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EE084586 EE083783

Introduction

In this power system assignment, we are required to analysis the network given by using the Matlab Simulink and the M-files and we need to get the results of simulation and include inside our report. At first we need to convert the network into per-unit equivalent circuit as the data needed at the Matlab must be in per-unit values. We also need to perform all the calculation on the data given in Table 1. Follow by that, we need to use Matlab Simulink to generate the Y bus matrix of the power system and get the power flow solution using the Gauss-Seidel Method. We also need to indicate all the details of the voltage magnitude and angle on each bus, generation buses and load (P and Q details) on load buses and line flows on single-line diagram. Lastly, we need to discuss the impact and solution to solve the problem if there is a transmission line outage happened at the L2.

In power system, power-flow solution is an important tool which including the numerical analysis method. The numerical analysis method is Newton-Raphson method and Gauss-Seidel method. The power flow solution usually uses one-line diagram and per-unit system and focuses on various forms of AC power which are reactive, real and apparent rather than focuses on the voltage and current. Power flow solution is important in future for planning expansion of the power system. The power flow solution also contributes to the commercial power system as the hand-calculation for the power flow is too hard to apply on the commercial power system which is very large. The goal of the power flow solution is to obtain the voltage and phase angle for all the buses for specific conditions on the load and generator in the network. The power-flow solution can help us in the analysis of the power system in a normal-steady state operation.

Given SB= 100MVA, V1B=13.8kV V2B = (230kV/13.8kV) * 13.8kV = 230kV V3B = (15kV/230kV) * 230kV = 15kV V1pu = 13.8kV/ 13.8kV = 1.0 0 pu (slack bus) Notes: All the voltages for the bus 2 until bus 6 are assumed to be 1.0 0 pu. V7pu = 15kV /15kV = 1.0 0 pu (voltage-controlled bus) We can calculated the impendances by using the formula Znew=Zold*Snew / Sold : XG1 = (0.12)*(100/100) = j0.12 pu XG2 = (0.12)*(100/200) = j0.06 pu XT1 = (0.10)*(100/100) = j0.10 pu XT2 = (0.10)*(100/200) = j0.05 pu To calculate ZB, we can use ZB = (VB)2/SB Z3B = (15k)2/100M =2.25 Z2B = (230k)2/100M =529 (For all ZB line)

Z34 = [(0.08+j0.05)*30]/529 = 0.0045368+j0.02835 pu Z45 = [(0.08+j0.05)*40]/529 = 0.006049+j0.0378 pu Z46 = [(0.08+j0.05)*50]/529 = 0.0075614+j0.04726 pu Z56 = [(0.08+j0.05)*15]/529 = 0.002268+j0.01417 pu

SL-pu = SL/SB S2 = [(50MW+j30MVAR)]/100MVA =0.5+j0.3 pu S3 = [(50MW+j30MVAR)]/100MVA =0.5+j0.3 pu S4 = [(50MW+j30MVAR)]/100MVA =0.5+j0.3 pu S5 = [(50MW+j30MVAR)]/100MVA =0.5+j0.3 pu S6 = [(50MW+j30MVAR)]/100MVA =0.5+j0.3 pu

j 0.05 pu

j 0.1 pu 1.4706 pu

1.4706 pu

1.4706 pu

j 0.8823 pu

j 0.8823 pu

1.4706 pu

j 0.8823 pu

j 0.8823pu

1.4706 pu

j 0.8823 pu

ZL1 = ZL4 = 0.0023 + j 0.0142 pu Z L2 = 0.0045 + j 0.0284 pu ZL3 = 0.0060 + j 0.0378 pu ZL5 = 0.0076 + j 0.0473 pu

Admittance diagram

-0.5 j0.3 pu -0.5 j0.3 pu -0.5 j0.3 pu -0.5 j0.3 pu -0.5 j0.3 pu S2sch = S3sch = S4sch = S5sch = S6sch = -0.5-j0.3 PU Y12 = 0 + j0.1000 pu = - Y21 Y67 = 0 + j0.2000 pu = - Y76 Y23 = -0.1100 + j0.6876 pu = - Y32 Y34 = -0.0550 + j0.3438 pu = - Y43 Y45 = -0.0413 + j0.2579 pu = - Y54 Y56 = -0.1100 + j0.6876 pu = - Y65 Y46= -0.0330 + j0.2063 pu = - Y64 Y11 = 0 - j0.1000 pu Y22 = 0.1100 - j0.7876 pu Y33 = 0.1650 - j1.0314 pu Y44 = 0.1293 - j0.8080 pu Y55 = 0.1512 - j0.9455 pu Y66 = 0.1430 - j1.0939 pu Y77 = 0 - j0.2000 pu

Part (b)

a) Y Bus Matrix (MATLAB coding & result)

R X 0 0.1 0.002268 0.01418 0.004537 0.02836 0.006049 0.03781 0.007561 0.04726 0.002268 0.01418 0 0.05 ];

% Obtaining the Y bus matrix % Assign Y to function ybus1 Y = yBus1(z); display (Y); Y = 1.0e+002 * Columns 1 through 4 0 - 0.1000i 0 + 0.1000i 0 0.3438i 0 0.8080i 0 0.2579i 0 0.2063i 0 Columns 5 through 7 0 0 0 -0.0413 + 0.2579i 0.1512 - 0.9455i -0.1100 + 0.6876i 0 0 0 0 -0.0330 + 0.2063i -0.1100 + 0.6876i 0.1430 - 1.0939i 0 + 0.2000i 0 0 0 0 0 0 + 0.2000i 0 - 0.2000i 0 0 0 0 0 -0.0330 + 0 0 -0.0413 + 0 -0.0550 + 0.3438i 0.1293 0 + 0.1000i 0.1100 - 0.7876i -0.1100 + 0.6876i 0 -0.1100 + 0.6876i 0.1650 - 1.0314i 0 0 -0.0550 +

Part (c)

Power Flow Solution

% Set the variable basemva to be 100 basemva = 100; % Preparing busdata input % Note that bus codes indicate types of bus % Bus Code 0 indicates load % Bus Code 1 indicates slack bus % Bus Code 2 indicates P-V bus %% Power Flow Solution % Defining parameters for Gauss-Seidel solving accuracy = 0.0001; accel = 1.6; maxiter = 200; % Bus Bus Voltage ----% No Code Mag. Mvar busdata = [ 1 1 1.00 2 0 1.00 3 0 1.00 4 0 1.00 5 0 1.00 6 0 1.00 7 2 1.00 0 ]; Angle Degree ------Load-----Generator----InjectedMW Mvar MW Mvar Qmin Qmax

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 50 50 50 50 50 0

0 30 30 30 30 30 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 180

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 -87

0 0 0 0 0 0 87

0 0 0 0 0 0

% Preparing linedata input % All line settings are set to 1 because no transformer tapping occurs % Bus Bus R X 1/2B Line setting % nl nr pu pu pu linedata = [1 2 0 0.1 0 1 2 3 0.002268 0.01418 0 1 3 4 0.004537 0.02836 0 1 4 5 0.006049 0.03781 0 1 4 6 0.007561 0.04726 0 1 5 6 0.002268 0.01418 0 1 6 7 0 0.05 0 1]; % Carrying out operations which require to solve the power flow Lfybus; Lfgauss; Busout; Lineflow;

i) Output results for voltage magnitude and angle, generation details and load details. %% Results Power Flow Solution by Gauss-Seidel Method Maximum Power Mismatch = 9.02454e-005 No. of Iterations = 114 Bus Voltage Angle ------Load--------Generation--Injected No. Mag. Degree MW Mvar MW Mvar Mvar 1 1.000 0.000 2 0.908 0.000 3 0.900 0.000 4 0.895 0.000 5 0.897 0.000 6 0.904 0.000 7 0.950 0.000 Total 0.000 0.000 -4.463 -4.588 -3.929 -3.104 -2.345 3.669 0.000 50.000 50.000 50.000 50.000 50.000 0.000 0.000 30.000 30.000 30.000 30.000 30.000 0.000 70.662 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 180.000 94.765 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 96.508

250.000

150.000

250.662

191.273

ii)

Output results for line flows and line losses Line Flow and Losses

--Line-- Power at bus & line flow --Line loss-from to MW Mvar MVA MW Mvar 1 70.662 94.765 118.210 2 70.663 94.765 118.210 0.000 13.974 -50.000 -30.000 58.310 1 -70.663 -80.792 107.334 0.000 13.974 3 20.668 50.791 54.835 0.083 0.517 -50.000 -30.000 58.310 2 -20.585 -50.273 54.325 0.083 0.517 4 -29.415 20.274 35.725 0.072 0.447 -50.000 -30.000 58.310 3 29.487 -19.826 35.532 0.072 0.447 5 -30.664 -0.674 30.671 0.071 0.444 6 -48.821 -9.501 49.737 0.234 1.460 -50.000 -30.000 58.310 4 30.735 1.118 30.755 0.071 0.444 6 -80.731 -31.119 86.521 0.211 1.319 -50.000 -30.000 4 49.054 10.961 5 80.942 32.438 7 -179.999 -73.398 58.310 50.264 0.234 1.460 87.200 0.211 1.319 194.389 0.000 23.110

Transformer tap

180.000 96.508 204.240 6 179.999 96.508 204.239 0.000 23.110 0.670 41.272

Total loss

Part (d)

Single Line Diagram

DISCUSSION

In this assignment, the question mentions a network with two generators and five lagging loads. The generators are connected to the 230kV network through the transformers. Before we proceed with the Matlab Simulation, we have to convert the network diagram into the per unit equivalent circuit. It is because the inputs for the Matlab function used for this assignment, the linedata and the busdata need the data to be in per-unit values. We have perform some mathematical working to work out on the per unit equivalent circuit. For the network given in this assignment, the bus 1 is acted as the slack bus, the bus 2, bus 3, bus 4, and bus 5 are the load buses while the bus 7 is the voltage-controlled bus. We are using the Matlab and M-file to analysis the network more effectively. It will approach to many errors if we analysis the network by hand. From the results we obtained, the bus 7 delivers a power of 180MW and 96.508Mvar. The generator connected to bus 1 added in a power of 70.662MW and 94.765Mvar to the system. The total apparent power of the system is 250.662MW+ j191.273Mvar. The system does not only supply the total apparent power to the loads but also include the line loss that happened. The total line loss is 0.61 MW+j41.272Mvar. The high line loss happened at the reactive power is due to the loss at in the line and transformer. In fact, the high reactive power losses are actually due to the losses at the transformer which have the losses of 37.084Mvar adding up. For the overall efficiency in term of real power, we can get an efficiency of 99.736%. For the reactive power, we have an efficiency of 78.422%. For the total apparent power, we have an efficiency of 91.892%. These results will give us an idea that this system will be an effective transmission network. For part (e), if the transmission line outage happens on L2, the line 3 and 4 will be cut out and the network will be separated into two parts. From the results we obtained, we can know that there is a power flow of 29.487MW from the line 4 to line 3. When the outage is happen, the generator 1 will have to generate more power to supply to the additional loads which cause this generator in under-frequency mode whereas the generator 2 will provide more power than the level the loads needed which make it in over-frequency mode. The outage happened will lead to the black-out of the system of the infinite bus. To overcome this problem, we needed to reduce the power generated by generator 2 to prevent overflow in load 4, 5 and 6. The overflow will lead to the overheat of the machine and lead to over-frequency on the system. The load shedding can be done on the generator 1 to reduce the loads at bus 2 or 3 to supply sufficient power. We can also add the backup generators on bus 2 and 3 so that extra power can be generated when outage happen.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we are managed to get the voltage and the phase angle for all the buses, real power, reactive power for all the loads and generator and the total apparent power for the system by using the M-file and Matlab simulation. All these results can be obtained after we perform 114 iterations using the Gauss-Seidel method. We can also get the power flow in all the transmission line and the lineloss by using the Matlab Simulation and the M-file and we can represent the results in the single-line diagram. For this assignment, the maximum power mismatch shown in the result is very small which has only 0.0000902454 in value. Load flow solution is an useful tool for analysis purpose in the power system. We can obtain all the information of the buses and the transmission line we want by using the load flow solution. To enable us to using this load flow solution to compute the results, all we needed is only the impedance and the connection of the lines and buses. With the help of Matlab Simulink, we just need to apply all the impedances and the connection of the buses in the network inside the Matlab and we will be able to analysis more complex network and compute the results more accurately and efficiently.

References:

1) 2) 3) Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, 2004 [2011]. MathWorks website. [Online]. Available: http://www.mathworks.com/

http://umpir.ump.edu.my/88/1/cd2655.pdf

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