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This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Printed in USA. Price $1.00. Available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, National Bureau of Standards, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22151.
VENT-GAS TREATMENT PLANT
D. Snoeberger and R. Heckman, Editors Lawrence Radiation Laboratory University of California Livermore, California March 1966
VENT GAS TREATMENT PLANT J. Ackerman, R. Bundrick, J R. Holzman, C. Hannon, J. Cowles, V. DuVal, J. Grens,
Harrar, C. Morris, L. Rigdon,
R, Heckman and D. Snoeberger Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California Livermore, California
INTRODUCTION As part of the Vela Uniform prog: am, Project Dribble was concerned with the measurement of seismic signals generated by nuclear detonation in a salt dome. The principal objective of the project was a test of the decoupling
theory proposed by Latter et al. 1,2 In September 1962. after resumption of underground nuclear testing, Project Dribble was redefined. Certain technical responsibilities including
the detailed design of the experiment, development of the technical program and execution of the on-site portion of the technical program were assigned to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory through the Atomic Energy Commission. The planned 5-kiloton detonation occurred October 22, 1964, in the Tatum Salt Dome near Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Technical objectives of the post-shot program for this event were to: I) Obtain samples of radioactive debris for yield determination.
iLatter, A. L. , E. LeLevier, E. Martinelli, and W. McMillan, "A Method of Concealing Underground Nuclear Explosions, " J. Geophys. Research, 66, 943-946 (1961). 2 Werth, G. , and P. Randolph, "Prepared Statement on the Theory of Decoupling and the Status of Project Dribble, for the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Congress of United States, ' UCRL-7323, March 6, 1963.
Sample the gas in the cavity to determine whether ridioactive material which might cause a public safety problem had escaped.
Examine the feasibility of re-use of the cavity for firing decoupled nuclear shots. Measurements to be made included distribution
of radioactivity, temperature, volume, geophysical logging, and television survey. 4) Extract core from a second drill hole passing close to the cavity for property measurements. To accomplish this post-shot technical program, an assured means of obtaining access to the cavity was required. Based on studies completed in
1961 on the cost and engineering feasibility of the various means of assuring cavity access, it was decided that a vent-gas treatment facility was needed. This facility was to be connected to the post-shot drilling rig at the well head and was to remove radioactive particulates from the cavity effluents and control release rate of gaseous radioactivity to meet public health safety standards. Process engineering studies resumed in September 1962. The problem The
was redefined with more stringent performance requirements added. new requirements included the following points:
The facility must remove The release
radioiodine to eliminate any possible public safety problems.
rate for the noble gas fission products, xenon and krypton, must not exceed limitations set by the limited test ban treaty, i. e., beyond national borders. no detectable activity
The plant must be removable before shot time and
be quickly reinstalled to prevent damage to the plant components by nuclear seismic shockwave. Absolute reliability and control of plant radioactivity
releases was to be accomplished by use of shut-off valves at the well head.
It was recognized that an explosive mixture of gases might be present in the post-shot cavity. To prevent any possibility of catastrophic failure
of the plant components with subsequent radioactivity release, an air dilution venturi was added at the plant inlet. The flow rate of cavity gas into the
dilution venturi was controlled so that an explosive mixture was never possible beyond the dilution venturi. In addition, all the well head piping
upstream of the venturi was designed to contain any gas explosion that might occur. Since drill back into the cavity might occur as early as D + 7 d-.ys, the facility must be capable of handling the following fission pruduct activity mixed with the gas: particulate - 4 X 105 curies; radioiodine - 8 X 105 curies; and radioxenon and krypton 1 X 10
curies; or a total of 2.2 X 10
GAS TREATMENT PROBLEM Predictions of the chemical environment of an underground r.'iclear explosion are very difficult; yet that is the problem with which we were faced in attempting to describe facility. the feed conditions into our vent gas treatment
The design of the facility had to be sufficiently flexible to cover any
possible situation that could occur in the field. From test hole sample3, salt dome composition was estimated to be Ns-.Cl 91%, CaSO 4 8%, CO 0.015%, H 0 2 2 <0.01%, and traces of hydrocarbons. were thought to be: 1) 2) 0 Fe + H 2 CaSO
The principal gas-producing reactions
.FeO + H 2 CaO + SO 3
CaO + SO
+ 1/2 0 2
3) SO 3 + H 2 0 H-
2so4 2 HCI + Na 2SO 4
2 NaC1 + H 2 S0 4 ----4) 5) H 2 +CO
CO + H 2 0 H 2 0 (g) There was an un-
H20 ( ) -
The iron was present from the emplacement canister.
certainty in amount of salt melt to be produced by the nuclear detonation and therefore the amount of CaSO 4 available for reaction. With these great uncertainties in the general chemical environment, attempted to make predictions of the chemical state of the radioiodine. predictions indicated the most likely forms to be 12 and HI. Predictions of the cavity volume produced further uncertainties in expected pressures; cavity collapse would radically affect cavity pressure and temperature at the time of re-entry. With no collapse, the cavity temperThe cavity pressure we
ature was estimated to be below the melting point of salt.
might range from 10 atm ,o a partial vacuum, depending on which chemical equilibrium prevailed. With these considerations as background, we chose the following as design criteria for the facility: The problem was to release at controlled and
safe rate approximately 5.6 X 105 ft 3 of gas initially at a pressure of 10 atmospheres or less. Release was to begin one to four weeks after the shot, depending upon time required to drill the postshot well. The vented gas tem-
perature would be at ground ambient temperature because of hcat transfer to the earth and well casing during passage up the well. There might be
enough hydrogen and oxygen present to constitute an explosive nixture, possibly in a detonation range. The gas was expected to be acidic, corrosive
and saturated with water. of plugging flow passages.
It might carry suspended salt particles capable Radioactivity was estimated to be a maximum
of 4.0 curie per cubic foot of gas fed to the plant. Later times of re-entry and bleed dowr would allow further decay of radioact'ivity. Radioiodine activity, 1 1 3 3 , predominate.s after 10 days, but Xenon activity falls off a little faster
decreases by a factor of 10 per month.
but krypton 85 activity predominates over those of xenon and iodine after roughly three months, contributing approximately a total of 200 curies. A controlled release of the cavity gas these further effects were expected: Excess water vapor would condense on the wall or on cold salt, This process might continue by
dissolve salt, and return to the cavity. reflux.
There may be a net beneficial effect in separation of gases and There might be problems with
particulates by this "wetted wall column." salt plugging in the well.
Radioactive particulates and iodine were to be removed from the vented gas; xenon and krypton were to be dispersed in the atmosphere. The release rate was limited to allowable rates for iodine, xenon and krypton as determined by publc safety and limited test ban treaty consideration. It was important to complete bleed down in as short a time as possible
to minimize cost and degradation of data for the post shot programs. Pre-operational tests with radioactive iodine were made in July 1964. The plant was removed to avoid shock d&.mage, then reinstalled after the test detnation. Operational use began in February 1965, and continued Figure I shows the plant piped to the reThe plant is now in caretaker
intermittently through May 1965.
entry well late in the operational period.
status pending development of requirements in connection with re-use of the cavity for further experiments.
Prior to the actual detonation the decision was made to delay start of post-shot drill back for 60 days to accomplish additional technical requirements for the detection program. Because of this delay a large fraction of At the time of cavity
radioactivity decayer', and the cavity cooled to 2040 C.
penetration, the cavity was found to be under a partial vacuum of 313 millibars. On the basis of pre-operaaonal performance tests and the actual operating experience, we feel that we successfully designed and built a vent gas treatment facility whose performance exceeded our original design specifications. The desired flexibility was demonstrated by our ability to support a 'Vide variety of down-hole operations that resulted from actual conditions found in the field. However, our ability to predict the chemical environment of a.i underground nuclear explosion leaves something to be desired. We recognized our
ignorance in this area and by use of a very conservative design we did conduct a post-shot technical program successfully without endangering the publib: safety or violating the limited test ban treaty. DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS AND PLANT The process is a remotely operated gas scrubbing and filtering system with charcoal adsorption units incorporated with the filters. It is sized to
take up to 200 ft 3/min of cavity gas mixed with 2000 ft 3/min of air to dilute nydrogen. Effluent gas is discharged from a 150-foot stack after mixing with 20,000 cfm of additional air. Liquid wastes from the scrubbers are st Figure 2 shows the sutdown, d
in four 25,000-gal tanks for later disposal.
flow control and main process units,
Well Head Well ,The well head includes the cavity gas shut-off valves. There are six,
two in series plus a sampling valve on each of the two connections to the plant.
These valves ate remotely operable.
They are designed to fail to a closed
position and will close automatically on loss of electric power or failure of the process equipment. Flow Control and Dilution Flow control valves, adjacent to the well, limit flow to rates based on the hydrogen dilution requirement or radioactivity release limit. The venturi
serves to dilute cavity gas to below the lower explosive limit for hydrogen and provide suction for faster flow at low cavity pressures. Equipment working
pressure ratings are 3000 psig prior to dilution and 150 psig after dilution. Gas Scrubbers The two scrubbers, in series, are a venturi-type and an impingement plate type. Their purposes are to remove particulates, protecting the filters The scrubbing liquid is aqueous
from excess loading, and remove iodine. sodium hydroxide. Filter Adsorbers
Each of three units installed in parallel consist.3 of an activated charcoal bed with an "absolute" type filter preceding and following. A prefilter is
used with each to avoid caustic damage to the glass fiber media of the high efficiency filters. units. These are modified Cambridge Filter Company C. B. R.,
Their purpose is to remove particulates carrying radioactivity and One of the three is a reserve unit.
to adsorb radioiodine. Stack
The stack is 150 feet high, clearing local trees and hills by 50 to 100 feet. A stack blower adds air at 20,000 ft 3/min for local dilution. contaminated tank vent gas is discharged through the stack, Chemical Biological Radiological. All effluent and
Laboratory Trailer A gas chromatograph provides feed gas analysis by sample pipe or bottle. Scrubbing solution analysis is provided by "auto analyzer" and pH
and density instruments.
PREOPERATIONAL TESTS During the course of the project increasing emphasis was placed on removal of radioactive ;odine. Although quantities and the compounds of
iodine to be expected in the gas were not predictable, tests with a probable form, I2' were made using 1-131 as a gamma tracer. Results were excellent.
The removal factor for the combined scrubbers and charcoal beds was 4 X
OPERATION OF FACILITY This period began on February 26, 1965. It can be divided roughly
into three phases: 1) a standby period prior to cavity penetration (Feb. 26 to Mar. 3); 2) an operation period during which the greatest part of actual vent 13); 3) a continuing period of stand-
gas treatment took place (Mar. 4 to Mar. by and occasional operation (Mar.
A summary of operational experience follows: 1. Cleaning of air drilling returns A crossover line was installed from the drill rig "blooie line" into the plant 10-inch process gas line. This system allowed the plant to provide
protection against spreading of radioactive salt dust and release of radiogas encountered in the final stages of drilling. Drilling returns were diverted
-9to the plant for cleaning when radioactivity release limits were approached. This was done on penetration drilling into the cavity and later while drilling for cores below the cavity. 2. Vent gas treatment The true operating phase began at cavity penetration, early on March 4. A pressure measurement shortly after penetration showed 0.8-inch Hg
vacuum, so no immediate attempt was made to bleed off cavity gas. Gas sample bottles and temperature measuring instruments were lowered into the cavity, and the plant gas chromatography unit analyzed a sample of this gas. This important findings were that the gas was primarily air, with CO 2 the primary additional constituent. Both H2 and SO2 were present, but
in concentrations too low to be of concern in operations. The first appreciable quantity of gas vented from the cavity occurred of March 6, following pressurization of the cavity to one-half atmosphere
positive pressure with drilling compressors for purposes of cavity volume measurements. This gas was released through the rossover pipe installed Cyclic
for drilling returns, which allowed flows at approximately 1000 cfm.
flow pulses, with a period of about 30 to 60 seconds, were observed during bleeding off of the gas. These may have been caused by a reflux water leg,
which also may have been responsible for closing the hole with a salt plug. Activity release was very low. The maximum release rate of radioApproximately
active rare gas is estimated at less than 200 millicuries/minute.
30 curies of rare gas, mostly Kr5, were released in the initial bleed down of the 300,000 cubic feet of air added for cavity volume measurement. Due
to dilution by the stack blower, 5 microcuries per cubic foot was the maximum concentration in effluent gas. difficulty. 1131 was so slight as to be detectable only with
The second and final major release of cavity gas was from the flushing operation. This was a procedure to reduce the concentration of radio-
active gas to such a level that treatment of vent gases would no longer be required. Three cavity volumes of air were pumped into the cavity and
bled off, reducing residual gas to 40 microcuries per cubic foot rare gas radioactivity. Release rate was a maximum of 50 millicuries per minute early in the operation, and declined slightly. primarily Kr
Total release was approximately 50 curies,
3. Downhole operations support Regulated flows of nitrogen and air and slight suctions were provided to the well on demand to assist in the use of well logging instruments and television cameras. Cavity pressures were decreased to just below atmospheric
pressure to establish downdrafts during insertion and removal of drilling equipment and instruments. Repeated use of plant equipment was made to test by pressurization and pressure decay measurement for communication between well and cavity. dilution venturi suction was used to speed up final stages of gas pressure bleed down for the time saving benefit. Suction of gas downward from the well head was used to reduce gas hazards on the rig floor when unsealed insertions or removals were necessary. CONCLUSIONS GAINED FROM OPERATIONAL EXPERIET&CE The experience gained from the design and operation of this unique vent gas treatment facility has initiated a number of research and development studies to overcome many of the process engineering problems uncovered. The
We are actively studying methods of arresting detonation waves. Solution of this problem would eliminate necessity of air dilution, with a subsequent decrease in size of processing equipment capacity by an order of magInitude. From the measured performance of the charcoal scrubbers, we believe much of the radioiodine released was present as organic compounds possibly CH 3 I. We have completed studies on improving the performance of charcoal We are now studying new analytical
adsorption beds for the removal of CH 3 1.
techniqucs which will allow us to determine the chemical state of iodine in future field experiments. Basic studies of the chemical nature of an undergound nuclear explosion are underway. We plan to use computer calculation tenchiques and laboratory
scale experiments, as well as actual field experiments involving underground nuclear detonations. With the results obtained from these basic studies, we expect to be able to make better predictions of inlet feed streams and to design more ccmpact, higher performance vent gas treatment plants in the future.
TECHNICAL AND SAFETY PROGRAM REPORTS SCHEDULED FOR ISSUANCE B1 AGENCIES PARTICIPATING IN PROJECT UIBBE SAFETY REPORTS Agency USWB U[•PHS US3M USGS USGS REECo RFB, Inc. H-NSC
FAA Report No. Subject or Title
V'F.*120O VUF-O121 VUF-1O02 VUF-1023 VUF-IO24 VU?-1025 VUF-IO26 VUF-1027
Weather and lurface Radiation Prediction
Final Report of Off-site Surveillance Pre and Post-Shot Safety Inspection of Oil and Gas Facilities Near Project Dribble Analysis of Geohydrology of Tatum Salt Dome Analysis of Aquifer Response On-Site Health and Safety Report Analysis of Dribble Data on Ground Motion and Containment - Safety Program ,round-;.ater Safety
Federal Aviation Agency Airspace Advisory
Summary of Pre and Post-Shot Structural
Structural Response of Residential-Type Test Structures in Close Proximity to an Underground Nuclear Detonat ion Structurel Response of Tall Industrial and Residential Structures to an Underground Nuclear Detonat ion.
The Seismic Safety data will be included in the USC&GS Technical Report VUF-3OI4
Report No. VTJF-3012
Subject or Title Free-Field Particle Motions from a Nuclear
Explosion in Salt - Part I Free-Field Particle Motions from a Nuclear
Explosion in Salt - Part II USC&3S UED VUF-3014 VJF-3015 Earth Vibration from a Nuclear Explosion in
a Salt Dome
Compressional Velocity and Distance Measurements In a Salt Dome
IAL IAL SRI ILL WES
Vant-G.s Treatment Plant
Response of Test Structures to Ground Motion fro an Underground Nuclear Explosion Feasibility of Cavity Pressure and Temperature Measurements for a Decoupled Nuclear Explosion Backround Engineering rata and Summary of Instrumentation for a Nuclear Test in Salt Laboratory Desig and Analyses and Field Control of Grouting Mixtures Employed at a Nuclear Test in Salt Geology and Physical and Chemical Properties of the Site for a Nuclear Explosion in Salt
Timing and Firing
This report number was assigned by SAN
In addition to the reports listed above as scheduled for issuance by the Project DRIBBLE test organization, a number of papers covering interpretation of the SAI4ON As data are to be submitted to the American Geophysical Union for publication. of these papers consists of the following: of February 1, 1965, the list Title Shock Wave Calculations of Salmon Nuclear Decoupling, Full and Partial Author(s) L. A. Rogers Agency(s) LRL IRL LRL USC&GS AFTAC UED
D. W. Patterson D. L. Springer and W. D. Hurdlow J. N. Jordan W. V. Mickey W. Helterbran A. Archambeau and E. A. Flinn E. Herrin and J. Taggart D. E. Ravson and *Hansen S. M. D. H. Warren J. H. Healy W. H. Jackson
Calculation of P-Wave Amplitudes for Salmon Travel Times and Amplitudes of Salmon Explosion Detection, Analysis and Interpretation of Teleseismic Signals from the Salmon Event Epicenter Locations of Salmon Event The Post-Explosion Environment Resulting from the Salmon Event Measurements of the Crustal Structure in Mississippi All but the last paper in the above list
SDC Smi USC&GS
will be read at the annual meeting of
the American Geophysical Union in April 1965. -
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BK LTD hrringer Research Limited Rexdale, OntarioCanada Engineering Research Development laboratory Fort Belvoir, Virgnia Federal Aviation Ency Los Angeles, Caliornia U. S. Army Geodesy, Intelnigence and Msapping Research
TECHNICAL AGENCIES R. F. Beers, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia Seismic D&+A Center Alexandria, Virginia Edgerton, Germeshausen &
RFB, INC. SDC
Crier, SL SMU
Sandia laboratory Albuquerque, New Mexico Southern Methodist University Dalls, Texas
Stanford Research Institute MnoPrClfri
and Development Agency Fort Belvior, Virginia X-NSC Hazleton-Nuclear Science CroainSRI
Palo Alto, California H&O, INC Holmes & Narver, Inc. Los Angeles, California "Las VegLs,
Menlo Park, California TI UA NUED Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas United Aircraft El Segundo, Inc.
II MTEK JAB
Itek Corporation Palo Alto, California I John A. Blume & Associates Research Division Sat Francisco, California Lawrence Radiation laboratory Livermore, California
United Electro Dynamics, Inc. Pasadena, California U. S. Bureau of Mines Washington, 25, D. C. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Las Vegas, Nevada U. S. Geologic Survey Denver, Colorado U. S. Public Health Service Las Vegas, Nevada U. S. Weather Bureau Las Vegas, Nevada
USGS U. S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, California Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. Las Vegas, Nevada USPHS USWB
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