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Q.What is firewall? A.

A firewall is a hardware or software installed to provide security to the priv ate networks connected to the internet. They can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. All data entering or leaving the Intran et passes through the firewall which allows only the data meeting the administra tors rules to pass through it. Q.What are the types of firewalls? A. 1.Packet Filtering Firewall: This type of Firewall detects ecessary packets and makes network traffic release. 2.Screening Router Firewalls:It's a software base firewall rovides only light filtering. 3.Computer-based Firewall:It's a firewall stored in server ating System like Windows and UNIX. 4.Hardware base Firewall:Its device like box allows strong network. Mostly used by big networks.

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Proxy Server:Proxy server allows all clients to access Internet with different a ccess limits. Proxy server has its own firewall which filters the all packet fro m web server. Q.What is Data encryption? A.Data encryption ensures data safety and very important for confidential or cri tical data. It protect data from being read, altered or forged while transmissio n. Q.What is the Public Key Encryption? A.Public key encryption use public and private key for encryption and decryption . In this mechanism, public key is used to encrypt messages and only the corresp onding private key can be used to decrypt them. To encrypt a message, a sender h as to know recipient s public key. Q.Define Digital Signatures. A.Digital signature is an attachment to an electronic message used for security purpose. It is used to verify the authenticity of the sender. Q.What is Ethernet technology? A.Ethernet technology is a high speed broadcast bus technology. In this type, al l the station shares a single ether channel and receives every single transmitte d signal. Q.Explain the use of network interface card, NIC. A.NIC is used to connect computer to an Ethernet network. Q.Explain token ring technology. A.In this technology, all the devices are arranged in a circle. A token moves ar ound the circular network. A device waits for the token before it sends its fram e. Once it receives token, it initiates transmission of its frame. Q.What is CSMA and CD concept? A.In CSMA (carrier sense multiple access), presence of any digital signal in a n etwork is checked before transmission. Data transmission occurs only when no sig nal is sensed.CD, Collision detection is responsible for monitoring carrier in o rder to avoid signal jam. Q.What is NetBIOS protocol? A.NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) Protocol allows applications on se parate computers to communicate over a LAN. It runs over TCP/IP giving each comp uter in the network a NetBIOS name and IP address. E.g. It can be used for compu

ters running Windows 2000 (or before) to join a computer network running Windows 2000 (or later). Q.What is IGMP protocol? A.Internet Group Management Protocol, allows internet hosts to multicast. i.e. t o send messages to a group of computers. There may be a group of internet hosts interested to multicast. IGMP allows router to determine which host groups have members on a given network segment. It helps to establish group memberships. It is commonly used for streamlining videos and gaming. The protocol can be impleme nted both as a host side and router side. The host side is responsible to notify its membership in a group. The notification is made to a local router. This loc al router (router side) in turn sends out queries. Q.What is TCP / IP protocol? A.Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol: - It is a family of protoco ls used for communication and connection between hosts on the internet. It is th e most widely used standard for transmitting data over the internet. The four la yers in the protocol are (from bottom to top):- Physical layer, Data link layer, Network layer, transport layer and application layer, also called as the OSI mo del. In TCP/IP , IP is responsible for forwarding packets while TCP ensures the correct delivery of data from client to server. TCP detects loss of data as well . Q.What is HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)? A.HTTP or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is provides a set of rules to transfer fi les, videos, images over the world wide web. When the web browser is opened, a H TTP request call is made. A web server contains a HTTP daemon. This daemon is us ed to wait for HTTP requests and handle them when they arrive. The web browser f rom where HTTP requests are made is called as a client. These requests are sent to the server. It uses a reserved port no 80. Q.What is NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)? A.NNTP or Network News Transfer Protocol is used to manage the notes posted on U nset newsgroup (a collection of posted notes on a subject posted by different us ers). NNTP servers are responsible for managing Usenet newsgroup collected globa lly. A NTTP client is a part of the web browser also called as a news reader. It uses a reserver port no 119. Q.What is POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)? A.POP3 or Post Office Box 3 is used fro receiving emails. It is a client server protocol which holds the email. Once the email is downloaded from the server, PO P3 deletes it from the server. Ordinal numbers are used to identify specific mes sages. Q.What is SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)? A.SNMP or Simple Network Management Protocol is typically used for managing the network. Managing the network includes managing the nodes present in the network . These nodes may be server, routers, bridges and hubs. SNMP agents are used to achieve this. Managing the network is essential because it helps to monitor netw ork performance, detect network faults or failures, audit network usage etc. the SNMP messages like TRAP, GET or SET may be invoked by network elements or netwo rk management system. Q.What is Routing table? A.A routing table stores the routes of the various nodes in a network. Nodes can be any electronic device connected to the network. The table is usually stored in a router or the network computer as a database or file. This information help s to fond the best possible path. The routing table has at least 3 fields: the d estination network id, cost of the path, next hop or address to send the packet.

Q.What is Routing Protocols? A.Routing protocols are used to assist in achieving the basic purpose of routing . They specify the routers the method to communicate with each other. They help the routers select the best possible path between nodes. There are different typ es of protocols such as link-state routing protocols, path vector protocols and distance vector routing protocols. These protocols prevent routing loops to form or break if formed already. They help to decide preferred routes from a sequen ce of hop costs Q.What is Pix Firewall Security? How does it differ from a firewall? A.CISCO pix firewall security is statefull firewall. It uses ASA Technology. Q.What can't a firewall protect against? A.Firewalls can't protect against attacks that don't go through the firewall. Ma ny corporations that connect to the Internet are very concerned about proprietary data leaking out of the company through that route.Unfortunate ly for those concerned, a magnetic tape can just as effectively be used to export data. Many organizations that are terrified (at amanagement le vel) of Internet connections have no coherent policy about how dial-in access via modems should be protected. Q.Will IPSEC make firewalls obsolete? A.IPSEC (IP SECurity) refers to a set of standards developed by the Internet Eng ineering Task Force (IETF). There are many documents that collectively define what is known as ``IPSEC'' [4]. IPSEC solves two problems which have plag ued the IP protocol suite for years: host-to-host authentication (which will let hosts know that they're talking to the hosts they think they are) and e ncryption (which will prevent attackers from being able to watch the traffic going between machines). Q.What is a network firewall A.A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control pol icy between two networks. The actual means by which this is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, the firewall can be thought of as a pair of mec hanisms: one which exists to block traffic, and the other which exists to permit traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic,whil e others emphasize permitting traffic. Probably the most important thing to recognize about a firewall is that it implements an access control policy. If you don't have a good idea of what kind of access you want to allow or to deny, a firewall really won't help you. It's also important to recog nize that the firewall's configuration, because it is a mechanism for enforcing policy, imposes its policy on everything behind it. Administrators for firewalls managing the connectivity for a large number of hosts therefore have a heavy responsibility. Q.What are the critical resources in a firewall? A. 1.Service Critical Resource 2.Email 3.Disk I/O 4.Netnews Disk I/O 5.Web Host 6.OS Socket Performance 7.IP Routing Host OS Socket Performance 8.Web Cache 9.Host OS Socket Performance, Disk I/O Q.What are some common attacks, and how can I protect my system against them? A.Each site is a little different from every other in terms of what attacks are

likely to be used against it. Some recurring themes do arise, though. Q.What is the difference between gateway and firewall? A.A network gateway joins two networks together through a combination of hardwar e and software.A network firewall guards a computer network against unauthorized incoming or outgoing access. Network firewalls may be hardware devices or softw are programs. ... Q.What is the difference between router ACLs and Firewall ACLs? A.Fundamental purpose: 1)Routers are designed to route traffic, not stop it. 2)Firewalls are designed to examine and accept/reject traffic. But the both ACL are do the same job. Depending upon our requirments we do our ACL configuration on it. Q.How the the two servers can communicate when the firewall is there in between. A.Depend on firewall configuration, all most authorize port nb 80, so we can com municate over Http protocol. ... Q.What is firewall? How to enable firewall in Windows XP? A.To enable firewall in Window...Start - Controlpanel - Security center -Turn On the Firewall Button and enable it. ... Q.A traceout command work across the firewall? why? A.Traceroute is based on ICMP type 30 under Windows and UDP under NIX; tracerout e pacjets that would hit the firewall should be dropped similarly any echo repla y coming from inside the firewall should be restricted outbound.