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Thirteen English Colonies
As English colonies were established on the eastern coast of North America, many Europeans—including the non-English—began to resettle there. Some sought economic opportunities—work and land. Others were escaping religious or political persecution. At first, there were two kinds of colonies: joint-stock company ventures, backed by English merchants for profit, and proprietary colonies, given to the monarch’s friends, who ran them subject to royal approval. By the early 1700s, all but three colonies were royal colonies, ruled by a governor appointed by the monarch. Connecticut and Rhode Island were self-governing, and Georgia was a proprietary colony until 1752. Colonial communities reflected European economic, social, religious, and political patterns. But there were differences, stemming from local conditions:
• Geography influenced work patterns and the use and treatment of
African slaves. Towns along shorelines and inland waterways grew stronger through trade.
• Religious leaders called for strictly enforced observance or toleration of
• Social conditions dictated forms of government. Group survival and stability often took precedence over individual rights, equality, and privacy.
Such distinctions eventually grew into sectionalism (strong loyalty to one region within a larger territory or nation).
NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Overview Economics New England’s rocky soil and long winters made farming difficult; farms were small and did not require a large workforce, as in the South. Many settlements were near the ocean, where the abundant fish were caught, salted, and dried both for home use and export. New England had a brisk trade with Europe, the West Indies (Caribbean islands), and the other colonies. It exported foodstuffs, raw materials, and furs. Rum was particularly important in the African slave trade with Southern colonies and the West Indies. New England’s infant industries included shipbuilding, ironmaking, and lumber. Society/Religion With many settlers from the home country, New England’s colonies were the most “English.” There were fewer slaves than elsewhere; they were unneeded on farms, long winters provided little work for them, and, as in England, there was a growing dislike of slavery.
the companies or proprietors who ran New England colonies received charters from the monarch. In the spring. the colonists faced a harsh climate.) To mark the turn in their Signing the Mayflower Compact onboard . Schooling was important to New Englanders. in the late 1600s. fished. This document was the first instrument of self-government in the English colonies. everyone was free to speak on issues of the day. Politics As elsewhere in the colonies. the Puritan faith dictated social life. (See table. grow. and many sickened and died. Their ship. and raised livestock. Arriving in December. Laws passed by colonial legislatures had to have royal approval. the Mayflower Compact. Onboard. Religious fervor ran so high that. the Pilgrims had signed an agreement. friendly Algonquians taught them to plant. Massachusetts. Massachusetts. a number of the accused were put to death. page 43.) They promised to obey all laws for the common good and elect a representative government. Harvard College (now University) was founded in 1636.30 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Except in several colonies of Separatists (Protestants not associated with the Church of England). in Salem. Plymouth In 1620. the Separatist Pilgrims sailed from the Netherlands. (Sheep. By the mid-1600s. the Mayflower. A distinctive feature of the region was the town meeting. to North America. landed at Plymouth Rock. But food was scarce. but only male property holders had the right to vote on them. whose wool was used for clothing. where they had resettled. all sizable towns had primary schools. were particularly valuable. they hunted. To round out their diet. They cut trees to build shelters. the first instrument of selfgovernment in the English colonies. and harvest the corn and vegetables native to the region. it caused a witch-hunt for devil worshipers.
William Bradford. Puritans wanted religious freedom for themselves. led by Governor John Winthrop. it was less tolerant of Roman Catholics. The colony’s diverse groups were held together by civil law based on religious equality and tolerance. expanded their settlement in and around Boston. a Puritan minister.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 31 NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Date 1620 1630 1636 1636 1680 Name Plymouth* Massachusetts Bay Rhode Island Connecticut New Hampshire Type Joint-stock Joint-stock Self-governing Self-governing Royal Reason Religious freedom Religious freedom Religious toleration Religious toleration Religious freedom. a Puritan unhappy in Massachusetts Bay Colony. He wanted Puritan congregations to be separate from the Church of England. the colonists held a ceremony of survival and invited the Algonquians. She later resettled in New York. and he opposed punishment for religious offenses. Nevertheless. it continues to this day as the November holiday of Thanksgiving. also expelled from Massachusetts for liberal views. New Hampshire was chartered as a separate colony in 1680. Thomas Hooker. Massachusetts Bay In 1630. the colony grew when Puritans at home formed a joint-stock company and acquired rights to a large part of New England. later. Maine remained part of Massachusetts Bay until 1820. New Hampshire. Under the Pilgrims’ second governor. Plymouth Colony. but did not extend it to others. A renowned settler in Williams’s Rhode Island was Anne Hutchinson. Williams found in Hebrew scripture a pure expression of religion and believed that Christians would someday regret their harsh treatment of Jews. At first. a group of English Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Rhode Island welcomed both Jews and Quakers. He and his followers were expelled and. although many members sought easier environments elsewhere. The Pilgrims became financially secure by repaying loans to London merchants who had given them a head start. for his liberal opinions. eventually. led followers to Hartford in the Connecticut . fortunes. Rhode Island. It included Maine. trade Leader William Bradford John Winthrop Roger Williams Thomas Hooker — *Part of Massachusetts Bay after 1691. Connecticut Also in 1636. he thought that the English had taken land from Native Americans illegally. and. Rhode Island The religious intolerance that characterized Massachusetts Bay targeted Roger Williams. it was called Providence Plantations. in 1636. Most adult males acquired property. the colony prospered. resettled on land purchased from the Narragansetts. They had first landed at Salem on the coast and.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC COLONIES Before 1664. In your opinion.) New York The English takeover from the Dutch in 1664 revised the colony’s name to New York. the colony’s new . In 1662. the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. In what way were Pilgrims different from Puritans? 3. Newport.32 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Interior of Touro Synagogue. Pennsylvania. further south along the Delaware River. and a royal colony. and Delaware—had been part of two non-English settlements: New Netherland and. (The Dutch. do modern immigrants to the United States come for the same or different reasons? Explain. jealous of Swedish trade competition. New Sweden. in honor of the Duke of York. New Jersey. 2. Explain the differences between a colony backed by a joint-stock company. INFO CHECK 1. Rhode Island River Valley. a proprietorship. the Middle Atlantic colonies—New York. moved on New Sweden in 1655. they drew up a set of laws. Name two reasons why Europeans became immigrants to the New England colonies. In 1639. King Charles II united all the settlements between Long Island Sound and southern Massachusetts as Connecticut Colony. It was the first written constitution in the Americas.
religious tolerance Trade Religious tolerance. grew slowly. William Penn William Penn owner.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 33 MIDDLE ATLANTIC COLONIES Date 1664 1664 1664 1681 Name New York New Jersey Delaware Pennsylvania Type Proprietary. royal Proprietary. About 1500 colonists lived in New York Town (forAdvertisements for enslaved Africans printed in a New York City newspaper. John Berkeley Duke of York. the English did not interfere with the Dutch way of life. Peter Minuit George Carteret. The surrender terms guaranteed freedom of religion and continued Dutch ownership of private property and commercial enterprises. pacifism Leader Duke of York. proprietary Proprietary Reason Trade and commerce Trade and commerce. 1784 . At first. Population Diversity The new colony of New York. royal Royal. only lightly settled by Europeans.
Schoharie Valley. mayor of New York City in 1694.34 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Africans in Colonial America. with 300 more in Albany. Beginning in the late 1600s. although general. Not everyone appreciated the ethnic diversity. their priests banned. religious/political persecution Religious/political persecution. Soon.” SELECTED NATIONALITIES SEEKING REFUGE IN NEW YORK COLONY Year 1685 1710 Nationality French Protestants (Huguenots) Germans (largest single group) Irish Catholics (southern Ireland) Scotch-Irish (northern Ireland) Jews Place of Settlement New Paltz Livingston Manor. . did not extend to Roman Catholics. but the early variety of nationalities continued. poverty 1730s– 1740s 1740s New York City Religious persecution Religious tolerance. English settlers outnumbered the Dutch. their religious and political rights were limited. later. Charles Lodwicke. and the ceremony of mass outlawed. Refuge for Many The growing population included many people fleeing oppression or other hardships in Europe. Herkimer Cherry Valley and New York City Problem in Europe Religious persecution War. remarked: “Our chiefest unhappiness here is so great a mixture of nations. 1700–1770 merly New Amsterdam).
or large estates. North America” INFO CHECK 1. where manors were rare. Landlords and Manor Life Manor landlords lived like English nobles.000 Place of Settlement Throughout colony Throughout colony New York City Albany 1790 1790 *Year of first census.654 22.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 35 1746: “A South Prospect of Ye Flourishing City of New-York in the Province of New York. 2. Describe new groups who settled in New York Colony. The owners then rented small parcels of land to tenant-farmers. LAND USE The English repeated Dutch mistakes in using land.324 4.120 21. there were more independent farmers than tenants. Why did the English takeover have little effect on most people? Name an exception to this situation. Trace the events leading up to the English takeover of New Netherland.000 340. and explain why they came. however.000 3. Small landholdings were especially common in southern New York and on Long Island. 3. As friends of the monarch. some Africans All groups Enslaved Africans Free Africans Of European descent Of African descent Mixture of groups Population 160. They created manors. On both banks of the Hudson. for which they . they received land grants.000 3. POPULATION GROWTH OF NEW YORK COLONY Year 1775 1790* Ethnic Group Mostly Dutch. This system discouraged population growth and led to rebellion. British.
Su s q u Ri r ve . self contained system • Landowner rents land to farmer.L I TO RY nc e r ve Ri TE LAKE CHAMPLAIN nd a (Disputed bou Stone Arabia ON NA LAKE ONTARIO Connecticut R TI iver NEW HAMPSHIRE D Sag Harbor East Hampton Southampton S AK E G EOR GE LAKE SI ONEIDA X eek Herkimer Cherry Valley Mohawk R Mowhawk Rensselaerswyck Schoharie Cr Albany Hardenburgh Kingston Rive FIN G E r R LA ORK NEW Y KE MASSACHUSETTS S Livingston CONNECTICUT Poughkeepsie New Paltz an na River Hudson eh Van Cortlandt Sc ars le da a rch se PENNSYLVANIA Pu ar e Philipse New York City G LON Oy ISLA ND L N SOU ay ster B l aw 0 50 Miles De NEW JERSEY p– Hem d stea LON G IS AND 0 50 Kilometers STATEN ISLAND ATLANTIC OCEAN New York settlements and manors ry l in e ) L R . women. paid with percentage of crops All laborers—men. women and slaves had no rights Royal grant gave proprietors power to govern appoint officials. Social Political Gra n t to Du ke o f Yo r k (1 6 6 4 ) Ma n o r aw re RR St . Legal cases handled by colonial courts.36 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS LAND USE: COMPARISON OF PATROONSHIPS AND MANORS Dutch Patroonship Economic • Patroonship is a land grant • Settlers rent holdings. set up civil and criminal codes. farmer paid with percentage of crops Male-dominated class system. slaves—were equal Patroon. as company director. governed settlers. set up civil and criminal codes English Manor • Self-sufficient. servants. appointed officials.
indeed. the landlord could repossess the land plus any improvements made. He was given a last-minute pardon. lease. The landlord-friendly government sent in troops to put the rebellions down. located on the eastern bank of the Hudson River. In 1751 and 1766. tenants ruined landlords’ fields and forests. William Pendergast. The conflict ended. and sentenced to torture and beheading. Why did tenant farmers resent the manor system? 2. The tenant then moved on or signed a new. Tenant farmers did little to improve the land they worked. and appointed all clergy. They felt deep resentment when they compared their situations to those of freehold farmers. When the lease expired. tried. leader of the 1766 revolt. INFO CHECK 1. could order evictions (forced removals). usually more expensive. Breaking a lease’s terms was cause for immediate eviction. A tenant farmer signed a lease and paid rent in produce and days worked for the landlord. All-powerful. was arrested. How did the tenant system discourage settlement in New York? 3. they often abused it. violence broke out. . near Poughkeepsie made annual payments. convicted. mined minerals and cut timber on tenant land. Effects of Tenant System The system encouraged ambitious people to buy their own land elsewhere—New Jersey or Pennsylvania. Tenants demanded the right to purchase land they had worked for years. who owned the land they worked and could pass it on to children.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 37 The seat of the Livingston Manor. The two rebellions occurred when tenants were threatened with eviction. Landlords destroyed tenant crops. they refused to sell land to tenants. but anger and distrust smoldered until the tenant system was abolished 80 years later. Describe the tenant rebellions.
. permission . . . and sewed it into clothing. Compare the lives of middle. Lower Class Lower down the social scale were tenant-farmers. Indentured servants led particularly bleak lives trying to escape poverty. the two groups were further united through marriages. there was only hard work—and the faint hope that it might lead to better days. . and successful artisans. They worked very long hours. mainly sons. day or night without . For the lower class. but the first group had acquired wealth and the second. . Why did people agree to indentured servitude? New Jersey In 1664.and lower class people in New York. [S]he shall faithfully serve her master. dipped candles. . When business was slow. . independent farm families. fit for a servant. property owners. . Slaves and household servants made their daily lives easy. merchant sailors. perhaps. Upper Class The royal governor and agents of the Crown (monarchy) headed colonial society. she shall not be absent . . The following are terms for a young girl’s indenture: # . The more successful were able to hire laborers or keep slaves. keep his secrets. they not only farmed but also made and repaired tools and furniture. the upper class made up 20 percent of the colony’s population and owned 60 percent of its wealth. . moderate comfort. She shall not waste her master’s goods or lend them to anyone . they were idled. They were usually self-sufficient. . the duke of York granted the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to George Carteret and John Berkeley as . . washing. . . Landlords invested in businesses. . In the colony. and clothing . . . While still in Europe. unskilled workers. 3. . . . and great merchants invested in land. she will not sell her own goods without . release from an English jail). permission. and do no damage. [T]he master shall provide enough wholesome food. and titles belonged to noble families and were passed down to heirs. 2. spun cloth. In rural areas. power. . Landlords and merchants had a common interest—making money. they agreed to a number of years’ labor in the colony in exchange for sea passage (and. [S]he has bound herself as a servant . preserved food. the upper and middle classes had no titles. they hoped to fulfill their service and ensure a better life for their children. Describe members of the upper class in New York. INFO CHECK 1. They all made low wages and had little control over their work or lives. Once in the colony. . In 1766. Middle Class Cities had a large middle class that included smaller merchants. the middle class were hardworking. . and servants. property. of her own free will until she comes of age. lodging.38 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Social Classes In Europe. Many lived on the edge of poverty. . In time. Next came manored landlords and prominent New York Town merchants. A merchant family often worked in the front shop and lived in the rear. .
MD. Quakers bought Berkeley’s rights. and Germans) poured in. there was a blend of cultures. and a mixed group of settlers bought those of Carteret. As in New York and the other Middle Atlantic colonies. Tobacco Furs MIDDLE COLONIES VIRGINIA Tobacco Williamsburg Tobacco ATLANTIC OCEAN NORTH CAROLINA Furs Naval Stores SOUTH CAROLINA Rice SOUTHERN COLONIES Charleston GEORGIA Indigo Rice New England Savannah Middle Colonies Southern Colonies Miles 0 0 100 100 200 400 300 W SPANISH N E S 200 300 Kilometers . both sections were united as the royal colony of New Jersey. Scots.H. New Jersey grew as English Puritans and Separatists (notably Quakers. Iron R. Scotch-Irish. Rum Whaling New York PENNSYLVANIA Iron Philadelphia FRENCH Grain N. To lure settlers.I. especially in heavily settled areas and large cities. In 1702. Thus. MAS Iron Boston NEW ENGLAND CONN. The thirteen English colonies (1750) FRENCH MAINE (MASS. and representative government.J. and artisan businesses. Furs Lumber Shipbuilding Salem NEW YORK Furs Grain S. they promised land. export-import enterprises. New Jersey’s economic livelihood mirrored New York’s—fur trading. DEL.) Furs Fishing N. religious freedom. The relatively mild climate and fertile soil made small farms profitable.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 39 proprietors. Lumber and ironmaking were growing industries. a more cosmopolitan (worldly) point of view became common.
The Southern colonies traded mainly with England—colonial cash crops and raw materials for English furniture. self-government. In 1683. vegetables. from Maryland south to Georgia. In 1703. even Irish Catholics. as well as differing religious sects—Quakers. Many-acred plantations raised one or more cash crops on a large scale. Penn drafted a Frame of Government. INFO CHECK 1. wine. and assuring humane punishments. laws were passed protecting the poor and orphans. pacifist. Delaware again became a separate colony. Quaker. Artisans produced essential goods (barrels. Charles II gave a large tract of land west of New Jersey to William Penn. Presbyterians. fruits. Penn paid Native Americans fairly for their land and vowed to maintain peaceful relations with them. tableware. By 1710. and new industries prospered. and an elected assembly. Identify: New Sweden. leather. and its new owner. and livestock. Adventurous colonists traveled far inland to fur-trade with Native American trappers. although it shared a governor with Pennsylvania until the late 1700s. agriculture. cloth. renamed it Delaware. Which of the Middle Atlantic colonies was probably the least cosmopolitan? Why? SOUTHERN COLONIES Overview Economics The Southern colonies. 2. which he did. soldiering. the Duke of York. Extensive forests provided lumber and wood by-products. shared a (1) wide coastal plain (level or rolling land). Small farmers raised grains. In addition. Soon. tools. Recognizing that Pennsylvania lacked one asset—a seaport—the duke gave it Delaware (with its port capital of Wilmington). As a devout Quaker. As elsewhere in the Middle Atlantic colonies. Delaware In 1664. and taxes for military purposes. he founded the capital city of Philadelphia. Penn’s enlightened approach to colonization was reflected in Pennsylvania’s quick growth and economic success. New Sweden became English. Penn’s principles attracted a variety of nationalities. and political and religious equality. requiring fair trials. a council. and such). and (3) long growing season.40 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Pennsylvania In 1681. His plan was to establish a colony devoted to peace. Germans of various denominations. and . Philadelphia was the largest city in the English colonies. How did the social and religious aspects of Pennsylvania differ from those of Massachusetts Bay? 3. Penn was a pacifist opposed to war. which set up a governor (answerable to Penn). trade. It remained a fairly lightly settled area in which fur trading was the major enterprise. Agriculture was the region’s economic backbone. In 1682. (2) warm to hot climate.
. trade Debtors’ colony. Virginia The first permanent settlement in America was Jamestown. the Indians hostile. with the exception of Maryland. It was a bad beginning. Politics Each of the Southern colonies began as a joint-stock venture or a proprietorship. They also did a flourishing business with colonial and European slave traders. They found settlers worked harder once the Company agreed to individual land ownership. Many slave families were thus split up cruelly. and mining took preference over food and shelter. Lord Delaware. Then the prospering colony attracted many newcomers. they had appointed governors and more and less democratic legislatures. more settlers— including women—and fresh supplies to help the colony keep going. royal Proprietary. Society/Religion The aristocrats of the South were plantation owners. Lacking family security. so slavery took hold in the South as nowhere else. royal Proprietary. and old African rites and beliefs. (Anglicanism won out over Puritanism again in the late 1600s. The first colonies in the South were settled when Anglicanism was the established Church of England. The plantation system required many hardworking laborers. a haven for religious tolerance. Lord Delaware Cecilius Calvert — — James Oglethorpe tea. all (except for still-uncolonized Georgia) had become royal colonies directly answerable to the monarch—in theory if not always in practice. He returned to England and the colony almost died. slaves were attached to the land unless sold by their owners.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 41 SOUTHERN COLONIES Date 1607 1634 1653 1670 1733 Name Virginia Maryland North Carolina South Carolina Georgia Type Joint-stock. Colonists were unwilling. build homes. slaves turned to religion—a mix of Christianity. however. Captain John Smith led the settlers to plant crops. royal Proprietary. adopted from owners. As such. The London Company hoped to profit from metal mining and trade with Native Americans. Unaccustomed to hard work in the home country. Considered property. royal Reason Trade and commerce Religious toleration Religious toleration. royal Proprietary. By the late 1600s. trade Leader John Smith. The site was swampy. trade Religious toleration.) It therefore became the official church of the Southern colonies. as early colonists they struggled first to survive and then to build up and maintain extensive landholdings. and seek food and aid from the natives.” The Company then sent a new governor. The winter of 1609–1610 was the “starving time. Virginia (1607). More than half the settlers died.
first arrived on a Dutch ship in 1619 as indentured servants. Maryland Cecilius Calvert. the Company allowed colonists to elect the first representative assembly in America. To discourage disputes between denominations. 1619 The biggest boost was tobacco farming. religious freedom. Africans. St. North and South Carolina In 1653. and a representative assembly. In the 1500s. And it grew easily in Virginia. a formal charter to Carolina was granted to eight proprietors. the House of Burgesses. Their first settlers arrived in 1670 and founded Charles Town (Charleston). the assembly passed the Toleration Act in 1649. the Protestants turned against the Catholic population. and they were soon being sold as slaves. It granted religious freedom to all Christians. Although Virginia became a royal colony in 1624. Settlers poured in from other colonies. Lord Baltimore. Also in 1619. which had a fine harbor . who worked the tobacco fields. Virginians moved south into the Carolina region and began settlements along the Chowan River. In 1692. Maryland became a royal colony. In 1689. Mary’s City. and there were soon more Protestants than Catholics. was made at the mouth of the Potomac River in 1634. he wanted to establish a refuge for others of his faith. tobacco became hugely popular in Europe. Maryland extended religious toleration to all Christians. the House of Burgesses continued to share power with the governor and royal council. tobacco made the landowners wealthy. In 1663. inherited from his father a charter (issued by Charles I) to land north of Virginia. mainly because its climate and soil were ideal for growing tobacco. Developed as a cash crop for export. It prospered immediately. Many ships carrying Africans followed. As a Roman Catholic. The first settlement.42 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS House of Burgesses. They wished to encourage settlement by offering land on good terms.
by which Virginia Company gave its colonists the right to elect representatives to colonial legislature. set precedents for: • direct democracy (citizens as lawmakers) • acceptance of majority rule • equal treatment under the law. provided for: • loyal citizens to elect legislative assembly • government by will of majority. The following table summarizes this experience: DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE THIRTEEN COLONIES Institution/Year Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) Mayflower Compact (1620) Significance First colonial representative government. The northern and southern areas were distinct. objected to such trustee policies as small plots of land and a ban against slavery. colonists and their assemblies feuded with the proprietors’ agents.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 43 and grew into the colony’s commercial center. tobacco grew well. the cash crops were rice and indigo (source of a blue dye). The first settlers arrived in 1733 and founded the seaport of Savannah. Georgia George II granted James Oglethorpe and his trustees the right to found a colony. In the south. From the first. where English debtors could make a fresh start. Georgia also attracted settlers from the Carolinas. they were jailed. In 1729. First self-governing plan to pass and obey just and equal laws. New England town meetings Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) Maryland Toleration Act (1649) New York—Flushing Remonstrance (1657) .) A second purpose was to provide a colonial barrier to Spanish expansion north from Florida. tar. and Germany. Wales. French Huguenots. and pine forests provided shipbuilding products known as naval stores (pitch. First colony to grant religious freedom to all Christians. and sugar. (In England. Georgia became a royal colony. English Separatists. Carolina attracted many nationalities and Protestants of every persuasion—Anglicans. In the north. Increasingly. turpentine). First written constitution. First colonial document to defend religious freedom from threats by appointed governor (Stuyvesant). Scotland. The colonists. In 1752. it thrived on the export of such cash crops as rice. indigo. however. Georgia. Switzerland. DEMOCRATIC ROOTS IN THE COLONIAL EXPERIENCE In all three regions of the thirteen colonies. colonists learned something about the uses of democracy in daily life. North Carolina and South Carolina became separate royal colonies. • government by direct democracy • male property owners to conduct town affairs and execute laws • elected representatives to serve in colonial legislature.
5. The Southern colonies imported enslaved Africans 1. trade. 3. William Penn and the Quakers founded Pennsylvania for 1. Anglican 4. 8. pacifist. Separatists 2. was the monarch’s official residence in Virginia. Catholics 3. was a partnership of Northern and Southern bankers 4. What is the significance of Virginia’s House of Burgesses? Maryland’s Toleration Act? 4. Explain how the Southern colonies differed from other regions in physical features. . to re-create the social environment in England. respect laws for the common good and elect a representative government 2. 2. Quakers 4. ceased to exist when Virginia became a royal colony 2. Puritan 3. remain loyal to the Church of England and follow its strict moral code 4. Plymouth Colony was organized by 1. to serve as dock workers 2. as craftspersons and mechanics 4. Pilgrim 2. was the first elected representative assembly in the colonies 3. 7. 2. 3. Anglicans. 4. North and South Carolina 1. colonists agreed to 1. because of the needs of plantation agriculture 3. 4. 4. 4. sold to other colonies and to Europe not used by the colonists who grew it a source of funds needed for gold mining used by the colonists as money. The physical environment of New England is characterized by 1. 2. remain loyal to England and establish laws for the good of the colony 3. By signing the Mayflower Compact. Tobacco was a cash crop because it was 2. rich soil but a poor growing climate clay soil and a long growing season stony soil and a short growing season rich soil and an excellent growing climate. conquer new territory for the home country. In what way was the founding of Georgia different from that of any other English colony? CHAPTER REVIEW Multiple-Choice Questions 1. 2. and slave ownership. 4. 3. 6. William Penn was a 1. were originally part of Georgia were founded as one colony began as a refuge for Quakers attracted few foreigners. 9.44 NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS INFO CHECK 1. plantation. 3. naval stores. religious tolerance trade in furs and gold the benefit of debtors the conversion of Native Americans to Christianity. 2. The House of Burgesses 1. Identify: coastal plain. 1. 3. 3.
3. Who wrote the Frame of Government? 8. 2.000 45 12. Refer to the illustration on page 37. Then read the Task and write your essay. 1. 5. 2. Refer to the illustration on page 30. 3. Describe how its location determined its economic development. According to the graph. they tended to develop according to European patterns. How did geography have an effect on the development of each region’s economy? DOCUMENT 2. and political life. Explain how this document was based on English tradition. 4. social. Refer to the map on page 39. the picture of New York City in 1746 on page 38? Document-Based Question Part A: Short Answer Study each document and answer the question(s) following it. in which year did Africans in colonial America number 150. What does the illustration tell you about rural colonial life? 5. 11. what was the estimated African population of colonial America in 1720? 1. What kinds of colonies were established in New England? 6. Identify one colony and its region. 1. 30. to prevent the French from moving in from the north 2. What was the major reason for establishing these colonies? DOCUMENT 4. 2. 3. DOCUMENT 1. How might location lead to regional differences? Explain. DOCUMENT 3. 7. to give debtors a chance to start a new life 4. Although these communities had distinctive identities. 4.000 100. What region was associated with the Mayflower Compact? 4. According to the graph on page 34. Reread the third paragraph of the section “Pennsylvania” on page 40. 1710 1730 1740 1760 Constructed-Response Questions Base your answers to questions 1–3 on the tables on pages 31. Georgia was established 1.000 130.000 70.000? 1. Explain how the Mayflower Compact reflected the political tradition of those who signed it. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Colonial communities were centers of economic. and 41. It should include references to most of the document. . to assure religious toleration for all its settlers 3. Refer to the table on page 31. What types of industries or products were typical of each region? 2.THIRTEEN ENGLISH COLONIES 10. 4. In what ways is this scene similar to. 33. to serve as a prison settlement for criminals. along with additional information based on your knowledge of social studies. and answer questions 4 and 5. or different from. 3.
How did the government of Virginia differ from the forms of government in New England? Part B: Essay TASK • • Name the regions into which the thirteen colonies were divided. How did the geography of the Southern colonies influence its economic development? DOCUMENT 6. Describe how these identities reflected the people’s economic or social or political traditions. NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES AND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS Reread the section “Economics” on page 40. Select one region: Describe how the region’s colonies developed their own economic or social or political identities.46 DOCUMENT 5. 10. . • Explain how the region you selected developed its own identity and how it differed from those of the other two regions. 9. Reread the last paragraph of the section “Virginia” on page 41 and refer to the illustration on page 42.