CHAPTER I An Overview ANATOMY is the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and

their relationships to one another. Gross Anatomy – The study of large and easily observable body structures such as the heart or bones. Microscopic Anatomy – is the study of very small structures in the body, such as cells and tissues, with the use of a microscope or magnifying instrument. PHYSIOLOGY is the study how the body and its parts work or function LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION

Chemical Level –Simplest level. It is at this level where atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, Combine to form molecules such as water, sugar, and proteins. Cellular Level – In this level, molecules associate in specific ways to form microscopic cells, the smallest unit of all living things.  Cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their particular functions in the body.  The simplest living creatures are composed of single cells, but complex organisms like human beings, continues on to the next structural level. Tissue Level – This level is comprised of tissues, which consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function. - 4 basic tissue types include:

   

Epithelium – Covering Connective tissue - Support Muscle tissue - Movement Nervous tissue - Control

Organ Level – Consists of an organ, a structure that’s composed of 2 or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body.  Organ System- Group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose Organism Level – The highest level of structural organization represented by an organism, a living being. ORGAN SYSTEM OVERVIEW Integumentary System  External covering of the body, or the skin.  Functions: It waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues from injury. : Helps regulate body temperature.  Temperature, pressure, and pain receptors are located on the skin and they alert us as to what is happening at the body surface. Skeletal System  Consists of: bones Cartilages Ligaments joints  Functions: Supports the body : Movement Muscular System  Function: To contract and shorten in order to produce movement. Nervous System  The body’s control system.  Consists of: brain spinal cord nerves sensory receptors  Function: Assesses information sent via nerve electrical signals called nerve impulses and responds by activating the appropriate body effectors

Endocrine System  Consists of: pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroids Adrenals Thymus Pancreas Pineal gland ovaries (in the female) testes (in the male)  Function: Controls body activities  Endocrine glands all secrete hormones, which regulate other structures. Growth, reproduction, and food use by cells are all controlled by hormones.

Cardiovascular System  Primary organs: heart and blood vessels.  Functions: Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made. : Pumps blood to all body tissues. Lymphatic System  Consists of: Lymphatic vessels Nodes Lymph Organs  Its role is complementary that of the cardiovascular system.  Function: Return fluid leaked from the blood to the blood vessels so that blood can be kept continuously circulating through the body. : Cleanse the blood : Immunity

Respiratory System  Consists of: nasal passages Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi lungs  Function: Supplies the body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

Digestive System

.  Urinary System  Consists of: the kidneys Ureters Bladder urethra  Functions: Removes wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine.  Function: Break down food and deliver the products to the blood for dispersal to the body cells.Consists of: oral cavity (mouth) Esophagus Stomach small and large intestines rectum  This system is basically a tube running through the body from mouth to anus.

the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward. REGIONAL TERMS There are many visible landmarks on the surface of the body and it is important to know their proper anatomical names. Anterior Body Landmarks . To avoid confusion. it is always assumed that the body is in an anatomical position. In an anatomical position.Reproductive System  Male: scrotum Penis Accessory Glands Duct System  Female: Ovaries Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina  Functions: Produce offspring. ANATOMICAL POSITION – – An anatomical position is the body’s standard position.

groin Nasal : nose area Oral : mouth Orbital : eye area Patellar : anterior knee Pelvic : area overlying the pelvis anteriorly Pubic : genital region Sternal : breastbone area Tarsal : ankle region Thoracic : chest Umbilical : navel . toes Femoral : thigh • • • • • • • • • • • • Fibular : lateral part of leg Inguinal : area where thigh meets body trunk.• • • • • • • • • • • • Abdominal : anterior body trunk inferior to ribs Acromial : point of shoulder Antecubital : anterior surface of elbow Axillary : armpit Brachial : arm Buccal : cheek area Carpal : wrist Cervical : neck region Coxal : hip Crural : leg Digital : fingers.

Posterior Body Landmarks

• • • • • • •

Calcaneal : heel of foot Cephalic : head Deltoid : curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle Femoral : thigh Gluteal : buttock Lumbar : area of back between ribs and hips Occipital : posterior surface of head

• • • • • •

Olecranal : posterior surface of elbow Popliteal : posterior knee area Sacral : area between hips Scapular : shoulder blade region Sural : the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf Vertebral : area of spine

Inferior


DIRECTIONAL TERMS

Plantar : sole of the foot

These terms are used by medical personnel and anatomists to allow them to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another. For example, the relationship between the ears and the nose can be informally described by saying, “The ears are located on each side of the head to the right and left of the nose.” Using anatomical terminology, this condenses to, “The ears are lateral to the nose.”

BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS

When preparing to look at the internal structures of the body, it is necessary to make a section, or cut. When a section is made through the body wall or through an organ, it is made along an imaginary line called a plane. 3 types of planes or sections can be referred to:

1. Sagittal Section – A cut made along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the
body, dividing the body into right and left parts.

a. Midsagittal/Median – Cut is made down the median plane of the body and
the right and left parts are equal in size

1. Frontal Section – “coronal section”
– A cut is made along a lengthwise plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts.

2. Transverse Section – “cross section”
- A cut is made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts. BODY CAVITIES

There are two sets of internal cavities that provide different degrees of protection to the organs within them. These cavities differ in their mode of embryonic development and purpose and in their lining membranes.

Dorsal Body Cavity 2 subdivisions : 1. Cranial Cavity – Space inside the bony skull - Contains the brain 2. Spinal Cavity - extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column. - Contains the spinal cord (which is a continuation of the brain and is protected by the vertebrae) Ventral Body Cavity This cavity is much larger. It contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen. Subdivisions : 1. Thoracic cavity – separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm (a dome-shaped muscle) - Contains the lungs and the heart (which are protected by the rib cage) - the mediastinum is a central region that separates the lungs into right and left cavities in the thoracic cavity. 2. Abdominopelvic – the cavity inferior to the diaphragm cavity a. Abdominal cavity – superior.

. 1. and others. . intestines.contains the reproductive organs.b. 4 Quadrants (named according to their relative positions) • Right upper quadrant • Right lower quadrant • Left upper quadrant • Left lower quadrant 1. Nine (9) Regions • Umbilical region – centermost region surrounding the umbilicus (navel) • Epigastric region – superior to the umbilical region . liver. bladder. rectum. it is helpful to divide it up into smaller areas for study. and ABDOMINOPELVIC SURFACE AND CAVITY Because the abdominopelvic cavity is quite large and contains many organs. Pelvic cavity – inferior.contains the stomach.

(Epi = above.(Hypo = below) Right and Left iliac regions – lateral to the hypogastric region (Inguinal region) .(Lumbus = loin) Right and Left hypochondriac regions – flank the epigastric region and contains the lower ribs . Epithelial Tissue  “covering or lining membranes” a.(Iliac = superior part of the hip bone) Right and Left lumbar regions – lateral to the umbilical region .• • • • .(chondro = cartilage) CHAPTER II Integumentary System (and Body Membranes) BODY MEMBRANES 2 major categories: • Epithelial Tissue ✔ Cutaneous membranes ✔ Mucous Membranes ✔ Serous Membranes • Connective Tissue 1. gastric = stomach) Hypogastric (pubic) region – inferior to the umbilical region . Cutaneous Membrane  “skin” .

” or “moist” membranes  Almost continuously bathed in secretions (in the case of the urinary mucosae. Exposed to air and is a “dry” membrane a. urine)  Secretes mucin a. are exposed to the external environment and internal organs Internal (Hollow) Organs Respiratory tract Digestive tract Urinary tract Reproductive tract (Uterus. Glans penis. inside of prepuce & clitoral hood) Esophagus Others Nostrils Mouth Lips Eyelids Ears Genital area Anus  “Wet. Mucous Membrane  “mucosa”  Lines cavities that leads to the outside. Serous Membranes .

 “serosa”  Secretes serous fluid • • •  Lines and encloses serous cavities. where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement Peritoneum – Abdominal cavity Pleural – Around the lungs Pericardium – Around the heart 1. Connective Tissue  “Synovial membrane”  Lines the fibrous capsule surrounding joints  They provide a smooth surface and secrete a lubricating fluid SKIN  “cutaneous membrane”  “integument” .covering Basic Skin Functions • Protects deeper tissues from:  Mechanical damage (bumps)  Chemical damage (acids and bases)  Bacterial damage .

or becoming hard and tough extreme occurring outside the Dermis Hypodermis (subcutaneous -Made up of dense . 1. Structures of the Skin Epidermis tissue) -Made up of stratified squamous epithelium.serves as a shock absorber . pressure. that’s capable of anchors keratinizing.Made up of adipose tissue connective tissue . but it the skin to underlying organs . temperature.located deep to the dermis . pain and provides us with a great deal of information about our external environment.insulates the deeper tissues from temperature changes body.• • • • • • •  Ultraviolet radiation (damaging effects of sunlight)  Thermal (heat or cold) damage  Dessication (drying out) Aids in body heat loss or heat retention Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid Synthesizes vitamin D Keeps water and other precious molecules in the body Also keeps water out Contains sweat glands Contains cutaneous sensory receptors which alerts us to touch. Epidermis  “outer layer”  5 Layers: (from outer to inner) .Not considered part of the skin.

Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale (Dermis)  Avascular (it has no blood supply of its own)  Most of its cells are keratinocytes (keratin cells). . Example. It is particularly thick on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet but thin on the eyelids. full of keratin. Stratum lucidum  Not seen in all skin regions  Seen on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet a. which produce keratin. forming the next layer. and die. Stratum granulosum c. to become part of the epidermal layers closer to the skin surface. Stratum spinosum Cells become flatter. away from the source of nutrition (dermis). Stratum basale  Deepest cell layer that lies closest to the dermis  Contains epidermal cells that receive the most adequate nourishment via diffusion of nutrients from the dermis. stretchy envelope that helps to hold the body together  Abundantly supplied with blood blood vessels that play a role in maintaining body temperature homeostasis. and millions of new cells are produced daily. found chiefly in the stratum basale 1. a. Stratum corneum  Accounts for about three-quarters of the epidermal thickness Melanin  A pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black  Produced by melanocytes.  The daughter cells are pushed upward.  These cells constantly undergo cell division. a. Dermis  A strong. b. the fibrous protein that makes the epidermis a tough protective layer.  Varies in thickness. hence its alternate name is stratum germinativum.

Sweat glands  Aka “sudoriferous glands”  Produce sweat 1. Sebaceous glands  Oil glands  Found all over the skin. or erythema. 3. hypertension. fever. Jaundice. reddish brown. 2 layers: a. Papillary layer – upper dermal region b. 1. or allergy. 2. Bruises (Black & blue marks). anemia. The amount and kind (yellow. The amount of oxygen-rich hemoglobin in the dermal blood vessels. An abnormal yellow skin tone which usually signifies a liver disorder 4. or impaired blood flow into the area. Skin Appendages  Includes: cutaneos glands : hair and hair follicles : nails  These appendages arise from the epidermis and play a unique role in maintaining body homeostasis. Reticular layer – deepest skin layer  Contains blood vessels. Cutaneous Glands  Glands that release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts a. Pallor. inflammation. except on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet  Their ducts usually empty into a hair follicle  Produce sebum:  a lubricant that keeps the skin soft and moist and prevents the hair from becoming brittle  Contains chemicals that kill bacteria a. Reveal sites where blood has escaped from the circulation and has Clotted in the tissue spaces creating hematomas. May indicate embarrassment (blushing). • Also influenced by emotional stimuli and certain disease states: 1. Hair and Hair Follicles . or black) of melanin in the epidermis. low blood pressure. May signify emotional stress (fear. or blanching. 2. Redness. sweat and oil glands Skin Color • 3 pigments contribute to skin color: 1. The amount of carotene deposited in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous tissue. anger). 3.

Hair – guards the head against bumps  Shields the eyes  Helps keep foreign particles out of the respiratory tract  Provides insulation in cold weather a. Nails  Transparent and nearly colorless.  If blue in color. CHAPTER III Skeletal System 2 Divisions • Axial skelet • Appendicular skeleton Parts • • • • involves the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body involves the bones of the limbs and girdles of the Skeletal System Bones Joints Cartilages Ligaments .a. it signifies cyanosis. Hair Follicle – produces hair 1.

and usually curved Includes most bones of the skull. and the sternum  Irregularly shaped  Includes bones that DO NOT fit one of the preceding .wrist). ribs.ankles)  Thin.FUNCTIONS OF BONES • Supports the body • Protects soft body organs • Movement • Storage of minerals and fat • Blood cell formation CLASSIFICATION OF BONES 2 Basic Types of Bone Tissue 1. flattened. tarsal bones (feet. Spongy bone – composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space Classification According to Shape LONG BONES SHORT BONES FLAT BONES IRREGULAR BONES   Longer than they are wide Includes all the bones of the limbs (femur and humerus) EXCEPT the wrist and ankle bones  Cube-shaped   Includes carpal bones (hands. Compact bone – dense and looks smooth and homogenous 2.

 Mostly compact bone  . Makes up most of bone’s length Covered by the Periosteum  Ends of long bone Covered by the Articular cartilage 1. Medullary Cavity  Adults: (Yellow marrow) Storage area for adipose (fat) tissue  Infants: (Red marrow) Area that forms blood cells BONE MARKINGS  Reveal where muscles. STRUCTURE OF A LONG BONE Gross Anatomy 1.and sesamoid bones (patella) Mostly spongy bone  Have 2 thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them categories such as the vertebrae and the hip bones. Arteries  Supplies bone cells with nutrients 1. Projections (Processes) – grow out from the bone surface . DIAPHYSIS 2. tendons. and ligaments were attached and where blood vessels and nerves passed. 2 Major Categories: a. EPIPHYSIS    Shaft.

. Facet: Smooth. 3. nearly flat articular surface. Depressions (Cavities) – indentations in the bone Joint Projections (Projections that help to form joints) 1. Condyle: Rounded articular projection. Head: Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.b. 2.

Ramus: Armlike bar of bone. Ligament/Tendon/Muscle Projections (Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment) 1. . Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle.4. Crest: Narrow ridge of bone (usually prominent) Line: Smaller and less prominent than a crest 1.

Meatus: Canal-like tube/passageway . slender.2. rounded projection 3. blunt. Trochanter: Very large. often pointed projection Joint Depressions (Allow blood vessels and nerves to pass) 1. rounded and/or roughened projection/process 4. irregularly shaped process. Tuberosity: Large. (only in femur) 5. Spine: Sharp. Tubercle: Small.

Groove: (Sulcus / Furrow) A shallow depression.2. Fissure: Narrow. 5. 3. filled with air and lined with mucous membrane. basin-like depression in a bone. . 4. Fossa: Shallow. slit-like opening. Sinus: Cavity within a bone.

6. AXIAL SKELETON  Forms longitudinal axis of the body (area in green)  Divided into 3 parts: Skull. and bony thorax. Vertebral column. Foramen: Round or oval opening through a bone. .

allow the facial muscles to show our feelings  Formed by 2 sets of bones:  Bones of the skull are joined together by sutures  Bones of the skull are immovable joints. except for the mandible. Cranium  Composed of 8 large flat bones.I. 2 2 1 1 1 1 parietal bones temporal bones occipital bone frontal bone ethmoid bone sphenoid bone . SKULL • Cranium – encloses and protects the brain tissue • Facial Bones – hold eyes in an anterior position .

 Suspended above the larynx  Serves as a movable base for the tongue  Serves as an attachment point for neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx when swallowing and speaking Fetal Skull .Facial Bone  Composed of 14 bones. 1 mandible 2 maxilla (Paranasal sinuses—lighten the skull bones) 2 palatine bone 2 zygomatic bone (cheekbone) 2 nasal bone 2 lacrimal bone 1 vomer bone 2 inferior nasal conchae Hyoid Bone  Not part of the skull but is closely related to the mandible and temporal bones.

.   The skull as a whole is large compared to the infant’s total body length. : Allow infant’s brain to grow during the later part of pregnancy and early infancy. Infant’s face is very small compared to the size of its cranium but. Fontanels – fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones that have yet to be converted to Bone  Function: Allow fetal skull to be compressed slightly during birth.

I. VERTEBRAL COLUMN  “Spine”  Formed from 26 irregular bones 7 cervical vertebrae 1 sacrum 12 thoracic vertebrae 1 coccyx 5 lumbar vertebrae  Each vertebrae are separated by pads of flexible fibrocartilage— intervetebral discs Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7) • Function: Joint between the skull and c1 allows you to nod “yes”  1st two vertebrae: atlas and axis (c1 and c2) .

Sacrum  Formed by the fusion of 5 vertebrae.  Human “tailbone” .  Forms the posterior wall of the pelvis.  Short. irregularly shaped vertebrae. Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)  Have massive. hatchet-shaped spinous process. Coccyx  Formed from the fusion of 3 to 5 tiny.  Sturdiest of the vertebrae. block-like bodies.: Joint between c1 & c2 allows you to move your head from side to side to indicate “no”  Smallest and lightest vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)  Larger than the cervical vertebrae  Body is heart-shaped and has 2 costal facets on each side  Has a long spinous process causing the vertebrae to look like a giraffe’s head viewed from the side.

and thoracic vertebrae  Forms a protective cage of slender bones around the organs of the thoracic cavity (heart. BONES OF THE PECTORAL GIRDLE . lungs. Ribs  12 pairs True Ribs : 1st 7 pairs False Ribs : next 5 pairs Floating Ribs : last 2 pairs of false ribs APPENDICULAR SKELETON  Composed of 126 bones of the: limbs. and pelvic girdles I. Sternum  “breastbone”  A flat bone  Result of the fusion of 3 bones: Manubrium. and xiphoid process  Attached to the 1st 7 pairs of ribs.I. BONY THORAX  “thoracic cage”  Consists of: sternum. body. pectoral girdles. and major blood vessels). ribs.

forearm. and hand. BONES OF THE UPPER LIMBS  Formed by 30 separate bones that form the foundations of the arm. “Shoulder girdle”  Consists of 2 bones: clavicle and scapula Clavicle  “Collarbone”  Attaches to the sternum medially and to the scapula laterally  Function: Acts as a brace to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax : prevents shoulder dislocation Scapulae  “Shoulder blades”  Triangular and called “wings” I. Arm .

 Formed by a single bone: Humerus Forearm  Formed by 2 bones: Radius (Lateral) Ulna (Medial) Hand .

or ossa coxae (“hip bones”)  Each hip bone is formed by the fusion of: ilium. the sacrum and the coccyx.  Its bones are large and heavy. Consists of: Carpals (wrist) 5 Metacarpals 14 Phalanges (fingers) (palm) I. and are attached securely to the axial skeleton  Function: Bears weight : Protects the reproductive organs. urinary bladder. ischium. and part of the large intestine . BONES OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE  Formed by 2 coxal bones. and pubis  Bony Pelvis: Formed together with the pelvic girdle.

BONES OF THE LOWER LIMBS  The lower limbs carry out our total body weight erect which explains why the bones forming the 3 segments of the lower limbs are much thicker and stronger.Difference Between the Male & Female Pelvis       Female inlet is LARGER and more CIRCULAR Female pelvis is shallower. and the bones are LIGHTER & THINNER Female ilia flare more laterally Female sacrum is SHORTER & less curved Female ischial spines are SHORTER & FARTHER APART (Thus the outlet is larger) Female pubic arch is more ROUNDED Male Female I. .

 Heaviest and strongest bone in the body. Leg  Composed mainly of: Tibia and Fibula 1. Tibia – “Shinbone”  Larger and more medial 1. Fibula – lies alongside the tibia  Thin and sticklike Foot .Thigh  “Femur”  Only bone in the thigh.

Skeletal Muscles . intervetebral joints 3. JOINTS  “Articulations”  Functions: hold the bones together securely : gives the rigid skeleton mobility Functional Classification  Diarthroses (Freely movable joints) predominate in LIMBS  Amphiarthroses (Slightly movable joints) Mainly in AXIAL SKELETON  Synarthroses (Immovable joints) Structural Classification  Fibrous joints (Immovable joints)  Cartilaginous joints (Slightly movable joints)  Synovial joints (freely movable joints) Examples: 1. Consists of: Tarsals (Ankles) 5 Metatarsals (Sole) 14 Phalanges (Toes)  Functions: Supports body weight : Allows us to propel our bodies Forward when walking & running I. Fibrous joints – sutures of the skull 2. Cartilaginous joints – pelvis. Synovial joints – all joints of the limbs CHAPTER IV Muscular System Essential Function  Contraction/shortening body movement MUSCLE TYPES  Skeleta musclesl  Cardiac muscles  Smooth muscles 1.

Cardiac Muscle  Found only in the walls of the heart  Involuntary MUSCLE FUNCTIONS  Produces movement  Maintains posture  Stabilzes joints  Generates heat BODY MOVEMENTS . respiratory passages) and blood vessels  Involuntary  Function: Propels substances along a definite tract : Helps to narrow the lumen of blood vessels 1. urinary bladder. Attach to the body’s skeleton  Known as “voluntary muscles” and as “striated muscles”  4 Functions: Movement : Posture/Muscle tone : SupportI : Heat Regulation Tendons  Tough band of tissue that connects muscle to bone  Capable of withstanding tension 1. Smooth Muscles  Found in the walls of hollow internal organs (stomach.

GROSS ANATOMY OF SKELETAL MUSCLES .

Facial Muscles Frontalis Descripti on  Orbicularis Oculi Orbicularis Oris Zygomatic us  T  Buccinator  Ru ns acr os s th e ch ee  H   R .

k  Function  C  C     Fla tte ns th e ch ee k. (W his tlin g or blo wi ng a tru mp et)  Als oa ch ew ing mu scl e be ca us .

. Function  Close jaw  Close jaw. Neck Muscles  Move the head and shoulder girdle.e it co mp res se s th e ch ee k to hol d th e foo d be tw ee n th e teeth during chewing.  Covers the anterolateral neck. Chewing Muscles Masseter Description  Covers the angle of the lower jaw Temporalis  Fan-shaped muscle overlying the temporal bone. Platysma Description Sternocleidomastoid  2 headed muscles. Function  Pulls the  flexion of the neck. 1 found on each side of the neck.

fanshaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest.corners of the mouth inferiorly.  Aid in breathing  (External) Raise the rib cage for breathing air in. Function  Arm adduction and flexion.  Head rotation Intercostal Muscles  Deep muscles found between the ribs. Anterior Trunk Muscles Pectoralis Major Description  Large. producing a downward sag of the mouth. Muscles of the Abdominal Girdle Rectus Abdominus Description P ai re d st ra plik e a b d o m in al m us cl es th External Oblique P a ir e d s u p e r fi c i a l m u s c l e Internal Oblique P a i r e d m u s c l e s t h a t h Transverse Abdominus  De ep est mu scl es of the ab do mi nal wal l .  (Internal) Depress the rib cage to move air out.

at ru n fr o m th e p u bi s t th e ri b ca g e. s t h a t m a k e u p t h e l a t e r a l w a ll s o f t h e a b d o m e n . a v e t h e s a m e f u n c t i o n s w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l o b l i q u e .

C o m pr es s th e a b d o m in al co nt e nt s d ur in g F l e x e s t h e v e r t e b r a l c o l u m n . . Function  Fl e x es th e v er te br al co lu m n.m u s c l e s . R o t a t e s t h e t r u n  Co mp res ses ab do mi nal co nte nts .

. Deltoid  Trian gleshap ed musc les that form the roun ded shap e of your shoul ders.d ef ec at io n a n d c hi ld bi rt h. depresses. Latissimus Dorsi  Large. Function  Extends the head/neck.  Elevates. flat muscl e pair that cover s the lower back. and stabilizes the scapula. Posterior Trunk Muscles Trapezius Descriptio n  Runs from the occipital bone of the skull down the vertebral column to the end of the thoracic vertebrae. k a n d b e n d s it l a t e r a ll y .  Exten sion and adduc tion of hume  Abdu ction of hum erus. adducts.

rus. L i e s d e e p t o t h e b i c e p s m u s c l e  We ak mus cle that resi des mai nly in the fore arm Triceps Brachii O n l y m u s c l e f l e s h i n g o u t t h e p o s t e r i o r h . Biceps Brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Description  The musc le that bulg es whe n the elbo w is flexe d. Muscles of the Upper Limb  All anterior arm muscles cause elbow flexion.

E l b o w F l e x i o n E l b o w e x t e n s i o n . Muscles of the Lower Limb Muscles Causing Movement at the Hip Joint Gluteus Maximus Description Function  Forms most of the buttock  Hip extension (climbing the stairs) Gluteus Medius  Runs beneath the gluteus maximus  Hip abduction  Important in steadying the pelvis during walking Muscles Causing Movement at the Knee Joint Hamstring Group Description Muscles forming the muscle mass of the posterior thigh  Can be felt at the back of the knee  Consists of 3 muscles: .u m e r u s Function  Flexe s and supi nate s the forea rm.Biceps femoris  Quadriceps Group  Consists of: – Rectus femoris – Vastus lateralis – Vastus medialis .

They interpret incoming sensory information and give instructions based on past experience and current conditions. CHAPTER V Nervous System STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION Central Nervous System (CNS)  Brain Act as the integrating & command centers of the nervous system.  Spinal Cord .Semimembranosus . Function  Plant ar flexio n of the foot -“toe danc er’s” musc le  Plantar flexion of the foot  Plantar flexion and foot eversion..Semitendinosus Function  Knee movement  For powerful knee extension (kicking the ball) Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot Gastrocnemius Description  Form s the curve d calf of the poste rior leg Soleus Fibularis Muscle  Found deep to the gastroc nemius  Consists of – Longus – Brevis – Tertius  Found on the lateral part of the leg.

• Parasympathetic ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN . Autonomic Nervous System – Regulates events that are automatic. 2. or involuntary. the other inhibits. such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands • Sympathetic Bring about opposite effects. – Serve as communication lines. Sensory or Afferent Division – Conveys impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors located in various parts of the body. muscles and glands.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – The part of the nervous system outside the CNS. What one stimulates. – Keeps the CNS informed of events going on both inside and outside the body. – Consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. – Link all parts of the body by carrying impulses from the sensory receptors CNS Appropriate glands/muscles FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION – Concerned only with PNS structures. 1. Motor or Efferent Division – Carries impulses from the CNS to organs.  Cranial Nerves carry impulses to and from the brain. Somatic Nervous System – Allows for conscious or voluntary control of skeletal muscles.  Spinal Nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord.

Cerebral Hemispheres – 2 pairs collectively called “Cerebrum” – Consists of 4 lobes: Parietal Lobe Descriptio n – Impulses from the body’s sensory receptors are interpreted in this area. – Contains the somatic sensory area:  A Occipital Lobe – Contains the visual area Temporal Lobe – Contains:   Frontal Lobe – Contains:   pri ma ry mo tor ar ea Br oc a’s ar ea (for speech)  Area involved in higher intellectual reasoning & socially acceptable behavior Areas involved in language recognition  .

water balance & metabolism.Diancephalon – “interbrain” – Sits atop the brain stem and enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres – Consists of: 1. Hypothalamus – Function: Regulation of body temperature. blood pressure. Pons 3. Thalamus 2.Contains centers that control heart rate. Midbrain 2. Medulla Oblongata . : Regulates the pituitary gland 1. breathing. Epithalamus Brain Stem – Is about the size of a thumb in diameter and 3 inches long. vomiting Cerebellum – Located right under the occipital lobe – Function: Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity : Controls balance and equilibrium PROTECTION OF THE CNS Scalp and Skin Skull and Vertebral Column Meninges – Consists of 3 layers: • Dura mater (outermost layer) – Means “tough or hard mother” . – Controls breathing and blood pressure – Consists of: 1. swallowing.

– Function: Cushions and protects fragile nerve tissue from blows and other trauma SPINAL CORD – Approximately 17 inches long. – It is cushioned and protected by meninges. from which it is continuously formed. – Glistening white continuation of the brain stem. : Function – regulating metabolism process – Growth of the body – Sexual development Major Functions of the Endocrine System – Maintain a stable environment within the body. – Enclosed by the vertebral column. • Hormones : chemical messengers of the body. – Found in and around the brain and spinal cord. – Function: Main pathway for information connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system CHAPTER VI Endocrine System • Consists of hormones and glands • A collection of glands that produce hormones. – Promoting the structural changes of the body.– Double-layered membrane that surrounds the brain • Arachnoid mater (middle layer) • Pia mater (innermost layer) – Means “gentle mother” Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) – Watery similar in its makeup to blood plasma. 8 MAJOR GLANDS THAT HELP IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS .

and the reproductive glands. – Most important part of the endocrine system. – Produces hormones like:  Growth hormone (Stimulates bone & tissue growth)  Prolactin (milk production)  Thyrotropin (Stimulates thyroid hormone production)  Corticotropin (Stimulates adrenals to produce hormones) 1. – Divided in 2 parts: 1. adrenals. Posterior Lobe – Produces hormones like:  Antidiuretic hormone (water balance)  Oxytocin (triggers uterine contractions during pregnancy) Hypothalamus . Anterior Lobe – Regulates activities of the thyroid.– – – – – – – – Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovaries (Females) Testes (Males) Pituitary Gland – Located at the base of the brain just below the hypothalamus.

Help in bone growth. Adrenal Cortex water levels) 2. Adrenal Medulla Reproductive Glands (Males—Testes) – Secrete androgens such as:  Testosterone (Females.Ovaries) – Produce hormones like:  Estrogen  Progesterone Pancreas – Secretes digestive enyzymes and hormones such as:  Insulin Maintain blood glucose level  Glucagon (produces corticosteroids which regulate salt and (secrete catecholamines) CHAPTER VII Lymphatic System 2 PARTS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM . – Controls the pituitary gland by stimulating or suppressing the hormone secretions. – Releases:  Parathyroid hormone (regulates calcium level in blood) Adrenal Glands – Situated atop each kidney. Help in development and growth of brain in children.  Triiodothyronine Parathyroid Glands – 4 tiny glands attached to the thyroid gland. – 2 parts: 1. Thyroid Gland – Situated in the front part of the lower neck – Produces thyroid hormones:  Thyroxine Control the rate at which cells use up energy from food for energy production.– Main link between the endocrine system and the nervous system.

Lymphoid Tissues and Organs – House phagocytes and lymphocytes. Lymphatic Vessels – Transport fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system back to the blood. – Function: To trap and remove any foreign pathogen entering the throat CHAPTER IX Respiratory System .1. 1. which play essential roles in: • Body defense • Disease resistance RELATIONSHIP OF THE LYMPHATIC VESSELS AND LYMPH NODES TO THE BLOOD VESSELS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR CIRCUIT LYMPH ORGANS Spleen – Filters the blood – Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity – Function: to destroy worn-out red blood cells : stores platelets : blood reservoir Thymus Gland – Functions best only during youth – Function: Produces hormones (thymosin) Tonsils – Small masses of lymphatic tissue that ring the pharynx.

– Function: passageway for food and air – Contains Tonsils: • Pharyngeal tonsils • Palatine tonsils • Lingual tonsils Larynx – “voice box” – Function: passageway for food and air : speech – Contains: • Epiglottis • Thyroid cartilage Trachea – “windpipe” . Pharynx – “throat” – A muscular passage way about 5 inches long.Major Function of the Respiratory System – To supply the body with oxygen – To dispose of carbon dioxide ORGANS INVOLVED – Nose – Pharynx – Larynx – Trachea – Bronchi – Lungs Nose – Only externally visible part of the respiratory system – The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity below by the palate.

Pulmonary Ventilation – “breathing” process – Involves air movement into and out of the lungs 1. 1. shorter. Respiratory Gas Transport – Involves transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream. and straighter) • Left Main Bronchi – Subdivided into smaller branches: • Bronchioles • Alveoli (air sacs) Lungs – Occupy the entire thoracic cavity RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY – 4 events: 1. External Respiration – Involves gas exchanges between the blood and the body exterior (Gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli) 1.– 4 inches long – Function: passageway for air Bronchi – 2 Parts: • Right Main Bronchi (wider. Internal Respirtion – Involves gas exchanges between the blood and cells inside the body MECHANICS OF BREATHING Inspiration (Inhalation) – Involves the contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostals muscles. – Increase in size of the thoracic cavity – Rib cage is lifted and the sternum is thrusts forward – Increase in anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of the thorax .

Absorbs.– Lungs adhering tightly to the thorax walls are stretched to the new and larger size of the thorax – Gases in the lungs spread out to fill the larger space – Air is sucked into the lungs due to a partial vacuum – Intrapulmonary pressure EQUALS atmospheric pressure Expiration (exhalation) – Passive process that depends more on the natural elasticity of the lungs than on muscle contraction – Inspiratory muscles relax – Rib cage descends – Lungs recoil – Decrease in both thoracic and intrapulmonary volumes – Gases are forced more closely together inside the lungs – Intrapulmonary pressure rises higher than the atmospheric pressure – Gases flow out to equalize pressures CHAPTER X Digestive System 2 Groups  Alimentary Canal – Function: Ingests. Digests. and Defecates  Accessory Digestive Organs – Function: Assist the process of digestive breakdown .

coiled. hollow.ORGANS OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL – “Gastrointestinal Tract” – Continuous. muscular tube that winds through the ventral body cavity and is open at both ends – Organs Involved: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine (Anus) Mouth .

fluid. and air Esophagus – “Gullet” – Runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach – 10 inches long – Function: Passageway for food Stomach .– “Oral Cavity” – Mucus membrane-lined cavity – Includes the following: Parts Lips Cheeks Hard Palate Soft Palate Uvula Tongue Lingual Frenulum Description – “Labia” – Protect its anterior opening – Form its lateral walls – Forms its anterior roof – Forms its posterior roof – Fleshy fingerlike projection of the soft palate – Occupies its floor – Fold of mucus membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth Pharynx – Subdivided into:  Nasopharynx (part of the respiratory passageway)  Oropharynx (Posterior to the oral cavity)  Laryngopahrynx (continuous with the esophagus) – Functions: Passageway for food.

nearly hidden by the liver and diaphragm – Function: Temporary storage tank for food : Site for food breakdown – Stomach regions:  Cardia (Near the heart)  Fundus (Expanded part)  Body (Mid-portion)  Pylorus (Lower funnel shaped area) Small Intestine – Extends from the pyloric sphincter ileocecal valve.8 inches) Jejunum (3-6 feet) Ileum (6-12 feet) Large Intestine .– – – – “C-shaped” 10 inches long Can hold about 4 Liters of food Found on the left side of the abdominal cavity. – Longest section of the alimentary canal: 8-18 feet long – Function: Where chemical digestion begins : Site for food absorption – 3 Subdivisions: Duodenum (9.

but shorter in length – 5 feet long – Extends from the ileocecal valve anus – Function: Dry out indigestible food residue – Subdivisions: Cecum Vermiform Appendix Colon Ascending Colon Transverse Colon Descending Colon Sigmoid Colon Rectum Anal Canal ACCESSORT DIGESTIVE ORGANS Salivary Glands – 3 pairs:  Parotid Glands (Lie anterior to the ears)  Submandibular Glands  Sublingual Glands – Product: Saliva (a mixture of mucus and serous fluid)  Mucus – moistens and binds food together  Serous Fluid .– Much larger in diameter than the small intestine.contains salivary amylase that begins starch digestion in the motuh – Function: Dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted. Teeth .

have erupted  17-25 years old 3rd molars (wisdom teeth) erupt – Classification according to shape and function: Teeth Function Incisors Canines Premolars (Bicuspids) & Molars Cutting Tearing or Piercing Grinding – A tooth consists of 2 major regions:  Crown Exposed part of the tooth above the gingival-“Gum” Enamel covered (Enamel-the hardest substance in the body)  Root Part embedded in the jawbone Pancreas – Soft. triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum .– 32 permanent teeth (Adult)  6 months old Deciduous teeth (milk teeth) begin to erupt  2 years old (20 teeth) Full set of teeth  6-12 years old Deciduous teeth loosen and fall out  Adolesence All permanent teeth. EXCEPT the 3rd molars. pink.

and acid-base balance of the blood ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM  Kidneys  Ureters  Urinary Bladder  Urethra KIDNEYS – Small. Gall Bladder – Small. thin-walled green sac – Located inferiorly to the liver – Function: Stores bile CHAPTER XI Urinary System Function of the Urinary System – Rids the body of nitrogenous wastes while regulating water.– Function: Produces enzymes that breakdown food Liver – Largest gland in the body. – Has 4 LOBES – Function: Produce bile  Bile – A yellow to green. dark red organs with a kidney-bean shape Location . watery solution. to the right of the body. electrolyte. – Located under the diaphragm.

– Lie against the dorsal body wall in a retroperitoneal position (beneath the parietal peritoneum) in the superior lumbar region – Extend from T12 L3 vertebra – Right kidney is lower than the Left Size – (Adult) 5 inches long 1. creatinine. 2. Difference Between Urine and Filtrate Filtrate Urine . glucose. Filtration capillary Water and solutes smaller than proteins are forced through the walls and pores of the glomerular capsule into the renal tubule. potassium ions. Tubular Secretion drugs are Hydrogen ions. and needed ions are transported Out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter capillary blood. and removed from the peritubular blood and secreted by the tubular cells into the filtrate. 3.5 inhces wide 1 inch thick Coverings  Renal Capsule – Covers each kidney – Gives kidney a glistening appearance  Adipose Capsule – Covers each kidney – Holds kidney in place against the muscles of the trunk wall Blood Supply Urine Formation – 3 Processes: 1. amino acids. Tubular Reabsorption Water.

muscular sac that stores urine temporarily. Size – (Empty) 2-3 inches long URETHRA – Thin-walled tube that carries urine by peristalsis from the bladder to the outside of the body Females SIZE: – 1 ½ inches long LOCATION: SIZE: – 8 inches long LOCATION: – Opens at the tip of the penis Males – External orifice (opening) lies anteriorly .8L of urine produced – Freshly voided urine clear and pale to deep yellow – Considered sterile – Aromatic odor – Acidic URETERS – Passageways that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder Location – Runs behind the peritoneum to the posterior aspect of the bladder Size – 10-12 inches long – 1/4 inch (6mm) wide URINARY BLADDER – Smooth. Contains nitrogenous wastes and unneeded substances. posterior to the pubic symphysis.Contains everything that blood plasma does (except proteins). Is what remains of the filtrate. Characteristics of Urine – 24 hours: 1L 1. collapsible. – Holds 500ml of urine (But is capable of holding more than twice that amount) – Stores urine until it’s release is convenient Location – Retroperitoneal in the pelvis.

to the vaginal opening FUNCTION: – Bring urine outside the body FUNCTION: – Carry urine outside the body – Passageway for sperm CHAPTER XII Reproductive System Primary Sex Organs – “Gonads” – Males: Testes – Females: Ovaries MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM – Primary Reproductive Organs: Testes Testes – Olive-size – Length: 1 ½ inches – Width: 1 inch Duct System Epididymis Ductus Deferens Urethra – Highly coiled tube that caps the superior part of each testis and runs down the posterolateral side – “Vas Deferens” – Runs upward from the epididymis through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity and arches over the – Extends from the base of the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis .

Glans Penis 3. Prepuce (Foreskin) – Function: Deliver sperm into the – A divided sac of skin that hangs outside the abdominal cavity. – Function: To propel live sperm from the epididymis into the urethra – Function: Carries both urine & Sperm to the body Exterior Accessory Glands and Semen – Glands that produce the bulk of semen Semen – Milky white. somewhat sticky mixture of sperm Seminal Vesicles – Located at the base of the bladder – Their thick.– Length: 20 feet – Function: temporary storage site for immature sperm superior aspect of the urinary bladder. between the legs – Function: Necessary for the production of healthy sperm . – Function: Cleanse urethra Lubricant during sexual intercourse Scrotum Penis – Parts: 1. clear mucus that drains into the penile urethra – Function: Provides a transport medium and nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and aid their movement External Genitalia – Function: Produce 60% of the fluid volume of semen. Shaft 2. yellowish secretion is rich in sugar and vitamin Prostate Gland – A Single gland about the size and shape of a chestnut – Encircles the upper part of the urethra just below the urinary bladder. pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate gland – Produce a thick. – Its secretion is a milky fluid – Function: Plays a role in activating sperm Bulbourethral Glands – Tiny.

retain.female reproductive system FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM – Primary Reproductive Organs: Ovaries Ovaries – Pretty much the size and shape of almonds Duct System Fallopian Tubes – “Uterine Tubes” – Extends from an ovary to empty into the uterus – Length: 4 inches Uterus – Located in the pelvis between the urinary bladder and rectum Vagina – Thin-walled tube located between the bladder and rectum – It extends from the cervix to the body exterior – Length: 3-4 inches – Function: Passageway for the Delivery of an infant – Function: Provide a site where Fertilization can Occur – Function: to Receive. And nourish a Fertilized egg External Genitalia – “Vulva” .

Encloses the labia minora.Mons Pubis A fatty rounded area overlying the pubic symphysis. Encloses the vestibule. Labia Majora 2 elongated hair-covered skin folds that runs from the pubis. Labia Minora 2 delicate hair-free folds. CHAPTER XIII Cardiovascular System Major Function of the Cardiovascular System – Transportation of: • Oxygen • Nutrients • Cell wastes • Hormones ANATOMY OF THE HEART Location and Size – Approximately the size of a person’s fist – Weighs < than a pound – Enclosed within the mediastinum (middle cavity of the thorax) . Perineum Diamondshaped region between the anterior end of the labial folds and the anus posteriorly Clitoris Small protruding structure composed of sensitive erectile tissue. Vestibule Region that contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina.

Great Vessels and Valves – 4 hollow chambers: • 2 atria (receiving chambers) • 2 ventricles (discharging chambers) – Great Vessels include: • Superior and Inferior Vena Cava (Receives oxygen poor blood from the veins of the body) • Pulmonary Artery (Receives oxygen poor blood from the right ventricle and carries it to the lungs to be oxygenated) • Pulmonary Veins (Receives oxygen rich blood from the lungs and drains it into the left atrium) • Aorta (Receives oxygen rich blood from the left ventricle and Pumps it out to the systemic circulation) – Valves: .Chambers .

Bicuspid/Mitral Valve when the (Left AV valve) Prevent backflow into the atria Ventricles contract 2. Pulmonary Valve (Right AV valve) Guards the bases of the 2 large arteries leaving the ventricles 2. • Arteries (Receives blood leaving the heart) • Aterioles (smallest arteries) • Capillaries • Venules (smallest veins) • Veins (Drain tissues and return the blood to the heart) . Aortic Valve BLOOD CIRCULATION BLOOD VESSELS • Vascular System – A closed transport system that enables blood to circulate inside blood vessels. Tricuspid Valve • Semilunar Valves 1.• Atrioventricular Valves 1.

MAJOR ARTERIES OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION .• Great Veins (Superior and Inferior Vena Cava) • Heart Arteries – Thick walls – Closer to the pumping action of the heart – Pressure in them is high – Located in deep. well protected body areas – Branch off the AORTA Veins – Thinner walls – Far from the pumping action of the heart – Pressure in them is low – More superficial – Converge on the VENAE CAVAE Capillaries – Exceptionally thin walls – Its thinness allows for easy exchanges between the blood and tissue cells.

1. Aorta – Largest artery of the body – Parts:  Ascending aorta  Aortic arch  Thoracic aorta  Abdominal aorta Branches of the Ascending Aorta  Right and Left Coronary Arteries Branches of the Aortic Arch  Brachiocephalic Trunk (1st branch) – Right Common Carotid Artery – Right Subclavian Artery  Left Common Carotid Artery (2nd branch) Vessel Area Served .

Skin & muscles of the head & Neck  Left Subclavian Artery Vessel Axillary Artery Brachial Artery Radial & Ulnar Arteries Vertebral Artery (3rd branch) Area Served .Left Internal Carotid Left External Carotid .Liver .Arm .Axilla .small intestine .Stomach .Spleen .Brain .Forearm – Part of the brain Branches of the Thoracic Aorta Vessel Intercostal Arteries (10 pairs) Bronchial Arteries Esophagial Arteries Phrenic Arteries Area Served – muscles of the thorax wall – Lungs – Esophagus – Diaphragm Branches of the Abdominal Aorta  Celiac Trunk (1st branch) (A single vessel with 3 branches) Vessel Area Served Left Gastric Artery Splenic Artery Common Hepatic Artery  Other Vessels Vessel Superior Mesenteric Artery Area Served .

Ovaries .Thigh .Kidneys – Abdominal muscles – Trunk walls  Common Iliac Arteries Vessel Internal Iliac Artery External Iliac Artery (Final branches) Area Served .Gonads .Pelvic organs (bladder.Testes . rectum.Leg and foot .Dorsum of the foot Femoral and Deep Femoral Artery Posterior Tibial Arteries Dorsalis Pedis Artery MAJOR VEINS OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION ..etc) (Enters thigh and becomes the femoral artery) .1st half of the large intestine Inferior Mesenteric Artery Gonadal Arteries Ovarian Arteries Testicular Arteries Renal Arteries Lumbar Arteries – 2nd half of the large intestine .

2 MAJOR VEINS Superior Vena Cava Returns blood from the HEAD and ARMS Inferior Vena Cava Returns blood from the LOWER BODY (Below the diaphragm) Veins Draining into the Superior Vena Cava – Named in a distal to proximal direction (same direction the blood flows into the superior vena cava) Vessel Area Drained Radial Veins Ulnar Veins Brachial Vein Axillary Vein Cephalic Vein – Forearm (Unite to form brachial vein) – Arm (Empties into axillary vein) – Axillary region – Lateral aspect of arm .

(superficial vein) Basilic Vein (superficial vein) Median Cubital Vein Subclavian Vein (Empties into axillary vein) – Medial aspect of arm (Empties into brachial vein) (Site for blood removal for blood testing) – (Receives venous blood from arm through the AXILLARY VEIN) – (Receives venous blood from skin and muscles of the head through the EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN) – Posterior part of head – Dural Sinuses of the brain – (Receives venous drainage from the SUBCLAVIAN. VERTEBRAL. and INTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS) – (Join to form the SUPERIOR VENA CAVA) – Thorax (Enters the superior vena cava before it joins the heart) Vertebral Vein Internal Jugular Vein Brachiocephalic Velins Azygos Vein (Single Vein) Veins Draining into the Inferior Vena Cava Vessel Anterior Tibial Veins Posterior Tibial Veins Fibular Vein Great Saphenous Veins (Longest veins in the body) Common Iliac Veins (Right and Left) Area Drained Leg (calf and foot) – Superficial Aspect of Leg – (Formed by the union of EXTERNAL and INTERNAL ILIAC VEIN) – (Join to form the INFERIOR VENA CAVA) – Pelvis Internal Iliac Vein Right Gonadal Vein (Same with the Left Gonadal Vein) Renal Veins Hepatic Portal Vein (Single Vein) Hepatic Veins (Right and Left) – Right Ovary (Females) – Right Testicle (Males) – Kidneys – Digestive tract organs – Liver .

– It delivers the drained venous blood into the LIVER through the HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN. spleen and pancreas.SPECIAL CIRCULATIONS Arterial Supply of the Brain – Brain is supplied by 2 arteries: • Internal Carotid Arteries • Vertebral Arteries Hepatic Portal Circulation – Its veins drain the digestive organs. Fetal Circulation . – The Liver is drained by the HEPATIC VEINS that enter the INFERIOR VENA CAVA.

VITAL SIGNS Pulse – Pressure wave created from the alternating expansion and recoil of an artery that occurs with each beat of the left ventricle Blood Pressure – The pressure the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels – The force that keeps blood circulating continuously even between heartbeats. .

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