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Members: Queenie mae Mundo Janilane Cabrera Junivie Ditan Ana Fe Aballe

Joshua Ray lawas Frets Demy Arejola Diego

Ancient Native Literature

(Pre-Spanish literature)

Folk Tales
A folktale is a type of traditional story that tries to explain or understand the world. Such stories were orally passed down through the generations and feature morals or lessons. The stories usually take place long ago in a faraway place and are woven around talking animals, royalty, peasants, or mythical creatures. In a folktale, goodness is always rewarded. Heroes and heroines live happily ever after while villains are suitably punished. Throughout the generations, the story may change but its core remains the same. Folktales usually have no identified author, but they mirror the values and culture of the society from which they originated. Before the Internet, newspapers, radio, television, and other types of media, the world relied on storytellers for entertainment and education. Storytellers related magical tales to eager listeners that taught valuable lessons by providing glimpses into strange, faraway worlds. These stories continued to thrive, passed down throughout the centuries.

From the Greek mythos, myth means story or word. Mythology is the study of myth. As stories (or narratives), myths articulate how characters undergo or enact an ordered sequence of events. The term myth has come to refer to a certain genre (or category) of stories that share characteristics that make this genre distinctly different from other genres of oral narratives, such as legends and

folktales. Many definitions of myth repeat similar general aspects of the genre and may be summarized thus: Myths are symbolic tales of the distant past (often primordial times) that concern cosmogony and cosmology (the origin and nature of the universe), may be connected to belief systems or rituals, and may serve to direct social action and values.
A Philippine legend I translated from my Filipino book into English. "Ang daigdig at ang unang tao" (The world and its first humans). Filipino legend of the origin of the world and the first man and woman. Philippine mythology pagan belief. A creation story in Philippine literature. Also known as "Si Malakas at Si Maganda" (Strength and Beauty). A summary.
Ang Daigdig at Ang Unang Tao (The World and the First Humans)

Si Malakas at Si Maganda (Strength and Beauty)

It was told that that in the beginning, there was no earth or man. There was only the Sky and the Sea. Both of equal prowess, they exist one above or below the other. The only thing in between them was a small bird. The bird was flying endlessly, until, he got bored and tired. The Sky was above him, but he cant reach it; below him was the Sea, but he cant land on it. So the bird thought deeply. And then he swooshed, and scooped and splashed water from the Sea. He continued with his splashing until water reached the Sky above. The Sky was furious. He didnt want the waters to flood him, and he noticed that the Sea now was also mad. All the Sky thought of was creating rocks and then throwing them. And so he did. The Sky created rocks and he threw them down, which landed on the Sea. The bird was satisfied. He landed on those rocks and then made a nest. The Sky commanded the bird to never disturb him and the Sea again.

But then the bird noticed something floating on the water. He ignored it but the bamboo shaft bumped him and hurt him. He got so furious so he pecked and pecked the bamboo until it split into two. From the first half sprung a man, and from the second, a woman. Strength and Beauty. They were our first parents, and from them, the rest of the world began The End.

Legend has several related meanings. A legend today may be someone of noted celebrity, with larger-than-life accomplishments, whose fame is well-known. Another meaning of legend is a literary genre. In this capacity, the term legend is much-abused, used synonymously with myth, tall tale, and history. However, it makes more sense to use the term legend as it is, in fact, often used to name a type of literature that falls somewhere between myth, tall tales, and history and that otherwise has no name. In this sense, legend differs from myth, if we understand myth to be focused on explaining natural phenomena, answering questions about why things are the way they are in the natural world, because legend is focused on individuals and their accomplishments. Legend also differs from tall tales, which focus on hyperbole and therefore humor and intentionally ascribe inventions and innovations to a hero to whom they do not belong for the sake of the story. Finally, legend is separated from history by the fact that its content, once believed to have been true, turns out to be fictional. The heroes of legend in this sense, then, are fictional heroes or real people whose exploits arent quite what theyre made out to be, who were either so lifelike or so admirable that people wished they were real. This description fits the works and heroes typically associated with the genre.


Once upon a time, there was a little boy named Ben who had a wonderful heart. He is the son of Maria and Juan. Bens a kind and helpful young lad who was nurtured well by his parents who have good hearts as well. One day, Ben saw a very old beggar and he took pity on him. So, Ben decided to invite the old beggar into their humble home and he cooked food and fed the old beggar until he could not eat anymore. Ben was not a rich boy but that did not stop

him from helping this old beggar by serving him with the type of food that Bens family could only afford. After a sumptuous meal, the beggar thanked the young lad and bade him farewell. On another day, while Ben was looking for fire woods, he passed by an old man who was also very hungry. Ben took pity on him once more and without a doubt in his mind, he invited the old man back to their home and gave him food and some clothes that his father does not use anymore. Bens parents were happy that they have a son who has a heart of gold like Ben. Unfortunately, the time came that Ben suddenly got very ill. His parents were troubled and didnt know what to do. But despite that, they persisted to have their son treated but to no avail, Ben died. His parents mourned over the loss of their only son. The next day, after Bens death, a beautiful fairy came to Bens wake and talked to his parents. She asked them to give her Bens heart. They agreed and gave it to her. The fairy then flew away and in a mountain, she dug and buried Bens dead heart. It then turned into a fruit-bearing tree whose fruits were in the shape of a heart and whose taste was so sweet. People were amazed upon discovering this new type of fruit and when they tasted it they were happy as its the sweetest fruit they have ever tasted. From then till now, people enjoy the benefits of this wonderful fruit.

A fable is a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, mythical creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized (given human qualities), and that illustrates a moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be expressed explicitly in a pithy maxim. A fable differs from a parable in that the latter excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech and other powers of humankind. The word "fable" comes from the Latin "fabula" (a "story"), itself derived from "fari" ("to speak") with the -ula suffix that signifies "little": hence, a "little story". Though in its original sense "fable" denotes a brief, succinct story that is meant to impart a moral lesson, in apejorative sense, a "fable" may be a deliberately invented or

falsified account of an event or circumstance. Similarly, anon-authorial person who, wittingly or not, tells "tall tales," may be termed a "confabulator". An author of fables is termed a "fabulist," and the word "fabulous," strictly speaking, "pertains to a fable or fables." In recent decades, however, "fabulous" has come frequently to be used in the quite different meaning of "excellent" or "outstanding".

Ang Kuneho at ang Pagong

Isang araw habang naglalakad si Kuneho ay nakasalubong niya si Pagong. Palibhasa makupad maglakad ang pagong kaya pinagtawanan ito ng kuneho at nilibak. "Napakaiksi ng mga paa mo Pagong, kaya ubod ka ng bagal maglakad, wala kang mararating niyan." At sinundan iyon ng malulutong na tawa. Labis na nainsulto ang Pagong sa mga sinabi ng Kuneho. Para patunayan na nagkakamali ito ng akala ay hinamon nya ang Kuneho. "Maaaring mabagal nga akong maglakad, subalit matibay ang katawan ko, hindi mo ako matatalo." Lalo lamang siyang pinagtawanan. "nabibigla ka yata Pagong, baka mapahiya ka lamang," wika ni Kuneho. "Para magkasubukan tayo, magkarera tayo patungo sa ituktok ng bulubunduling iyon." Itinuro ni Pagong ang abot-tanaw na bundok. Ganoon na lamang ang katuwaan ng mayabang na Kuneho sa hamon na iyon ni Pagong. Nagtawag pa ito ng mga kaibigan para manood sa gagawin nilang karera. Gusto niyang lalong libakin si Pagong sa harap ng kanyang mga kaibigan oras na matalo niya ito. Nakapaligid sa kanila ang mga kaibigang hayop. Si matsing ang nagbilang para sa pag-uumpisa ng paligsahan. "Handa na ba kayo". Magkasabay na tumugon sina pagong at kuneho. "Handa na kami!". "Isa..Dalawa..Tatlo.!.takbo", sigaw ni matsing. Magkasabay ngang humakbang ang dalawa mula sa lugar ng pag-uumoisahan. Mabilis na nagpalundag-lundag si Kuneho. Halos sandaling minuto lamang ay naroroon na siya sa paanan ng bundok. Ng lumingon siya ay nakita niyang malayung- malayo ang agwat niya kay pagong. Patuloy sa kanyang mabagal na paglakad si pagong, habang pinagtatawanan siya ng mga nakapaligid na hayop. Hindi pansin ni Pagong ang panunuya ng mga ito. Patuloy siya sa paglakad, walang lingun-lingon.

Samantala, si Kuneho ay halos mainip na sa paghihintay na makita si pagong sa kanyang likuran. Ilang ulit na ba siyang nagpahinto-hinto, pero wala ni anino ni pagong. Palibhasa malaki ang tiwala niya sa sarili, alam niya ang kakayahan tumakbo ng mabilis, ipinasya niyang maidlip muna ng makarating an siya sa kalagitnaan ng bundok. Tutal nakatitiyak naman siya ng panalo.Patuloy nman sa kanyang mabagal na paglakad si pagong paakyat, hanggang samarating niya ang kalagitnaan ng bundok, naraanan pa niya si kuneho namahimbing na natutulog at malakas na naghihilik. Nilampasan niya ito atnagpatuloy siya sa paglakad hanggang sa marating niya ang hangganan ngkanilang karera.Ng magising naman si kuneho ay muli itong tumingin sa ibaba ng bundok,subalit hindi pa din makita si pagong. Humanda na siyang maglakad mulipaakyat ng bundok, subalit ganoon na lamang ang gulat niya ng matanaw si pagong na naroroon na sa ituktok ng bundok.Naunahan na pala siya.

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It is greater than God and more evil than the devil. The poor have it, the rich need it and if you eat it you'll die. What is it? > NOTHING < At night they come without being fetched. By day they are lost without being stolen. What are they? > THE STARS < You throw away the outside and cook the inside. Then you eat the outside and throw away the inside. What did you eat? > AN EAR OF CORN < The more you have of it, the less you see. What is it? > DARKNESS < What surrounds the world, yet dwells within a thimble? > SPACE <

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In literature an epic is a (usually lengthy) narrative in verse. In addition to the narrative there is also description and there is an important element of vastness and heroism. The earliest epics were oral and were only written down later. Famous examples of epics include The Odyssey, The Iliad and The Aeneid, also The Epic of Gilgamesh, and much later Beowulf. It is often said that since about 1700 the epic has been 'replaced' by the novel as the main form of narrative. The term epic is also used figuratively of some blockbuster films concerned with conflict and heroism on a grandiose scale.

A. MAXIMS a short, easily remembered expression of a basic principle, general truth, or rule of conduct. Think of a maxim as a nugget of wisdom--or at least of apparent wisdom. It is often difficult to tell whether a maxim means something, or something means maxim. (Robert Benchley, "Maxims from the Chinese") Maxims, you see, are tricky devices. As Benchley suggests in his comic chiasmus, they generally sound pretty convincing--at least until a contrary maxim comes along. "Look before you leap," we say with conviction, until remembering that "He who hesitates is lost." English is full of such contrary proverbs--or, as we prefer to call them, duelling maxims: B. PROVERBS A proverb (from Latin: proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying popularly known and repeated, which expresses a truth, based on common sense or the practical experience of humanity. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. If a proverb is distinguished by particularly good phrasing, it may be known as an aphorism. Proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language. Both the Bible (Book of Proverbs) and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe, although almost every culture has examples of its own.

The term, "folk song," covers a vast array of musical styles, but is most commonly used to refer to a narrative song that uses traditional melodies to speak on a particular topic. Often, topical folk songs address social and political issues such as work, war, and popular opinion. Many folk songs have been around so long that nobody is entirely sure who their composers were. Often these songs are passed down within a

community, and they evolve over time to address the issues of the day. Such songs include "We Shall Overcome," and "I Shall Not be Moved," as well as other spirituals. EX.

Ang Pipit (The Bird)

Ang Pipit (The Pipit) is a popular Filipino song is about a bird that is called a pipit. Many Filipinos don't realize that it's an English word too, so they translate the song's title as My Sparrow. The pipit is a bird in the family Motacillidae. In this song, a bird has her wing injured by a rock thrown by a man, likely from a slingshot. The bird was so hurt she couldn't fly. Like a person, she spoke up, "Oh, cruel man. How pitiless your heart is. If I die, there is a pipit bird who will cry." May pumukol sa pipit sa sanga ng isang kahoy At nahagip ng bato ang pakpak ng munting ibon Dahil sa sakit, di na nakaya pang lumipad At ang nangyari ay nahulog, ngunit parang taong bumigkas, "Mamang kay lupit, ang puso mo'y di na nahabag, Pag pumanaw ang buhay ko, may isang pipit na iiyak." 4X

MAGTANIM AY DI BIRO Magtanim ay di biro Maghapong nakayuko Di naman makatayo Di naman makaupo Bisig ko'y namamanhid Baywang ko'y nangangawit. Binti ko'y namimintig Sa pagkababad sa tubig. Kay-pagkasawing-palad Ng inianak sa hirap, Ang bisig kung di iunat, Di kumita ng pilak. Sa umagang pagkagising Lahat ay iisipin Kung saan may patanim May masarap na pagkain. Halina, halina, mga kaliyag, Tayo'y magsipag-unat-unat. Magpanibago tayo ng lakas Para sa araw ng bukas (Braso ko'y namamanhid Baywang ko'y nangangawit. Binti ko'y namimintig Sa pagkababad sa tubig.)

A. INVOCATIONS A convention of classical literature and of epics in particular, in which an appeal for aid (especially in inspiration) is made to a muse or deity, usually at or near the beginning of the work. B. INCANTATION

Incantation, the chanting or reciting of any form of words deemed to have magical power, usually in a brief rhyming spell with an insistent rhythm and other devices of repetition; or the form of words thus recited. Incantation is characteristic of magical charms, curses, prophecies, and the conjuring of spirits: a famous literary example is the witches' chant, Double, double, toil and trouble, in Macbeth. Poetry that resembles such chants may be called incantatory.