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Transients in Distribution Systems on Distributed Generation Energization
J. A. García-Pérez, Student Member, IEEE, E. V. Morales-Irizarry, UPRM Graduate Student L. R. Orama-Exclusa, Member IEEE
Abstract-- In the last decade or so electrical systems worldwide
have experienced dramatic configuration changes. Distributed generation (DG) emerged as an option to deal with growth in the demand, advances in technology, sensitive loads, and new energy policies. In DG systems, alternative energy sources, such as wind turbines, photovoltaics, fuel cells, and other new technologies are integrated to the system near the loads, i.e., at the distribution level. The option of DG provides grid robustness and reliability. The major goals of this work are: (1) study transient effects when the DG is connected to the grid; and, (2) study the interaction of the DG with the distribution system. The Alternative Transients Program version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP/ATP) has been used as the transient simulation tool to accomplish the above goals. This work shows that the connection of DG always impacts the grid no matter at which voltage level it is connected. However, it is been noted that the impact is higher at lower voltages levels. Index Terms — Distributed Generation, EMTP/ATP, Transients, Distribution System, Power Quality, Unbalance Voltage, IEEE 13 Node Test Feeders, Interconnection

provides grid robustness and reliability. The purpose of this work is to develop a transient simulation and analysis for distribution systems with DG to: (1) perform transient analysis when the DG is connected to the grid; and, (2) study the interaction of the DG with the distribution system. The three phases power distribution system used in this work was the IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder, [7].

III. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION There are many definitions for distributed generation (DG). Within this work DG is defined as any external energy source connected to the distribution system near to the load, and with a capacity below 10 MW at the point of common coupling (PCC), [8]. A. Advantages of the DG DG systems offer multiple advantages in the electric power system (EPS). Most notably: 1. modularity 2. may use renewable energy sources 3. peak power supply 4. spinning reserve supply 5. improve voltage profile 6. reduce the losses in the transmission and distributions systems 7. decrease demand from the grid 8. enhance reliability 9. may improve power quality 10. may reduce or eliminate emissions (environmentally friendly) B. Disadvantages of the DG Although many advantages exist, DG systems also have some disadvantages. Some of them may be caused by poor system planning. Most common disadvantages are: 1. re-design of protection system and schemes 2. the DG has to be synchronize to the system 3. high initial cost 4. islanding issues 5. when poorly planned it has a high $/kWh C. Requirements Some of the energy sources, either alternative or other sources produce direct current (dc) power while the electrical power system (EPS) uses alternate current (ac) power. A power electronic device (inverter) has to be used to

I. NOMENCLATURE DG EPS PCC EMTP ATP THDv THDc – – – Distributed Generation Electrical Power System Point of Common Coupling Electromagnetic Transients Program Alternative Transients Program Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion Current Total Harmonic Distortion II. INTRODUCTION

I

N the last ten years electrical systems worldwide experienced dramatic configuration changes. Distributed generation (DG) has emerged as an option to deal with growth in the demand, advances in technology, sensitive loads, and new energy policies, [1-5]. DG systems using alternative energy sources, such as wind turbines, photovoltaics, fuel cells, and other new technologies are integrated to the system near the loads, i.e., at the distribution level. The option of DG

This work is part of the final report of the course INEL 6077: Surge Phenomenon of the University of Puerto Rico , Mayagüez Campus, PR 00680 J. A. García-Pérez is with University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.R. 00680 (e-mail: jose.garcia@ieee.org). E. V. Morales-Irizarry is with University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.R. 00680 (e-mail: veronica.morales@ece.uprm.edu). L. Orama-Exclusa is with University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.R. 00680 (e-mail: lorama@ece.uprm.edu).

[12]. For the impact of the DG to be quantifiable in the feeder. Table 1. V. the DG capacity must be a considerable percentage of the total feeder load. [8]. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) shall not exceed 5. . Figure 2 shows the ATPDraw schematic of the circuit with no DG connected. EMTP/ATP is used for digital simulation of transient phenomena of electromagnetic and electromechanical nature.3 5.0 1.0% of the fundamental in the PCC. [8]. [8]. SIMULATION The Alternative Transients Program (ATP) is the simulation tool used in this work. 4.2 conversion dc-ac in order to interconnect the DG to the EPS. These programs are considered the industry standard used for simulations of electrical systems transients. ATP can also calculates variables of power electronics systems as a function of time. Individual Harmonic Order h (odd harmonics) h < 11 11 ≤ h < 17 17 ≤ h < 23 23 ≤ h < 35 35 ≤ h Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Percent (%) 4. • Voltage disturbances – “The DG shall cease to energize the Area EPS within the clearing time as indicated”.0 2. [8]. IEEE 13 NODE TEST FEEDER The system for the simulations must has characteristics that bring the conditions needed to realize a realistic analysis of the DG interconnection. • Frequency variation – “The DG shall cease to energize the Area EPS within the clearing time as indicated”.0 • Islanding – “For an unintentional island in which the DG energizes a portion of the Area EPS through the PCC. Fig. 115 kV. 2: ATPDraw Schematic Circuit. [7]. The selected buses are Bus 634 and Bus 680. References [8-11] bring the requirements to appropriately connect a DG to the EPS. 1: IEEE 13 Node Test Feeders.5 0. The installation of this unit should have a substantial impact on the system.6 0. [8].16 kV. • Inadvertent energization of the Area EPS – “The DG shall not energize the Area EPS when it is de-energized”. Steady State Condition Figure 2 shows the schematic circuit of the IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder applied in EMTP/ATP.16 KV) and to a small commercial consumer’s bus (480 V). [8]. Our objective is to simulate a DG connected to an industrial consumer’s bus (4. and shall not disrupt the coordination of the ground fault protection on the Area EPS”. TABLE 1: MAXIMUM HARMONIC CURRENT DISTORTION IN PERCENT OF CURRENT Fig. This system has different voltage levels. the DG interconnection system shall detect the island and cease to energize the Area EPS within two seconds of the formation of an island”. • Synchronization – “The DG shall not cause voltage fluctuation at the PCC greater then ±5%”. [8]. The DG shall not create objectionable flicker for other customers on the Area EPS”. Those requirements follow: • Integration with the Area EPS grounding – “The DG shall not cause overvoltage. • Power Quality – “The DG shall cease the harmonic and dc current injection established. The IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder system was selected to illustrate this interconnection Test Feeder. A. the DG unit to be installed provided an additional 10 MVA. The trapezoidal rule of integration is used to solve the differential equations of the system components in the time domain. The initial conditions can be specified by the user or can be determined automatically by the program as a steady state solution before the transient simulation actually begins. The original configuration of the feeder had a capacity of 5 MVA. Figure 1. and 480 V. The DG system was simulated as an AC source with equivalent impedance and connected in two different buses. It is a royalty free version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). IV.

it must be connected at t > 0 to observe the transient phenomena involved. To control the connection of the DG in milliseconds. 3: Voltage in the Bus 634 without a DG connection. as reflected by the current signal.04 0 -2 -4 -6 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 c:671A -601A 80 [ms] 90 (file bus13chvsinDG.12 c:6000C -634C [s] 0.. which describe a secondary distribution system with a normal unbalance. and set at ~15ms. The conditions are similar but at different voltage level. 6 [mA] -350 -500 10 20 30 40 50 (file bus13chvsinDG. Also a “normal scenario” or benchmark for the bus. . The voltage across the switch is the DG voltage before they are closed at 15ms. ABC sequence. B. Switch Operation To quantify and appreciate the impact of the DG connection in the EPS.06 0. 4: Current in the Bus 634 without a DG connection. x-var t) v:634A v:634C v:634B 4 60 70 [ms] 80 2 Fig. and the initial conditions for the different cases studied. Figures 5 and 6 show the voltages and currents in the Bus 680 without a DG. the first peak positive is the phase B. Figure 7 shows the voltage across the switch phase A during the operation. 5: Voltage in the Bus 680 without a DG connection. 6: Current in the Bus 680 without a DG connection. primary distribution system with normal unbalance.pl4. the first positive peak is the phase A.. the first positive peak is the phase B. afterwards the voltage is zero. x-var t) v:680A -50 -200 Fig.3 Figures 3 and 4 show the voltages and currents in the Bus 634 without a DG connected. 500 [A] 375 250 125 0 -125 -250 -375 -500 0. 0.pl4. the first positive peak is the phase C. We may describe this as a “normal scenario” or the benchmark for the study. x-var t) c:671C -601C c:671B -601B Fig.pl4. ABC sequence. ABC sequence. respectively. ABC sequence.14 (file bus13chvsinDG.pl4. x-var t) c:6000A -634A These plots show the steady state conditions of the system before the DG connection.08 0. Fig. 400 [V] 250 -2000 4000 [V] 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 100 -3000 -4000 5 15 25 v:680B 35 v:680C 45 55 [ms] 65 (file bus13chvsinDG.10 c:6000B -634B 0. respectively. three voltage-controlled switches were used. It is important to recall that both systems present an unbalance condition.

Case 1: DG connected in the 634 node at 480V The DG was connected at 15 ms.11 0. x-var t) c:X0009A-X0190A Fig.21 (file bus13chvfinal. 375 250 125 0 -125 -250 -375 -500 0. A. Also. 8: Current in the switch during the DG connection 500 [A] VI.19 c:X0134C-634C [s] 0. . Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal.00 -150 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 0.17 0. The energy injected in the different buses was 10 MVA using a Thevenin equivalent circuit.15 0.pl4. 10: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for voltage in the Bus 634 with a DG connected in Bus 634 (file bus13chvfinal2.30 [s] (file bus13chvfinal2. RESULTS The DG was connected at two voltage levels: 480 V (Bus 634) and 4. the first peak positive is the phase C.16 0. 7: Voltage in the switch during the DG connection. x-var t) c:X0134A-634A Fig.16 kV (Bus 680).17 c:X0134B-634B 0.20 0.10 0. 40 [A] 30 20 10 0 250 100 -50 0 200 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.25 [s] 0. ABC sequence.13 0.15 0.pl4 Variable v:134A [peak] Initial Time: 0. the first peak positive is the phase A. each phase has a voltage control switch.13 0.pl4.21 (file bus13chvfinal.pl4.05 0.4 4000 [V] 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 0.30 Fig. MC's PlotXY .2833 Final Time: 0. it was the parameter to be compare and to measure the impact of the DG in the EPS.25 0. x-var t) v:X0009A-X0190A -400 0.14 0.00 400 [V] 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 0.10 0. x-var t) v:X0134A v:X0134B Fig.pl4. Figures 9 and 11 show the voltages and the currents in the Bus 634 during the DG connection.15 0. which represent common harmonics that power electronics devices (like inverters) produce at interconnection points. Figure 8 shows the current in phase A during the DG connection at 15ms. 11: Current in the Bus 634 with a DG connected. ABC sequence. EMTP/ATP computes the THD of the signals. the DG will be injecting currents at the 5th and 7th harmonic. 9: Voltage in the Bus 634 with a DG connected in Bus 634. Fig.Fourier chart(s).05 0.20 0.19 0.15 0.3 400 [V] The current through the switches is zero before the connection of the DG and increases to 40A peak after the switching operation.18 v:X0134C 0.20 [s] 0.

Figure 10.5 MC's PlotXY .pl4.22 [s] 0.Fourier chart(s). Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal.5 -35.0 -17. The voltage and the current in the load connected in the PCC do not exhibit large disturbances with the DG connection.3 3500 [V] 2500 -50 0 40 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 -500 0 100 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 0 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 0 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 Fig. 14: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for voltage in the Bus 632 with a DG connected in Bus 634 70. except for a small spike in the voltage. The current injected to the system is shown in Figure 15.5 35. Figure 13 shows the voltage in the Bus 632.2833 Final Time: 0. 13: Voltage in the Bus 632 with a DG connected in Bus 634. ABC sequence.3 65 [A] 51 37 23 -3000 9 -4000 0. 12: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for current in the Bus 634 with a DG connected Fig.19 0.21 -5 0 90 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 (file bus13chvfinal.17 v:X0130C 0.2833 Final Time: 0.2833 Final Time: 0. small distortion.5 0.0 0. x-var t) c:632A -X0130A Fig. The THDc of the Bus 634 is equal to 4. The preview PCC voltage and current graphics (Figures 5 and 6) are similar to the voltage and current graphics when the DG is not connected.5 The DG voltage has Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THDv) of 1.pl4 Variable v:632A [peak] Initial Time: 0. -90 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 Fig.413%. x-var t) v:X0130A Fig. only 3.13 0. the first peak positive is the phase C.10 0.25 (file bus13chvfinal. 15: Current injected to the system by a DG connected in Bus 634 MC's PlotXY .Fourier chart(s). 4000 [V] 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -70. Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal.757%.0 17. which is consider acceptable.3 400 [A] 250 1500 100 500 MC's PlotXY .pl4 Variable c:632A -X0130A [peak] Initial Time: 0.781%. Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal. caused by DG injected harmonics. but the current magnitude increase and it has a THDc equal to 11.19 [s] 0.0 [A] 52.066%.pl4.11 0.0 -52.Fourier chart(s).pl4 Variable c:134A -634A [peak] Initial Time: 0. 16: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for current injected to the system by a DG connected in Bus 634 The DG notably injects harmonics to the EPS. In the substation (Bus 650) the harmonic distortion is less than the load branch.16 0.15 v:X0130B 0.13 0. The voltage in the Bus 632 has a THDv equal to 1.23%. But if in the Bus 634 the THDc is .

23 [s] 0.759%. The magnitude of the current is higher and it causes more impact. the first peak positive is the phase A.18 [s] 0.21 c:680B -X0195B 0. ABC sequence.18 0.77%.19 0. THDv = 4. 15472003.20 0.0 0. the first peak positive is the phase B.2833 Final Time: 0.5 -100 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 Fig.19 (file bus13chvfinal2.5 -250. refer to Table 1.22 0.17 0.12 0. the DG can not be connected because exceed the Individual Harmonic Order Percent permit in IEEE Std.17 c:XS1B -650B 0. 21: Distortion of the current of the Bus 650.5 -125. B. Figures 17 and 19 show the voltages and the currents in the Bus 680. 19: Current in the Bus 680 with a DG connected in Bus 680.13 0.0 -12. respectively. The distortion appreciated at the node 650.241% and a THDv = 1. the first peak positive is the phase C.16 0. x-var t) c:680A -X0195A c:680C -X0195C Fig.3 6000 [V] 4600 3200 1800 400 -1000 0 150 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 -90 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 Fig.0 [A] 37. 17: Voltage in the Bus 680 with a DG connected in Bus 680. Figure 22.0 0.14%.pl4.2833 Final Time: 0.5 0.0 -37.0 62.5 -50.66%.pl4. x-var t) v:DGA Fig.Fourier chart(s). Figure 19. MC's PlotXY . Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal2.3 40 [A] 30 10 0.0 -187. ABC sequence.0 -62. Case 2: DG connected in the 680 node at 4.5 25.16KV The same DG (same power an harmonic order) was connected to the Bus 680 with a different voltage magnitude. was a THDc = 3.15 0. 7000 [V] 5250 3500 1750 0 -1750 -3500 -5250 -7000 0. Figure 16.0 12.5 0.Fourier chart(s). The THDc injected was equal to 8.14 v:DGB 0.pl4 Variable c:680A -X0196A [peak] Initial Time: 0.16 0.6 calculated from the 1st to 11th harmonic. ABC sequence.pl4.pl4 Variable v:DGA [peak] Initial Time: 0.5 -25.14 0.24 (file bus13chvfinal2.11 20 50.0 [A] 187. it is equal to 4. Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal2. Figure 21. .19 0 0 50 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 (file bus13chvfinal2.18 c:XS1C -650C [s] 0. 18: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for voltage in the Bus 680 with a DG connected in Bus 680 125.15 v:DGC 0. x-var t) c:XS1A -650A Fig. 20: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for the current in the Bus 680 with a DG connected in Bus 680 Figure 17 shows the harmonic distortion of the voltage injected to the system by the DG.17 0. 250. MC's PlotXY .

When the DG was connected to a 480 V Bus. because the magnitude of the currents increases and the imbalance condition with distortion may cause neutral currents.000 AA. The integration of a DG connection to the EPS may cause a re-design of the protection system.16 Gr.7 MC's PlotXY . IEEE 13 Node Test Feeder parameters 1) Overhead Line Configuration Data: Configuration Phasing 601 602 603 604 605 BACN CABN CBN ACN CN Phase ACSR 556.LG A-B-C 2.000 XFM -1 500 kV-high 115 .500 26/7 4/0 6/1 1/0 1/0 1/0 Neutral ACSR 4/0 6/1 4/0 6/1 1/0 1/0 1/0 Spacing ID 500 500 505 505 510 4) Transformer Data: kVA Substation: 5. Y R-% X-% 1 1. 22: Harmonic Magnitude and Harmonic Phases for the current of the Bus 650 VII.1 8 2 4.D kV-low 4. An appreciated difference is noted on the magnitudes of current and voltages. Copying date: 6/30/2004 File bus13chvfinal2. APPENDIX A.16 kV bus by 2. CONCLUSIONS This work demonstrated the impact of a DG source in an unbalanced EPS. To obtain a more realistic scenario is necessary to integrate the power electronic technology in the simulations.16 – Gr. The connection of the DG source always has an impact on the EPS no matter at which voltage level it is connected. TS Neutral None 1/0 Cu Space ID 515 520 A B C N 250.632 50 A .) 500 500 0 300 2000 800 2000 300 1000 0 300 500 Configuration 603 602 XFM-1 603 601 607 601 604 601 Switch 605 606 500 -500 0 70 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 0 632 671 671 671 684 692 Fig. it only increases the magnitude of the currents in the circuits.3 3500 [V] 2500 2) Underground Line Configuration Data: Configuration Phasing 606 607 AN Cable 1/0 AA. It becomes an additional cost in the implementation of the DGs to the EPS. If the EPS is unbalanced the DG neither mitigate nor damage the unbalance condition.Fourier chart(s).Setting: Voltage Level: 1 650 . It was the reason to integrate the harmonic source in the simulations. An important aspect that was not mentioned here is the switching technology of the DG inverter. to represent the power electronic used in the DG interconnection.2833 Final Time: 0. CN 3) Line Segment Data: 1500 Node A 632 632 633 645 650 684 0 2 4 6 harmonic order 8 10 12 Node B 645 633 634 646 632 652 671 684 680 692 611 675 Length(ft.3%.Setting: X . the percent of the magnitude of the current distortion of the system was more than when the DG was connected to a 4.B -C 3-Ph. 5) Capacitor Data: Node 675 611 Total 200 200 Ph-A kVAr 200 Ph-B kVAr 200 Ph-C kVAr 200 100 300 6) Regulator Data: Regulator ID: Line Segment: Location: Phases: Connection: Monitoring Phase: Bandwidth: PT Ratio: Primary CT Rating: Compensator Settings: R .0 volts 20 700 Ph-A 3 9 122 Ph-B 3 9 122 Ph-C 3 9 122 7) Spot Load Data: Node 634 645 646 652 Load Model Y-PQ Y-PQ D-Z Y-Z Ph-1 kW 160 0 0 128 Ph-1 kVAr 110 0 0 86 Ph-2 kW 120 170 230 0 Ph-2 kVAr 90 125 132 0 Ph-3 kW 120 0 0 0 Ph-3 kVAr 90 0 0 0 . The aspect of harmonic in the connection of DG in the EPS has to be one of the reasons to determinate the optimal PCC.W. 0.W.pl4 Variable v:650A [peak] Initial Time: 0.48 – Gr.

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S.9 X. Puerto Rico. . She is working towards an MSc in Electrical Engineering on the impact of land use on lightning frequency. degree in May 2005. where obtain his B. Verónica Morales-Irizarry received her BS degree in Theoretical Physics from University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM). The research is carried out at the Atmospheric Phenomena Laboratory at UPRM. García-Pérez was born in Ciales. Later began his studies in the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez. José A. Today is a graduate student of the same institution and expects to obtain his M. degree of Electrical Engineering with concentration in Power in 2002. He graduated from the Juan Antonio Corretjer High School of this town. BIOGRAPHIES E.S.