lord William. believing that Arnulf is speaking with a benevolent heart and in perfect and irreproachable trustworthiness. compelled by the repeated prayers of those treasonous men. in the sight of all. inflamed by the frenzy of a monstrous fury and stirred by a diabolical spirit. his twelve counts having preceded him on another ship. Thus is the precious marquis and most glorious martyr of Christ. When almost the whole day has been spent in capricious tergiversations and a peace has finally been agreed upon by the leaders on both sides. to the bank of the river to speak with them. And having thus reached the kingdom of heaven. not in treachery. the slip away in flight. he is . echoing each other: "Lord. but there is something marvelous that he forgot to tell you. pierce through and kill." Then. no shallows anywhere. William. as you know. dedicated to a happy martyrdom." But duke William. having now swiftly drawn forth four swords which had been carefully concealed under a covering of pelts. has made peace between Herluin and the treasonous Arnulf with all his followers.me. lord. heedless of arms... Then the treasonous Eric and Balzo and Robert and Ridulf have begun to speak deceitfully to duke William. Our lord is not able to come to you for. running swiftly here and there. But they.

a certain chamberlain. has carried him by boat across to the opposite bank of the river Somme. complete the course of his combat in the nine hundred and forty third year after the incarnation of the Lord. has been invaluably stationed among the troops of the angels." Immediately enthroning the boy named Richard (of holy memory!) and willingly become his fideles." Truly. they have discovered a very small silver key hanging from a belt around his loins. Richard by name. has replied: "Our lord William vowed that he would leave behind this praiseworthy world and become. let us make a lord. examining his wounds with prodigiously sighing hearts and greatly weeping eyes and wailing as they unwind his bloody garments. the grief. Thus did William. and this key guards and confines. In fact. A certain band of warriors of the ensnared and martyred William has immediately run to him and. indeed also bringing with them his son. . Before the body is stored in the tomb. but the soul.crowned. sixteen days before the kalends of January. mother of God. have said (greatly wailing): "Ah. placed swiftly on a bier and bourne (with great wailing) to the city of Rouen. in the church of the blessed Mary. a monk at Jumi•ges. (note 2) With his household retinue having been asked why the key was hanging from his girdle. Berengar and Alan and the rest of the Bretons and the leaders of the Normans. almost the entire sorrowful province has come together. seeing him. Certainly the body of that blessed man lies lifeless. However. drenched in the moisture of his own blood. within a certain chest. (note 3) privy to his secrets. of one mind. we have lost a lord. a monkish habit (namely a woolen garment and cowl). living happily in Christ. with great wailing. of one mind they have made him their duke. they have immediately honorably interred his sacrosanct body. (note 4) with king Louis holding the realm of Francia and the living and true God ruling in the fullness of trinity and the majesty of unity. mourning with unutterable sorrow and sending deep sighs up to heaven. most sacred duke and most glorious martyr of Christ. after this lamentable conference. escorted to heaven by angels.

a deserved summit. .Apostrophe A potter bearing. Where a fiery profit of the struggle is given. I suppose I will hardly be able to sell or give them to anyone But. But since the miry vases are of mean production. And (note 5) I. Where the worthy are presented with the gifts of heaven And where the natal conditions of octave fortune are renewed. 4. Where a crown is given. The river Bresle. Strophium lumborum eius. alas. Elsewhere there is a harbor filled with a different recompense. Camerarius. they will lie on the seashore. Notes: 1. 3. From a mixture of wind and turning sand as well. a life. I have been bourne. will not by accident suffer Some facetious mocking grimace. In this way. What a way. a salvation. Where the worthy purchase their expenses by different proceeds. from sucking Charybdis likewise And from a profuse heap of numerous whirlpools. the potter. the defeat of our work and labor. Where lifeless limbs are vivified by Christ. 2. the hope of faith. December 17. vessels of fragile material. those things already related in order will be received. Snatched from the watery swelling of the growing tides And from harmful sandbanks. To a harbor free from any tempest. and the reward of respectable sweat. in a vessel filled with different wares. crushed. I will proceed there.

5. Preferring the "atque" of CC 276. .

Worthy duke and upright patrician. Indeed it is my right to render to posterity The histories of affairs in a credible order. It would be agreeable to sing what Richard did. Melpomene. Erato and Thalia. Euterpe. Let each one of you sweetly sing. Make this extraordinary work resound with the lyric bellowing Of a sweetly-sounding song and a soaring voice. The flowery songs of a single clear-sounding Muse. Terpsichore. For I have declared his mortal deeds. I beg.[ 28 ] Exhortation to the Muses (note 1) to Sing of Richard Though it be enough to sing. in a metre of varied ringing. who duly strove to please the highest God. singly. Count and vigorous marquis. And let the expounder of this sacred history Be one who relates mystical things in intelligible order. speaking learnedly with a different song. Calliope. Urania. Polyhimnia. In praise of that celebrated patrician and count and reverend Duke. Clio. Euterpe . In a varied train of alternate metres. Clio Lo! let not stolid taciturnity and listless silence Stifle our thoughts. Now indeed I will surrender symbolic matters To my sisters.

That mellifluous ruler did everything Which the sacred decrees of the fathers affirm. He loved the lord God with a pious heart And. although the idea be outrageous. Melpomene Now am I musing over how that great ancestor Has been united with those throngs on account of his merits. Due to the merits of his blessedness. Thalia And if our will were capable of grasping How he lived and flourished and acted. Since the judge will reward his servants. Has been joined to the angelic throngs. Which still endure. Be designated among the prophets. kind servant of Christ. On account of his marvels.I am delighted to cry out in lyric metre What type of man was the reverend count And with what great blessedness he flourished. loved also his neighbor as himself. And let my honored host of sisters be at hand To enumerate his merits with me. I would write. And I will bear witness that this upright. his body safe. in worthy alliance. That it were fitting that this marquis and equitable patrician. . as long as he flourished in this world. and which worthily shine. This holy duke and reverend count. and on account of his marvelous Vigorous deeds and on account of his religious acts. For. Ruining the guilty with malign tortures.

I would dare to join that great. by which faith and hope and glory Everlastingly grew in this world. Someone who has bourne so many crosses. He duly regulated unconquerable ones. so many tortures for his people. Polyhymnia Now let me be summoned. holy. upright duke. Just. For the sake of his steadfast faith in the divine will. And vehemently resisted the Dacians. Reveal him now to me. pious. Nevertheless because of his marvelous merits. Terpsichore . A companion to the martyrs by his merits. so many Abuses. To the brilliant congregations of apostles For. the marquis Richard. Erato Friendly reader! should you find some Good wordling similar to this count.For what the prophets announced with mystical words From their symbolic and prophetic hearts. although he is not numbered or calculated among them. well-disposed. I will say what it is pleasing to speak of. He is enjoying eternal rest. telling of The fruits of our salvation. believed and recited And heard and remembered in his sacred mind. although more foolish than my sisters. He. Sacred Peter justly does not refuse his pious merits.

conscious of the right. Has been added to the confessors.See how this duke. Truly remained chaste. Something you can still sufficiently see to this day. count. Observe whether you ever discover now In this fleeting world Any patrician consistent with our father In deeds and merits and obedience . Has adorned the sacred cathedrals Of pontiffs. patrician. Having endured no blemish of ignominy. Who would now try to remove Him from the virginal garland? His mind. For the sake of posterity. But was superior. drawing now upon your reason Extend your intellect with ready understanding Through all the saints in order. Calliope Well-disposed reader. Urania Although the holy duke and marquis Once celebrated. It is not forbidden even to say more: He who was inferior to none. Versed in wisdom And loving religion. An alliance of a chaste And licit and sincere bed.

In victorious glory. And when stout rewards are paid out. Richard himself.And appropriate veneration of divine worship. Struggling for the sake of that region. By Christ the Judge. pure. in the presence of the shining Judge." All the Muses in Harmony The fertile earth profusely blesses the nourishing Husbandman with three-fold plenteousness. it will be said to Richard: "Well done! Take for yourself. In a shining chair Will propose rights and laws concerning this great world. faithful servant. relying on his merits and manners. Sits in the judgment seat. to the holy martyrs He will wear a rose-colored crown Which will endure along his entire future path. When the other shining ones announce The maniples already glittering above the stars. Each one by repeating the exploits of his exertion. Deserving now a talent (note 2) as their reward. Great rewards in exchange for the small things you now have. Placing the seeds of his nourishing Word. You will see that Richard . In this way too has the true Planter taught the world. And when that apostolic senate Is assembled. as best you can. For indeed every deed appropriate to our father Is manifest in all his actions. And when the priests who have conquered their flesh For the sake of gainful profit Now rightly enter the inner sanctuary of the supernal realm. from among the great host And. behold.

with an ethereal sweetness. And will follow the most beautiful lamb. From the time he was thirty. Moving from left to right. by means of these. O Muse. And will continue the pace by which he hastened there. And considered inexperienced in verse singing. A Preface to the Prelate Robert Though you be deprived Of rhetorical taste. having arrived at his sixtieth year. And with whom everything is upright. according to divine will. . Resounding in five modest tetrachords. in a splendid virginal diadem. He will sing the natal song. stand forth. Your tributes are at hand so that. And reveal in writing the splendid deeds Of that sacred duke And equitable patrician And bountiful marquis. Has always directed his footsteps towards this place. Christ. Because. Let you abide. furnish head and breast trappings For this little book. And sluggish and slothful and unskilled. Deprived of all Reason and knowledge. That fortunate count. He might become such a one as well. Inarticulate and stupid. He himself. you who are above and without whom nothing is upright. Will be presented to the virgins. with three crowns.Beams on high. linger.

Governing everything whatsoever.And as you are mighty in your power to ordain. For it is fitting through it all To register the highest shouts of joy For the sacred. good. or is wanting. equitable And vigorous marquis. we all pray. A petty bard. Through the deity of the Trinity. The deeds of this illustrious. Another Preface That Muse does not sing Whose abundant supply of speech Either hisses. equitable. . The latter move the clumsy poet. Prating only with impediment. And trifling. He stands forth and flourishes and has strength. However much I might stand forth as Ignorant. As is wont to happen with a young lad. salvation and honor And an increase of glory For all time. compassionate. I am being carried now into the midst Of things that have been said and things that ought to be said. just as you see them. Moderate count Richard. slothful and sluggish. with unpolished articulation. Which he worked while he lived. May he have. I have nevertheless. babbling. and more foolish than everyone else. Truly inflamed. Repose. tell of The goods which he himself accomplished. Related in order.

I have travelled around many Christian armies. . this moderate. Both approved and greatest of all. Thrice. other realms too Are astounded at his holy words and deeds. The very page will sound out This kind.The former force him to write. Indeed. Lo. Go with me. having wondered much. Which it is not lawful to silence. a thousand times blessed. Normandy is witness To the bounty of his actions. four times. astonishment smites me. Nevertheless. stay here with me. this equitable and holy one. advantageously. My breast is compressed by the burden. is witness To his liberality. In whom such great things come together. We will celebrate this man. too. My mind takes flight. Wherever I might go. And very many things affright me And arise in new forms. This pious. I pray. word and deed. And Burgundy confirms His courage. I have found no one Like the marquis Richard. Searching through them. And Francia. having gotten to know them all well. Although I be unpolished. No one gleamed more In thought. And.

repose. The dignity. I beg. nor believed by. by the weight of its own character. And by whatever power you have already given me the ability to exist at all. Now rises. the model and the supernal force. In the highest good. Come. everyone. The heavenly divine will. And is tested by very few. A Preface to the Prelate Robert The guidance for ethereal. The starry summit. subterranean motivation. Indeed with a roaring That was not heard or seen in aught of us even in olden times. All tributes of praise are to you. be his. the king of all. bountiful Spirit.May eternal glory. Therefore have we sung of you. sovereignty. that might is neither known to. running. Though they be drawn forth with varied harmony in a dissimilar train. in this ode. the glory of those who worship the divine. You are called the fertile triad (note 5) and the uncompounded monad. (note 4) With uninterrupted voices. The constructor of men. terrestrial. with suppliant prayers. . Give me the ability to speak. The sequence of the causes of things through a laid up store of motion. a suppliant. perpetually holding all things. By beaming forth your sevenfold nectar. Because of this. intelligence (note 3) of the entire world. And one difficult for me. In the past displayed in a mean plotline. A Prayer The savage might of the Dacians.

It is moved although steadfast and it is stable although mobile. in you alone do we believe. As the substance-giving thing. God (note 14) is neither this. So that you. I believe. into everything. Itself indivisible. nor that. (note 20) Yet both reason (note 21) and excelling understanding (note 22) Shall profess clearly that the very prototype (note 23) is itself nothing.(note 6) Either (according to the Greeks) (note 7) you are also divided As only one essence in three substances. as goodness. exulting. In these three we worship but a single deity. small things too. perceiving all. And nowhere outside of it can anything exist. the faraway thing too. but is everything. nor there. Thus does it always preside over great. And the Spirit. and you yourself endure likewise. everything. but effective everywhere for everything. Neither here. You. might be astounded. (note 19) Everything whatsoever flourishes because of this ruler. it proves itself medium. truly the living Paraclete. For the medium thing. medium. large and small: (note 15) Medium (note 16) while it perpetually rules whatever is innermost. through itself. applaud the begotten Son. Without beginning. Truth-speakers of faith assert it as universal. the unbegotten begetting Father. Small (note 17) while it bountifully assists and helps those who are least. remaining whole everywhere. Thus does wisdom. It endures and flourishes. (note 9) Always present. reader. (note 8) Or (as is more extensively maintained in other speeches of the world) You are both one true substance. Large (note 18) while it invigorates the very greatest things in great ways. (note 10) Which is thus described. relating how this is universal . the idea (note 13) of the world. flowing from both. because it runs. yet three persons. (note 11) the figure (note 12) of all things.

easy. The Breath. He wants to give generously to devout and gentle words. It is neither easy nor worthy nor lawful for any of us That we arrogantly determine for any soul or any stain What properly belongs to God to reveal as Judge. (note 27) Remaining. I embrace The unbegotten Father and. flowing with truth. . yourself. they sing. For the sacred psalmist (note 25) resounded thus: "Just as its shadows exist. bind him More worthily and better and more closely to your soul through prayer. beyond this. with his own command. ready to yield. truly. these continuous prayers. Therefore. it is itself called nothing. But. celebrates him. The delighting company of patriarchs. Truth-telling prophets produce a train of praises to him. He (whoever he is. according to the Bible. the begotten Offspring. Hence there is what is said and spoken concerning the shadow. lies concealed. as a sensation-producing stimulus. you will conceive that what is necessary. (note 24) It is said that things always grow into something out of nothing.Because its incomprehensible nature blooms in everything. echoing hardly scanty odes To him alone. Him the thrice three hosts always praise in heaven: Contemplating him. With these vows. undefiled as well. truth-telling and believable." (note 26) For this is how things are. They will write that all things were likewise created from this nothing. everything which is. worthily profess him exultingly. they worship. It is itself both shadows to the condemned and light to the upright. venerating him. flowing from both. Behold. with these metres. Pray! He is at hand. of whatever type. All things which are. Since it is seized by no one. at this point God is manifested. however great) shall remain Lord. And he rules. so too does its light. as often as it shows itself.

him the land below also praises. An ancient Attic weight. manifesting joy. Who flourished. Contemplating him. Erato of lyric poetry. adjust our present labors and. Calliope of epic poetry and Urania of astronomy. Disdains all else and. The subject matter drives us and love constrains us To adjust this token of lofty praise to Richard. I beseech you. they worship. from which (by choosing that ornament) One strikingly sings. 2.Whatever flourishes has sung of him with sacred addresses. lifting up every good one. Melpomene of tragedy. All the elements serve him. gracious. Euterpe of the flute. Ancient goddesses of the liberal arts. In Greek. We pray. favoring these prayers. Thalia of comedy. Polyhymnia of mime. following him. worships. Terpsichore of dance. With hymns. turn your attention To what remains and to what draws nigh. The names of the muses above each verse are taken from CC 276. marvelously resounds like celestial thunder. always your servant. You who heap up our understanding and fructify our speech. Bountiful Creator. wonderful. . merciful. venerating him. disdaining any lashings. Him the sky above. The summit of viginity. Treading every evil one under foot. Notes: 1. the twelve-fold phalanx adores. And shouts. an innumerable cohort of martyrs celebrates him as eternal. Clio was the muse of history. usually reckoned when Dudo wrote as the rough monetary equivalent of a "pound." 3.

In Greek. 17. 15. 12. The phrase combines Greek and Latin terms. In Greek. 22. In Greek. Preferring the "typos" (in Greek) of CC 276. In Greek. 14. Preferring the "te. 23. 6. 18. In Greek.. . 10. Line in Greek. In Greek.. The line is in Greek. 16. 24. In Greek. 19. In Greek. In Greek. 7. In Greek. In Greek. 13..4. 5. 21. 8.oda" of CC 276. 20. 11. In Greek. In Greek. The prase combines Greek and Latin terms. In Greek. In Greek. 9.

26. Psalm. 27.25. In Greek. In Greek. .

lit as much as possible so that. Thus did a most mighty duke. and particularly concerning the especially worthy remarkable deeds of those dukes who have zealously persisted in every way in such good purposes. knowing of the imminent birth. and so that those successors might. made clear in writing to the memory of those succeeding them. a most glittering patrician and most notorious marquis of venerable life. the life of the most kind duke Richard. Just as we would advantageously enjoy the safeguarding and the favor (note 1) of his patronage on earth. through his merits. given to us respectfully to publicize his life. those deeds might instruct and teach their souls for the better through salvation-giving fruit. come forth from the most remarkable stock of a splendid and most noble family. who flourished in the meadow of the sacrosanct church through especially worthy deeds. with skilled effort. shining as does a star in the sky. His father William. pregnant with the most fortunate and ingrafted scion of a renowned offspring. may we be defensibly protected by his prayers and merits from everything unsuitable. And furthermore let it be. through various actions. of holy remembrance and of memorable kindness. he who was the highest reverence and the highest dignity of the church. they are to be written down.[ 29 ] Indeed. by observation of this example. measure what constitutes an honest life against that standard. and so that. although in a dull style. bless the walls and the fruitful fields of the fortress of F•camp with the sacred commencement of his birth. of remarkable memory. a duke and a most glorious martyr. eternal beatitude may be happily obtained. with a benevolent design of sacrosanct purpose. it is devoid of merit to keep silent concerning the imitable combat of superior dukes. practised diligently in time past. Wherefore let us begin. had his mother. rather. born where the pays de Caux spreads out to the outermost tracts of Belgic Francia adjacent to the sea. conveyed in a distinguished manner .

on the day when the battle between the deserving duke William and Riulf (in many ways a blasphemer and an oathbreaker) took place. who was riding through the field of battle darkened with lukewarm blood and contemplating the overthrown thousands of lifeless warriors and with joy giving the greatest thanks to the king of kings. should. the venerable matron. as was being estimated. Apostrophe O always deserving parents of such a progeny. claim for himself with his confederates the monarchy of the Norman region. At whose appearance prodigious joys blow through The citizens of the upper world. . many earthdwellers likewise. The heavenly order is merry for such a future fellow citizen. as has been recounted. Beneficium. cruelest of all brutes. having obtained a victory over his foes with 300 men. For. so that if by chance Riulf. Under his direction. Notes: 1. announcing the joy of a born offspring to William.along a graceful course to the plentifully-furnished court of his residence at F•camp. sent a certain young recruit named Fulchard to disclose to duke William the much-desired matter of the sired descendant. the glad world will always Enjoy a very worthy dowry of tranquil peace. she would be taken speedily across the strait to the Angles so that he would not ravish her. Truly the messenger came. having labored to bring forth the boy of divine memory. The deserving human order manifests joy for this sacred judge.

For indeed the following day. delighted and merry at the marvelous victory already accomplished. by glory chief of the household and of his household troops. Sprung from a distinguished father. and engraved with the nectar of the sacred chrism. as the clergy of the whole province and the people of both sexes arrived from every quarter in thanksgiving for the baptism of the previously-born lad. reborn through the salvation-giving inundation of a triple immersion. while the clergy praised God very much for the newborn duke and the throngs of people retreated. to the walls of F•camp. sent Heinric of Bayeux. along with the rest of the bishops of the land. Truly. by name. deservedly most famed. calling him Richard. Whose purification. the aforesaid prelate with count Botho received from the purification of the holy bath. APOSTROPHE Oh the happy merit of the sacred infant. and Botho.[ 30 ] Then the duke. they were received by the clergy and the people. . in the blessed font of mystical washing. the boy named Richard. to receive the boy of salvationgiving peace. and rendered even more delighted by the heir and successor now born. and with the foulness of the oldest man having been removed by the name of the deific trinity by that most reverent prelate Einric of bayeux. the prelate with Botho reported to duke William what had been done concerning the boy. with a nimble retinue. indeed. Merry at the message of this expedition and going. a bishop of the very highest reverence. and cleansed in the font of rebirth. the religious items having already been respectfully prepared. Richard. And from a celebrated mother. once these things had been accomplished with the greatest reverence. renewed with distinction by the fluid of the symbolic bath of sacrosanct oil and chrism.

Preferring the "ferant" of CC 276. And of God the sacred holy spirit. To bring forward (note 2) sacred shouts of joy. Has been fittingly effected In your stronghold. Rouses populaces and peoples (note 1) And all the clergy everywhere. O F•camp. A few words of the final two lines of this apostrophe.And whose renewal. are supplied from other manuscripts. being transcribed here. 2. always sacred. Notes: 1. To God the father and To the one brought forth from the virginal womb (note 3) And with the holy spirit. Which flourishes near the shores of the sea. And of God his offspring. . Preferring the "populos ciat" of CC 276. cut off in the ms. 3. In the never-ending name Of the lord God the father. And nevertheless of a single true God.

the Bretons. in fact even the appearace and the stature of his greatly-desired son Richard. and very many seditions and unheardof quarrels of unappeasable complaint are engendered in many ways.[ 31 ] When finally an interval of two eras (note 1) had passed. have I defeated. since every realm lacking a hereditary lord is deserted and scattered. duke William began advantageously to ponder the profit of the realm and a successor for his military leadership. the Flemings and other nations sojourning (note 2) in the neighborhood of our power have I boldly put down. I accomplished it softly and gently. Bernard. so frequently and vehemently stirred up by the anxieties of such thorough consideration. "have I vigorously ruled this realm till now. as the age of the boy increased. the duke went to him. But now offer me your approval for this which I am struggling to carry out. Thus. in order that Richard might be secretly carried off to the villa which is called Quevilly. and the little child Richard had grown profusely by marvelous increments. Botho and Anslech. soon desiring to enact what he was meditating in his heart. constrained by your most kind encouragement. he sent residents of his household who were privy to his secret. and for that reason let this . to contemplate the condition and the health. in fact even if I did some good. the pagan invaders of our territory have I confuted. and longing diligently with all his desire. having embraced him lovingly and kissed him sweetly. recounting what he had for so long explored in his own heart: "With your advice. Thus when the young child had been brought to the aforesaid villa. like enemies rebellious against me. Contemplating rather diligently and understanding him (from the structure of his limbs which he touched with his own hands) to be finely formed in proportion to his age. he began to speak to the above-mentioned three counts." he said. having taken with him his three trusty privy counsellors. and taking heed that he was increasingly surpassing the age of infancy.

" Then. they commended themselves to the most elegant boy Richard. That strong boy. Apostrophe O William. carrying out the orders of the most noble marquis. and we will obey his instructions in all things. neither before God Nor before the clergy and the populace. guarantee to that young child his safe holding of the realm. guaranteeing to him the safe holding of the realm. having become his fideles by an easily-believable promise. submitted without delay to your orders and. And will equitably pacify the common people. as long as we shall survive. Will not be an unfitting (note 4) heir. as a pious Ruler. . begotten by a sacred mother To a just lineage. with your favor. who was speaking so courteously: "We have. in the course of our life. (note 3) mighty and upright and pious Duke and future martyr. A holy marquis and a constant count and a good Duke for those who worship Christ. having willingly given their hands in an oath of allegiance of true faith. And a flashing sacred extender Of the true belief. for we are ignorant of what error a future time may spawn. And he will apportion among the populace.little boy. the reins of equitable laws. For this determination will indeed be very pleasing to all who sojourn under the safeguard of your protection." Then did they reply to their lord. I want and command that you. he will be an appropriate count and hereditary patrician duke for us. But will be an appropriate and accordant father And a just patrician. be appointed as heir and successor to me in the authority of our military leadership.

Preferring the "Willelme" of CC 276.As does a father keeping his offspring in bounds. Notes: 1. Myself supplying "commorantes" instead of "commemorantes. in order to be filled in at a later date. in red." 3. by a "rubricator" who. 4. peace. evidently this resulted from the fact that the names were left blank by the original scribe. . May glory. dignity and the grace Of Jesus Christ be with that boy. I do not indicate in the notes every time that I prefer the proper name readings of manuscripts other than the base manuscript. Preferring the "inopportunus" of CC 276 and Rouen 1173. 2. More often than not the proper names in the section of Dudo's work which concerns Richard are confused in the manuscripts. made frequent errors. not reading the entire text. An era seems to be about four or five years.

brought him quickly to the town of Bayeux. with your favor. he took with him seven magnates of rather great influence and. and for you to place your hands. had indeed been accomplished. nay rather the disposing judgment of omnipotent God. and then for the covenanted . as symbols of your heart. in truth. Devoting himself to these explorations. with the three mentioned above. however. he made known to them his secret will: "Because the state of affairs at any given moment is always turned. assenting willingly to his lord's request and taking up the solicitude of fostering the extraordinary young child. having collected there the magnates of the Breton and Norman region. (note 1) But duke William. I therefore want him to be brought as soon as possible to the Bessin and there I want him to be both brought up and fostered with great diligence under your guardianship. Desiring. he begins to speak to the aforenamed three: "Because. for that reason I want. And he lingered there until the festive days of the sacred festival of Pentecost had passed. enjoying Dacian eloquence and learning it with a tenacious memory.[ 32 ] Once the business of this deliberation. by countless misfortunes. that the young child Richard be lifted up and confirmed in his possession of the realm by an oath of allegiance and an oath-taking of his fideles. and guarded him as the apple of his own eye. and rarely is the outcome of any action certain. like a wheel. and Bayeux uses the Dacian language more frequently than the Roman. the city of Rouen uses the Roman rather than the Dacian eloquence. celebrated Easter that year at Bayeux. Botho. the father began to muse in his sagacious mind over where or by whom his son might be advantageously brought up and fostered. that he may be able at a future time to dispute fluently against the inhabitants of Dacia." Then Botho. for love of his most beloved son. my son Richard to be appointed by you as heir to my authority while I still survive. in his hands.

having given their hands to the young child Richard. . The vagrant. it would have been appropriate and reasonable for us to admonish you to such a course of action by our own prayers and our own anxious encouragement. A good duke and a nourishing count. for the native who resides here. nay rather to fix in advance. Apostrophe Illustrious boy.fidelity of your true promise to be. and for the entire fatherland itself to be judiciously ruled by your most beneficial deliberations. because this necessary business also peculiarly concerns us. of compliant obeisance and military service. Satisfied. Taking assisting aid from you." That said. made lasting by an oath. the seven magnates replied: "If you were not already burning with desire in your own soul to explore and thoroughly consider in advance. will go away merry. with all your strength. The dignity of the churches. and from the Free-born and shining high birth of your mother. sprung both from a glittering Father of nourishing genius. The sacred glory and the venerable hope Both of the sacred order and of all ranks. precisely what you have proposed." Merry at these proposals. That fatherland and region where you were Brought forth is deservedly submitted to you. and the destitute exile. on sacrosanct relics. the orphan. Because you will be. making a promise. they promised and vowed to be his fideles in all things.

the "pupil of his own eye." .Notes: 1. Literally.

he would remember. begins. those who had remained in the realm and had not gone to the sorrowful conference with him. extraordinary count of the Breton region. have said of one mind: "Behold the one to serve. behold the one to whom we made a promise while his father survived." Then first Berengar. the grace of the Holy Spirit would readily pile up in him. But when (as was recounted. sorrowful and . with the best deeds. to speak for all of them: "Oh elders and lords. seeing the boy (so beautiful! so dignified!). so also would he be happily fertilized by the merits of life. have brought forward the boy Richard. the Normans and the Bretons. He would explain whatever obscurities were concealed in the law. Moreover he himself. each one has returned home glad and merry. but wicked things he would account of slight value. all plainly revealed. doleful and sorrowful. before William's body was interred in the sepulchre. Moreover. Moreover. and very many things had been reasonably furnished to the sacred church and to the state.[ 33 ] For once these things had indeed been terminated by sage and judicious and advantageous deliberation. Then. Whatever he heard that was good. reconsidering it all by ready recollection. Meanwhile the infantine grace of great promise and of first flowering of celebrated Richard would be fashioned as the years sailed by. sobbing with mournful and doleful voices and emitting the varied howlings of deep sighs. just as he would vigorously mature in human increments. (note 1) deceitfully ensnared by Arnulf's treachery. behold the one for whom to wage war. Wisdom would construct in his breast an abode resting on columns. would perform whatever good he could. enriching the cavities of his breast with bountiful tribute and with the zeal (adequate for two) of burning and sagacious genius. in keeping with the force of his age. although in a dull style) his father William had been martyred due to treachery and been happily crowned in the starry kingdom. casting them off.

in the manner of a Christian confederacy. Apostrophe Rouen. . to rule over us. Always teeming with people. once the murmuring of the bustling crowds had been calmed and silence had been. let us make a lord (note 2) for ourselves. A town which the Belgic. lest foreign nations. in falcons and knowing fowlers. (note 3) rich in treasures and full of spectacles. just as they once promised to his living father. before the lamentable corpse is placed in the tomb. the counts and the great crowd of howling leaders approach the boy Richard (of prodigious reverence!) with disordered vehemence and murmuring. unanimously approving this resolution. And they ratify for him the uninterrupted course of their irreproachable fidelity and military service on relics of precious saints. claim for themselves the Norman and Breton territories. Berengar and Alan and the rest of the counts of Normandy and Brittany.sad at the deplorable violent death of the most pious marquis. with difficulty. have with pleasure subjected themselves to him. having given their hands to Richard." That said. achieved. That boy ought to be put on his father's throne to be duke and patrician for us. However. Merry. poured upon the shores of the wandering Seine. Plentifully furnished with goods and all fierce warriors. reestablishing and restoring the father's lost shield through the shield of his offspring. the boy Richard (of welcome nobility and celebrated courage!) has remained behind at Rouen with his father's young recruits and household retinue. Celtic and Anglian port each invigorates. And let us oppose those wishing to master us by making resistance. rushing upon us and determining. in this unheardof affair of this betrayal. When these things had been lamentably fulfilled and very many had returned home. affluent and very opulent and very wealthy In many species of game and classes of fish And lofty winged creatures. Let that boy be appointed as leader of this realm.

at last. marquis. Holy and God-fearing. his father deceased. And whose goodness and compassion and reverence Will compel you. governing you by right for all ages. worthy. Preferring the "Richardus" of CC 276. Seniores et domini. celebrated Richard (note 6) will be had As your equitable and bountiful. Senior. gracious. Dominus. 2. revered. mighty by right. Rejoice! celebrating. loveable duke. kind. 3. blameless. rejoycing. 6. Notes: 1. more powerful than any other town. 4. And by whose uninterrupted merits you. Moreover will help you. illustrious through all ages. delighting that There is an accomplished lord (note 4) and a lawgiving lord (note 5) for you And. Who. Will be enriched and endowed. sacred and upright Festive. having power by right. will now protect you. patrician. memorable. venerable. Celebrated for merits. Senior. . In Greek. in fact more potent. to ascend to the Elysian Fields.In fact better. 5. beloved.

A second and a third day.[ 34 ] However. who wanted to lead him to another house (note 1) in order to bathe and watch over him. therefore. king Louis of Francia. did not afterwards try to take him any place. But at length both the massed suburbanites and the citizens. weeping with deceitful and fraudulent goodwill. and the murmuring which has poured forth about the imprisonment is fanned here and there through the whole town. understanding that the boy (so sweet!) was a prisoner. withheld the boy. took him up willingly. this one. over the report of the situation. (note 2) burning with desire. merry over the arrival of king Louis. in the same way. reckoning that he would ride against the Flemings. to take him away but. however. rushing in the manner of the common people upon the houses of the leaders of the city. compelled him to dine and to lie with him. hearing that William duke of the Normans. duke William. will not be . However king Louis made the boy Richard (so beautiful!) come to him and. Full of bustle. have begun to revile those leaders. not letting him go. and for the sake of his own fidelity. deceived by the ingenuity of count Arnulf of Flanders. emitting prodigious groans and saying in loud voices: "By our own carelessness we have lost our extraordinary advocate. And indeed the following day the king kept with himself and withheld that boy (so honorable) from his tutor. had been martyred for the sake of the stability of the sacrosanct church and of holy faith and of peace. with a resolute heart. Truly the people of Rouen. felt severe pain. The tutor. took him up and kissed him and. the whole city is awakened. and that he wished to visit upon them a stinging and baleful revenge for the unheardof sin which they had committed. the king did not allow the foster father. and hastened quickly to Rouen with his counts in order to consult the magnates of the realm (except those who were compassers of his death) concerning these things which had happened because of the execrable cunning of count Arnulf.

moreover. have remained behind in their own homes. Only with difficulty will you escape the imminent peril. begging with a suppliant voice for the mercy of those who wished to kill him and his followers. with the boy Richard (of lofty aid!) in his arms. And it has been said to him: "The leaders of this town are longing to attack you. dreading lest both himself and the king be killed. fearing the ardor of the rustics. the king (having at length returned to himself) has sent for Bernard.banished. Thereupon do the common people and the armed warriors. I supplicantly . I will take part in this sedition that has arisen. I assert. for the love of God. however. Bernard has immediately sent this message back to Louis: "I will deliver neither myself nor him but. only do not kill me and my followers. because you are keeping the boy Richard (so hopeful!) in captivity. has sent word for Louis to throw himself as a suppliant. We will justly slay all you oath-breakers as well as the king. having speedily decked themselves out with swords and arms. distrustful and fearing the ruin and destruction of his followers. has taken in his arms the boy Richard (of such great deliverance!) and brought him before the armed men. very many of the leaders. a leader of the Norman army. the king has begun to ask the cause. Bernard. Moreover." Then the king has sent to him again. Moreover the king. to immediately assist him." Seized by a cold (note 3) quaking and quivering and shaking at the misfortune of his imminent downfall. "Behold. through any treasonous deliberation of yours. But very many. upon the mercy of the warriors and citizens. hasten to attack the king and his own fellow warriors. this time for advice about how he might be delivered. join the armed common people. by the extremely rough words of the citizens. it is I and your lord. Do quickly whatever you wish concerning me." Stirred up. an exile. when he has heard the roaring of the hastily raised din. only with difficulty will you be delivered from the mobs of citizens and armed men. bolting the doors with all their strength. and we will deliver the boy Richard (so authoritative!) so that he will not be exiled. with fervent souls and speedy steps.

we will crush him. It is." But they. But. the king has replied to Bernard: "I . uneasy about these unbecoming events and faltering in fidelity and uncertain about things to come. In this way. having been delivered (by your advice. And. Bernard) from the seditions of so baleful an enemy. because your suburbanites with your citizens. In a word. urged on by vehement grief at the death of your lord. and we in your safeguarding and direction. by virtue of your influence. has sent for the magnates of that city (namely Rodulf and Anslec and also Bernard) to hasten to him. thus." And Bernard has replied: "Your soul already endures only with great displeasure what the rustics and the citizens have done to you. and if someone should rise up against us. you will throw him to the ground. but in order that he might be versed in regal knowledge and palatine eloquence. having consulted his bishops and counts. in order to console you concerning what took place. receiving the boy Richard (so virtuous!). you will be able to delight in our services. but I encountered the still sadder grief of a more stinging sadness.implore. both myself and my followers. ratifying his possession by the oath of allegiance of a sacred promise and by the placing of your hands upon sacrosanct phylacteries. And when they have been summoned and brought before him. in deceit. both military and non-military. Moreover king Louis." Then. to return to his courtly dwelling and to his followers. and so from here on you will be considered innocent. filled with very humble prayer. I now ask you what I should do next. for your lord did not linger by my side in the way a prisoner is held. have suffered the king. needful that you be rendered safe from the vileness of any fraud that is might be made public. and your warriors with a company of rustics wished to crush and tear to pieces. the sad king begins to speak to the leaders: "I came here. in unexpected ruin. it is fitting that you confirm for the boy Richard (of great posterity!) the holding of his land in hereditary right. may you help and support him against everyone on earth. finally. Truly if someone should quarrel with you. because our lord William was your fidelis through thick and thin.

and I will compel my followers. Allow your lord to linger with me. I will be a help and a solace to him for as long as I shall survive. Wherever I set out to go. Tarrying for awhile in Evreux and. now gone through with this promise (of most irreproachable content) to you and to your lord. for that reason. would himself dispose of the rights of the state. thoroughly instructed in the language of plenteous eloquence. Once everything has been settled and completed in this way. wherever I linger. but he would bear in his heart the intention of an evil design. by the offering of a veracious oath." Thereupon did he bountifully give the land to the boy Richard (so innocent!) to be held in the same hereditary right as his father and grandfather and. The next day he has recited to the summoned leaders of the city these fraudulent and deceitful words: "I intend to move against the author of our loss and our . he has returned to town of Rouen. the king begins to speak fraudulently to the Norman leaders: "Since I have. you have a steadfast assurance that I will help you with all my strength. having placed his hands upon the holy relics which were brought to him. he will gain knowlege of very many things better in my palace than by remaining in his own household. have given the boy Richard (of welcome hope!) to king Louis for fostering. he shall linger. deceived by these counterfeit addresses of the fraudulent king. I now rule all Francia and Burgundy due to the efficacious assistance of his father. But after this the king. for his father was taken by death for my sake. first he swore by God's name that he himself would aid [Richard] against all others and then he compelled his prelates and counts to do likewise. to do so likewise. forcing the throngs of citizens into fidelity to the boy. Truly. and let none among you in any way doubt in my relieving aid. willy nilly. I would be a rather cruel brute were I not to aid him. with a sly heart. He would pretend in word and deed to be a helper of good will.will do exactly what you have said. so that." Thus the leaders of the Normans. he will depart with me. he might learn to terminate and settle the outcome even of a thorny affair. having gone with the boy to the town of Evreux.

moreover.grief. Notes: 1. Preferring the "siverunt" of CC 276. By the king and the Frankish viceroys. Truly will I overturn all the ramparts of the Flemings and demolish their goods by force of arms. Rouen." Blinded by the sophism of such shammings. Preferring the "ad alteram" of Bongars 390. 2. You. once the Burgundians have been called together and the Franks amassed. Apostrophe Beat your breast. . Preferring the "itidem altori" of Bongars 390. there will I hastily lead my army. And is led away. Preferring the "algido" of CC 276. quivering. oh grief. That mighty marquis given to you by right. like a foreigner. Wherever I shall ascertain Arnulf to be. I will beseige Arras until I take it. While the Dacian prelates. Is a prisoner. they have allowed (note 4) the boy (of future assistance!) to be escorted away by him. escorting with me the boy Richard (your assurance!) and from there. if peradventure I ever find him. 4. slow of mind. Let me return to Laon. I will visit upon him the revenge which he deserves. for now your boy. be ever prepared to avenge your lord with me. 3. stand by.

the tribute of his entire region. our lord. You have heard by the publicized report of a false rumor that our lord Arnulf favored the undeserved death of duke William. and who in fact steered him to his death. they also will proceed. has sent to him ambassadors. have said to him: "There is no need for you to harm someone who bustles about to such an extent in order to justify himself to you. if it please you to receive it. polluted by the unheardof stain of his fraudulent homicide. if by such acts he might be able to deserve your grace." Then the king's advisors. He was unable to approach you himself. he is sending you twice five pounds of the purest gold. do not ruin what has been intrusted to you. and the realm is yours. a fault from which he wishes to purify and free himself by the ordeal of fire. blinded by the gifts. He sends word that he is innocent of the deceitful accursed deed. having mercy on one reduced by such a wounding infirmity and faulted. so that you do not foresake your servant. and wherever you proceed with military intent. sends you his faithful service. upon whom William brought so many evils. favor his request with your assent. for you know that he is immobilized by gout. May deserved mercy block your fury. put down by very great infirmity. each year for as long as he shall live. benevolent. undertaken in your presence and according to the judgment of your followers. with great presents. he will banish those warriors. In order that you might. You can more easily ruin all the Flemings than crush glass vessels with a mallet. Truly. to say the following things: "Most pious lord king. His followers will serve you in all things.[ 35 ] But count Arnulf. You have the might. He will also release to you. without cause. whom you hate without cause. May our prayers encourage your compassionate indulgence. and that he is determined to . for such a crime. and dreading the future arrival of the king who might (if he were to act properly) take revenge upon him.

but to pacify those who are left behind. not in any way deprive yourself of him. Recall the evils and the shame which the Normans visited upon you in Rouen. Ruling well. Apostrophe Oh Louis." Then the Flemings: "Beyond these things. and the usufruct of his realm. our lord sends you a most especial advice concerning this matter. You must not ruin this man who is at present your supporter. in your heart. If. the king kept the boy Richard (so valuable!) in his custody and forgave Arnulf what he had fraudulently done to William. Keep William's son. they take the Norman realm away from you completely.justify himself or banish his followers. You had kept the vows Which you consecrated. for in exchange you shall not revive that other one of whom you now stand in need. Subdue the inhabitants of that land with service and with the dreadful yoke of your law. The God-fearing . Your would then have governed. While Richard's father. bestowing even worse things upon you. Everywhere where now Belgic And also Celtic And also Aquitanian Gaul extends Its multiplied tracts. It is not your right to avenge all who are killed." Blinded and deceived both by the presents and by the encouragement of this perverse advice. A venerable king. and take precautions lest. in your power forever. quarreling because of some death. and compel them to serve you obediently.

Why do you cast aside what You have obtained by right Through an oath of allegiance Of the religion Of the Christians? Why. Now that peace has already been violated By the cunning of treachery? And why does malicious greed. Aided you And gave advantageous Assistance. Bound by no law. Keep back the offspring Of that bountiful one From being invigorated By his desired lot? Cease this perverse thing . So great a protector. Moved by the perverse Stimulus Of this impious thong.And innocent Martyr of Christ. Munificent In his simplicity And uprightness. enfeebled By a brutal and Abominable law And by presents Do you forsake the respectable Uninterrupted course Of credibility.

In the same way as you capture him. .And scorn possession of those Goods which ought to be abominated. That he might discharge His own bountiful rights. Let go. You too will be captured. The youth Richard. And you will retreat Before a fitting retaliation. I ask.

enjoining on the people a three-day fast in each and every month.[ 36 ] However. imprisoned undeservedly. Together the suppliant clergy of canons and monks sing psalms for his sake. supplicantly seek God's help for the boy (so wise!) (note 1) ." Then he has confided the boy to other young recruits in addition to Osmund. enraged by shrill madness. the most sagacious tutor and foster-father of the boy Richard (so celebrated!) was a certain young recruit. supplicatingly deprecate the lord God by pouring forth prayers and giving alms to the poor. barefooted and wearing sackcloth. Osmund. to return to them the boy Richard (so desireable!). One day when the king is absent. realizing that the boy Richard (so sweet!) is a prisoner. and take precautions that he not be able to slip away in flight. Truly the people of Rouen. however. rides out fowling in order to learn to capture winged creatures with his own hawk. The clergy busies itself with psalms and the populace fasts. he has brought it to pass that the boy. Osmund by name. astounded at the faithless king's altered design. As Osmund stands before him. Therefore they send to every church of the Norman and Breton region in order that together the priests devotedly celebrate masses for him. and the devout populace. But hearing the report of this sad embassy. the Norman and Breton prelates. encircling the churches. escort your lord the day before yesterday? If you should ever take him anyplace again I will put out your eyes. has sent someone to the people of Rouen to report the great deception. once I have boiled your lord's knees. . revealing the long-hidden secret of that execrable imprisonment: "Whither did you. more vile than anyone. But when the king has returned and learned from the words of queen Gerberga that the boy Richard (so knowledgeable!) had travelled outside of Laon in his zeal for boyish delight. he has asked the boy's instructor Osmund to come to him. begins to speak. so that they will guard him diligently. the king. sends out deprecative groans.

what is more. In order that those things which were obscure to him not remain secret. in the palace of the king. the King of kings. Whatever was unlawful. on a certain day he has forced the boy (so well guarded!) to lie down and act uncomfortable. Thus. he would search through and reconsider with zeal those things of which he was ignorant. born of a notable family and celebrated for his respectability. appeased in the course of time by the uninterrupted prayers and fasts of the Normans and Bretons. snatched the boy Richard (now so grown!) from the hands of the king. And on the third day his guards have gone . has begun to muse over how he might snatch him away from such guards. For this indeed could only have happened by divine permission that the boy (so striking in appearance!) was being raised. He would copiously arm his tongue with lively charm and engrave it with plentiful eloquence. having counterfeited indisposition and almost disguised the true healthiness of his body. The city is filled with this false rumor. glittering beyond all the rest. whatever threatened to disturb his spirit. and the falsehood is made public. in the following way. he would censure. a most respectable caretaker.Meanwhile the boy Richard (so dignified!). was being. reported in common talk in place of the truth. he would account of slight value. would give himself up completely to divine injunctions. seeing that his lord would still be kept in the palace and. in order to do this. as much as he could at his age. He was spending this portion of his life in accumulating new strength. He would dedicate his tender boyhood to Jesus Christ and. has. For the aforesaid young recruit Osmund. even to wail frequently. With pleasure would the courtiers (note 2) engrave him with many types of discussions and polish him with the mellifluous sweetness of palatine disputation. which have been so devotedly pursued over several months. although he was still of tender age. But the Lord. and yet he was being useful and beneficial to all as if he were already of mature age. even in captivity. would be surrounded both day and night so that he could not be carried off by stealth from among the young recruits. adequately versed in all fields of knowledge.

a bountiful. Fair. Youths and all women And the common people. going here and there according to their own needs. now brought together as one. Even the deplorable populace . And having escaped his guards. And refrain from sorrowful ways. Let go of mournful weeping. who was residing in the walled town of Senlis. Apostrophe Prelates of Normandy. have speedily left Laon on fast horses and rapidly moved toward the fortress (note 3) of Coucy-leChÉteau. Richard. handsome. There. innocent. judging that the boy (so diligent!) is on his deathbed. and has travelled that same night to count Bernard. Osmund and the boy (delivered!). Render thanks now to God For the liberated hostage. Boys. For this joy is given to you: Released from royal chains. Judicious. And likewise leaders of that realm Who triumph in every war. Therefore while the king and the citizens are dining and the streets are emptied of men. And the clergy of every order. Free of gripping fetters. old men and virgins.away. dressed in a rain cloak. magnificent. most holy boy. Richard's maternal uncle. [Osmund] has entrusted the boy (so upright!) to the occupants of the fortress. . Will be your very mighty duke.

.Notes: 1. Castrum. 2. 3." frequent errors of omission are made in all the manuscripts around the naming of the various Norman dukes. I have supplied "courtiers" as a subject for the sentence. I have added "boy.

said to him. arose quickly and. I will bring it to pass that he shall possess whatever his father held. what will you do if what you have just recounted were performed. the most complete assurance possible by the promisings of your own words.[ 37 ] Bernard. Moreover. Osmund: "At a late hour I secretly carried off your nephew by stealth from Laon. subjugating the Normans and Bretons to him. For I have the boy (so . enriched with many offices. hastily hastened to duke Hugh the great. I will aid him against the king. and I will compel the leaders of the Normans and the Bretons to serve him. and bring him to me. more than usually delighted. what will you do about him?~" And Bernard: "You. what kind of assistance might your clemency bestow upon him?" Then Hugh the great: "What king Louis has said is astonishing to everyone. if I rescue him from the hand of the harsh king." Then. I will reinstate my nephew in the hereditary realm of his father. Would that someone would rescue him from the king's chains. I will exalt. count Bernard said. And if perchance someone were to rescue him from the hands of the king. heaping entreaties upon entreaties." And Bernard: "Lord.~" And Hugh the great: "Indeed. give me. and I have committed him to the occupants of the castle of Coucy." Then Bernard. that they might guard him. I will raise high. seeing him. greatly endowed with benefices. don't be angry if I repeat what I want from you. seeing Osmund in the silence of the dark night." To these things. So that I might become full of confidence in your promises. marvelling: "What's with you. said: "Why have you sped to us so suddenly and so early in the morning?" And he: "Because I come to you for some advice concerning king Louis. That boy's father was ensnared and slain for his fidelity to the king. osmund? No good news about my nephew?" And he: "Lord. you. who guards my nephew closely and with caution. in your compassion. and help him manfully against Arnulf and all who wait to ambush him. Hugh the great. tumbling supplicatingly at his feet: "Mightiest lord duke. with a nimble retinue. however. and the king himself holds his son a prisoner.

Wonderful. his hands placed upon relics which had been carried to him. Bringing it to pass that he might Hold. Refresh the deserving boy. Something he unremittingly strives to do. he pledged by a bona fide oath of allegiance. that he would aid the boy against everyone. save. And recall the aid of uprightness Which you are accomplishing. be mindful of your aid. protect." Truly the great duke. And help. restored to that place. Great and illustrious and deserving. upright. Look. . eminent. for you and for him. Magnanimous.loveable) at Coucy. bountiful. I will do what you ask for. said to count Bernard: "So that you might be confidently more at ease concerning the intention of my promise. good. possess. mighty and strong and vigorous. APOSTROPHE Hugh. With the help of honey-flowing goodness." Truly. delivered by Osmund from the treasonous king's imprisonment. giving thanks for the rescued boy. have what his father held And that he might rejoice.

each one immediately went swiftly to see his own home. Meanwhile king Louis. Indeed Hugh the Great.[ 38 ] Once these things and others of the same type had been accomplished." When very many matters had been cautiously (note 1) reflected upon. Indeed the Normans and the Bretons. guided him with a great army to the town of Senlis. sent a messenger to duke Hugh the Great to compel count Bernard to return the boy. in the words of the following oration: "I will not take Senlis. On account of this affair. in a cruel manner. rendered vows and thanks for him to omnipotent God. so that king Louis will not realize the intention of our plan. And when by turns they had enjoyed reciprocal and greatly secret discussions and had for a long time pondered the reinstatement of the boy in the realm. count Bernard. count Bernard of Senlis travelled to Bernard. But king Louis. a man of Rouen and Dacian-born. made for Coucy-leChÉteau and (enjoying longed-for embraces) having kissed the boy (so diligent!)." Meanwhile count Bernard of Senlis sent to Bernard of Rouen and the rest of the Normans to report quickly the longed-for success. anguished over the release of the boy (so . riding rapidly. no matter how hard I try. he wishes to ruin both us and all of you. merry at the seizure of the welcome boy. count Bernard said to Bernard the Dacian: "Henceforth I will no longer come to meet you in conference. But believe and examine with ingenious effort whatever message I shall send to you through a messenger (once the signal established between you and me is shown) that will cause king Louis to fail for. and I am unable. in order to take counsel concerning what to do about the boy. Coucy-le-ChÉteau and Thoury-sous-Clermont away from Bernard by force. all so that he return his most beloved nephew Richard. having ascertained the sadness of this double deception. that is because he had captured the boy and then the latter had escaped. to beseige the fortress of Creil.

worthily seized!) and especially sad and sorrowful about Hugh's disobedient reply, sent for count Arnulf of the Flemish nation (who was particularly anguished by this affair) to hasten to meet him at a conference. Meeting each other hastily in Vermandois, at the villa which is called "Restibulis," (note 2) they began to muse over what to do. But, fearing his own destruction through deserved revenge, Arnulf, fuming with crafty cunning, said to king Louis: "I am shaken to the marrow over what is to come and I am terrified by the quaking of a prodigious fear that the Normans and the Bretons, cleaving to duke Hugh (who is already impetuously quarreling against you), will perchance rise up against us both with a gathered military band, to our combined ruin. But I will give you advice about this, so that we not incur the risk of future damage. Therefore, blind Hugh's eyes with presents and bribes, (note 3) so that he will not be able, by right, to resist what you might do. Grant him Normandy from the Seine to the sea, so that you may have the strength to occupy calmly the regions which are on this side of the river. The Normans, divided in this way, will be truly foresaken, and will not again be stirred to battles against us. In this way you will diminish and disarm the influence of the Normans, not waging war for a single lord." Apostrophe Contriver of this accursed deed and of this evil advice And of this impious fraud, why with your treasonous advice Do you long to crush and check God's foreknowing, Which is utterly prohibited? Alas, alas, this offspring's deserving father, In order to be even more spotless in the Lord's sight And to shine, a martyr strengthened by martyrdom, Has already succombed to your treachery. This time your depravity will turn awry, Neither defiling nor dilacerating in a similar way.

Truly, this one will be a more splendid duke, A judicious, peace-making, deserving count, A holy, god-fearing, good and pious High patrician, a prudent marquis, A defender of the fatherland and a supporter of the wretched, Of those needful of assistance, verily of the widow and orphan. Having become, for everyone, their every good and their propitious wealth, He will lead forth the populace To the heavenly pastures of the starry field, Governing with suitable guidance and correcting with the law.


1. Preferring the "caute" of CC 276. 2. The contemporary name for this locale is not known. 3. Beneficia.

[ 39 ]

But king Louis, yielding to a perverse inclination for cunning deceit, swiftly sent prelates of prodigious reverence to Hugh so that, in accordance with that promise whereby lord and warrior are linked together, the duke would hasten readily to come to him. Therefore Hugh the Great, forced in a supplicating manner by the repeated requests of the bishops, advanced to meet the king in a village near Compi•auml;gne, at the villa called "Crux," (note 1) and he said to the king: "On what business have you compelled me, on the basis of my promise and by extraordinary ambassadors, to hasten here?~" Moreover, the king replied: "In order that you return to me Richard, whom Osmund stole and guided to count Bernard." Hugh the Great replied: "Unless I take from Bernard by force the fortresses over which he presides, I am unable to favor your prayers and wish in any way." Then the king replied: "So that you may support, rather than injure, me in my need, I will grant to you that you may hold the counties of Evreux and Bayeux, yea indeed, from the Seine all the way to the sea, but I will keep what is on this side of the Seine, and as a result of these arrangments I will fulfill my will. Let us be in harmony and of one mind in every affair, as perpetually befits a king and a duke. Proceeding along this side of the Seine, I will beseige Rouen, but you will beseige Bayeux, defending it once the military band has been taken by assault. In this way we will weaken the arrogant and foreign Normans, and subordinate them to our authority. Moreover, they will in this way either grow tame and be subjugated or, banished, will go back swiftly to Dacia." But duke Hugh the Great forgot his promise, which he had made to Bernard, to help Richard, nay rather stripped of his memory by the beneficia and the cities he agreed with the king upon the covenant of this alliance; once the time for them to carry out their intentions has been settled, each marches back to his own home. Therefore count

Bernard, familiar with this agreement, went swiftly to duke Hugh. And coming before him said, agitated in heart and mein: "Great and most trusty duke, you have been, until now, distinguished for all your merits and for the uninterrupted course of your promise, but I marvel that you have lied to an innocent boy, although you engaged yourself of your own accord by a Christian promise of confederation. It would behoove you to preserve unharmed that promise which you put forth, and not to detest it for the sake of any present of gifts or any beneficium. Normans and Bretons recognized what you promised the boy Richard, and leaders of Francia rejoiced over this decision. What is more unseemly than this infamy? And what more mean-spirited than such a blasphemy? Rumor of such treachery, and the vileness of such a wicked duke, is being noised abroad throughout almost all the cities of Francia, all are whispering about how so great a duke and advocate was ensnared and made a false promise for presents and a beneficium." Sighing from the depths of his heart, Hugh the Great replied to that scolding: "What you have described, you have recounted in a true and blameless speech for, having forgotten the oath of allegiance whereby I engaged myself of my own accord as the boy's defender and helper, I accepted by the king's gift the land from the Seine to the sea which ought to be held by Richard in hereditary right and I promised in return, if the king would never deny that he gave that land to me, to help him secure the land which is on this side of the Seine and, breaking my oath, I promised steadfast loyalty to him. Truly, since you are a count of marvelous talent and prodigious industry and cunning, and shrewd in all matters, I pray that you rescue me from reviling rumor by any sophism necessary. Sixteen days from now we will hasten to enter Normandy, the king and I. Moreover, he himself will beseige the town of Rouen and I, as was sworn, Bayeux. Therefore we will reduce the Normans, and the Bretons likewise, so that, humbled, they will serve us. Truly, should anyone be insolent and rebellious towards us, he will be banished. Truly, should anyone trust to armed resistance,

he will be killed. If you have any discretion and talent, I pray you to deliver me, releasing me from the offense of oath-breaking." Bernard, however, perceiving that Hugh the Great had opened his heart, said to him: "Because you are so kind a lord, or perhaps because my nephew is so beloved, I will be able to reason out a better course of action than I might have had I merely been able to disturb your plan by chance." Having immediately marched back to Senlis, count Bernard, cognizant of the deliberations of the king and of his lord and of the time of the aforenamed hostile attack upon the Normans, and gladdened by his lord's benevolence in revealing his own intention, sent swiftly to Bernard, a man of Rouen and a Dacian, and secretly sent word of what he had heard from duke Hugh the Great, including Hugh's intention, in order that Bernard not defend the city with all his strength against the king but rather, having prepared a chorus of canons and monks, receive him joyfully as though rejoicing in his arrival and, by pursuing many argumentations, force the king to deny that he gave the land to duke Hugh the Great." Truly Bernard of Rouen, gladdened by the advice of this embassy, announced the secrets he had heard from the ambassador to the assembled Norman leaders. Moreover the Normans, knowing that Bernard never deceived any of them, yea indeed that he knew the secrets of duke Hugh the Great, likewise praised his advice very much. Truly at the time appointed for the confederated advance, having called together a Frankish military band from wherever he could, the king came into the region called Caux and began to molest people and estates by setting fires. Moreover duke Hugh the Great, allured by this type of confederation, went on with a great army to the county of Bayeux. Therefore Bernard of Rouen, not unmindful of the advice of count Bernard of Senlis, in deceit sent with peace-making words for king Louis to hasten to the city of Rouen with his bishops and leaders and to no longer lay waste his own possessions with a nation of such great savageness. But the king, gladdened by the message of this embassy and rejoicing to advance his own rule and honor by the

addition of the conquered town and its leaders, came with the Frankish magnates to the city of Rouen, restraining the rest of the army from further pillaging land now under his authority. Truly Bernard and the rest of the leaders and clergy of the whole town went to meet him at the Beauvais gate, and received him with the cunning of undaunted genius. But at daybreak the next day Bernard came before king Louis and began in deceit to urge him with these most humble words: "Unconquered lord king, you have long been irreproachable and steadfast in your promises, and very much praiseworthy in your every deed. We have lost our duke and advocate through Arnulf's treachery, but through God's grace we have gained instead you, a king, as an advocate. We care nothing for his progeny, whom Osmund stole and carried off from you, nor will we ever wage war for him, devoting ourselves to his service, for it is wiser for us to be royal and palatine, than to be the servants and the retinue of such a count. But something we have heard is astonishing to us and beyond believability, and we have marvelled greatly at those people by whose narration we learned that you have granted to duke Hugh, who is always quarreling insolently against you, the ample land from the Seine to the edge of the sea and that, at this very moment, he is taking the Bessin region by assault, and occupying it with a great army. What you have reserved for yourself, sweetest king, is of small worth and provides little military force or other service. You have increased your foe by 20,000 armed men. Who has seen men more valiant in war, more judicious in deliberation than the men of Coutances and Bayeux? If you had kept for yourself that military band, you would indeed have been able, as William did, to be lord and master of all nations by means of their arms and their advice. Did not William, relying only on the moiety of this army, without the accompaniment of Hugh and Herbert, by himself conduct you to king Henry? Who will uphold and defend, profit and preside over this city which you have kept for yourself? The men of Bayeux and Coutances used to guard this town, a prominent Frankish and Anglian port. The abundant goods of that land were made

claimed this land wholly for himself. And as the ambassador stood before duke Hugh and announced the news to him. Meanwhile Bernard of Senlis. duke Hugh sent an ambassador to king Louis saying: "Why has what you gave me of your own accord been taken away?" The king replied: "The land of Normandy will never be upheld except by the advocacy of a single lord. incited by these deceptive complaints. The Dacian nation only knows how to serve a single lord. Long ago Rollo. That which it befits to be whole ought not to be divided." And Hugh replied: "I will be unable to aid him. Therefore.available to us. he was stupefied and. and to say that he is not to hold them more than three nights." Truly. We. came to him on speedy horses and said: "Duke (so steadfastly trustworthy!). therefore. nor to stay there any longer for. with all of our fellows. you yielded to evil counsel. accept this city. and we were made opulent by the treasures of that country." But the king. whereby he may be able to rebel against you all the more easily." The ambassador. once we have gathered an even greater military multitude. later it will be neither yours." Against this Bernard replied: "Wait attentively for the outcome of the affair and . since you have been released from the fetters of a noxious oath of allegiance. for we do not have the resources to live in it. will go back to Dacia on a nimble navigational course and. said: "The cunning of two leaders has forced the king to send such a message. and give it to Hugh. as Rollo once did. in offering them to him. we will lay waste this land. diligently recounted for duke Hugh what he had heard the king set forth. banished beyond the limits of Dacia. moreover. for the whole Norman nation is subjected to the king. the king immediately sent someone to say this speech to Hugh. nor Hugh's. and it has since been divided by no one. prayed Bernard to advise him about these matters. Then Bernard replied: "Send an ambassador to duke Hugh the Great to deny him the fields of the Bessin." Retreating to Paris. at this word of denial. hearing of the unexpected and extremely speedy retreat of his lord duke Hugh. his gaze fixed and frozen. be mindful of that oath of allegiance whereby you betrothed yourself to help the boy Richard.

will one day Capture you. hardly mindful of yourself And of that one's father. will destroy you in the end. because of this. By whose uninterrupted assistance you now hold these realms. who knows what lies hidden and what bursts forth. Through the plague of this disgraceful act Countless misfortunes will shackle you. and who fell a sacrificial victim Of the Starry King. Rich in never-ending.what future days will spawn for him. Notes: 1. nobly sprung from a celebrated family. And who did many things For your sake. Excelling in sacred arms. For both his sire and his grandfather once stood fast. . Possibly La Croix-Saint-Ouen." Apostrophe O king. upright boy Richard. truth-telling fame. who benefitted you. Why do you after this now do damage To this yet harmless.

a certain Frankish new recruit asked the king to grant to him the affluent wealth of Bernard the Dacian. And. would spend his fleeting time there in a leisured manner. But once king Louis had retreated to Laon. bountifully give us their beneficia. in order to ensnare the king by some sly effort. Truly Aigrold. having made himself disgusting to the Normans by the zeal of his stepmotherlike hatred. saying: "Lord king. still saddened by the desire for power of those new recruits who had made the unseemly request. we will rule this town in faithful service to you. we have always served you incessantly. and yet we are endowed with a sufficiency of nothing. except of food and drink! We pray. because the king of the Frankish nation was claiming for himself the monarchy of all Normandy. who was extremely beautiful. the magnanimous king of Dacia. Truly. after granting us their wives. the rest of the new recruits then came to the king. they have kept silent. imagining (because of the false rumor of the [Normans'] intended fraud) that he was indeed the king and advocate of the Normans. yea indeed even his wife. tarrying within the walls of the town of Rouen and setting Norman affairs in order as though he were lord. having taken counsel among themselves." The abominable meeting concerning this matter becomes known to Bernard and the Dacians but. son of the great duke William. Moreover. nor will you be able to doubt the fidelity of any of our followers. And one day. having heard (in secret) a report concerning this request. honorably received . even though the boy had been plucked from Louis' chains. musing over the king's ruin.[ 40 ] Meanwhile. drive out and banish these Norman foreigners from here and. they reconsidered the matter. of one mind. the Norman magnates had already sent warriors of rather influential nobility and wealth to Aigrold king of Dacia so that he would hasten to assist his relative Richard. taking away by force every honor from the boy Richard. king Louis.

we pray you (note 2) to come swiftly to our assistance. do not take him with you. came speedily to Rouen with the assembled army of the Frankish nation. hearing of the arrival of king Aigrold.the Norman ambassadors. see him. lest perhaps strife be born between the two armies when he is recognized. glittering in the first flower of youth. said to king Louis (who was trusting confidently in the multitude of his armies and preparing to go to the conference that would condemn him): "You are about to attempt to procure the favor of a nation which loved our count William. venerating him with deep love." Moreover king Louis replied to the ambassador: "I have already learned from common report that what you say is true. and one which hates. pretending fidelity to king Louis. saying: "Because an innumerable and well-supplied multitude of pagans. the men of Coutances and Bayeux." . (note 1) where the Dives with a rapid motion casts itself into the tempestuous sea. has come to our territory. came to serve him for love of the boy Richard. Moreover Bernard of Rouen. for love of his close relative Richard and. Moreover. the person for whose sake he was martyred. pretending to be a fidelis of the Franks. having constructed ships and filled them with victuals and warriors. However on the fraudulent advice of the Normans. if you wish to continue to enjoy dominion over the Norman region. For that reason. will accost him with the intention of killing him should they. Therefore Bernard and the rest of the people of Rouen. with a deeply heartfelt emotion. came as quickly as he could with an incredible multitude of young recruits to the shores near the salt-works of Corbon. incited to action by the narration of this baleful embassy. peradventure. sent word for Louis to come to meet him at a conference. bringing with him count Herluin and Herluin's brother Lantbert. For the Normans. with a gathered military band. sent to him in deceit. Immediately did the report swiftly penetrate the regions of Francia. announcing that an inestimable multitude of pagans was come to the Norman shores. hearing of the arrival of the king of Francia. king Aigrold. deprived of such a great duke as a result of count Herluin's dispute." Wherefore king Louis.

it is warning me to prepare either for battle or for something else unexpected. and pitched camp on this side of the river Dives. pursuing the matter repeatedly." To these things Bernard: "Did I not. urge that count Herluin not be brought here?" These things said. Louis said to him: "I do not know why my anxious soul. however." Truly the king. returned swiftly to the rouennais encampment. saying: "Lord king. having crossed the river Dives. awakened by these threatening words. is standing mounted on the bank. Arising first thing in the morning. arose on the spot and. with king Aigrold. king. who was standing outside it: "Go back to sleep. irritated by this type of talk. laid aside in some hidden recesses. But when the sun was blazing at the third hour of the day. However Bernard. Bernard came to king Louis.Then one of the young recruits is said to have replied to Bernard: "Should a count such as Herluin be carefully concealed. for the Dacian nation. Moreover king Louis. would contemplate in silence the actions of the Franks and kept concealing in his heart his resentment at the scolding. sought out the king a second time. with the king's assent. because of you and the rest of the foreigners?~" Bernard." Then. very full of proven cunning. for we are not concerned about such things. not refreshed by my placid repose. The men of Coutances and Bayeux. saying: "Be diligent now. is now giving me a presentiment." And Bernard. did lead count Herluin forth with him. observing this. someone lying inside the tent replied to Bernard. This nation. was making haste to get to the conference that would be his ruin. Louis came to the place which had been arranged for the . has customs different from the Frankish ones. with what wrathful intention I do not know. the hosts of men from Coutances and Bayeux began to cross the bed of the Dives. fixed their tents on the other side of the flowing Dives. setting the Frankish army in motion. arise swiftly and explore secretly with your followers what ought to be done. surrounded by a crowd of counts and warriors. And calling Bernard. you have all been dreaming long enough.

twice nine most noble counts from ." But the men of Coutances and Bayeux began to ask the one who had been inquired after who that was. would at first valiantly struggle against drawn swords. the beloved youth of the Dacians was also standing there. undaunted.conference. torn to pieces. they were searching for an opportunity to kill the Franks and the king. surrounded by the copiously flowing and destructive company of the men of Coutances and Bayeux. slay him. and also of the pagans. and holding oblong shields in their hands. at this mutually-desired conference. king Aigrold was standing there with the men of Coutances and Bayeux. and of opulent happiness and of affluent richness. their spears and lances broken by the fighting. all the Dacians with a disordered. Therefore while king Louis and king Aigrold of Dacia and their armed Frankish and Dacian and Bessin associates were standing around. as sacrificial animals are by wolves. brandish their arms. leaning on javelins. Now that the battle has been violently initiated through the [Normans'] deceit. the extraordinary count of the fortress of Montreuil. count Herluin said to a certain soldier who had been at one time known to him: "How is the health and success and wealth of you and your family?" He replied: "I am of sound health. He replied to those who were asking: "Herluin. Thus. desiring to avenge count Herluin and to uphold themselves in arms. The Franks. rise up. unrestrainable roaring. accosted in battle by a deadly shock. However. however. Moreover. they would be slaughtered. attack count Herluin (the opportunity taken) and." Moreover the men of Coutances said to the men of Bayeux: "Is this not the one in whose quarrel and for whose sake our lord William (that most respectable duke and marquis) was ensnared and martyred? Shall this troublesome man slip through our fingers?" That said. all intermingled. who was asking so familiarly about the condition of his fortunes. while on the other side king Louis stood with the Franks. vexed with madness and enraged with blazing bile at the death of so great a lord. the Franks. at length. Yet. unshaken. against their foe.

and has committed Louis to his own Dacian warriors. would seek refuge in flight. Worthily do you now. seeing king Louis from a distance. which had itself slipped from his horse's head. for in his hands he merely held the reins of the bridle. equitable. And circumspect and upright in all deliberation. flying straight through the center of the host on a winged steed. the Normans. grasping Louis' sword by the shining hilt. preserving the peace And a rightful claim on a sacred promise.king Louis' side fall prey to death. has ripped it from the king's side and out of its hollow sheath. . and. Apostrophe Oh Norman chiefs. would flee this way and that. with the provision that he neither escape nor be killed. mangled by blows. to avoid having to fight. Both for the sake of your own fidelity And for that meritorious future duke Richard. on the other hand. King Louis. and has thrust the men of the Frankish nation. Moreover king Aigrold has soon made for Louis. celebrated and good. But king Louis. nor would there be any hope either of life or flight for those left behind. perishing as Mars vents his rage. who is hampered as described. But having obtained victory and arms and spoils. have bourne away the lifeless men of their nation for burial. Indeed king Aigrold. hold that homeland With a steadfast uninterrupted course. would pursue him with a speedy course. able to survey the battlefield untroubled. mighty enough In the combat of battle and in triumph. and has thrown down to destruction whatever Franks have been still upholding themselves by their arms. down to the Lower World. But he himself. by warring. rejoicing in the king's capture. perceiving himself to be foresaken by the protection of the Franks and knowing the risk of battle. has returned quickly to the battle field.

2. Now be well. You who hold the realm of this homeland. from the sea. Preferring the "subvenias" of Bongars 390. In fidelity to the boy Richard. be strong. Perhaps Corbon-en-Auge. Notes: 1. . nowadays 15 km.A flashing boy and a sacred genius. God bless you always. And may you and your offspring and your sacred nephews. Draw the twice-dual and twice-octave lot of good fortune. In that place fit for the sevenfold repose. The entire lineage of that consecrated race. By virtue of your potent and tenacious force. After the mournful dissolution of your limbs. Both being reckoned among the saints And being renewed in the highest good.

nor will you in any way be your own master after that. at the feet of the man leading him towards Rouen. and who lie in wait for me. will be yours as well. I will grant you half the realm. I pray." That said. into which yuo have stupidly insinuated yourself. so that I might boast of and rejoice in the Frankish realm. No glory will ever be mine without you sharing in it. and towards what place are you now twisting me to go?" He has replied: "I am from Rouen. king Louis has escaped from the hands of the guards (who had been ensnared by their greed for spoils) and. Let there be. has said to his boisterous captor: "Have mercy. the greatest trust between you and me. in words and deeds. repeating these things again and again. approaches him and. has been wandering futilely on his wing-footed horse. addressing him by name.[ 41 ] Meanwhile. Reinstate me at Mont-Laon. however. noticing the unarmed king moving to and fro. Then the warrior. if not. and whatever wealth and honor is mine. in your compassion. established through the Christian bond of an oath of allegiance." The king has tumbled down from his horse. turning his charger and rushing upon king Louis. have mercy on me and. deeply affected in his mind by the groaning of the mournful king and compelled by his . the most sorrowful king. do you hold to your course? You will not escape from our territory. now that. fleeing now this way. foresaken. And that is where I will lead you. However. has said to him: "Who are you. speaks to him in rough words: "Whither. pluck me from the hands of those who seek my life. despairing and becoming sorrowful at the imminence of unavoidable danger. I will establish you above me as king. If you like. he has seized the reins of [Louis'] bridle and has been forcibly urging [Louis] to ride along with him. this way and that. A certain warrior of Rouen. deprived of his arms and unable to free himself from the hands of his captor." The king. and begging with tears. are you going? And why. king Louis. attacking it unjustly.

that Aigrold king of the Dacians has made war on king Louis because of Richard. any of the news now being bandied about in the common talk?" He has replied: "None. with the promise having been willingly covenanted and made. The scouts. and his every household furnishing. has come immediately to Bernard at Rouen and. arising immediatly. he has said to him: "Have you heard. Moreover the warrior. have speedily escorted them to Bernard at Rouen. and his brother . Meanwhile Bernard of Rouen. the warrior (wandering from the straight-andnarrow path of right) has begun to conduct the king to Laon. speaks through his own rising tears: "Make me a formal promise of what you have said and I will conduct you to Laon unhurt and unharmed. therefore. But count Bernard. taking his wife and his sons and his daughters. has quickly sent messengers to every port along the Seine to prevent king Louis from crossing the river. but has placed him for the night on an island in the Seine. has returned his wife to him. his stallions and mares. my nephew and his own kinsman. has been begging Bernard to return his wife to him in return for the king. Then he sent word of the king's longed-for fate to Bernard of Senlis. have come to his home and. flying as speedily as possible and. has hastened with his warriors to Rouen. his bulls and his cows. And he himself has moved faster than the sluggish king. on nimble horses. and that four times four counts and Herluin. planning to lead him to Laon after the scouts have wearied of the search and have turned back. accepting the sorrowful and captured king in exchange.manifold requests. having fallen at his feet. while he has sent the trustiest scouts to every corner of the region to make a diligent search for the king. has been unwilling to keep him at his home. has come (cheerful and delighted) at night to duke Hugh the Great in Paris. count of the fortress of Montreuil. But the warrior. knowing that the king could no longer be concealed. lord. knowing that king Louis is in the keeping of that warrior." And the former: "Learn. most sorrowful at the seizure of the king. Truly Bernard. lest perchance he be discovered. trying to deliver the king. more than usually delighted." Truly. then.

whom it would have befitted to take revenge for that detestable and unheard-of accursed deed. and because he returned to Herluin the fortress of Montreuil which had earlier been taken away from him. in all of Francia finding no advantageous advice concerning what to do. has said: "Now the king has gotten what he deserves. sending word of her deplorable defeat to her . martyred." Then Bernard: "Lord. for indeed the Normans who have conquered king Louis with such determined cunning are more judicious than other nations. in return for duke William's son. and this possession will be ratified through the oath of allegiance of a true unbroken promise by the bishops and counts and abbots. and in return for the land which he unlawfully appropriated to himself. the king has been captured." Truly. But the queen. astounded at what was being said. and the other counsellors have suffered what it behooved them to suffer. once the Franks had been overthrown (note 1) in the bitter carnage. your nephew Richard will be confirmed in holding the Norman region calmly and completely. For duke William of the Normans fell. on account of his fidelity to the king and to the Franks. in the custody of the Dacian Bernard. your nephew. incessantly bewailing the mournful misfortunes of her husband the king and of her followers (misfortunes which cruelly torment her soul) and yet." Meanwhile a sorrowful report slips through to the ears of queen Gerberga and makes it clear that. in the town of Rouen. whom he held prisoner. duke Hugh the Great. the duke replies: "Before king Louis is freed from custody and lifted to sovereignty over the Frankish realm. held William's son under his guardianship and unjustly claimed for himself the child's hereditary land. what is more. and the king." However. by the will of the supernal king. their king was put to flight and captured and is now still a prisoner. King Louis is suffering a wholly deserved retaliation in kind.Lambert were slain in combat and that. on the advice of Herluin and the treasonous Arnulf. remember what you promised to me and my nephew and help and assist him as befits you. and count Herluin what befitted him as well. with twice nine counts having been slain and the rest put to flight.

father the Transrhenish king Henry and her brother Otto (now glittering in the flower of puberty), has send for them to beseige Rouen with the military force of a gathered army in order to redeem her lord, king Louis, by force and power. However king Henry notifies his daughter queen Gerberga that he will not come to beseige Rouen, for king Louis was suffering this misfortune, added to all other previous damage, deservedly and worthily and also by God's vengeance, because he had held prisoner in his custody the son of duke William, after the duke had fallen victim to Arnulf's treachery because of his own fidelity to the king, and because he had then unjustly claimed for himself the whole Norman realm which the boy's grandfather had obtained in battle. Meanwhile, king Aigrold would compell all the Normans and the countrypeople (note 2) to keep to the laws and statutes of duke Rollo and, on the other hand, would confirm the boy Richard's rights to their fidelity. He would bustle about to fortify towns and citadels in a lasting manner so that the vicissitudes of unfavorable fortune would not perchance overturn his efforts. Apostrophe O compassionate, judicious, good and modest, Valiant and constant and wise, equitable, Rich, remarkable and opulent, ingenious King Aigrold, Be strong and be well and God bless you always In the divine nature, You who, although neither anointed with chrism Nor reborn in sacred baptism, Are now, in holding the most celebrated Richard, Mightily managing the government of the realm, Having captured the king and thrown the Franks to the ground And having finished the battle With your avenging right hand.

Now come! Let you bind every one by a promise To serve, to attend Richard, Lo! a blameless lad, And one descended, noble, from a never-ending family Distinguished both by his merits And by his fruitful and bountiful life.


1. Preferring the "prostratis" of Bongars 390 and CC 276. 2. Pagenses.

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But queen Gerberga, completely deserted by paternal and fraternal patronage, and having endured such a discomfitting defeat, and supported by no hope of relief (but rather dreading to lose the realms), on the advice of the bishops requested the aid of duke Hugh the Great. Duke Hugh the Great respectfully received the queen and the bishops who accompanied her and, honorably apportioning to them whatever was needed, kept her with him for many days; however, in the meanwhile, he sent count Bernard of Senlis to the warrior Bernard of Rouen so that, having called a council of the Norman magnates, he would hasten to meet the duke at St. Clair. No sooner said than done: [the Normans] came hastily, under Bernard's leadership, to the aforesaid place to meet duke Hugh, in fulfillment of the latter's bidding. Then the great duke and the bishops said to the Normans: "Return to us our lord king Louis." And they: "He will not be returned, but rather he will be held in captivity." Then Hugh the Great: "We will give you, in exchange for him, his son and two bishops and as many young recruits of his household as you would like, as surety that the Frankish prelates and counts and leaders and abbots will come to meet you at a conference, at some predetermined time, where all will confirm and corroborate and ratify by the oath of allegiance (note 1) of a most irreproachable and true promise that the Norman land belongs to Richard and to his descendants in perpetuity." The leaders of the Normans, very much praising this advice and trusting in the promise of duke Hugh the Great, returned the king, accepting in exchange for him his son, (note 2) and two bishops, Hildierus of Beauvais and Guido of Soissons, (note 3) and very many warriors. Truly, Hugh the Great escorted the king to the former's own home, to rejoice with [the duke's] followers and wife. But at the appointed time, having gathered a military band and the prelates of Francia, the king came with duke Hugh the Great to the river

Epte to meet the Normans. And although his son, whom he had given in exchange for himself, had died in the town of Rouen, Louis himself, in his own name, with his hands placed upon reliquaries, and the bishops, counts and reverend abbots and the leaders of the realm of Francia, all made a guarantee to the blameless boy Richard that he would have and hold the realm which his grandfather Rollo had obtained for him by force and power in wars and battles, and that Richard himself and his successors in office would render service to no one except God, and that if someone should accost Richard in some quarrelsome corrupt attack, or attack the realm in some hostile quarrelsome attack, Louis would himself be, through it all, a most trusty helper in every exigency. (note 4) Then, when these things had been settled according to this eloquent termination of legitimacy, as king Louis and duke Hugh the Great and their followers stood by, the chiefs of the Bretons and the Norman magnates, having with greatest pleasure given their hands (in place of their hearts) to the boy Richard (so unutterably upright!), made a second promise of military service, aid and payment of dues through the most trusty guarantee of a Christian oath of allegiance. Then the Normans and the Bretons, rejoicing greatly, have brought the boy Richard (so honorable and so dignified and so splendid!) to Rouen. When, morever, the inhabitants of the town and of the territory of that district (note 5) , old and young, children and infants, of both sexes, ascertained that the boy Richard (whom they so desired to see!) was speeding toward them, they would be running to meet the boy (so bountifully and mellifluously blameless!) even though they would have no power to reach him, hindered as they were by the obstacle of the pressed-together masses, for the multitude would crush together everywhere because of their joy, and the populace would rush into one another on account of their relief at the recovery of their supporting safety, while the crowd would fiercely squeeze together into innumerable exaggerated mobs. Having prepared the appropriate religious items, the clergy of the whole region has barely managed to

extricate itself from the suburbs of Rouen because of the assaults of the turbulent multitude, yet in the end, bearing the bodies of saints in feretories and all the while praising God for the transports of joy occasioned by the returned progeny, has escorted him to the altar of the holy Mother of God. (note 6) Apostrophe Splendid town, gleaming with that sacred warrior And plenteously full of all goods, Abiding, fierce, in a tranquil port, Glad Rouen, seize that patrician and duke, Brought back from imprisonment, Filled with never-ending divine nectar, mighty by right, For this one will be for you a marvelous and bountiful Duke, mellifluous likewise, a count And a patrician, a constant marquis, And one day the four corners of the world Will acknowledge his fame, redolent Of his augured of uprightness, Because there will be no one more holy than he himself In action, word, yea even in thought, For he stands at the summit of human achievement in all these three things.


1. Preferring the "sacramento" of Bongars 390 and CC 276. 2. His second oldest son, named Charles.

3. Hildierus was bishop of Beauvais c. 933 - 972, Guido of Soissons c. 957 - 970. 4. "Licetque - exstiterit" must be read as one sentence in order to provide a subject ("ipse et omnes episcopi") and an indirect object ("Richardo puero") for the main finite verb of the passage ("fecit securitatem"), therefore I have overriden the sentence divisions of the manuscripts. 5. Pagus. 6. The cathedral of Rouen, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

[ 43 ]

Surrounded by a most judicious and excellent retinue, he began immediately, by divine influence, to glitter with the good work of worthy deeds. He would bountifully point out to all the rewards of emulous virtuousness, and he would force monks and clerics and the laity to devote themselves to divine obeisance. He, moreover, would flash magnificently with splendid habits and merits, and with equitable reins would actively govern the clergy and the people. Moreover, he would be an avenger of accursed deeds but a true and bountiful distributor of goods. For indeed a prodigious, abundant supply of diverse wild animals would afford him woody banquets since, after some discussion of legitimate judgment and equity, he would surrender himself to hunting. Glorified by merited successes, the young man would grow, effacing all vices through the cumulation of increasing moral virtues. He would strive, well-disposed (note 1) and sequacious, for perfect goodness so as to be able to rejoice with the saints in the time of future rest. At that time there was a certain Rodulf (surnamed Torta) who, after the death of William, would claim for himself, above and beyond his peers, the honor of all Normandy and, unbecomingly, would unlawfully appropriate for himself goods which were his lord's by right. Each day he would apportion to the graceful boy Richard a daily pay approaching twice thrice three denarii, (note 2) just as he paid his own young recruits. The residents of [Richard's] household would be vilely reduced, fettered by want and hunger. Wherefore does the youth Richard (so knowledgeably diligent!), having gathered together the leaders of the Norman region, ask them what to do about the scarcity resulting from this scanty apportionment. And the leaders have then reported the wrath of their angry lord to Rodulf, surnamed Torta, for they are bound to serve him by the true promise of their oath of allegiance and are even endowed with his beneficia. He, however, has

sent his own comrades back to the boy Richard (so sagaciously upright!), begging to be permitted to come before him and to purify himself of whatever he had done to displease him. Then, having considered this request, the boy (so memorable!) is said to have replied: "You do understand that my grandfather claimed this town for himself through very many battles." They have replied: "We do understand that." And he: "Did my father hold this town by hereditary lot? Ought I not to hold this town by hereditary right after the death of my grandfather and father? Have you ever seen his father, or grandfather, or greatgrandfather hold this town as he is now holding it? Let us explore who is the grieved party here, I or he." Moreover, while the messengers stood silent, astounded by these words, it is said that he cautiously added: "If he wishes to deserve our grace in any respect whatsoever, let him and all his household withdraw from the city as quickly as possible and, having moved at least one mile from the town, let him stay in a villa until he sends ambassadors to me and hears what I shall reply to him. But if he should take lightly our judicious injunction, we will reject him in every way and send for the Franks to give us advantageous counsel concerning this matter." Then the messengers have reported what they heard to Rodulf Torta. He, in fact, reckoning that his lord would be appeased by his own withdrawal and that of his followers, nay rather, fearing that an army of the Frankish nation was about to arrive, has departed from the city with all his household, staying instead in the meadows of some rustics. Meanwhile the boy Richard (so diligent!) confirms any inconstant warriors to himself by the true promise of an oath of allegiance, ratifying as well the tie of fidelity binding citizens of the whole town to himself. And indeed the following day, Rodulf Torta has sent many of his comrades to the boy (so moderate!) asking that Richard, by accepting the token due to an offended party, (note 3) permit him to come before him to be judged and forgiven. On his guard then, the boy has said, moved by the spirit of an acute mind: "Do you understand that he at one time did unheard-of damage

to me?" They have replied: "We do understand that." "Does he not still act with foolhardy rashness? He crops the meadows of my rustics with his scythes, consumes them with his horses, wears them down with his heels, he kills and eats their cows and rams, bulls and pigs. If he does not go away, banished from our territory, he will speedily incur his due destruction. You have spoken on his behalf in the past, and you are still speaking in his favor now, but in no way will it benefit him." They however, marvelling at such words, have fallen on their faces, saying: "Lord, we pray that your fury neither rage nor rave furiously against us, for we are your fideles in all things, nor will we ever cleave to him." Moreover, going away, they report what they have heard to Rodulf Torta. Despairing, he has in fact swiftly foresaken those meadows and come quickly to Paris with all his household. However his son, the bishop of the Parisian town, seeing his unexpected arrival, has stiffened and, yes indeed drawing sighs from his breast, said "Why, father, have you hastened here with all your household of both sexes?" Truly, he has recounted his misfortunes for the bishop, both his defeat and his disastrous destruction. The bishop and his father have again and again sent ambassadors to the boy (so courageous!), but it has done them no good. Moreover the lords of Normandy, seeing that he had so judiciously banished a military leader, greatly feared him. Moreover since he shone brightly with such great and remarkable signs of present and future good works, and since reports concerning the young man (so great! so sagacious!) struck with consternation the minds of those living in Gaul, and since, shining profusely with plentiful augmentations of all four virtues at once, he managed the realm of Normandy with the judgment of equitable rule, disposing all affairs as does a king subjected to no one but God, duke Hugh the Great, perceiving Richard to be stout and distinguished in all his deeds, commanded count Bernard, sojourning in the town of Senlis, to come to him, having likewise summoned Bernard of Rouen. To them he said, "I have been receiving ambassadors from many who lie in wait to ambush that young man, count Richard, persons who are again

undertaking to attack the Norman region in a hostile attack. Richard wages war for neither king nor duke, he does not offer obedience to anyone but God, he holds the monarchy of the Norman region like a king, and he has no friends who are joined to him by any inextricable alliance of help and fellowship. His father fell by count Arnulf's treachery; see that he be not ensnared by the treasonous cunning of that same man's malice. Moreover the king, not unmindful of earlier evils, still ruminates wrathfully upon his own defeat and captivity, and is now uniting very many persons to himself as he plans to bring about your ruin. Therefore look earnestly for advice advantageous to you so that, untroubled by plots and deceptions, you shall not have to fear some deadly outcome from the changeableness of worldly affairs." However, duke Hugh the Great was in reality setting all this before them as part of his own cautious plan, desiring and hoping to unite his daughter to duke Richard by the bond of a sexual (note 4) alliance. Then both Bernards replied: "We do not know, lord, how to dig up any sound advice about all this but won't you, your Grace, give us some propitious help? We have thus far conducted ourselves according to your propitious counsel, holding to the straight and narrow road; we will henceforth conduct ourselves, with you as our duke, advocate, yea indeed as our councillor (saving the promise which we have made to count Richard), rejecting entirely any thought of digressing along some slanting road." But Hugh began to make openly known the secret of his benevolent design: "Have you yet sought a wife for Richard, duke of the Normans, a wife appropriate and suitable for his delightful gentleness and dignity?" They replied: "In no wise have we done this." Yet he replied: "Are you now considering turning your attention in some particular direction, or will you subjugate to Richard just anyone's daughter, simply by purchasing her?" In fact Bernard of Senlis, realizing his lord's intention from the latter's proposing such an intimate admission, replied to this assertion (which had revealed the richer depths of Hugh's mind): "Lord, we do not know whose daughter would be appropriate except yours."

Truly Hugh the Great, understanding that they had both realized what he benevolently desired, is said to have replied, having uncovered his heart's intention: "Indeed it is not the custom of Francia that any prince or duke, surrounded in such great profusion by such a warband, in this way continue steadfastly all his days in his own authoritative lordship and not devote himself to a higher power, to emperor or king or duke, either as a result of voluntary obeisance or compelled by force and power. And if peradventure someone does continue steadfastly in such foolhardy rashness, so that he does not willingly attend upon any lord because of the extremely plentiful richness of his own affluence, quarrels and dissensions and the incalculable misfortunes of defeat are frequently wont to befall him. Wherefore if it would please duke Richard, your nephew, to bend himself to waging war for me, with your most advantageous advice, I would of my own accord join my daughter to him in marriage and I would be his uninterrupted defender and helper against all others in his struggle to keep that land which he now occupies by hereditary right." Then it is said that count Bernard of Senlis said: "Because, indeed, the treacherous king Louis has wished to ruin my nephew the young duke Richard, whom he has even in the past held prisoner (along with all the Normans), I would prefer it if you were to give your daughter to him as a wife, so that he may wage war for you, rather than for the deceitful king." Thus did duke Hugh the Great, with the prop of an oath, give his daughter to the most noble young man Richard, not, however, according to the law which governs a nuptual purchase, but in accordance with all the designated and sworn requirements of a marital bond. (note 5) However, the truthful report having struck king Louis' heart with consternation and disturbed count Arnulf (who deeply feared the ruin of future vengeance), namely the common talk that Richard duke of the Normans had bound himself in matrimonial marriage, for the sake of offspring and of the succession, to the daughter of duke Hugh the Great and that Richard had bound himself to Hugh in an indissoluble alliance, devoting himself to Hugh's service in return for both his future

coming with him into Francia with an amassed army. the king replied to count Arnulf: "Advise . by procuring for himself the favor of the duke of the Normans. is trying to usurp your authority over that realm. he would boldly finish off the war against Robert. swiftly sought the Transrhenish king Henry and promised that he would give him. who had been established in preference to Charles by the detestable rashness of the Franks and if. had to endure the destestable strife of accidental damage. with the approval of duke Richard's grandfather Rollo. however. and would be waging war for Hugh according to an agreement of united friendship. Robert deservedly died in battle and your father. king Charles." In response to these words.wife and Hugh's complete support. count Arnulf. to explore what to do about the two dukes' baleful partnership of sworn union. justly gained the reins of the realm. Since. the Lotharingian realm. Moreover. conquered by the crowds of warriors of two such dukes. said to king Louis: "Duke Hugh the Great's father Robert unjustly took upon himself the ruling authority in opposition to your father Charles. your father Charles. desiring with all his might to annihilate and ruin duke Richard (that youthful flower of adolescence!). For the leaders of this land cleave obediently to Hugh and attend him with pleasure. to explore how you might uphold and rule the realm of Francia. your fidelis. (note 6) However his son Hugh. if he would deal blows against king Robert. terrified by the trembling fear that they would be crushed. corrupted by the poison of that very same audacious rashness. Thus is it meet. there afterwards grew up a harsh dispute of immense divisiveness and lamentable Francia. deprived entirely of the hope of Frankish support and needful of assisting aid in everything. of his own accord. they began. foresaken during the baleful conflict of the two kings. mightiest king. and he perversely subjugated almost all of Francia to himself. Moreover. meeting each other (after an exchange of embassies) in the district of Vermandois. how these combative circumstances eventually turned out is not unknown to any of our people. and to ruin both you and me.

For the Norman land is indeed more abundantly filled than all the rest with an affluence of all things. to your wife's brother Otto himself. The Norman land is more valuable. indeed the Norman land is a liberal giver of all the goods which an inhabitant needs. and is further increased by the manifold young of all the winged creatures of the forests and of the fattened domestic birds. is said to have replied to count Arnulf: "It behooves a count of such great nobility and a leader of such great understanding and practical judgment. which your father in fact promised to [Otto's] father the Transrhenish king. copiously filled with game. and plentifully furnished diverse species of fish. wild boars and stags.me how to resist the presumption of the insolent Hugh. advising . so that he might besiege and capture Rouen for you. meaningful and abundant than is the Lotharingian land. persuaded by these arguments. began to soothe the king with these fraudulent words: "I will give you advantageous and propitious advice whereby you will be able to crush and overthrow Hugh and Richard. for your grandfathers and greatgrandfathers and the rest of your predecessors held it precisely because of those riches. who now resists you. bears and roebucks. Give the Lotharingian realm. for they are full of fear and are only foreigners and are wont to busy themselves with piracy on the sea. profusely enriched by the affluence of that land and surrounded by a greater crowd of magnates and marvelously augmented by the garissons of such great towns. You will easily be able to obliterate the multitude of them from that land. It behooves you to possess a land of such plenteousness. desiring to ruin and annihilate duke Richard (with all his followers) so that he would not be able in days to come to avenge the undeserved death of his father. himself to bring faithfully to completion what he. such as yourself. how to uphold and protect myself and my realm. Be mindful of the evils and wrongs which the Normans have fraudulently brought upon you. important. you will be able to battle." But the deceitful count Arnulf." Thus king Louis. Thus. against duke Hugh. yourself secure. all the way to Paris. laying waste the land of Hugh.

obtain for us the Norman realm. hastens speedily to the Transrhenish king Otto and. May he compel him to return to his senses by throwing him down to his baleful ruin and may he crush him completely. through your active intervention. Hugh is joining his daughter to the young man Richard in a matrimonial and sexual alliance. now obeys him in all things. with your manly power. we would give you in . Thus. tearing him to pieces through constant plundering and burning. Let the Norman land experience Saxon strength. in order to gain the daughter's love. in capturing it." In fact count Arnulf. may he account the young man Richard (so arrogant!) of slight value. in fact [Richard]. I pray you to furnish king Otto with a charming recital of what you have just unfolded before me so that. besieging Rouen. Not having the strength to bear the haughtiness and rashness of the baleful contentiousness of duke Hugh and count Richard of the Normans. has said to him the following most humble words: "King Louis of the Franks sends you the present of affectionate and inextricable friendship. because you are better known and more credible and more powerful than all my followers. may he obtain for us the Norman one. just as one does a lord. might offer him some relief. he sends me to you so that you. and expell its inhabitants. check the presumption of their audacious will and. become Hugh's warrior. In exchange for the Lotharingian realm. Endowed with Richard's military army. your compassionate Grace. We pray. rebels against us. deflate the ostentation of their corrupt selfexaltation. May he besiege and capture Rouen for us and. suggests to his lord. as his father did in time past. [Hugh] strives to attack the realm of Francia and he hastens to possess its reins and royal staff.sagaciously. with your influence. coming before him. he might come with his entire bellicose seditious band and pillage whatever belongs to Hugh all the way to the walls of the Parisian town. much desiring completely to ruin Richard (of blessed memory!). lest he avenge his father's innocent blood. Were you to answer our prayer completely and. and let it prove whether it is able to wrestle against that strength with its own forces.

" Apostrophe to Arnulf Why does God's power of support. Favor violent. . Contumacious." Now Otto. An even more bountiful count. your sharp sword Has already stung a very worthy duke (The father of that sacred boy). in order that the latter might himself become An even holier bountiful witness of God. Equitable. rejoycing at this much-hoped-for embassy.perpetuity the Lotharingian realm which was promised to your father in return for his participation in the battle of Soissons. as king Louis comes to meet him with a great army. shameful. Noble. turn your armed legions instead towards the territory (note 7) of the town of Rouen for. Arrogant and evil kings? But even though. upright. before you even reach the limits of the Norman countryside. He who even foreknows all things. When all Hugh's lands had been devoured and laid to waste. celebrated. oh woe. A wealthier marquis And a duke holier than all the rest. Whose will endures as action And whose vital warmth embraces all things. untakeable through assault by any nation. Thus we pray. bountiful. and having made a covenant concerning the Lotharingian realm. pious. count Arnulf said to king Otto: "This town flourishes. swiftly comes to Paris with a gathered and collected band of easterners. laying everything to waste. the keys of that city will be carried out to you. Behold. encircled on all sides by an arm of the everlasting Seine.

Notes: 1. Connubialis. daughter of duke Hugh the Great. Preferring the "solers" of Rouen 1173 and other manuscripts. 3. was betrothed to Richard I in 945. The denarius was a basic silver unit of currency. 4. Who will establish every good And crush every evil. Emma. 6. Will not procure your desire.Holy. 7. Pagus. good. The marriage was celebrated in 960. . Robert was killed at the battle of Soissons in 923. Recipiendo pignus offensionis debitum. 2. 5. innocent. frivolous. Your wishes.

urged by many persuasive requests. moved his army (so large!) and set out with king Louis for the river Epte which is the separating boundary between the realms of Francia and Normandy. disturbed by the potential disgrace of future mockery. desiring to torment the young man Richard (so youthful and glittering!) and to conduct the kings to the town of Rouen. just as Arnulf had promised him. Nearby there is another water course. king Otto thereafter settled in the meadows by the river Andelle. Moreover [Arnulf]. Otto.[ 44 ] For indeed king Otto. they will not hesitate to hand the city over to you. whatever combatants it might find positioned outside the . surrounded by an army led by two kings and by such great dukes and prelates. are ashamed to send you the keys without being overpowered by hostile heinousness. before your arrival. Therefore. in accordance with a plan hatched in his sharp mind: "Lord king. none of the people of Rouen dares to approach you. But Arnulf began to speak to king Otto. constrained by these deprecative words. for the land from here to Rouen is wooded and those who sojourn in its groves and thickets busy themselves in highway robberies. Send before your own majesty your hardiest legion which. attacking. inciter of the entire evil. brightly shining and surrounded by a company of bishops and a crowd of dukes and prelates. my lord king Louis beseeches you with all his strength to set out in the morning for the town of Rouen. said to Otto: "The people of Rouen. For that reason." And retreating. we request you to fix your tents there tomorrow and thither will the magnates of Rouen come. called the Andelle. But at dawn the count (so sly and cunning!) stood before king Otto. by force of arms will take possession of the city. Let it thrust savagely back to the city. which provides access to meadows and to an abundance of all things. bringing you the keys of the town and presents of precious value. and asks for the keys of the town of Rouen to be fetched. Then Otto summons Arnulf.

both your army and that of my lord will. after this. preceding you. Apostrophe Great and venerable king Otto. Moreover. not knowing that the outcome of a battle is changeable and fortuitous. why do you strive With an inimical company and malign exertion Now to mangle and defile The celebrated and sacred. I will go and. I will ascertain both their condition and vigor and courage in battle. untroubled by them. fill the people of Rouen with apprehension. king Otto himself immediately marches forward (forced as he is by the most humble admonitions of [king Louis'] requests). he was speaking this way with youthful ostentation. If peradventure an army should assail me. sending before him his nephew (so mistakenly self-exalting!) with fully-equipped legions. Once he has put his army into motion. the populace of that foreign nation. you may fix your tents. and their caution and forethought and practical judgment in war.walls and. Noble and just. Challenging them with readied battle-lines. I will take the city by assault and I will demolish. lord king. together. pitch your camp. at the Beauvais gate. I will crush even thousands of warriors with my sword. once you yourself have approached the town." Then a certain nephew of king Otto said in a self-exalting speech: "If it is agreeable. upright. scattering them." However. while we will have already been able to observe through the exertion of actual combat and battle precisely how vigorous and courageous is this town. to resist in your thoughts . modest Marquis and holy patrician And magnanimous and strong duke Richard? And to take away the honor of his dominion? Indeed. I have often contended with Dacians and Alans and Goths and Hungarians but I have never gone into combat against Normans.

patrician and Holy. shamed. mighty and vigorous and powerful king.The mighty command of the supernal and highest king? For no one can resist the supernal power Nor. to your residence hall. . Will be crushed by the eternal divine will And will brood over this facetious mockery And will go back. This highest count. Will keep the populace within bounds by nourishing laws And. modest marquis. will torment the mangled guilty And consign worthy rewards to the just. Condemned by the Normans. You. celebrated. duke. Flashing with holy habits and merits He will thus ascend to the brilliant stars of heaven. turn back the starry will. again. shrewd.

when king Otto's nephew has approached the city gate which is called the Beauvais gate. would pursue them by force of arms. and to mangle them with hatchets. Truly when many Saxons have been killed and very many exhausted and wounded. Saxons and Franks would stand on one side and Normans on the other. as prisoners. would be carrying him back to the rest of the host while the Normans were leading very many of the others away. comprehend that many of the leaders are now in the contest of the combat of death. overthrowing them. skillful at such wrestlings. with a well-equipped army he has struck at the Normans with the foaming wave of a glittering riding and the warlike combat of a hostile attack.[ 45 ] However. shamming flight as though overcome by their foes. as wolves do sheep. the king's nephew passes away. But the rest of the Saxons. Meanwhile a death-bringing report. upon the drawbridge. have begun to tear them to pieces and kill them with glittering spears and swords. Truly the king's nephew kept reckoning that the armed assembly would at length take the walled town by an assault upon the drawbridge of the Beauvais gate. perceiving that the king's nephew lies dead upon the drawbridge and seizing him with great vehemence and rough impulse. but the Normans themselves. announcing the cruel death of his nephew. to the walled town. But the Saxons. After the strife of the rough and extended battle has been in this way disjoined. At length the Normans. among swords and lances. But the Normans. nor would the Transrhenish nation strive any longer to mingle with the latter. has struck king Otto with consternation. and hearsay about so great a defeat has deranged the entire army. would swiftly return to the protection of the town. assembling fully armed on that very spot and springing upon them as do lions on each beast in a herd. After shared . having obtained the victory. merry because of this artifice of feigned flight and steeled by the success of these events.

nay rather. with a seven-fold increase prescribed by the course of the waxing and waning moon. which is in a suburb of the city. desiring to avenge the blood of the young man (so awesome!). and seeing the countryfolk of the land approaching the town from the other side. Peter and St. Truly. increased and restrained by the billows of the sea. Ouen for prayer. still abiding in the monastery. and are not recovering our honor but instead suffering greater loss. You who are greater in age and understanding and with whose advice I determine . for the simple and solitary Seine strikes the walls of the city with its tempests. has said to his leaders: "Can this town be surrounded by our army so that those who are conveyed by ship not pass through?" They have replied: "Not at all. for all good fortune is furnished to them through the bed of the Seine.deliberation. By no hostile effort might we have been able to prevail in anything against the Normans. to the monastery dedicated in honor and worship of St. Truly king Otto. Audoenus. it continuously attacks the gates and walls of the town with its foaming flood. There indeed he himself and his followers have bountifully given many votive offerings and. the king comes with his bishops and dukes. who have set down their arms. For I do not know what ought to be done in the case of such a baleful crushing and such sad misfortunes. At the prayer of king Louis and ensnared by the sly sophism of count Arnulf. they have immediately attacked the city by force of arms. accomplishing nothing around the town but wailing greatly over the very many killed from their armies. he has said to the gathered magnates: "Resolve in your souls on what we ought now to do and let each one announce what seems right to him in this affair. But the Saxons and the Franks. sorrowful at the death of his nephew and at these new unseemly events. would return to the camps carrying the corpses of the deceased. having been given permission to pray there. Thus am I afflicted by unbearable sadness and stung by extremely great wrath." Then king Otto has sent to Richard to permit him to make for St. we have come here where we are basely suffering shame and a blemish on our honor.

remains here unjustly. no longer strives to have discussions with you. with all purpose. just as he once killed his father. Justly have you lost. without advice. taking Richard and his followers by surprise in an unbecoming seige. But. because Arnulf compelled us and king Louis to hasten here fraudulently. weigh carefully what we from beyond the Rhine ought to do about this seige. attacking this city. the unavoidable damage will swiftly increase.for everyone what things ought to be carried out. desiring to kill duke Richard. explore with the deep musing of sagacious thought what it would behoove us to do in order to act in a praiseworthy manner." Then the prelates and magnates have replied to king Otto. which you are suffering in recompense of a fitting retribution. unjustly did you beseige it. by the mere . For indeed you hastened here. after these past two years. because your army. bound in chains. entangled by the tergiversations of very many sophisms. hostages will not be given but. for us. And therefore. I will capture that wicked sophist Arnulf and I will send him. Arnulf. it will be detestable to all and blameworthy before everyone. reconsidering with the musing of deep thought. If it please you. but strive after advantageous advice concerning our retreating departure and take heed. Would to heaven that. to count Richard so that he might avenge his father on him. your nephew and your counts and your retinue and so very many warriors because. The town will not be captured. keeping out of the way now that his inclination for mendacity has been published abroad. The shame and disgrace of filthy blemish and loss. All the inhabitants from the sea to the Seine are being massed and. for he knows that he accomplished nothing in the prolongation of this seige. take precautions not to retreat without advice. King Louis very much rues that he came here. in the strife of this seige. saying: "If he is captured and if he is sent to Richard for punishment. It is not in the interest of our good health nor of our resolution or wealth to remain here for a long period of time. that nothing even worse or baser befall you. are longing to attack you with prepared armies. at the prompting of crafty Arnulf. will not be obliterated.

by flight! Why are you reclining still. informed by the report of certain people to take precautions not to be captured. withdrawn into his own mind: "Lest we possibly suffer worse misfortunes than before. . we pray. praising every aspect of this advice very much indeed. nimble. alas! alas! even more dishonourable. now flee. and flee now speedily. now. arising. if it please you all. now. turn the soles of our feet in propitious retreat so that they will fall again upon the land of our birth.injunction of your order. begins to speak to the leaders as though to himself. against God's will? Flee. and lest our foes revel any further in the happy results of our defeat. flee. come. having poured forth a prayer in the basilica of St. now. having awakened his army in the first part of the dark night. Apostrophe Otto." Thus king Otto. was returning as swiftly as possible to the Flemish fields. tomorrow let us return to the road of our retreat. although the Norman hosts hinder you. now. Now direct your step. Make for your natal soil. You will go. now take to the road. departing at night silently and cautiously and privately." Then the men from beyond the Rhine. given a hint by this discussion and fearing the baleful danger of future misfortunes. arise swiftly. count Arnulf. Audoenus. Your sly general has vanished. each one of us might be in that place where he sought out the earth at the commencement of his own birth! But since wishes have been availing us very little thus far. But. and loaded their horses and wagons with all their household furnishings. return merry to their tents. secretly folded up their encampments and tents. Rescue yourself now. And. For the supernal avenger affrights your hosts! Withdraw speedily now. Peter and St. musing for a long time. go.

He also longs for you to withdraw. When you accomplish royal things. let you rather flee On a nimble and winged horse. Long to throw to the ground. At one time you desired to lash out (note 2) against the Normans. Whether you like it or not. . An equitable judge. after the mournful debt of his lamentable loss. melt away. Now king. captured in the effort of the war. he is the Opulent. through such misfortunes. Already puts his prodigious host into quick motion. lest you perish. with the highest effort. Whom it is fitting to exalt. flee. And whose great-grandfathers are said to have made Twice thrice three realms friendly to themselves. He will worthily ascend to heaven. You are mindful of what came to pass. Apostrophe to Louis Why do you. good and sagacious ruler of this region. who boast the royal dignity And an exceptional authority. patrician count. withdraw. Lest you be ruined. hedged in by that company. For. You will indeed attempt the above-mentioned things in vain. The upright (note 1) and compassionate and good youth Richard Highest marquis and duke. glittering everywhere. That most celebrated youth Richard? Having surrendered yourself to treachery. Whom a royal lineage has put forth From the royal pedigree of both parents. you surrendered To innumerable misfortunes. he will distribute reins of law And of governance among the populace And. This decision is now preferable.Compel your trusty followers to withdraw.

Strengthened by the sevenfold nectar of the celestial spirit. will again tame the souls .Now flee. Making them extremely faint-hearted And. withdraw. adorn. they will barely get back to their fatherland. For lo! alarm before the omnipotent Lord Has now rushed upon these kings. Should you desire to live. Exalting them to the high summits and. bind together and increase The religious acts of each order and each rank And. worthily beloved Marquis. Very many will be captured by your bands. Let you no longer dread. might force them to live according to a regular law In service to the one enthroned on high. churches. And. He will live at the pinnacle of heaven. fall back. And you. might found. Thus. Might rescue from enemies. might defend. might help. supporting. take to the road with nimble step. Let you not recommence strife against him whom the right hand Of the ethereal judge has hallowed. swift. struck with consternation in their souls by God's dart. And might supply. Venerable. And so. Might protect. By fleeing now. the judge. anxious. gaining the fellowship of the supernal flower-garland. urging. duke and bountiful count. Apostrophe to Richard Good. worshipful Richard. Very many will die by the sword. Whom the judgment of omnipotent God predestines To such manners and merits Whereby he might build. might raise high the populace.

Both a famed summit of sacred religion And a very celebrated model of organization. Holy and modest. Harmful to all. patrician. Elect. nay rather a traitor. hated scourge. equitable. (note 5) duke and count. blameless. This shining man's highest idea (note 6) of good Enfolds the Norman populace. (note 4) You will put no one into quick motion with your quarrels. like a putrid beast. compassionate and upright. A plague injurious to all. Guilty in word and deed and thought. renew strife only with difficulty. And a harmful mischievous person. Illustrious. bountiful. Leave Richard alone. you will drive and you will trouble This host of the threefold order To concern itself With the Deity of the sacred Trinity. . Predestined already for God.Of the people through laws. that upright youth. extremely mighty. And by the founding of churches You will compel. A hateful. in the future. Hated exceedingly. You will. Apostrophe to Arnulf (note 3) Betrayed by your plots and your wide-gaping clefts And all your evils. Through active and contemplative obedience. A marquis.

Notes: 1. Preferring the "feritare" of CC 276. Preferring the "ad Arnulfum" of CC 276. 3. 6. . Preferring the "patricius" of CC 276. 5. 2. In Greek. Preferring the "haud" of CC 276. 4. Preferring the "probus" of CC 276.

Truly some would throw their tents and encampments to the ground. terrified and smitten by the trembling of a very great fear at the nocturnal murmuring of the bustling populace and at the din of the steeds. kept thinking Richard. embracing swords as though out of his senses. were awaiting . and the assurance of life and the hope of living has passed away from all. One would take flight on foot at a swift pace. whither he did not know. bawling out for his vassal. have fortified the town with armed guards and. themselves ever-watchful. others would flee. fearing lest they be suddenly attacked at dawn the following day. For. each one's mind would waver at the alarmed circumstances and each one's heart. awakened by the disordered and soaring outcry of this hastily-raised and ringing populace. where they were turning in flight. the other would feel his way. moving to and fro. others would claim for themselves royal and other accoutrements. mail coats and leather helmets ornamented with gold. had come in the gloom of the night in order to fight. The one would run this way and that. One would flee. The roaring of the quaking armies would resound on high. with his followers. everyone's safety has been bewailed as lost. on horses quickened by spurs. by stealth. Some would carefully conceal. among the mingled crowd. stunned and quivering and his gaze fixed and frozen. another would wander through the coverts. Therefore the people of Rouen. Suddenly. the other would be brought to a standstill. they did not know what they were doing.[ 46 ] Thus the kings. The one would look earnestly for his lord among the wave-driven and quivering populace. defenceless. extremely alarmed and desirous of the truth. defenseless. plucking away oblong shields with a nearly insane spirit. Indeed. while others would equip their horses with trappings for forehead and breast. and the uproar of their inarticulate cry and the outcry of their howlings would ring confusedly. would fall hither and thither in confusion.

they plan to capture the town once we have burst forth from it in this way. has gained the victory over the defeated enemies. Truly. manfully to guard the town with very many followers. quaking. pursuing the royal hosts. not knowing the ways.the sad event of the expected battle. and the rest of his retinue and his new recruits. But the people of Rouen. the Transrhenish ones have begun to set their little tents on fire and to return to the road of their desired retreat and. It is not our advice for you to go with us to the battle of this combat but. returning to the protection of the town. has wished to attack them with all his own readied battle-lines. decorated with the blooming down appropriate to manhood. and you are our hope for safety and confidence. They believe that we are deceived by this sham and. you fall prey to death. you are still blooming with tender age. merry and glad at the outcome of this affair. we fear lest. Richard. of one mind: "Mightiest lord duke." That youth of celebrated nobility. awaiting the two kings' army at the outlet of the wood has overthrown and killed very many enemies and has sent the rest fleeing to the district of Amiens. if you were to go. Moreover. would overthrow very many. the men of Rouen have recounted for Richard everything that has happened. And likewise another assembly of the men of Rouen. At length a certain band of the warriors of Rouen has joined battle with them in the wood which is called "Maliforaminis" (note 1) and. as the dawn. to wander hither and thither. the great-souled duke Richard. (barely prevailed upon by the skirt-tails of this persuasion) has remained in the town with very many followers. But we will cautiously pursue them and will try to challenge them at arms. However. attempting to put away from so great a duke the intention of this much-desired attack. have said carefully. Then the most mild marquis Richard of worshipful memory. whatever the fortune of this matter may be. with God's aid. both a duke and a most distinguished . in our opinion. once they had obtained victory over those foes. dried up the mist of the shadowy night and both the outward appearance and the mental image of its species returned to objects. shining in its reddish mantle. killing them.

warning examples and lessons of an imitable goodness.patrician. he has begun to be considered a chief in all the land of the Normans and the Bretons. studies. since it is least effective that a lamp. Indeed there would be truth and glory in his house. With these things thus fulfilled (by divine command). he would be distinguished for his representation of all goodnesses. sweet in eloquence and more agreeable than everyone in dress and gait. the Franks and the Burgundians. He would flash with discreet simplicity and he glitter with simple discretion. the very greatest thanks to the King of Ages and. with all his clergy and people. He would be bright in countenance and brighter than all the rest in his every action. He would shine in his image and be second to none in compassion. For indeed the actions of the Frankish and Burgundian magnates would be directed by his providence. as glad as possible. For the proven rumor of his sanctity. dignity and abundance would be poured forth far and wide. and with the double love of God and neighbor. He would actively calm strife and disputes and quarrels and would rule the people in a friendly manner. and be known to all above the clouds through the fame of his uprightness. He would shine. For he would indeed glow with faith. Skilled in the continuous deeds. has given. indeed. Glittering. He would abound in the profits of goodness. equity and justice would gleam in his works. has . through marvelous signs. he would instruct very many with examples of uprightnesses. he would embellish the condition of the state. Flemings and Easterners would obey his command. as a father does his children. has apportioned many pious donations and votive offerings (note 2) to the sacrosanct church. be concealed under the shadow of a bushel. hope and charity. with a mellifluous mouth. He would be famed for his manners and loftier than the stars in his merit. A mellifluous ruler. he whom the Lord Christ disposed to be made public. he would ordain all things useful. Truly. always serene. and those things beneficial to the state would be pondered by his practical judgment. For he would glitter with the noblity of his lineages. laid from heaven on a lampstand. with a most pleasant heart.

he would daily be very worthily enriched with an abundance of merits and of all goods. For indeed he would be the mellifluous sweetness of the strong. beautiful and greatly decorated. He would surpass all in action. would himself equip the helm of ecclesiastical stewardship with a most serene heart. in his most kind mind. caring little for vices. with the grace of the Holy Spirit leading the way. a gentle youth. For indeed it would beam with solar loveliness in the loftiness of its prelates. and with lunar brightness in the humility of those ranged under it. Truly he himself would be mindful. For truly he would be opulently endowed with the grace of the Holy Spirit. How estimable the clergy and the people who would submit to the orders of so great a duke! For indeed through the aiding mercy of omnipotent God and the caring ingenuity of its duke Richard. For indeed. renowned for the wares of his magnanimity. in those days. and he would be very readily filled full with the wisdom of the seven-fold gift. Indeed it would be. he would be endowed with the ornaments of moral purity. and would draw the inhabitants of the Norman region together under the law. and established by Christ in the grades of humility. He would show in word and deed with what intention of mind he had been brought forward for the assistance of the rule of the whole homeland.begun to be considered among his followers as the very greatest possible man. filled full with all uprightness. with diligent and precise investigation he would search through everything that he had been able to learn with a lay understanding. the supporter of the . having neither blemish nor wrinkle through crime or duplicity. He would be. the defender of the orphaned. He would attend closely to celestial things. word and propitious thought. he would glitter with good manners and with the light of his merits. although of the lay order. moreover. the courage of the weak. the church of Christ would be. aged in the goodness of his habits. of the condition of the innocent life and. at his admonition. constructed upon sacred customs and illuminated with badges of the virtues.

Apostrophe to Richard Patrician. the genuine light of the blind. the cultivator of virtues. the pillar of the children. the father of the exiled. the lover of alliances. the compassion of the sorrowful. the shepherd of the poor. whom praise (the judge) stretches from west to east To north through the common talk of recounted praise. duke. insignificant pleader. the punishment of thieves. Your great deeds outstrip this unskilled. the throne of the laws. the ornament of prelates. But is greatly hindered by the very mound (note 4) of manifold acts. the calmer of evils.wretched. Richard. Gentle in address. the glory of the despairing. (note 3) the sweet love of servants. the light of all. the salvation of the needy. the corrector of believers. although he still longs to write. celebrated for the rewarding of goodnesses. the salvation of widows. the protector of all peoples. Nor does he have the strength to describe them. the example for all. the memorable assurance of friendships. that he might be able to write! . the weapon of warriors. the judge of accusers and accused. Let him struggle. For the vehemence of your uncommon action has overmatched him. the apportioner of offices. the defeat of bandits. the staff of the destitute. the sweet chief of magistrates. prince. the receiver of the fugitive. the model of the upright. the aider of kings. the safeguard of presbyters. the summit of the clergy. the repairer of churches. however undeserving. the assuager of quarrels. Warmed by religion. the ruler of the people. Guarding the footpath of judicial investigation by management of the law. the scale of judicial investigations. marquis. distinguished as an image of uprightnesses. count. the greatest hope of everyone. the wall of regions. the apex of the priests. the labor of kindnesses. the ideal of sanctities.

Beneficia et donaria. flourish in the summit of the sky. 3. Honores. .Hark! may you. God's athlete. May you have joys with the saints in the pastures of peace. Preferring the aggere of CC 276. 4. 2. Notes: 1. The particular site in question is usually said to be the hamlet of Maupertuis.

" Truly. committed in marriage to Richard. which wrestles in the public contest of an active life. through an oath of fidelity for a future wedding. Moreover. the celebrated marquis Richard. which exerts itself in the school of the speculative life. and those things beneficial to the order leading a wider life. while the latter is underage. of one mind. I have. and may you all adhere of your own accord to his most advantageous advice and commands. on your advice. once duke Hugh of the Franks had passed away. He would compell the prelates . they all came together to the powerful marquis Richard and placed themselves under the care and deliberation of his patronage. that is to say Christ's dove. all would devote themselves voluntarily to his service and would willingly attend him as their very lord. said before he passed away to all his assembled warriors: "Although she be of tender age. The convenience of the more retired order. and no nation dared to lash out against Richardians. as the head of a household does his slaves. gleamed (without arousing bitter acrimony) with tokens of every good and kept the area of the Norman and Breton realm both calm and safe from its foes. mightiest duke of the Normans. the great and marvelous duke Hugh. Moreover they would value him highly with minds full of goodwill and would look upon him with the awe of the very highest reverence. however. Moreover he would endow them with the very greatest presents and marvelous gifts and would load them with most bountiful beneficia. my daughter. They would humbly submit to his orders and dictates and would obediently obey his instructions. as a father does his children. would be furnished by his splendor. whom you must not hesitate to give bountifully to him when she shall be suitable and fit for a husband. Truly let him be the advocate of my wife and my son. nearing the end of his days. and would nourish them sweetly with benign warmth. He would rule them carefully. constrained by the indisposition of his body. would be judiciously pondered by him.[ 47 ] Since.

" Thus.to rule the republic actively and carefully and gently. for she is now fit for the mingling of nuptial marriage and for the appropriate embrace of delightful copulation. who bountifully gave them a patrician and duke famous for his augmentation of such goods. and he would threaten them and demand that they do no damage to anyone. hesitates little to yield to the force of a masculine seed. the citizens of heaven would rejoice exceedingly. duke of the Franks. showing their joy in so great a censor and so great an advocate. Truly while duke Richard advantageously ruled almost the whole of Gaul with the sagacious and equitable direction of his laws. Therefore should she be suitable and fit and marriageable. once the band of magnates of the Norman and Breton region had been called together and all the things which were necessary for the nuptual ceremony had been prepared. reciting laudations of immense praise to the indivisible Trinity. is said to have replied to his followers: "Because it was ratified by a promise that it would be accomplished. The whole land would rejoice. shouting to the Lord in delight. Let whatever is required for the expense of the wedding be immediately prepared. and wishing not only to enjoy him in the present but planning also for succeeding generations. Truly she. it is now according to reason to carry it out. a virgin of most elegant mein and appearance. it is worthy that you couple to yourself under matrimonial law the daughter of Hugh the Great. saying: "It is needful that. and let a marvelous betrothal gift composition be furnished. you ratified through an oath of fidelity was to be joined to you in marriage before the end of an established time be reached." Truly Richard. But the Normans. he . that daughter whom. in every matter. all the conditions which have been prescribed by the oath of fidelity of a true promise be fulfilled by orthodox persons within the prescribed period of fore-appointed time. during his lifetime. rich in the power of virile fertility. as we have heard. came to him so that the glory of a descendant not be lacking from that man and so that they not be defrauded of that man's offshoot in succeeding generations. All would applaud and give thanks to the allpowerful One in the highest.

becomingly and honorably escorted her, with an incomputable assembly of leaders, to the town of Rouen. Apostrophe Oh, Norman prelates and warriors, Inflamed by the fire of lively minds, Always desirous and needful Of the hoped-for posterity of a descendant, No descendant or heir to rule the populace Will be born to this maiden who is now being conveyed But, by command of the divine will, At a future time there will appear a celestial maiden Of the Dacian race, noble, nourishing, Beautiful, celebrated and reverend, Worthy, forechosen and worshipful, Cautious in deliberation, prudent, discreet, She alone will the equitable marquis, duke Richard, Select for himself from among many, Uniting with her in marriage and, after the alliance has been covenanted, As time passes to her will be born The nourishing offshoot of a worthy heir.

[ 48 ]

However, since he would rejoice in the becoming advice of a consort of such great nobility, and would calm with salvation-giving right the peoples of the Breton and Norman fatherland and, with the power of worthy lordship, would restrain with advantageous deliberation the rising evils of any unexpected disturbances throughout almost the whole of Francia and Burgundy, a certain viceroy, (note 1) one rich in treasures and most affluent in warriors, Tetbold by name, irritated with malevolent madness and jealousy and hatred, has begun to plot against him and to wrangle with him, with much mockery, and to storm his land to no purpose. Perceiving, however, that he accomplishes nothing against him, he has travelled to queen Gerberga and her son king Lothar of the Franks, sojourning at Mont Laon. He has begun to urge them, pursuing the matter repeatedly, to bring him down from so great an honor, by ensnaring him. And, corrupted by the poison of malice, he would say to the king and his mother: "It is marvelous to me and to all how count Richard (so presumptuous!), holding the Norman and Breton realm, calm, puffed up with presumptuous rashness, insolent beyond all others, rules over Franks. He wages war for, attends and serves neither God nor anyone else but, in the ostentation of his audacity, he trusts confidently in his own disrespectful soul and silly heart. Every one of us he esteems lightly and, like a king, he rules and dominates the Franks with an arrogant authority. Through his resolution, happenings, all of which are troublesome to the Franks, are being compassed. For it pertains to neither your nor our official dignity that such a count should be our lord and master. Indeed it is a blemish on your sovereignty that he commands the Burgundians, censures the Aquitanians and rebukes the Bretons, and rules and governs the Normans, threatens the Flemings and ravages the Dacians and binds and makes friendly the Lotharingians, nay rather the Saxons, to himself, and even the Angles

are obediently subjected to him, the Scots and the Irish are ruled by his patronage. Indeed all nations of all realms attend him and yield obedience to him nor is there anyone, except you, who may be able to halt his arrogant rashness and that of his warriors. He is much strengthened and grows very strong, more and more violently and beyond what is sufficient, nor does he become any more reasonable, for he trusts confidently in his copiously-flowing mass of warriors. See that he does not try to attack, in addition to you yourself, your hereditary realm and to banish you and drive you out from it. If you held what he holds, unjustly, you would be able to claim all realms for yourself." Indeed, having heard the fallacious tergiversations of this conflictinciting address, the queen, saddened and moved, has replied to Tetbold: "You, privy to our secret conversation and trusty privy counsellor and advisor of our more private deliberation, give us advice concerning these matters. We, propped up by no one's helping valor, except God's, pray that you, moved by compassion in this affair, might mercifully assist us. We avoid every quarter and keep to ourselves, and secure trustworthiness is nowhere to be found." Truly count Tetbold, desiring through this deceit completely to ruin patrician Richard (so upright!), added this advice for the queen: Apostrophe Hark! why just now do you rage, o Arnulf, (note 2) inflamed by hatred and treachery, Extremely weakened and mangled by the pitch-pine torches of envy? Stop struggling against a higher will and ability, The exertion which you are now reconsiding in your heart, is utterly useless, He will not be captured whom the right hand of God has ratified and protects, For the equitable, upright, harmless, holy and celebrated

Marquis and patrician, count and bountiful duke Richard, Glorified by a shining bulwark of quadrifid virtue, Enriching the people entrusted to him, will correct, protect, Aid, save, and refresh them, just as does a father.


1. Satraps. 2. The reading "Arnulf" does not seem to be one of the frequent mistakes concerning proper names, though it might at first seem to be so. The names of the villains of the work were never rubricated and so the opportunity for confusion would not have arisen as it so frequently did with the names of the heroes of the work. Dudo seems to be insulting Tetbold here by calling him by the name of some great villain, in this case "Arnulf," just as authors sometimes insult traitors by calling them by the name "Judas."

[ 49 ]

"If your son, king Lothar, (note 1) sets out for Richard's most fortified towns with the gathered military band of all Francia and Burgundy, Richard will struggle against Lothar, perhaps preferring to halt his advance. If not, Richard will settle himself within the extremely durable ramparts of his highly secure cities. Then, with an amassed army of Christ-worshippers and pagans, he will go to Lothar's towns, pillaging everything along the way, and if he should peradventure capture those towns, he will hold both realms, untroubled by Franks or Burgundians. To a certain extent it is more sensible and more appropriate to capture him through deceit, than to lay waste his monarchy and besiege his towns, for in this enterprise we will accomplish nothing. For he will realize our intention and so will guard himself even more cautiously. Truly, send an ambassador to the extraordinary Lotharingian duke, that is to say your brother archbishop Bruno of Cologne, (note 2) to come to you to undertake the business of this deception, and let him ensnare that man Richard (so self-exalted!) with some cunning sophism." The queen has immediately sent to Bruno and confided to him the entire sequence of this deception. In fact Bruno has immediately made for Francia and, coming to the district of Vermandois, has sent a certain bishop to say to Richard in deceit: "Bruno, although unworthy, archprelate of Cologne, sends you his faithful prayers. Indeed, because our lord well knows what the evangelical speech said by announcing 'Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the children of God,' he therefore prays with all his strength that you come swiftly to meet him in the district of Amiens. For he has heard of the deceptions of those quarrels that are rising up against you and because of his love for you he wishes with an ardent soul to calm their commotions. He will bring you and his nephew the king together in an inextricable alliance, he will reconcile you with Tetbold and the other spiteful people, after

removing their baleful will. He is striving to regulate and make serene all his nephew's realms through the law of right authority and to disperse and tread down all strife. For he desires to bind everyone in fidelity to his nephew and, after the whirlwinds of quarrels have been calmed in this way and peace has been covenanted by all, to march back home." Then, ensnared by these deceitful addresses, the most benign marquis Richard has undertaken, with his fideles, to go meet Bruno. And when he has come to the district of Beauvais, and Bruno to Amiens, on the day designated for them to confer together, two of Tetbold's men, inspired by divine command, have come to Richard saying: "We wish, duke, to speak to you privately." As Richard withdraws, they have mentioned to him: "Would you prefer to be duke of the Normans than the shepherd of sheep and she-goats outside your region?" But count Richard has been marvelously brought to a standstill and is staring fixedly and giving them (absolutely astounded) no reply! Having almost withdrawn within himself and thoroughly examined the meaning of this mentioned proposition, he has said the two men: "Where are you from, and whose fideles are you?" They have replied: "Why do you ask whose? Are we not yours?" Richard, realizing that they are his fideles and that they do not wish that fact to be made public, thanking them and bidding them farewell, has secretly honored them greatly. In fact he has given one a sword, glittering in a hilt made from four pounds of gold, but the other an armlet constructed from just as many pounds of purest gold. For indeed as they depart, he has announced to his magnates what they alleged. Then the magnates, having reconsidered and explained the two men's scolding and comparing proposition, have forced him to go back to the walled town of Rouen and to send an ambassador to Bruno to report that he was not about to come to the conference. But archbishop Bruno has been astounded at the ambassador's report that Richard will not come to the conference, and believes that the latter has recognized the plan for deception, and he has said to the ambassador:

nor because of any other of your followers would he come to meet you at a conference." Then the ambassador: "Neither because of me. Now. by deceit. with ready uprightness. before the obstacle of this reply. and with the deceit of so great a betrayal so completely exposed. very many are attempting Mightily to subjugate you By crafty cunning And each one reconsiders how To ruin you. Therefore strive vigorously To gleam with determined hope And faith and gleaming force. and I will travel there. because of my love for him. . To keep to the right road And to the equitable path of the scales. if he desires to have rest and an increase of peace from his foes."Go speedily and tell great duke Richard to come at least to the river Epte. You will flourish." Thus. Bruno returns home. Whereby you might be able always to bloom With merits and a just recompense And. through all eternity. rescued from such a lot. ashamed. Duke and patrician and great count. unfairly. Behold. Apostrophe (note 3) O kind Richard. And bountiful to all. Where you will never be captured But. in order to support him.

queen of Western Francia. Preferring the "Apostrophe" of CC 276 and others.965). son of Louis IV and Gerberga.Notes: 1. king of Western Francia (954 . king of Germany and brother of Gerberga. duke of Lotharingia and archbishop of Cologne (953 . 3. 2.986). son of Henry I. . Lothar. Bruno.

But most holy duke Richard. extraordinary in every attention to hospitality.[ 50 ] Then indeed through all of Francia. . active in every deed. Most compassionate foster-father of monks and canons and all flocks. worthy in his advocacy of the sacrosanct Norman church. rescued him from the danger of death and captivity. most bountiful in almsgiving. discreet in deliberation. eminent in the lay habit and order. bountiful in benevolence. full of confidence in divine promises. Gentle in divine and secular teachings. patient in hope. As much as possible filled full with faith. would devotedly give thanks daily to the King of kings who. Gentle in his mildness towards the upright. prepared to pardon the offensive. On guard against his own transgression. Remarkable in judgment and justice. remarkable mitigator of quarrels. Faithful distributor of the talent (note 1) entrusted to him. Unremitting in his zeal for good works. burning with the love of God and neighbor. prudent advocate of his own followers. hardy in hope. in all his works. Extremely devoted before all relics. dreadful in his harshness towards the guilty. Inclined to grace towards the deserving. Burgundy and the other realms is the hearsay of so great a betrayal and so great a deception made public. glorious in mercy and compassion. Docile in deed. gracious. Extraordinary in his fear of God. Highest in the ranks of humility. Opulent in the abundance of all things and goodnesses. Extraordinary in manners and merits. Thus would he be. harshly punishing that of others. Yielding obedience to God's instructions. strong in dangers. always subject to the lord Christ. Wise in speech. Well endowed with distinguished talent. Long-suffering in adversities. ready in wordly and divine worship. constant and vehement in correcting. rescued from the snares of such great deception and cunning. anxious in his fear of death. armed with the force of devotion and mildness. and Bruno and Tetbold and the other promoters of such a plan and of such cunning are disparaged by everyone.

good and modest. Vanquishing the wanton sometimes by arms. speak to you. sometimes by forbearance. subjecting pagans to the light and extremely sweet yoke of Christ. before all others. he would decide after having removed any uncertainty of an intricate case. the sacred orders of the ranks of the churches and he would furnish them with every religious thing. he would copiously endow the older ones with gifts. he would punish the insolent and the guilty. I. most holy supporter of widows. He would furnish bountiful food for paupers and he would flashing. Apostrophe With profuse prayers. (note 2) Hardly anyone in his realm would dare to do any damage and no one would dare to pilfer anything from anyone. Judicious. beyond all others. untroubled by evils. He would not look with any worshipful reverence upon the persons of the poor or of the mighty in his judgment but. He would spur the young recruits of his household to serve by rewards and presents. Most strong defender of the homeland. reader. Distinguished father of the exile and the needy and incomparable supporter of the orphan and the minor. he would tread down the ravisher and the wrongful. In every matter he would be distinguished. and he would be a marvelous refuge of goodness and esteem for all. faithfully fulfilling Christ's instructions. he would draw the people together through established laws.Cherishing the common people as a father does his children. He would raise high the humble and the benevolent. a suppliant. for his merits and deeds. dissipating complaints. All would live. He would be attentive. under his authority and would exert themselves hastily in accelerating all their productive labor. . magnanimous. He would marvelously honor. benevolent and docile in every deed and. an unremitting repairer of churches. he would balance plaintiff and plaintiff on an equable scale. reviewing the complaints of assaulters and assailers. He would account the presumptious and the self-willed of slight value.

foolish. A Greek coin. what goods he apportioned. count. marquis. patrician. Neither can I reduce to numbers nor submit to words What evils he checked. He would be able to write whatever truth-telling things he desired. Splendid guardian and defender of his homeland. His goodnesses are acknowledged and written down In the book of the one who sits on the starry throne. 2. That good duke. But I. Beneficia. dull and destitute of all theory. I cannot raise up this man As much as would behoove his innumerable laudable actions. But if anyone were an extremely eloquent orator. Notes: 1. .An eloquence well and expertly capable of the seven-fold art Is wanting. Do not have the strength to write what I desire to say.

which is mine by right? Were I to believe those persons envious of you. busy himself in strife against you or against me. Thus let us be joined together by agreements of our reciprocal wills in such a way that no one of our followers will. here and there. as I will yours. to beseige and capture your ramparted towns? Will you never subjugate yourself to anyone? Do you know that I am king of the Franks? Could I not be injurious to you were I. relying on the assistance of your foes. he would daily prompt king Lothar to ensnare the man Richard (so worthy!) through deceit and to keep Normandy under the yoke of his own authority. Stop exploring such possibilities. am I not able. . with his followers. In fact. Truly. has at length sent someone to Richard to speak to him this deceitful address: "How long will I have to wait for some repentent and mindful regard from you? Do you esteem me so lightly. blinded by the sophistical promptings of that very count. Let us be of one heart and and one mind and one will. and were you in fact to befriend. and let us crush and scatter and subordinate Tetbold. and drive them by force and power to serve us. you crush and demolish my opponent. we would never be reconciled in a favorable alliance.[ 51 ] Count Tetbold (note 1) would be set ablaze. as though I were the trifling thing of just any nation? Having intercepted your friends. mean-spirited. to hasten against you with a gathered military band. wrangling. in himself. tortured by envy and madness at these and other liberalities scattered hither and thither. and may it please you to be joyful and rejoice with me. Should anyone. king Lothar. any of those who have broken their oaths and been unfaithful to me. and at the plentiful abundance of diverse things being ever more readily proclaimed. possess the ability to do anything whatsoever. in your mind and heart. let us reduce under the yoke of a harsh law the Flemings and the other nations who are rebellious against us. Imbued with the poison of malice and treachery.

Tetbold I. you have had.Therefore. to ensnare The holy. compassionate. we might rejoice of one mind. alas. count of Blois and Chartres (+ 977). modest. husband of Leyarda." Apostrophe Merciful. Upright. holy king Lothar. widow of William Longsword. bountiful light of the globe. . And that. safe from enemies and opponents. equitable duke Richard? It will cause you shame that you have now planned this corrupt thing. equitable. bound by an indissoluble agreement of friendship. Why are you attempting. But your ability hardly matches your wish! Notes: 1. corrupted by filthy malice. noble. inglorious. this perverse wish. swiftly make haste to come meet me at a conference so that.

riding swiftly. to meet king Lothar at a conference. great duke Richard has sent scouts to report to him concerning any transactions in the king's camp. has set out. Then one of them. having travelled thither. the scouts have discovered Tetbold and duke Richard's (note 4) other foes before the king. would signal to himself the need to report swiftly to count Richard what they have seen. desiring to be ordered to attack Richard (note 5) and his followers as a hostile assembly. Furthermore. assembled with the king. dinner has been prepared for us. mightiest lord duke. with a gathered military band. leaping over the entire host and crying out with a great groan and saying: "Lord. behold the cuirassed and helmeted armies of counts Tetbold. are longing either to capture or to slay you and your followers!" Undaunted by what he has heard. Geoffrey of Anjou (note 1) and count Baldwin of Flanders. However. while they still lingered with the king in view. moreover.[ 52 ] Thus the most distinguished duke and count Richard. rescue yourself. duke Richard has arisen and has said to his gathered fideles: "Behold. seeing this. (note 2) having indeed secretly amassed an entire army of Richard's enemies. Geoffrey and Baldwin have come surging to that very spot. namely Tetbold of Chartres. for all your foes. and to inquire who was with the king and whether any deception was concealed in the conference that was about to be held. the day established (deceitfully) for the two to become allies. having gathered together in the deceit all of Richard's enemies. mounted on a nimble horse. ensnared by the allurements and threats of these lying embassies. would linger. Each one. lest you be undone by enemy heinousness. (note 3) Truly. Before we turn aside. has sought out the most worthy count Richard with a fleet course. brought to a standstill. They have been. however. But the king. on the day of the enjoined conference. by the river Eaulne. greatly astounded indeed at the king's messages. And secured . let us taste it in the name of the Lord. in a fraudulent spirit.

behold the king." Just as he would set forth all this in his quivering voice. and as the most holy duke Richard would interrogate him concerning how many thousands numbered the king's men and whether the king himself was part of the enemy attack. Moreover certain pursuers from among his foes. hastens to accost you with readied battle-lines. named Walter. in the middle of the shallows of the Dieppe. recognizing there a certain one of his own hunters. by force of arms. observing the imminent danger closer at hand. and has withstood the king's entire army at the outlet of the river Dieppe. and has snatched him away. But as all were wrestling in battle. sitting at dinner. a third messenger has come with spur-quickened horses." However while he. following after duke Richard. profers these and very many other things by way of persuasion (although very many of his fideles were absent). Then the unutterable duke and count Richard. Do not let the vehemence of their corrupt multitude terrify you. let us wait. unshaken. the battle lines have appeared. having either put his enemies to flight or having killed them. make you valiant. But the king's army has blocked the fords of the Dieppe in order that it not come to him. strong in every adversity. another messenger has come reporting the approach of the enemy army. He has said to Richard: "Lord duke. for the battle-wedged troops of our enemies. the elders have said to the duke. but let your remembrance of those who preceded you. whereas the uprightness of pure faith and hope will rescue us. and has turned away from them and has withdrawn across the bed of the Dieppe. has run thither undaunted along with his household retinue. with his iron-clad army. foresaking dinner. have attacked. with armed men springing forth onto that very spot. the . But as the army of the king and of Richard's foes flocks together from every quarter. (note 6) and would wait there waiting for the support of his own army. duke Richard.in this way by the banner of the sacrosant cross. For their own vileness and treachery will deservedly exhaust them. has arisen speedily. who is harshly defending the entrance to the shallows: "Magnanimous lord duke.

incessantly urging him with repeated and manifold admonitions to retaliate against the king and count Tetbold for the attempted deception by attacking their realm. even more completely than before." However duke Richard. he would govern the populace with even greater moderation. who snatched him from the ruin of death or capture. would beseech him to withdraw. as a father does his children. we beseech you. he has withdrawn and has made hastily for Rouen. He would even more wisely accomplish all good works. has been exposed by God's will. claim it for themselves.fraud of this treachery. Therefore he would honor churches. subject to God in all his works. But at length. and he would refresh widows and fugitives even more delightfully. devoting himself. all the people of that region have flowed swiftly to the great duke Richard. Therefore turn aside. But he himself would devotedly give thanks daily to the King of kings. He would sustain even more gently orphans and minors and exiles. approach him and. He would even more correctly weigh his judgments on the scale of equitable examination. lest you fall prey to death or be captured. rejecting their counsels. lest peradventure your foes hinder us with an even fleeter course and. he would even more judiciously . would long to attack the hosts of those coming against him with his own new recruits. Then the elders. he would be himself even more perfect. laying hold of the reins of his bridle. riding swiftly. restraining quarrels and disputes and disagreements. barely constrained by the beseechings of the warriors of greater age. seeing him continue steadfast in the intention of his own mind and not assent to these words of advantageous advice. finding the town devoid of warriors. the deceit of this abominable deception. he would lavish every care upon the duty of divine service. As common talk would immediately make public the conspired deception of that detestable conference. with altarcloths and various liturgical things and with a bountiful hand he would even more abundantly furnish food and drink for paupers and. that it not be captured. And make for the town of Rouen. He would even more strictly drive monks and canons and laypeople to obey God.

Baldwin III of Flanders (+ 962). 3. good duke. Now teach innumerable boys the arts. bards. in a harmonious song Whatever the successors of this great father accomplish! Notes: 1. with great labor. 4. 2. Apostrophe to the Town Oh city. Geoffrey "Greymantle. . you lack masters." count of Anjou circa 960/961 ff. because I was not at the time your inhabitant. Behold how your judicious.feed the people under his advocacy with the nourishment of safety. compassionate. Snatched from the snares of such chiefs. more plentifully furnished than very many others With an abundance of goodness and with sacred warriors. Accomplishes things which are of God and are suitable for you. They will know how to compose. the good deeds after which he strove! But it is a defect. Composed with great labor. repelling pagans and miscreants. Preferring the "Richardum" of Rouen 1173 and others. 5. son of Arnulf I. holy. Preferring the "Richardi" of Rouen 1173 and others. Through it all on the path of right judgment! But. If only you possessed chattering poets who sang in verse. I do not know how to relate what he strove to do. Seine-Maritime. Dep.

.6. Now called the Bethune.

Thus. once the leaders of all Francia and Burgundy had been hastily massed. in his bragging haughtiness. again sought out king Lothar and said to him with a deceitful heart: "Will you. I will give you some propitious and advantageous measures to assist you against any attempts on the part of his audacious cunning. he rushed upon and beseiged and captured Evreux in an unexpected contest and gave it. Apostrophe Highest marquis and reverend duke. sent for all his fideles to come to him as an armed assembly. suffer his harmful presumption to persist in your realm? And will he continue to hold the Norman realm without your voluntary bounty? How are you with justice to be called king." Truly the king. Equitable and bountiful ruler of the people. as the goodness of so great a duke and so great a patron was being profusely published far and wide throughout all Europe. worthy and noble. if you are not able to rule the realm of the Franks? Besides.[ 53 ] Meanwhile. delighted and merry about this offer. Celebrated. Your moderate desire will not now be diminished . Irrevocable and kind supporter Of the orphan. to Tetbold. agreeing with the contention of the insolent Richard. just as his grandfather Rollo once did to your grandfather Charles. with gathered Dacian heathen. I will claim the whole Norman region for you. in accordance with their covenant. the exile and the widow. Tetbold. corrupted by the poisonous malice of treachery. to attack. the realm under your authority. he may possibly decide. Defender of the clergy and champion of the populace. of his own accord. You attack and besiege and capture for me the city of Evreux.

Will also be returned to you by the highest judge. Preferring the "tibimet" of Rouen 1173. accomplish always. carried off from you by stealth. Nor will you be harrassed by doubt While your (note 1) misfortunes increase. At once does the eternal ruler violently mangle this man. As does a father sweetly reviving his offspring. do these things always. What you are doing now. Refreshing instead the one whom he cherishes. The town. .By these accidental misfortunes. Notes: 1. What you are accomplishing now.

However duke Richard the great. and he lacks the boats to cross it. that is near Evreux. however. count Tetbold stole secretly into Norman territory with his own amassed his army." then said to him: "How many thousands are in his army? On what side of the Seine is he approaching our borders?" He replied: "Three thousand. And he is. he would hasten to strike us from the other side. trusting to that innumerable military band." The great duke replied to him: "If he strove to give battle against us or to beseige the town of Rouen. reported to duke Richard that count Tetbold was at hand. for whom boats are available.[ 54 ] Thus the mightiest duke Richard. called together the hardiest legions of the Norman army and. slew several men whom he encountered separated from their army and. approaching Norman territory. but cruelly resolves to disgrace us by creating disorder. returned home undaunted. by force of arms. marched on Tetbold and. and let us ascertain which of us is more pleasing to God. sad and sorrowful at the sudden misfortune of these events. When. But because the deep main of the Seine stands as an obstacle between us and them. in no way is he trying to challenge us in war. pillaging and consuming by fire the fatherland under our authority. duke Richard the great had learned by the report of certain people that Tetbold." Having said these things. cross towards them with our gathered leaders. pillaging and setting fire to the Chartrain and the county of Dunes. After duke Richard the great's armies (note 1) had scattered and returned to their own homes. But let us. Truly he. had arrived. he sent a certain Richardulus to report swiftly on the size of the army. where the town is conspicuously located. said to those present: "This man has indeed taken part in a struggle with Tetbold's followers. riding rapidly towards the place where Tetbold was staying. darkened by the blood of the slain. rushing upon us from the left side. he took refuge in the . seeing him covered with blood and his weapons drenched with gore.

(note 2) situated in the harbor on the other side of the Seine river from Rouen. But that hardiest marquis Richard has sought another harbor for navigation and. or where he conceals himself. has attacked those of the Franks who are armed and opposing them and. And in that very spot the tide of battle is turned against the wedged-shaped formations of the remaining enemy. all the way to the houses of Ementrudeville. But count Tetbold. of one mind. their brazen shields joined and strapped together. For the warlike and fierce nation of the Normans.beneficial aid of efficacious prayer. In order not to be killed by the . and the very assurance of life itself is bewailed as lost. For at that time a hardy band of Normans. Truly God. who resists the arrogant. as the great duke Richard's followers cry out. exalts and raises up the humble. running to and fro. No one even recognizes where he turns in trying to deliver himself. approaching as a battle-line of glittering swords. crossing the bed of the Seine throughout the night. has cut through the thick host of opponents. would act fiercely. mangling and overthrowing and smashing right and left the wedge-shaped battleformations of their enemies. harshly killing and overthrowing the enemy hosts. that the field of battle is his. Indeed in the first combat encounter they would do battle with mutilated spears and lances. hearkened to the most humble wish of his devout prayer. making for the hall of the sacrosanct mother of God and placing the precious present of a corporal upon her altar. traverses the hazardous battle like wolves through sheepfolds. But in the second with glittering swords. rushing upon him at dawn. trying to keep out of the way. in the malevolent aim of his Norman plan. the confidence to do battle has departed from all of Tetbold's men. Hereupon a great carnage of Franks is brought to pass in that place. maliciously in that land and would travel. has initiated (with a few followers) the war against Tetbold. riding over the corpses of the slain. surrounded by an iron-clad army. Indeed. and the varied company is tormented and slain.

boil with a new carnage And foaming streams turn red with sacred blood. 2. of the deceased and the mutilated. a suburb of Rouen. lying open. is blank. Today Saint-Sever. 3. the carnage finished. Preferring the "exercitibus" of Bongars 390 and others. And duke Richard congratulate the glad warriors. Bodies lie prostrate. . Conjecturing "pingere" where the ms. others in marshes thickly rooted with alders and poplars. Each one picturing (note 3) for himself the critical moments of variable death. some preserve themselves in thickets dense with growntogether shrubs. Apostrophe If peradventure you had been there. And lukewarm gore steam upon the grass. you would have seen Fields and woods. Bodies whose garments the fierce rustic nation would utterly despoil.Normans. Notes: 1.

Once their horses had been spurred into quick motion.[ 55 ] But meanwhile count Tetbold. wearied by combat and by the extended pursuit of his enemies. Beyond that. he himself emerged mutilated and put to flight. however. For he deeply. And the delightful field. and found many dead and many wounded. A wave moves the coursing tide of the vast deeps And laps the florid pastures of the odiferous banks. at dawn. which his followers were holding. containing distinguished vineyards. Arising. he did not even turn aside at the town of Evreux. dressed in shady shining branches. finding six hundred and forty dead. to whom he offered indulgence with the same compassion. pushed backwards by the waves of the threatening ocean. swiftly sought aid in flight with a few followers. he had the thickets and the marshes searched. returned to Rouen at nightfall. . changes and increases of the lunar cycle Twist it. And gently and abundantly washes the grassy foliage. in his compassion. with a cerulean whirlpool. stripped of his fideles (put to flight or overthrown and killed). he caused those who were still alive to be carried gently on a bier to Rouen and healed. felt on that day the misfortune of a four-fold defeat at the hands of the blessed marquis Richard. most famous for goodness. approaching the field of battle. Apostrophe When the losses. severe pain at the destruction of so many. The nimble stream of the undulating river Seine meanders. deservedly. namely. he observed his fideles overthrown in battle. overcome by death. he commanded them to be interred. Both hills. But marquis Richard. one of his sons fell. the town of Chartres and its garrison tumbled down. and meadows. utterly burned up by fire. he felt.

Lavishly decorated by the slipping river's pleasant profits (Whereby it is able to pacify itself with a reward of varied advantage). rules and. cherishing. Who. guards you And. Preferring the "muro" of CC 276. Rouen. marvelous and stupendous in deeds. marquis. filled with the bounty of unbeatable strength.All shine sufficiently. duke and count. compassionate. exalts. (note 1) chases. Notes: 1. good and modest. . hinders and censures your enemies. Protects. more constant than a wall. But you gleam even more as you are fortified by the merits And in every way equitable manners of the illustrious patrician Richard. you now shine because of it. Especially worthy. due to the refreshing course of its waves. upright and holy. celebrated city.

vilely ruined by such enemies. so that the hardy Dacian folk might hasten to assist him. would freely strive for whatever he had in view. roads and by-ways cannot be recognized. the great duke Richard has swiftly sent to Dacia extraordinary ambassadors from his household. Famine appears. Each inhabitant. going away and accosting the king and Tetbold. Safety and hope and confidence are bewailed as lost by those left behind. But that most steady duke. but worked by all with voluntary exertion. But duke Richard the Great's land would remain safe and calm. having perceived his ability to achieve his own purpose. Francia. The thoroughfares.[ 56 ] With these things triumphantly accomplished. would toss the rest of the company into their ships. well-nigh all of Francia under Tetbold's rule has been deserted by its residents. All the land of the king and of count Tetbold is deserted. In these circumstances. lamentably. not distressed by any disastrous destruction. and to devastate the holdings of Tetbold and of the king. observing the leaders of so great a multitude. they would torch suburban areas and throw many castles to the ground. and of so great a Norman scourge. for the land is not cut by the plow. the churches. for they are ruined by the dishonor of a universal plague. because they are beaten down by no one's footsteps. distressed for nearly a year both night and day by the countless misfortunes of such great strife and rapine. But after this the Dacians. would pillage indiscriminately whatever they hit upon. Truly cheered by these embassies. the Dacians hastily approach Rouen with swiftly outfitted and loaded ships. With all the villas of the countryfolk layed waste. . and striving to avenge the ill-will of wrath and displeasure visited upon him. has commanded them to make for Jeufosse. They would kill in a cruel manner whoever stood against them and. would no longer be able to bear the hazards of such great misfortune.

For we. Tetbold. since the goodness of the most holy duke Richard was known and acknowledged.abandoned because of these events. along with their fellow bishops. having endured the fury of the Norman pagans. are visited by no worshippers of Christ. who has relayed to him this message: "The bishop of Chartres sends you the faithful gift of his prayers. I found the inhabitants of this land untroubled by enemies. smiling at what he had heard. reaching duke Richard the Great. However. under the safeguard of your assistance. would excite the bishops and royal officials to wrangle with Richard's pagans as well. are wondering why you allow pagans to rage harshly against Christians. For he wants to approach you and exchange words with you. he has sent a certain monk to duke Richard. Thus. and I saw the churches reverently attended by the . they deprecate the bishop of Chartres. stirring up strife. send you the gift of their incessant prayers. so that your devils and wolves shall not devour and eat him. taking counsel about this matter. the bishops would only marvel at the words of count Tetbold. their shrines were not in dread of any sudden adverse misfortune. struck senseless. constrained by the admonitions of his fellow bishops. wherefore he is asking that a wayfarer be given to him as a guide and helper on his trip. for the Christians. for the sake of the state and of their loyalty to the king. have called together a holy synod to explore what they should do. through that fearful region tyrannized by immense enmity." The most serene duke Richard. (note 1) whose will it is that duke Richard the Great be questioned about the dishonor of that baleful scarcity and loss. Moreover. exposed to dangers. would be tormented. harassed by countless misfortunes and by so very many fires and by the greatest possible robberies and plunderings. Therefore the prelates of all Francia. But with the false deceit of a fraudulent aim. when you are renowned throughout the world as a worshipper of God and as an extraordinary Christian? Once I had passed. The latter. has sent someone to lead the bishop to him safe and sound. begins to speak: "The metropolitans of the Frankish nation.

to increase the name of the Christian faith. his goodwill. a city which he now holds? Besides." However most mighty Richard. since we have come to you for this purpose. on account of the condition of the sacrosanct church and of the state. But the count brags even now that he will battle and fight against you yourself. that the reason why this detestable damage is being stirred up against the Frankish nation be made clear with words of truth. Lothar's duke. We are exhausted by robberies and fires. ensnared by the deceitful lies and subterfuges of that same count." Then duke Richard. and so that the bishops and the king might likewise boast of you. yea indeed by the misfortunes of sudden and nocturnal death. However this accursed affair turns out. we beseech you now to procure some increase of peace. do you recall the many evils that were repeatedly visited upon me? Did not Bruno. go-between of his fellow bishops: "I do not know whether I shall be able to procure the happiness of a peace from the pagans. if he would give him Evreux. and desiring to reconcile the Frankish and Norman realms. veracious and equitable: "Remembering. has said to the prelate. on bended knees of body and soul. try to apprehend and kill me. Truly. but unwilling to show. which is why you have come to . so that you might be able to boast of yourself along with the bishops and king Lothar. ravaging and burning in the harbor of Rouen with an immense enemy host?" Then the prelate: "You do not all owe him revenge for his reviling challenge (note 2) to battle. Wherefore do we pray with all our might.inhabitants and the mystery of the divine office solemnly celebrated. and we do not know by whose design this execrable calamity is being stirred up against us. because of Tetbold. so great a duke and a most Christian patron. recognizing that no offering and sacrifice is as acceptable to God as the increase of peace. did he not challenge me. whom God rescued in his bountiful mercy? Did not that count also promise the Norman region to king Lothar. try to ensnare me at the deceitful prompting of count Tetbold? Did not king Lothar. it is important unceasingly to carry out everything necessary for the worship of the true faith.

who are the commander of this affair. count Tetbold immediately realized and ascertained that. he does not long to earn any other favor (note 4) unless." Truly duke Richard. for the sake of this business. he will come whenever you like. And he declares publicly that he will cause evil no longer. in the meantime. restraining the baleful attacks of Dacian savageness. at night. a peace had been sought. I am wavering. he brawled and wrangled with you without cause. when the sun has passed halfway through the month of May. nor even of appeasing it by collecting money from the whole realm. without his advice. exposed to tyrannical enmity. Also.me. The land under his authority. if it be agreeable to you. And. and to return to you Evreux. all the days of your life. He prays on bended knees of body and soul that. will try. when he heard these things. to speak to you privately as a servant to his lord. come to me with some of your fellow bishops and royal officials. and that is why. deceived by the perverse advice of certain Franks. silently thanked God in his own mind. to say the following words: "Count Tetbold sends you his faithful allegiance. he replied to the monk: "Are you saying that these things can be true?" He answered: "They are true. continuing steadfastly in this declaration of deep love for you. And I. He at once sent a certain monk to duke Richard the Great. and that he has caused whatever ill he has wrought. doubting. with his privy . Therefore. in order to obtain the grace of your love. and he is incapable of withstanding the fury of so great a multitude. returning the town of Evreux to you. through flattery. he stays with you. you be indulgent to the sacrosanct church and to the foresaken population." However. For he is repentant that. and take him as your faithful servant. except through you. is being pillaged by robberies and fires. as the bishop of Chartres was reporting to the king and to his fellow bishops what he had heard from duke Richard the Great. to restrain the headstrong arrogance of the haughty (note 3) pagans. which the king has taken away from you. He now strives. as the peace and concord of an indestructible alliance. And.

Scorched. for I stand in need of your compassion. and my rightful region is like some desert. (note 7) I am returning the fortress of Evreux to you willingly and. compelled by Tetbold's humble devotion. And in order to accomplish that. serving as though in return for some boon. as (note 5) he caught sight of the other. they kissed and (note 6) were seated." They thus made an alliance on the saints' relics which had been brought to them. moreover." And the monk reported what he had heard to count Tetbold. therefore. to the walls of the town of Rouen. to affirm what I have offered you by an oath of allegiance of true trustworthiness. and by the mutual assistance of common aid. both in itself and as the propitiatress of the God of all. everywhere. You shall have the happiness of uninterrupted peace. suppliant." The most humble duke Richard the Great. Through inextricable ordinances. if it be to his liking. wavering at nothing. you shall obtain whatever you seek. we will support each other confidently. six days hence. Each of them. without a hostage or an oath of from me. none of my followers shall henceforth be hurtful or injurious to you and yours. Then Tetbold spoke first: "A suppliant. let there be between us a splendid peace. I will correct all damage to you resulting from my advice and action. I will fight for you. embracing one another. I am. a steadfast and perfect concord. are the lands I hold. with his privy counsellors. The privy counsellors of each count likewise . a delightful repose. Tetbold himself came by night to Rouen." Then Richard replied: "Because of our faith in God.counsellors. I ask your compassionate pardon and indulgence for having held it against your will. through which we live and are invigorated and which is the tenacious prop of our own career. to be maintained through unbroken and inextricable laws. we highly approve that he come to us. ran to meet the other one and. and that we be joined together in an indissoluble alliance. But from now on I am yours. your unutterable Grace. Six days later. a tranquil calm. ready to carry out with pleasure what the monk offered you. replied to the count: "You have come here. I come before you. delighted and merry over the report. as you are mine.

Gracious. noble. embellishing it with an outpouring of all good things. sent for duke Richard to take it back. as had been commanded. moreover. Protector. It would be most fitting were it to be rich in the heroic metre. skilful. mild. the latter. however. He. departed and returned secretly to Chartres that same night. immense And knowledgeable in the languages of diverse regions. The greatest. withdrawing from the town of Evreux with all their goods. lovable and Clement. Illustrious. lenient. holy and humble. For this man. rigorous. . exceptional. compassionate. bountiful. indulgent. diligent. Peace-making. excellent and magnanimous. solemn.confirmed these same things by an oath of allegiance of true trustworthiness. secured it with an abundance of warriors and made it fruitful. And deprived of the redolent nectar of the rhetorical honeycomb. Then that most generous marquis Richard (note 8) honored him copiously with the greatest possible number of presents and gifts. bloom. deserving. marvelous and handsome. censor. Patient. With various metres of diverse type. this extremely useless work. merciful and avenging accursed deeds. strong. defender. equitable. gentle. Eminent. For that very day the Tetboldians. bountiful giver of offices. celebrated. composed by lamplight. (note 10) Judicious and wise. Extraordinary. charming. Since in this metre do the strong deeds of men. very lofty. distinguished. taking it back. good and upright. A work both needful of assistance and destitute of skill. delighting in that longed-for kiss and desired embrace. constant. Apostrophe However much the rustic style of our inexperience (note 9) may adorn. himself moderate. robust in arms.

Beneficium. Supporter of kings and dukes. A dinner of varied and very generous food for every hungerer. rich. courteous to everyone. Preferring the "-que" of Bongars 390 and others. Beneficium. elegant. sufficient for every thirster. 5. in this way (as long as he flourished in this world) all things to everyone. placid. Notes: 1. hope and confidence for the populace. delightful and persuasive. like a spouse and husband. serene. 3. prelates and counts. Vulfadus. glad. . (note 11) Finely formed. 4. 967. and eye for the blind. Preferring the "arrogantium" of Bongars 390 and others. Immoderate guardian of the pauper. Witty. frugal and truth-telling. Wonderful. splendid in appearance. he tried to benefit all. He harmed no one. Preferring the "ut" of Bongars 390 and others. Foot for the lame. and staff for the tottering. Protector of the widow. 2. steadfast.Attentive. 7. 6. opulent and a bestower of gifts. Delightful head of the people. eager and thirsting for good. Tranquil. happy. faithful. bishop of Chartres c. the exile and the needy. A generous drink. 962 . docile. agreeable and trusty. Tall and handsome. without gloom.c. Preferring the "provocationis" of Bongars 390 and others. Pleasant. Become.

11. 10. Honorum. Preferring the "Ricardus" of CC 276.8. 9. Preferring the "veridicus" of CC 276. . Preferring the "inscitiae" of Rouen 1173.

the magnates of the whole Frankish realm. pray with the knees of their hearts bent to the ground that you pardon our sacrosanct church and our annihilated nation. wish you every present and future good if you would restrain the rage of the pagans and rescue Francia from their baleful assault. and all the clergy of the entire realm. of one mind. recalling the good which your father brought to his father. Moreover the king himself and the magnates of all Francia. Whatever the king has done against you. he did at the urging of count Tetbold's deceitful prompting and he is disgusted at his behavior. will ratify for you and your heirs in perpetuity. affluence and valor.[ 57 ] Once all this had been (privately and with circumspection) brought to completion. so does he desire to hold realms and dominate the arrogant with the great help of your power. Thus at the settled time of the ides of May. the tribute of faithful allegiance and prayer. and the rest of the remaining Franks. once he had been chosen to succeed to the realm. and they said: "Duke of unheard-of power. flourished with your father's assistance. (note 5) May the two of you be united by the common prayers of a reciprocal agreement and. (note 3) the royal officials (note 4) came there with the bishops to procure a peace from duke Richard the Great. may you continue steadfastly. on the part of the Franks. king Louis. Thus. just as his father. Moreover the king. each of you with the aid of the other. coming before duke Richard. For indeed the next day. they offered him. the Norman . trusting confidently. and he commanded them to be properly and reverently received and lodged in tents set up next to that marvelous tent. the celebrated marquis and duke Richard commanded a tent of marvelous breadth and width to be built on the bank at Jeufosse in time for the arrival of the royal officials (note 1) and pontiffs of the Frankish nation. and we ourselves. of one mind. (note 2) that is when the Twins are kindled by the blazing sun. swearing with their own hands.

You are not ignorant that. that most famed marquis Richard began to flatter and calm them with the . not one of them shall in any way compass any damage unfavorable to you. profusely endowed with an abundance of all virtues. You are not ignorant that. in order not to be destroyed. I commanded them. readily fertilized by a plenteousness of all good qualities and public deeds. because of the inconveniences and quarrels of your followers. I have not been able to hold to it. rather than to aim for any good fortune or official dignity." Then. I sent for the Dacians to assist me swiftly. what you have reported to me is true. were the matter considered at all! If. having come to me in haste. I will not hesitate to confide to you confidently my next intended and willed plan. Peace has always been most important and special to me but. disgusting to recount. after that. wanted to ensnare me.realm. learn beyond a shadow of a doubt that my utmost desire is to carry out and confirm my labor with the happiness of peace." The most distinguished duke and marquis replied to those discharging the instructions of their embassy: "O reverent prelates. oppressed by the weight of great anxiety. archbishop of Cologne and likewise duke of Lotharingia. Bruno. Therefore. and no less you magnates. which God has returned to me? Moved by these and many other such inconveniences. Therefore. both to possess lastingly what it anxiously beholds and not to let slip what it has begun to possess. What can you reply about the town of Evreux. when all the Normans had been gathered together. For there is nothing that tortures someone more than not to see what he desires or to see what he shall lose. at count Tetbold's prompting. to visit upon you this tyrannical scourge so that even a fool would recover his senses. because in each case the soul wavers. your lord king Lothar wanted to capture or kill me. set up with me a fitting time for the needful peace. provoked by the lying ingenuity of that same man. and realize and contemplate which of our and your followers has been harmed. therefore. reflect upon and be mindful of the plots and ills I have suffered from him.

which we have attacked. you have until now brawled and wrangled with foreign nations because of your love for me. her leaders banished or killed. what about the Alans. the very mighty duke Richard would beset them with many repeated appeals and. without cause. stunned. be granted. I ought incessantly to give thanks to you. would deprecate them with all his strength to ally with the Frankish people after agreeing upon a peace. (note 6) However. yea indeed I ought affluently to offer gifts to you because. if not.gentlest addresses: "Oh fathers of highest reverence. will be obtained for you by force and military power. supplicatingly seek that an interval of negotiated peace be granted them. let it fall to us. But finally duke Richard the Great. but all Francia. that it be yours or ours. we will claim Francia. with monstrous enmity? What about the Irish. incessantly (and by force of arms) distressed by your pillaging. they who. the king. alas. it behooves us to deny it. are to attack along with us. not having the power to calm the fury of such men by any of his efforts at beseeching them. It is according to reason that the request be granted if it is agreeable to you. Resolve upon the matter of this request through common deliberation. and let us explore how to respond to it. twice a day for twice two days. what will the other Dacians and the Norwegians say or do." Having heard this. (note 7) saying of one mind: "In no way shall an uninterrupted peace. spoke separately with his trusty gathered . Alas. if it is agreeable. will not be fulfilled while we are alive. for you. Thus. not even for a limited interval of time." Then the Normans (who were also Dacians) presented themselves to duke Richard. dukes and counts of those very nations. and would observe this contest over the making of peace. having readied and loaded their ships to aid in this matter. what about all the rest of the many nations? This declaration of your will. which you have layed bare before us. marvelously revealing yourselves in great and middle and youthful age. Therefore choose which of the two you prefer. Furthermore. upon me. foresaking the land of your birth due to the damage inflicted. But if that is not agreeable. the prelates and magnates of the Frankish nation would stand by each day.

Let the elders and the mightier among them be called together secretly in the first part of the coming night and. we pray. into one. so that he might crown man (being immortal though made from the mud) with glory and honor and set him over all the works of . therefore you do not shudder to commit any evil act. so that it not return to its creator: you all suppose that your souls will be destroyed along with your bodies. and make clear to us. Although the human race was begotten by the Lord. battling so for the sake of temporal rewards. himself lacking either beginning or end. joining two elements." Then they: "Recount for us. softening them with persuasive speeches: "This is the theory of our creation that is discerned to be true by orthodox men. the tenth of the twice five orders of heaven dwellers." Then that most judicious count spoke. with the greatest possible gifts and plentiful reward. the sacred secret of this proposition. yet whatever you have done in this life will certainly be displayed before you in that one.(note 10) obediently heed my speech. Indeed. and would affirm it as beneficial to themselves. perfect adornment. created both to journey over this entire mundane mass and as its own marvelous. as quickly as possible. he made known to the mightiest elders of the Norman nation. one which you now disregard. as a replacement for the fallen angels. how we were created. (note 9) in return for which you will miss eternal life and instead deservedly enjoy the river Phlegethon. due to the insolent contention of his own presumption and bragging.leaders: "For as long as we have appealed to this entire rough and valiant nation all at the same time. at dusk on the following night. had fallen. God formed man. what he would meditate upon in his own heart. it has not assented to our entreaties. namely the living and the dying. After. beyond this life there is another life. and he said with mellifluous speech: "O deservedly venerable fathers. (note 8) let us cause them to withdraw (if perchance they favor our prayers and our desire)." The leaders of the Franks would allege this advice to be advantageous and propitious indeed. Therefore. foolish error leads it away along changing and contrary roads. called together privately.

and vilely subjected them to himself. to the heavenly glory of the angels. We call the Father the Genitor. without change to himself. although the Father be God. I long to proclaim for you the faith in which we believe. the grief!. which that haughty one had lost. But alas. he established the earth with his might. to fashion dissimilar things. but he carried the offspring of the entire human race with him into detestable villainy and the anguish of death. (note 11) The nature of his being is to endure. he bound the seas together by his own calculations. and so that man might at some time pass. is able to dispose changeable things. he was to be truly immortal if he would bind himself with chains of charity to obedience to his creator. without variation in himself. With him there is no changing. without the death of the flesh. After this the ancient enemy deceitfully possessed dominion over all men. we avow that the Son is Begotten. he made everything he desired with his Word and then made it lasting with his Spirit. and in these three persons. we believe that the Holy Spirit flows from both of them. and inhabits the inaccessible light. In this way. nor any darkening of alteration. For this God vaulted the heavens with precision. and in all these. and allured by the allurements of greed. to do diverse things. we adore a Trinity in persons and. the Holy Spirit God. For we worship one God in substance. nor would he have been dependent upon the laws of death. the Son God. for he alone endures immutably. nevertheless God is believed to be only one. deceitfully entangled in the treasonous cunning of the ancient enemy. He. Indeed he alone truly is. He is both . "For he alone possesses immortality. and carelessly scorning the injunctions of his maker and.his own hands. "But since I have briefly described the sequence of events of creation and proto-creation to which we cleave with our hearts and minds. namely the Genitor and the Onlybegotten and the One Proceeding out of both. foresaken as a result. we profess a single divineness. he himself received the judgment of condemnation. without any alteration of thoughts. and one of equal glory and majesty. always eternal and immutable.

With the annunciation of the angel. himself below. by filling he is within. For who can. say how he was born. and coequal to him. One who. and entirely without location. himself within. By ruling he is above. he begat one equal to himself? And how the one born is not posterior to the one begetting? Because the father is. in order. "Both humanly enduring the course of fleeting time. in his own bountiful compassion. which was with God in the beginning. their former health to those struck with palsy. by carrying he is below. who is one with him. for God is himself above. light light. sight to the blind. hearing to the deaf. and commanding the very sea . but which we are not in the least able to contemplate. formed in his own image and likeness. co-eternal. and he is neither born through some commencement nor confined by some end. deigned to be born from a mother within time and. he entered. worthily. this God disposed that the Word. "Indeed. abased to the ignominy of a human beginning and to the filth of swaddling clothes and to the baseness of a manger. like electrum.everywhere. all things are contained. born from a father without time. and which he begat without time. a vast one a vast one. to rescue the human race. himself without all creatures. from the eternal one? And how. namely bountifully giving the ability to walk to the lame. and coeternal. he begat this one: God begetting God. into flesh. for our redemption. for the loftiness of his divinity neither begins to be nor stops being. from the hostile heinousness of the fallen angels. a nativity at which we can indeed marvel. (note 12) to be a single individual in both and from both natures. become incarnate for our redemption. he both remained God with the Father and was made a mortal man from his mother. clean and agreeable and delicate skin and flesh to the leprous. from the flesh of the sacrosanct Virgin. an omnipotent one an omnipotent one. and marvelously working diverse miracles. existing before the ages. an incomprehensible one an incomprehensible one. Within the omnipotence of his judgment. by surrounding he is without. and his might is not surpassed by the nature of any creature.

For he paid the debt in full to abolish for his servants that death which the ancient enemy brought upon the first man and his race. "Indeed. will visit those bones and carry off its former habitation. showing himself (made public) to his fideles. redeemed by his blood. making the swellings of the sea treadable for himself and Peter. as he produced water and blood from his side. with the mystery of death celebrated and hell harrowed. having rejected the infections of the malign enemy. undergoing it affixed to the cross. for a time will come when vital heat. he showed the inviolable road by which they might ascend from whence they had fallen. perchance. now animated by . to have neither blemish through crime nor wrinkle through division. partner of the soul. but consigned to the last stage. will carry the flesh of the body back to heaven with it.and the winds. in the sight of the apostles bore up into heaven the flesh which he had taken on from the Virgin. the greatest care is expended by Christians on their tombs. namely the bodies putrefied in the tombs. having abided with them until the fortieth day after his resurrection. Wherefore if that combination of the two elements. cleansed by this liquid. he raised the dead (for instance Lazarus after four days in the sepulchre) and did everything whatsoever that he wished in heaven and on earth and in the sea and in hell. having collected a mass of vices and renounced the promises pledged in baptism. namely man. the sojourner. has served God in this life and has obeyed his commands with every able effort. which draws its germ from heaven. the living and more potent part of him. and when he pulled our flesh with him to the stars. it shall turn the soul awry. If. he delivered to himself the Virgin and the immaculate church. his earthly will has savoured that which is vile and striven after that which is unwholesome and execrable and oppressed the virtues of the soul under the weight of sins. Finally. he came to the public spectacle of his voluntary death and. he rose on the third day and. and the bodies in them are not believed to be entirely dead. "Therefore. dragging it to hell with it.

since the destruction of this death is the restoration of a better life. they said: "Alas for us." Then the duke replied: "If you wish to follow our advice. and store up nothing for themselves.live blood. and they will be taken up. But if you do not deny us the happiness of the complete peace for which I ask. "This is the catholic faith which. They look earnestly for the means to live for the present. For even if decaying duration has entirely dissolved the body." Hearing these things. and then profusely instructed by bishops through a fuller preaching of the complete faith. drawing a cry from deep in the breast. without end. into heaven. nor from the birds of the sky. (note 13) whereby you shall be able to live and will not perish for eternity. although we differ from them in that we save for the future by treasuring up whatever food and drink is superfluous. unacquainted with all these blessings and ignorant of the scriptures and of the power of God. it will still not be permitted for that man to die. and the wandering winds and gentle breezes have borne those ashes. so that it is but the smallest handful of ashes. we beg. I will first have you baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. this the creed of beneficial faith and salvation. joined to the souls which they had before. no one can be saved. so that we might have the power to live both in the present and for eternity. and may inconstant wandering never . after that endowed with the most bountiful gifts and the most ample favors. the comfort of this present life. the reward of future repayment. through the void. without believing steadfastly and firmly. the Dacians were astounded and. the ungodly will go into the eternal fire. in that we procure incessantly through robbery. or be punished with him. with Christ the Son of God as judge. that. we differ in nothing from the beasts. with whom it practised the virtues." And they: "We pledge you both a guarantee of peace and to hold fast to the sacrosanct faith. but his soul will either be rewarded along with he himself. Give us advantageous advice. Truly we live similarly. with whom it sinned and thus. however the just will go into eternal life. This is the main point of our salvationgiving belief. useless. winged. you will enjoy.

But their will would not in the least assent to his prayers. once this extended sham has barely ceased. They will be exiled or killed." Once all this had been thoroughly discussed privately. once the alliance had been made and the calm of a peace had been sworn. fighting along with them. while you superfluously speak idle words." Then different Normans. Richard (note 14) spoke. and likewise that bustling populace of abominable boldness. from the least to the greatest. softening them with this mellifluous address: "Return to your ships as part of my own forces and my own soul.press us to turn away from your advice!" Indeed that night. taking precautions so that no one knows that you came here. and their whole nation completely obliterated. claim for himself by force of arms the land over which you now preside?" Then all. assent to my wishes. Thus. the great duke hastily arose and said confidently to the innumerable legions of gathered Dacians: "Having waited until this point upon the malevolent tergiversations of your perverse intention. said with a reverberating cry: "Either they shall die. speaking with one will. you too will be overcome. and with all kinds of prayers I will earnestly request your and their compassion for an increase of peace and a calm relationship to be granted. having pillaged the realm of Francia. You are uselessly casting your verbal exertions to the ground. to which you superfluously bustle to make us assent. or [that land] will be claimed." Truly. We pray. with stealthy steps lest you be seen. If a certain someone is found to be unbecoming of our created condition. first thing in the morning. I will again and again demand departure from your obstinate hearts. duke Richard the Great would put forth one prayer after another. For did not your grandfather. But at dawn I will call you back. but in the end. That peace and concord. each one turned his footsteps toward home. and with all his strength would ask them to grant peace. . Reject and resist my words. will never and in no wise exist between us and the Franks. grant us the oft-denied advantage (note 15) of peace. put forth: "He labors in vain who throws seeds upon a rock.

lineage and arms. and willingly to satisfy his wishes. made plain to us the plan suited to your will. in a gaping manner. wherefore are you offering us such execrable things. Things will not work out according to the intention of your pleasure. he desires. began (with rising outcries of objections) to wrangle even more impetuously. to what the duke commands and beseeches. to the wonder of both the Franks and the Richardians. withdrawing after having heard this. If Richard. if not his. It is meet to do what. if not his. of this man's advice. and to whose beseechings will we assent. of more noble lineage." Thus. nay rather sycophants. the opposers of peace said to those already obtained at night by the prudent advice of the viceroy: (note 17) "You are the mightier in age.' not 'intercessors." Then those already persuaded during the council of the nocturnal assembly. soliciting us. when thrice three days had been spent in this dispute. and therefore we will agree with you whether we like it or not. impetuously agitated. but Francia shall be savagely pillaged by force of arms to the point of destruction.Then the ones who had pledged a peace during the night said to the rest: "It is according to reason that we should be obedient to the prayers of the one for whose help and defence we came here. To whose advise will we cleave. And they said: "In our opinion you are promoters. said to his gathered leaders: "Allow them to wrangle fiercely with each other. but we will bountifully give it to the great duke whether you like it or not. What comparison is there between you and us? Are we not older than you. through your intercession. enraged. and let us see which of them shall emerge the mightier and stronger. nor will the peace which is sought be granted by any of us. more robust in arms? We ought to have been called 'givers of the peace. this duke of great power. a plan which will be boldly resisted as long as we live. spoke with the most stinging madness: "The peace will not be granted through our intercession. You have.'" Duke Richard. We will not in the least submit. whose favor (note 16) we daily enjoy?" Scarcely had they heard these things when those who were ignorant of the nocturnal deliberation. should grant us the most liberal expenses for .

I am ready to carry out what it promised to you earlier. and each has bountifully endowed the other with gifts. and both he himself and the magnates of the realm have sworn that the Norman realm would belong to him and to his descendants. each returns home along a prosperous course. and the king and duke Richard have become allied.our journey and have us led to where we might live and take some realm by assault. he kept the pagans with him so that the Franks would not kick against him. Thus. having crushed it with war and fire and robbery. . Thus. when the time for the desired conference arrived. with lowered countenance. [the pagans] came of one mind and pledged to them all. to ourselves. and as duke Richard sat. as you ask. With that embassy fulfilled. Truly Richard sent the king's ambassadors. would cause the least bit of damage to his rule. When the conference concerning the procuring of peace has been concluded. behold. Especially since neither he himself nor anyone else. in the presence of the Frankish people. reported what they heard to duke Richard." Then the pagan magnates. we shall spare the realm of Francia. and he has pledged to duke Richard the promise of an inextricable peace. delighted at the peace to come. the most potent duke. But if he does otherwise. (note 18) and I will have them led to a splendid land." When this most bountiful promise had been reported. the promise of a peace. by his urging. with the date and place of the peace-making conference having been designated and a temporary truce of hoped-for peace having been granted. back to king Lothar. and beyond that the most bountiful ornaments. has forced the heinously savage Normans to attend him there. we will sternly attach Francia. king Lothar has come with the Frankish people to the river Epte. which we have attacked. He says to them: "Lest your confidence in my promise waver. delighted with this response. spoke: "I will bestow upon them both the most ample victuals and voyagers both numerous and circumspect. endowed with the greatest possible presents. with his followers. (note 19) The duke (so magnificently pious!) having returned to town (so bountifully plenteous).

to the others. have discovered that sections of the bodies on the ground. I will grant provisions for a sea voyage. (note . We are not concerned to publicize this further." Thus. in the wake of a tremendous slaughter. since they categorize the accident [of color] as inseparable from both the raven and the Ethiopian. led to Spain by travellers from Coutances. Indeed. who desired to keep wandering astray in pagan rituals. returning three days later to the battlefield and turning over the dead in order to remove their garments. the country-people having been run through by swords. But they have seen the rest of the body retaining its original color! Truly. Yet. once the ships have been loaded with grain and heads of swine. For [this presumptuous pen] will. but let us turn our presumptuous pen to our intended (note 22) design. at the prepared font of sacrosanct regeneration. Apostrophe As the storm surged. I wonder what logicians who see the alteration here will write about this case. they have begun harshly to weaken it through fire and robbery. the Spaniards have turned their backs to the strangers. bestowing upon them most sizeable boons (note 21) from which they might live in peace. in the course of that march they have subdued twice nine cities and claim for themselves everything they have found in them. I played on the hissing flute of our stupidity. The Normans. as Mars rages. are dark and sunburnt. Pillaging on this side and that. the great marquis has stood sponsor for the former. with pleasure. yet be unable to relate in order the things which are necessary for the narration! For its good works are known to him alone who knows all things which happen. But he has had the latter.Bountifully giving gifts. (note 20) I will have some of you be reborn in the sacred font. at length the Spaniards accost the Normans with an amassed army. But. anointed with oil and chrism. illuminate whatever it can. adjoining and depending upon parts whiter than snow. attacking Spain by force of arms.

jurgati. Under the zodiacal sign of the constellation of Gemini. 6. In which are everywhere the sacred life's eight happinesses. Is trying with this trifling reed-pipe to strive after some gift of goods. 4. By which the highest good is purchased by the sincere heart. Copioso beneficio. . I have ploughed the marine depths with my little oar. stable and free from winds. 8. 10. 5. Preferring the "Ricardo" of Rouen 1173 and others. I have arrived at a harbor.. musing over whether it shall be able. Palatini.. through The forked alterations of cloven fortune. May 15. Preferring the "potestatis" of Rouen 1173 and others. now happy.. A river of fire in the Lower World. Palatini. Beneficiis. 2.23) Having been borne thus far by the wave-sounding billow (Whipped up and put down in turn by the variable whirlwind) Through great denials of marine doom. But my mind. now bitter. 7.gentes" of Rouen 1173 and others. Preferring the single sentence "O. 3. Acquired as the scanty profit of paltry wares. 9.. Notes: 1.

normally composed of gold and silver. Preferring the "opportunitatem" of Rouen 1173. Beneficium. 20. Beneficia. 18. whether natural or artificial. Preferring the "Ricardus" of Rouen 1173 and others. 14. 19. 22. 21. This agreement is frequently referred to as the Treaty of Gisors of 966. 17. Honores.11. 15. . 16. Beneficia. Beneficia. Preferring the "stultitie" of CC 276. which resembles amber in color. Preferring the "intentionis" of Rouen 1173 and others. James 1. 13. Electrum is a mixed metal. Satraps.17. 23. 12.

would grow vast. Truly duke Hugh has sent back to Richard. and with the condition of the state of Francia (preceeded by the victory of desired peace) now everywhere embellished and established as favorable. his deceased wife's brother. But in the course of that time. passes away and. has divided that great treasure of gifts among all the churches (note 1) of all Francia and Normandy. he has sent to Hugh. and the merit of his blessedness would be profusely spread abroad through the every realm. And then. and with all accusations and losses of evil assailants now denied. and he has amicably alloted her to himself in an alliance of forbidden union. that mightiest duke of copious bounty. his wife.[ 58 ] For. to distribute everything abundantly and abundantly according to his own will. sorrowful over this desolating loss. for some household servants who would disburse to the sacrosanct church and to the poor whatever his sister possessed by feminine right. most blessed duke Richard's shining fame. descended from an extremely famed family of noble Dacians and the most beautiful of all Norman maidens and the most circumspect concerning the constantly-changing results of public and civil affairs and well versed in the talents of feminine artistry and discreetly strong in richly fertile eloquence and profusely endowed with the treasure of a capacious memory and power of recollection and fortified by an abundance of all goods. Then Richard. renowned as a result of his publicized merits. (note 2) Finally. he has sired by his concubines two sons (and as many daughters). . he has joined himself to a maiden (note 3) of shining majesty. yea indeed he has copiously disbursed very many of his own possessions to the poor for the sake of her soul. with Francia now cleansed (as recounted) of the poison of this baleful enmity. conquered by the needling frailty of pleasure-seeking humanity. duke and patrician. one of whom is named Godfrey. the other William. that is the daughter of duke Hugh the Great.

becoming very much frightened at the possible downfall of a future defeat. very much planning both for a successor and an heir and an offspring who would be salvationgiving for the populace. may be as judicious as is possible in your wisely-musing scrutiny of all the Franks. of devout mind. Thus. after your lamentable and obligatory death? (note 5) For. discreet speech. lacking an advocate and heir after the mournful loss of your death-day. We request that she be joined to you by the inextricable alliance of matrimonial prerogative so that. diligent and wise in every matter. now subordinated to your extremely mighty authority. so that an heir might be born for this land from a Dacian father and mother. with the aid of your extremely advantageous advice. gentle comportment. applauding this advice with pleasure. foreign nations tread us under foot. we fear lest. in the presence of a gathering of bishops (with the clergy) and rulers (note 6) (with the laity). the land of your duchy might be ruled advantageously and steadily by her salvation-giving offspring. we wonder why you still have not devised who shall rule the populace. and in the course of time he has sired by her five male progeny and three female. For she is descended from a domineering race. circumspect and prudent in her deliberations." Thus has the extremely holy duke Richard. he would walk along the straight path of good deeds and ." Then Richard: "I have until now presided over and benefitted this state. beautiful and elegant in her appearance.But. and the Normans. knowing her to be descended from the well-known stock of an extremely noble seed. have spoken to the mightiest duke Richard with soft voices and downturned (note 4) faces: "Although you. and the Burgundians. as I have been able. the Norman magnates. will you make clear to me what you have decided in your hearts about this matter?" And they: "In our opinion. the providence of the highest divinity has joined to you this Dacian woman whom you now cherish. disciplined heart. and of all realms. as the final lot of your death draws near to hand. an heir who will be its hardiest defender and advocate. mightiest lord duke. betrothed her to himself according to matrimonial law.

a fertile mountain. he was rich in innumerable increments of overflowing goodness. having one day approached the walls of his residence at F•camp and. For this hall. which heaven-dwellers inhabit and of which they have charge. he constructed a shrine of wondrous size and a spacious mansion of monastic habitation. he said to a worker in stone. honorably extended by an augmentation of its length. standing in the raised place before the entrance to his own house and observing that very house to be higher and more ornamented than the basilica dedicated in honor of the sacred Trinity. (note 9) For this is the mountain on which my grandfather. and in that dream he kept perceiving himself being purified of the leprosy of sins by which he had been corrupted. who had been called there: "It is fitting and needful that this house of God and of prayer tower over all the dwellings of the city by the special beauty and elegant altitude of its superlative summit because. Rebuilding the churches of the Norman region at his own expense. In the maritime mount. in the town of Rouen he enlarged the marvelous monastery in honor of the Mother of God. and because it is the mother of marvelous rebirth by virtue of its bath of symbolic cleansing. . Since. For this house. Indeed. and because in it we must hear the words of divine erudition and bewail our own sins. in his gracious mercy. he wonderfully constructed very many sanctuaries in the Frankish land. skilled in the architectural art. by an oracle of divine vision. for the Lord will forever inhabit it. surrounded on all sides (according to lunar direction) by a whirlpool of refluent inundation. obliged by the celebrated method of regular ordinances. is God's mountain. as the psalm-writer said. a mountain in which the one who is pleasing to God is to live. the maker and redeemer of the human race selected it for himself. he furnished them with religious things and.actively rule the populace with the just reins of the law. observed himself standing and being cleansed in the salvation-giving font. is called and is the gate of heaven. (note 7) and there he assembled monks. as a gift of his own treasury. width and height. to serve Christ in the wretched (note 8) wrestling-place of the contemplative life. moreover.

and the bricks artfully made up (how marvelous to see and to tell!). a shrine in honor of the holy Trinity. I will place that first stone as the beginning of the foundation in token of the erecting (note 11) of God's house. however on the inside he painted a narrative history. and tore away at their edges with a light hoe and. to which he joined chalices both of great weight in gold and of great value. . and send many workers to hew out the rocks. he constructed crosses of marvelous magnitude out of the very purest gold. and the stones hewed and collected." But he immediately went. that most famed marquis finally constructed. finding no stone material suitable to use for a wall. once all the necessary preparations have been made. ascertain whether you may perhaps be able to find. not simply scalded in purples dyes. first to the slopes of the mountains. according to the model of a marvelous shape." When the limestone had been prepared. taking a grub-axe. He made over to it golden censers of unheard-of size and value. girded on every side with towers and marvelously doubly arched and artfully covered with linked-together bricks. and he set before the sanctuary golden lampstands larger than the human figure. some stone materials with which you might have the power to build a sanctuary of God that is higher than the house of our frequent abode. and construct many furnaces for the unslaked limestone for. and he graced the altars with gold and with gems obtained as great tribute. After this he whitewashed it on the outside. and garments embellished by the Phrygian art of weaving with gold thread." But he: "Lay this stone aside in a secure place. since it is meet that God's house be distinguished from the house in which we live by the more magnificent summit of its higher shape. Then the great duke Richard: "Will you be able to find enough of such stone?" He answered: "Enough. (note 10) and hewed out a single stone of gypsum in the shape of a cube and brought it before duke Richard. he made for the slopes of the mountains lying between the two little streams near F•camp and there discovered a lump of gypsum. lord.Wherefore. in the slopes and hills of the nearby mountains.

nor undermine his soul through the plenteousness of copiously-flowing and plentiful success. No breeze of adversity would fan his constant soul with any uproar. cherishing his subordinates. and the report of his liberality would spread profusely to far-flung regions. and added pure silk embroideries of marvelous handicraft and. supplied with the very whitest hoary brows. Indeed. polished in speech. He was most handsome in appearance. he would flash with a love of compassion. He would glitter with marvelous deeds. fortified by God's grace and the sole assistance for everyone.and he even added linens embroidered even more densely with gold and emeralds. Moreover. prolix in his goodness. the keenest glittering eyes and magnificent cheeks and nose. he would crush those who were fierce and rebellious. he assembled a numerous multitude of clergy. since the fixed anchor of his extremely wise mind would always be at hand for him in the salvation-giving steadfastness of its justice and judgment and charity and hope and faith. For. Wherever his name would be heard. A vigorous cultivator of justice. to serve Christ. he would remake at his own expense all the smashed churches situated in Norman or Frankish land. daily receiving their prepared food and sweating in the wrestling-place of the active life. raising up his friends. ones equitable and good. filled with strength of soul and body. he would tread his arrogant enemies under foot and. honored with a long and white (note 13) beard. and snow-white and purple ones covered with gold. would pour forth from his countenance a brightness like unto the brightness of the sun. no storm of wrath or discord would enter his heart in any bustling dissension. crowned with the ornament of astonishing beauty. tall in stature. the highest esteem would be his. and all Gaul would wonder at his bountiful goodness. . His mien. and would both carefully conceal the lawsuits of all men within his own breast and defend rights for the sake of the pious repose (note 12) of the populace. extremely wise in his mind. with that sanctuary filled full with a plenteous abundance of religious stores and solemnly dedicated by episcopal benediction.

do you see Whatever your sire completed with his splendid deeds? Blessed prelate. Apostophe to Robert Beloved prelate. do you see Him who deservedly grows in the eight signs of uprightness? Beloved prelate. Indeed. do you see That there was no one better in words than he? Beloved prelate. true. do you see That there was certainly no one mightier in actions than he? Beloved prelate. unbroken. do you see That we have reached this point with sluggish and cheap writing? Beloved prelate. his promise would be held firm by so vigorous a foundation of truth that a mountain would sooner withdraw or depart than his words be fruitless. beloved prelate. do you see The enormous surplus of this patrician's goodness? Beloved prelate. do you see The extremely beautiful subject matter and motive of these words? Beloved prelate. do you see That the statement of the subject is trifling. likewise whatever he offered would endure. damaged by no action. now Wrest his sweet deeds from this cheap statement! . rustic. Whatever he promised would abide. he would calm them with his legal ordinances and his salvation-giving power. cheap? Now hail. do you see That there is no man more hallowed in thoughts? Beloved prelate. do you see What the Evangelist writes concerning those twice twice-two blessed ones? (note 14) Blessed prelate.when any seditious situations would spread in his realm by some variegated murmuring.

5. Gospel reference. in turn. Psalm __________. Preferring the "erectionis" of Bongars 390 and others. Preferring the "excessum" of Bongars 390. Both. 9. Satrapes. 3. Preferring the "ecclesias" of Rouen 1173. 12.-Michel. her name was Gunnor. Canifera. 2. 4. . 6. held the title of count of Eu. Preferring the "requie" of Rouen 1173 and others. White lime. 13. 11. The monastery of Mont-St. 8.Notes: 1. 7. Preferring the "aerumnosa" of Bongars 390 and others. 14. According to other Norman historians. 10. Preferring the "proclivo" of Bongars 390.

The subsequent words of the Gospel promise the following: "Blessed are the meek. He subdued king Lothar through humility." Whoever reads this brief sequence of his life will have been able to become thoroughly acquainted with something of his agreeableness: how agreeable. duke of the Norman region. for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. clearer than daylight. Whatever humans. through Christ's generosity he reached the kingdom of heaven. in part through piety. The first of these is "Blessed are the poor in spirit. to have been present in this confessor who. we accordingly say with merit and equity and credibility that Richard. in his own mind: dangerous. only retaining the monarchy of the Norman region lest the condition of the sacrosanct church be imperilled by attacking pagans. in his heart: fleeting. He gathered together Franks and other nations. He protected the inhabitants of the Norman region through his extreme piety. Since He has chosen that the kingdom of heaven be composed of the poor in spirit. how meek. which he long desired. whatever as being great. of wordly creation. how extremely kind he was! He restrained count Tetbold in part through arms. is blessed and holy: all the gifts associated with the evangelical beatitudes (note 1) are certainly found in him. we believe that he has been assigned to it. with the effort of all his heart and the emotion of all his mind. and not for the sake of any transient esteem. to him: not everlasting." This is something which appears. gave himself over to the imitable poverty of Christ. how benevolent.[ 59 ] Having briefly summed up his deeds. As a devoted head of the . for they shall inherit the earth. Veraciously foresaking all those things in his own mind and wholly spurning them in his own heart. calling them to himself through extremely humble words and through presents. whatever as being delightful. He regulated the Dacians through the agreeableness of his words and through gifts. hold fast as being of great value.

" For he was indeed rich in treasures and tributes and warriors and household servants. justice and peace kissed one another. and this his unfailing thirst: that he cause everyone to convert. for they will see God. he who watched over the land of his fleshly life with such gentle kindness. by means of the deceitful goods of this duping world." Who doubts that the heart of that duke and patrician and confessor (so great!) was a sanctuary of the lord and a hall of the eternal king? The pureness of his heart would shine far and wide. and his most serene face would clearly disclose the purity of his mind. he uttered agreeable words in every affair and deed. while he lived. he . He would overpower with the abominable yoke of the law those who neglected equity. Even as a layman. He was benevolent in every pursuit. in his realm mercy and truth met one another. on judgment day. Moreover. worldly affairs. as the Psalmist reports. inconstant error would draw away from the abandoned straight and narrow into an execrable headlong fall. and trapped by. It goes on: "Blessed are the pure of heart. in which it is said: "Blessed are those who mourn. For. For he has indeed deserved to abide in the land of the living. wherefore would he mourn that he was so involved in.family." No one who precisely weighs his peace-making acts doubts that duke Richard truly had this hunger and thirst. He would mourn the ignorance and delights of his own youth. For he would flash with earnestness for equity. It goes on: "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for justice. he would mourn the perversities of monks whom. he would incessantly seek the road to a court of justice. he might be able to share eternally with God. and would lie humbly prostrate on the ground. this his most lasting hunger. for they will be sated. weeping greatly. he would correct with a stern word those who rejected it. for they will be consoled. This was his most urgent and inexhaustible desire. Thirsting. He would mourn the mistakes of canons who fell away from religious injunctions. he cherished the residents of his household. he would hunger to gain for Christ both himself and his followers so that. There follows the third beatitude.

the district of Vermandois would not be ravaged by armed heinousness. . carefully and gently. forced the latter to return Arras to the former! Nor should it be skipped over how. Thus king Lothar. he would work at that most fully on Sundays and on the festivals of the saints: truly he would. The count of Flanders." However. Thus Albert. the middling and the poor. reconciled count Arnulf with the king and. It is evident from the churches of the Norman region. he would nourish the rich. (note 3) at one time refused to serve and wage war for king Lothar. so that. duke Hugh. what sort of heart and mind and will he possessed. Truly. for they will be called the children of God. Arnulf by name. mighty because of his accustomed habit of benevolent peace-making and proceeding to a conference with the king concerning the matter of this loss. having gathered in his enmity a band of Frankish people and Burgundians. Moreover. through the extraordinary emotion of his beseeching. so wonderfully furnished with religious objects. It goes on: "Blessed are the peacemakers. a suppliant and devout count Arnulf begged duke Richard to reconcile him with the king and the leaders of the Frankish people. That they be in perfect love what they are called in worthiness. the reward of the peacemakers is that they both be called and be children of God. to intercede for him before the king. Truly Richard. filled with baleful wrath. after king Lothar's death. enthroned in the kingship. to the said Richard.would carry out with a pure heart the commands of the divine law: with his benevolent mind. Mournful at the grief of this misfortune. by his active intervention. (note 2) for he pacified whomever he could. fearing the future arrival of the raging king. sent a certain cleric named Dudo. duke Richard received the cleric with a respect of the highest reverence. beseiged and captured Arras and subjugated to himself other ramparted towns all the way to the river Lys. That duke flourished with the gift of that boon. procure the favor of rebels and sowers of discord. a canon of Quintinus the precious martyr of Christ. in his wrath over this matter. (note 4) wished to ride against count Albert (note 5) with an amassed hostile army. that patrician of highest forbearance.

Burgundians and Flemings. because of me. both through faith and through imitation. for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. that duke was profusely distinguished by the token of this particular beatitude. none other will be found than the justice of Christ. where it is said: "Blessed are those who suffer persecution because of justice. Normans and Bretons. all his strength. once sureties had been given. lying. attending closely to religious things. that is. speak every evil against you. let us look at the following part of the Gospel. Thus. without a doubt. in many ways. he has entered the kingdom of heaven which. would force them to hold to the veneration of the monastic way of life. called children of God.and went to the king who wished to ride on Albert with a gathered enemy army. they curse you and persecute you and. He has been soothed by the saying of our savior. he sought. Although persecuted in those evil-doers' manner by king Lothar and count Tetbold. And. he would drive pagans to believe in Christ and would himself bear the burden of their assault so that they would not ravage Francia. for he would reconcile whomever he heard to be in disagreement. for your reward is . he did not cease his praise of Christ. Rejoice and exult. Therefore. for he fulfilled with every faithful effort whatever he understood to be suitable for one of that dignity. Angles and Irish. For he knew that there was no sacrifice or offering so acceptable to God as the increase of peace. indeed. he reconciled Albert with the king. restraining the wrathful king through the pursuit of various kinds of requests. all his soul. knowing that God does not prohibit as many people as possible from becoming gods through their participation in the Godhead. for whose sake he would construct churches for monks and canons and would apportion whatever was needful. whom he would venerate and adore with complete faith. that duke is reverently numbered among those who are. Therefore. of him whom he would love with all his heart." If the cause of the persecution of this duke is sought. either by himself or through ambassadors. Persecuted. where it is said: "Blessed are you when. For he pacified Frankish people and Lotharingians. we believe. with the utmost piety.

shuddering." (note 6) None of us has the power even to enumerate which and how many abuses and blasphemies that duke suffered for the sake of reaching the kingdom of heaven. The section of his deeds already treated seems better. And the shining sequence now grows groggy. you will be greatly defrauded Of the reward of very great enjoyment Because the muse has hardly touched the greatest hardship: Alas. having overthrown the vileness of his enemies and of those who envied him. full of grief. to stupid me. . For he sustained abuses for the sake of the catholic faith.plentiful in heaven. But Christ was on the side of that duke. he would indeed rejoyce and exult in his promised heavenly reward. prophetic Of death and grief. For. for the sake of the peace so often broken amongst the laity. for the sake of harmony among canons who disagreed amongst themselves. for the sake of safeguarding realm. For what has not yet been disclosed Brings stinging disaster. Most excellent reader. ah!. for the sake of most harshly crushing pagans. alas! my mind. A sorrowful thing deserves to be kept silent. A sorrowful thing. dreads defining Funereal and extremely mournful ends. Apostrophe Although I am released from cheap topics Through the wonderful and eminent And celebrated (among all worshippers of Christ) Actions of the distinguished and honorable Count and patrician and duke Richard. therefore the threats of evil-doers could not prevail against him. for the sake of a most holy contrition on the part of monks who disregarded the rule.

and died on 24 October 996. 3. because I weep). gratified (may you be even more astounded!). count of Flanders (+ 988). The Beatitudes are described in Christ's Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5: 3 . I will write How that duke and patrician. Moaning (because I grieve. that highest marquis Approached life Through the required threshold of the death of the flesh. however much it may be sad and menacing To say this thing. Beneficium. count of Vermandois circa 949 . 4. Joined to Christ the never-ending lord And. Hugh Capet. 7. Luke 6: 22 .23.987. was elected king of the Western Franks in 987. (note 7) Notes: 1. In Greek. Arnulf II.10). 2. Both experienced God and is God. son of Hugh the Great count of Paris and duke of France. . Albert I. 5. 6. both complaining and strange to everyone. However much it may be doleful to write. I will write.Yet.

When. there would be no haughty. with guiding and imitable examples of how to live having been left behind. after his death. his brother) said humbly to him in the presence of the rest of his fideles: "Lord. with the management required by this temporal life having been well performed. with the cloisters of monks and canons having been repaired. with innumerable throngs of captives having been redeemed. that you are incommoded by infirmity. which of your sons will be the heir to the realm under your authority?" Then he: "The one who bears my name will be the duke and count and heir of my inheritance. having presented their hands (in place of their hearts) to his hands. land . he began to anguish and languish and fail in strength. emitting a scent as from a lighted torch of beatitudes (as was briefly described above with great labor. we pray. moreover. however. with deeds of bountiful and varied mercy having been enacted. before the spot where he would stand during assembly. Finally." Then count Rodulf: "What about the others. the fideles of my son Richard. count Rodulf (that is. grieving. and commanded as much wheat as it could contain and five gold pieces to be disbursed to the poor each and every Saturday. he was there at the palace of Fécamp. with innumerable misfortunes of manifold adversities and various hardships having been endured (with equanimity. for the love of God). though in a sluggish style). but say to us. he was blazing in this way. he commanded a sarcophagus to be cut for himself from the rock and located within the church of Fécamp. consecrated in the name of the sacred Trinity. and to withdraw from the district of Bayeux to the hall of his residence at Fécamp so that. most compassionate duke. with your deliberative approval. lord?" He replied: "Once they have become. with a vast bulk of varied goods having been profusely apportioned to the needy. by the oath of allegiance of a true promise. let that land which I shall have pointed out to you.[ 60 ] When. we bemoan. full-fledged transfer of his remains.

had travelled to its creator. and an unbearable sobbing would seize everyone's voice. placing diverse votive offerings and presents both precious and varied upon the altar. and a penetrating and death-dealing flame violently attacks his delicate marrow. the following night his most holy limbs are harassed by a gentle pain. and all speech would be interrupted by immense shaking groans. took up the treetrunk symbolic of salvation-giving journey-provisions. but his mind perceives God and he desires the eternal world. be bountifully given to them. and his eyes grow weary in his dying body." Indeed. sought the temple of the sacred Trinity and. Then count Rodulf said secretly to him: "Lord. I commit my soul. dressed in sackcloth. in the midst of this wish. All his limbs slip away. Truly." Next. Indeed.from which they shall be able to live honorably. his face drenched with a shower of tears. weeping with a great howling and wailing. once his holy soul. incommoded by his rude infirmity. the sorrow of his servants would resound to the sky. Everyone's cheeks and faces would fill with tears. with bare feet. Christ. the great duke Richard." Thereupon. breaking with difficulty into speech. as his sickness grew. the Norman towns began to tremble with fear and to strike the sky with their unrestrainable sorrow. snatched from the package of the flesh and liberated from earthly distress and glad. and so they would seek out the hall of his residence at Fécamp. Their hesitating tongues would be shaken by their agitated bowels. and now his tender shins grow numb. and the abominable alarm that he might perhaps already have fallen began to run through the doubtful minds of the Normans. he breathed out his most holy soul. in which section of the sanctuary shall the tomb of your repose be prepared?" He replied: "A corpse of such great calamity will not rest within the entrace of this sanctuary. his suppliant eyes and hands raised to heaven and silent as he supplicatingly poured forth vows and prayers. that is support for the way. Now his feet. suppliant and devout and doleful. said: "Into your hands. But he. but at the door by the gutters of the monastery. .

At length. inarticulate cries of the populace would resound. how vast the weeping and how much sorrow. the mourning crowd is wrenched apart and the body is (with difficulty) seized by the bishops and by the relatively courageous and is transferred.Immediately. On the following day. A multitude would stand. the bier kept being held back. whereby they might satisfy their desire. overwhelming him with the . For his body. a host of common people would continually wail. Once the body had been laid out according to custom and carried to the church which he had founded. the laity in lamenting. to his funeral rites. when count Rodulf opened the tomb. would be carried to the tomb. a prodigious fragrance flowed out from it. overcome by tears and sobs. the entire multitude took turns on sentry watch. how many laments would ring through the courtyards of all the Normans! Indeed a choir. with great wailing. at every cross-roads in the Norman region. and the common host would make the air resound with their mournful cries. For a symphony of antiphons mixed with lamentations would indeed resound in that choir. as the clergy spent that thoroughly-vigilant night in singing psalms. and the wailing of the Normans would make the heavens resound. to the tomb and at once covered with a large stone. and shrieking howls would touch the summit of heaven. Oh. and would fill the ears of passers-by with doleful cries. howling and wailing. And no one could even discern how the clergy or the multitude was making noise for all the cries of the wailers! Indeed. the vast groaning of the populace would shake the small town of his residence at Fécamp. surrounded by a great crowd and defended by a great retinue. by the crowd so that the tomb would not be closed. report of this mournful loss rose up through the towns of the Norman region. and troops of psalm-singers would precede it. The clergy would pour forth funereal songs all along the foot-paths. and so that the body would remain for some time in the open air. would recite psalms. and pulled back. wailing. and people of every age and of both sexes ran. and there would be an unbearable wailing throughout every habitation. and the disordered.

his warriors would tear themselves to pieces. the great duke Richard died in the year 1002 from the Incarnation of our Lord. it would send out diverse expressions of grief) would howl with pain. who had a breast so iron and so stolid and so stony that he did not burst out weeping when the bier was being held back by the crowd due to their motivating grief. would buffet their breasts with blows. about to rise again in glory with Christ. wonderfully surrounded by pillars and by the tomb. and the bier had been placed upon the tomb. Jesus Christ. plucking away the cover of the sarcophagus. completing the course of this fragile life. they built above the tomb a chapel of astonishing beauty. pouring out great groans they transferred the body to the sarcophagus and. greatly-lamenting clerics would pour out tears along with the psalms. his comrades would clap their hands. The following day. when it was being pulled back due to their emotional love? Weeping. wailing. residents of his household. his guards would together sing sorrowful psalms. For. once the crowd had been (with difficulty) broken up and cut through and wrenched apart by the bishops. coming with the bishops to the sepulchral mound. each one would berate these great calamities. and there flowed out towards you a perfume more agreeable than the . hastily occupied themselves with the large stone covering. a mob of peasants and rustics would bite the earth with their own teeth. when it was being held up due to their ardent desire. beating their breasts. maidens and widows and wives would tear out their hair. along with that body besprinkled with holy water amidst the perfume of incense. Truly. keeping it in great honor. moaning. both male and female.perfume of opobalsam. having cried out in diverse and various ways. he is revered. marvelously connected to the larger basilica and there. at length. he found all his limbs blowing out their smell as though of one still alive: a perfume more agreeable than the fragrance of terebinth and balsam. weeping aloud. an assembly of the poor (deprived of such helping support) and the populace in general (pressing ominously against itself. count Rodulf. Finally.

in an everlasting private retreat. Glorified with plenteous speech! With Gildeberta rightly (note 4) yielding to sacred law. through Christ's favor for that sanctified populace continually obeying Christ. At one time you gleamed with a sacred virginal pedigree When. Worthily bolstered by these three blessed orders. You glitter profusely. one and the same. (note 5) Rejoycing. Jesus Christ. the great duke Richard died in the year 1002 from the Incarnation of our Lord. Now. always plentifully furnished with sacred embers. about to rise again in glory with Christ for. (note 3) deprived of eyesight and a sacred mute And blind due to much lashing. is both apostolic and contemplative. (note 2) filled with the malice of accursed deeds. completing the course of this fragile life. wonderfully surrounded by pillars and by the tomb. from duke Ebroin. for Jesus Christ. And there. This life.fragrance of terebinth and balsam. glad. they built above the tomb a chapel of astonishing beauty. O Fécamp. Exerting itself. With the virginal pedigree removed from ever-changing hazards. . as your ornament. marvelously connected to the larger basilica. There grew up in you afterwards an active manly order. for a prolonged time. Yet here. Finally. You guarded Leodegar. And preserving. in the bosom of your alreadyhallowed ground The gleaming ashes of deserving saints. it struggles always towards the steep. you deservedly shine with a very lofty name and a life Which is enclosed within strict. (note 1) with the endowment of salvation.in three ways. blowing out the smell of those. he is revered. confined bounds: It does not sail over level ground.

Fearing that the punishment of hell might condemn me. joined to cold. as you dissipate the hazards facing everyone. will be judged. Let the former bring back rewards of glorified value. He. By whose prayers you will be purifed of every stain And by whose worthy merits you will journey to heaven. Suffers.You put before you the sacrosanct body (note 6) of bountiful Richard. alas. whom the buried money of theft and fraud condemns. Now rejoices that he has indeed brought back double. with your guidance. having gained twofold profits by his active motives. diligently exercises The five talents that were given to him. yields under the mutual law. And by whose patronage you have been bolstered And by whose bountiful. Everyone carries talents subject to the gain of some reward. Apostrophe O you who. Who grant polyform gifts to your own servants. stuck into deep Stygian graves. likewise the Spirit. you possess the cast-off remains of him at whose birth you bloomed. the Father with the Scion. very lofty tribute you shall flourish. Weeping bitterly for his neglected bodily openings. keeping back his wares. And the air. amidst deserved punishments. neighboring alliance In so far as the rattling heat. That one. Which he hoarded in grimy pits. the debtor of only one talent. dispose all things by right. Indeed. . joined to the waters. Binding the elements in a favorable. Dislodged from the ramparts of the peaceful hall. This one. This one. We now dedicate deserved thanks and honors To you. Behold.

tear to pieces. refluent crimes. came present to me. These things do not intoxicate me. But your confidence. anxious. whatever lies . for these knavish lips. of your warrior. I pushed my stolid self forward into this work. with voice. Sinking down into avowed. whatever flourishes. Whereby you were able easily to invigorate my mouth And. with you as my leader. with you as the author. with all gathered force. the true hope of our salvation. suppliant. trembling because I made this. Almighty. is rude. the barrenness of my dry tongue. With you as a contributor. anguish. So many things would greatly terrify me. five decades whirl by And a fear of the torturing Styx oppresses me. That it might be pleasing willingly to receive what it was pleasing to give. Christ. lacerate me.I would freeze. and the splendor of the labor. now beseech you. king. having struggled. Thus do I. And because I was not able to produce what I desired. The weightiness of the subject matter. For I remembered that I had done hardly anything good And nothing useful in such an interval of time. they torment me to the depths of my conscience. with suppliant mind. Forced to grind out various kinds of varied evil deeds Into a wretched life. the Norman land suddenly presses me to write The official duties. Both because every praise of God. And because this man has gone away unpraised by songs. My character of cheap art and unskilled in any ability. The famed order of all things. Christ. And they afflict. frozen before such things. With heart. I acknowledged that I was affected by a stolid man's uncleannesses. But you. the contests. Although he conferred every good on stolid me. My stolid heart.

you will be the judge. having fallen." 5. Whose useless servant and slave I am. Whatever the land carries and whatever the heavens bore. Notes: 1. Reading the "just" of the manuscript as "juste.hidden. Fécamp was originally a female monastic community. render me exempt from future fault So that. Whose fellow lamb is Quintinus. And since. Whatever the watery deep and the plume-fluttering air Cherished for diverse uses. 658 . alas! That the right hand of the Nourishing One shall first transfer into the flock of lambs Those whiter than me. From on high you shall see me. +680. God (Whom your creation celebrates with connected boomings). Leodegar. For tokens of remembrance promise me. bishop of Autun and political rival of Ebroin. I might be able to make resound with you. then a community of male Benedictine monks. in my stinking habitation. 6. Lift me up again. then a community of male canons. In Greek. Mayor of the Palace of the Merovingian realm of Neustria. in your Father's will. conquered. rightly known above the heavens. 4. Giving torture to the reprobate and rewards to the upright. 3. clean. 2. and purge me of the filth of vice King of kings.673. In Greek. .

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