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August 2001


CONSERVATION PROFILE: The Ptunarra Brown Butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra

by Rachel Anderson Introducing Oreixenica ptunarra the Ptunarra Brown Butterfly In Tasmania, native tussock grasslands are one of the most threatened natural habitats (Kirkpatrick 1991). Prior to European settlement the Midlands was a mosaic of grasslands, woodlands and open forest. About 90% of this habitat has now been converted to improved pasture (Fenshman 1989). Native tussock grasslands support a rich and diverse array of animals, however many of these species, are now prone to local extinction. One such animal is the Ptunarra Brown Butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra Couchman, 1953, which is listed as vulnerable under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

IN THIS ISSUE Conservation profile: The Ptunarra Brown Butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra Mid-year Invertebrate TAG meeting Conservation Breeding Specialist Group workshops 5th Invertebrate Biodiversity and Conservation Conference Invertebrate paper sessions at the American Zoo Association National meeting Notes on selected butterfly host plants Selected invertebrate references: Wandered butterflies (part 4) Invertebrate trading IN COMING ISSUES

Oreixenica ptunarra is a member of the family Nymphalidae, subfamily Satyrinae, which contains t he only true endemic species of butterfly in Tasmania (Common & Waterhouse 1981). Most Satyrinae have some shade of brown on their dorsal and ventral wing surfaces and are collectively known as browns. The genus Oreixenica contains 6 species, which are distinctive, as they have silver -white colouring on the ventral wing surface. They are most prevalent in the montane grasslands and grassy woodlands of New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania (Common & Waterhouse 1981, Braby 2000). O. ptunarra was one of the last members of the Australian butterfly fauna to be discovered. It is a small butterfly, with a wingspan generally between 28 32 mm. Males are brownish black, with pale orange -yellow markings and spots on the upper side. The ventral (lower) surfa ces of the hindwings are silvery white. Females have more extensive orange colouring than males (Couchman & Couchman 1978, Common & Waterhouse 1981, McQuillan 1994, Braby 2000).

Report from the Invertebrate TAG mid year meeting Conservation profile: the Lord Howe Island Stick Insect


O. ptunarra relies on native species of Poa tussock grasses for their larval food plant and adult habitat. The establishment of improved pasture and expansion of cropping into the original Poa grassland during the last 200 years, has caused O. ptunarra to contract to a very restricted and patch habitat range (Neyland 1992, 1993, Bell 1998).

(Anderson 2001). The lack of interaction with other populations may cause a reduction in fitness, as the populations become more inbred, leading to possible local extinction. Habitat characteristics that make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction The fundamental characteristics of O. ptunarras habitat that make it vulnerable to extinction are isolation, fragmentation and deterioration in the quality of the habitat (Neyland 1992, 1993). As many of the habitat patches are very isolated, and at large distances from other suitable habitat patches, they are particularly susceptible to random catastrophic events in which the whole population is extinguished. Fragmentation of O. ptunarras habitat thus makes it particularly vulnerable to extinction. Large habitat areas support higher densities of O. ptunarra per hectare than smaller areas. If the habitat continues to become fragmented population densities will decline in many areas. Good quality habitat supports higher densities of O. ptunarra than habitat of an inferior quality (Anderson 2001). The continued deterioration of habitat quality will lead to a reduction in butterfly numbers, creating susceptibility to extinction. It is vital for the long -term survival of O. ptunarra that extensive areas of good quality habitat are protected. The effects of climate that make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction The effects of climate that make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction are the limiting effects they have on flight activity. If climatic conditions are not suitable for flight, then basic biological functions such as mating and egg laying cannot occur. Sunlight and wind strength are the main climatic conditions influencing flight activity in O. ptunarra (Anderson 2001). The fact that there are many individual components that contribute to suitable flight conditions means there are extended periods within the flight season when flight activity is not possible (Anderson 2001). The effects of landuse that make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction Landuse management practices have the potential to make O. ptunarra not just vulnerable to extinction, but actually extinct. The continued survival of O. ptunarra depends very heavily on sympathetic landuse management. The

Female O.ptunarra

Male O.ptunarra

What makes O. ptunarra populations vulnerable to extinction? Combinations of many factors all contribute to make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction. These can be classified into four broad categories: biological elements, habitat characteristics, climatic influences and landuse management regimes. Biological elements that make O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction The most significant biological factor that makes O. ptunarra vulnerable to extinction is its low fecundity rate. Ten percent of the eggs laid by female O. ptunarras must mature and reach adulthood if the population is going to replace itself (Anderson 2001). An unusually high survivorship rate must be achieved. Due to the limitations of O. ptunarras dispersal ability, there is little to no interaction with other populations or colonisation of new habitat patches

Young egg, mature egg and typical larva (on Poa)

Scale bar 0.5mm

main landuse management pr actices that threaten the continued survival of O. ptunarra include land clearing, overgrazing, plantation development, agricultural chemical usage and inappropriate burning regimes (Neyland 1992, 1993). Ongoing Projects A grant from the Threatened Spe cies Network was awarded for the project Conserving the Rare Ptunarra Brown Butterfly on Farmland. The project application was completed with the cooperation of the Midlands Tree Committee. The main focus of the project is to enhance and restore key habi tats in the Southern Midlands area using local community help. Various farmer -oriented approaches to conserving O. ptunarra will be demonstrated, including translocation, strategic fencing, fire management and the propagation of grassland corridors to connect remnants. Some of the work has commenced but most will be carried out over the next 12 months. Rachel Anderson School of Geography & Environmental Studies University of Tasmania GPO Box 25278 Hobart TAS 7001 (03) 6226 7452 Reference and Further Reading:
Anderson R.A.L. (2001) The population dynamics, ecology and conservation management of the Ptunarra Brown Butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae; Satyrinae). Bachelor of Science Honours Thesis, University of Tasmania.

Bell, P. (1998) The Ptunarra Brown Butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra Recovery Plan 19982003. Nature Conservation Branch, Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania. Braby, M.F. (2000) Butterflies of Australia, Their Identification, Biology and Distribution. Volumes 1 and 2. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Bryant, S. & Jackson, J. (1999) Tasmanias Threatened Fauna Handbook: what, where and how to protect Tasmanias threatened animals. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Common, I.F.B and Waterhouse, D.F. (1981) Butterflies of Australia. Angus and Robinson, Sydney. Couchman, L.E. and Couchman R. (1978) The Butterflies of Tasmania. Tasmanian Year Book 1977 No. 11: 66-96. Fenshman, F.J. (1989) The pre-European vegetation of the Midlands, Tasmania: a floristic and historical analysis of vegetation patterns. Journal of Biogeography 16: 29-54. Kirkpatrick J.B. (1991) Tasmanian Native Bush: A Management Handbook Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart, Tasmania. McQuillan, P.B (1994) Butterflies of Tasmania. Tasmanian Field Naturalists Club, Hobart, Tasmania. Neyland, M.G. (1992) The ptunarra brown butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra. Conservation Research Statement. Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Tasmania, Scientific Report, 92/2 Neyland, M.G (1993) The ecology and conservation management of the ptunarra brown butterfly Oreixenica ptunarra (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae; Satyrinae) in Tasmania, Australia. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 127: 43-48. -3-


This year the mid-year ARAZPA Invertebrate TAG meeting will take place at the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) annual meeting a t Rottnest Island. The CBSG meeting entails two and a half days of workshops, each involving a specialist animal group or conservation group. The Invertebrate Working Group of the CBSG will be holding a workshop during the general meeting at Rottnest. Th is workshop will involve professionals who are involved in global invertebrate conservation programs and whose work is far in advance of what we do in Australasia. This is the first time the CBSG has met in Australasia and it will be the only chance for a long time to meet invertebrate specialists from around the world, particularly those involved in conservation. The Invertebrate TAG meeting will discuss conservation of Australasian invertebrates, the latest husbandry manuals, transport manual, housing co mpatible vertebrate and invertebrates, and invertebrate food plants. If you would like to know more about the meeting, or would like to add items to the agenda, please contact Patrick Honan. The CBSG meeting runs from 18 -21 October 2001. Thursday 18 th is registration and reception, on the 19 th and 20 th the sessions run from 8.30am-5.30pm, with another half day on the 21 st . A reception dinner is being hosted by the Rottnest Island Authority and the conference is hosted by Perth Zoo. The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums 56th Annual Conference is also being held at Rottnest at the same time.

A number of invertebrate conferences are looming in addition to the Invertebrate TAG meeting and the CBSG workshop. These include the Australian Invertebrate Biodiversity and Conservation conference (see below), the International Conference of Butterfly Breeders and Exhibitors (FICBES) (Nairobi, Kenya, 21 -24 October 2001, email for further details) and the AZA national meeting (see below).

5th Invertebrate Biodiversity and Conservation Conference December 1 4, 2001 Adelaide University, South Australia
Please note that the program for Symposia and Invited Speakers for the conference has been finalised and the Organising Committee is now seeking contributed oral presentations and posters to complement these Symposia, and any other areas relevant to invertebrate biodiversity and conservation. Full d etails and registration forms are available on the conference website at We look forward to seeing you in Adelaide. Best Wishes Andy Austin Convenor, Organising Committee Scientific program Special symposia Impact of invasive species PLENARY TALK Invasion meltdown Dennis ODowd (Monash University) Impact of an invasive social wasp on New Zealands forest invertebrate community Jacqueline Beggs (Landcare Research, NZ) Diversity and potential impact of introduced marine invertebrates in Australia Chad Hewitt (CSIRO Marine Science)

More information can be obtained at or A registration form can be found at .pdf.

Invertebrate biodiversity of the arid zone and ephemeral waters Ant biodiversity in arid Australia Alan Andersen (Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Winnellie, NT) Mound Springs of the Great Artesian Basin issues, progress and future directions Winston Ponder (Australian Museum) Microfaunal biodiversity in ephemeral waters: temperate and arid Australia Russell Shiel (Adelaide University), Stuart Halse (Wildlife Research Centre, Dept of Conservation & Land Management, WA) & John Green (University of Waikato, NZ) Marine invertebrate biodiversity Consequences of habitat fragmentation and invasion Sean Connell (Adelaide University) Polychaetes their biological biodiversity all is revealed Pat Hutchings (Australian Museum) Australian echinoderms: evolution, diversity and exploitation Greg Rouse (Sydney University & South Australian Museum) Biodiversity of marine parasites Ian Whittington (Queensland University & South Australian Museum) Habitat fragmentation: plant -invertebrate relationships Invertebrate conservation and impact/implications of habitat fragmentation: an overview Tim New (La Trobe University) Habitat fragmentation in tall tussock grasslands: plant-invertebrate relationships Cathy Rufaut, Katharine Dickinson, Gerry Closs (University of Otago, NZ) & George Gibbs (Victoria University, Wellington, NZ)

Impacts of burning on native grassland invertebrates: initial response of weevil populations Barbara Barratt (AgResearch, Invermay Research Centre, NZ) Impacts of burning on native grassland invertebrates: issues associated with sampling and data handling Colin Ferguson (AgResearch, Invermay Research Centre, NZ) Habitat disturbance and plant -invertebrate relationships: lessons from stream habitats Barbara Downes (University of Melbourne) Molecular tools in invertebrate conservation Phylogenetic considerations i n conservation worth: concept and practice Ross Crozier (James Cook University) The impact of population dynamics on evolutionary radiation in Onychophora David Rowell (Australian National University) Hidden diversity and unexpected biology in velvet worms revealed by molecular techniques Paul Sunnucks (La Trobe University) Legislation and education ECOWATCH getting kids involved in biodiversity Geoff Clarke (CSIRO Entomology) Another Copper Cuppa? Simon Nally (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service) Invertebrates and the EPBC Act John Vranjic (Wildlife Australia Branch, Environment Australia)

Invertebrate paper sessions at the American Zoo Association National Meeting

St Louis, USA, 7-11 September 2001 Whats that bug worth?: th e economic and cultural value of invertebrates. Edward Spivak, Butterfly Kingdom Invertebrate exhibits: a big bang design for your bucks. Raymond Mendez, Work as Play Spiders make it simple at the Memphis Zoo.

Steven Reichling and Charles Beck, Memphis Zoo. The effort to save the endangered American Burying Beetle on a shoestring budget, or making conservation resources go farther with invertebrates. Louis Perrotti, Roger Williams Park Zoo. The National Butterfly Conservation Initiative: partne rships for pollination. Ruth Allard, AZA Conservation Biologist. Oregon Silverspot Butterfly population supplementation.

Dr Blair Csuti, Oregon Zoo Building alliances for the conservation of Oak Savanna butterflies. Mitchell Magdich, Toledo Zoo. Conservation efforts for Schaus Swallowtail and the plight of other Florida butterflies. Dr Jaret Daniels, Butterfly Kingdom Thinking globally, acting locally: promoting backyard butterfly conservation. David Mizejewski, Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program.

NOTES ON SELECTED BUTTERFLY HOST PLANTS by Leanne Maas The following are notes on plants grown for butterflies at the Melbourne Zoo and therefore the notes refer to propagation under Melbourne conditions. Plant species Acacia pycnantha Butterfly species Jalmenus evagoras Jalmenus lithochroa Jalmenus icilius Hypochrysops delicia Hypochrysops ignita Nacaduba biocellata Theclinesthes miskini Plant species Adenia heterophylla Butterfly species Cethosia cydippe Cethosia penthesilea Acraea andromacha Vindula arsinoe Plant species Alternanthera denticulata Butterfly species Hypolimnas bolina Advantages easy to propagate by seed. Disadvantages slow growing in pots. doesnt recover very well from con stant pruning or defoliating.

Plant species Annona sp Butterfly species Graphium sarpedon Graphium agamemnon Graphium eurypylus

Advantages Quick growing. Moderately easy to propagate by cuttings. Disadvantages Must be grown insi de. Prone to 2 spotted mite mealy bug & nematodes and occasionally broad mite. Needs to be contained to a frame, this can be labour intensive. Advantages Can be grown outside. Easy to maintain. No major on-going pest problems. Disadvantages Seeds profusely during summer, limiting the amount of lush green foliage, which is the preferred food. Sometimes prone to white fly. Many plants are required to feed one batch of caterpillars, compared to Asystasia. Prone to weed infestation if not kept in check. Advantages Grows relatively quick. Disadvantages Not easy to propagate by cuttings. Not used very often, so it tends to sit for long periods. Can be difficult to locate supplier for plant stock and seed.

Plant species Aristolochia tagala Butterfly species Ornithoptera priamus Ornithoptera richmondia Cressida cressida Pachliopta polydorus Plant species Asclepias rotundifolia Butterfly species Danaus plexippus Danaus chrysippus

Plant species Asclepias fruticosus Butterfly species Danaus plexippus Danaus chrysippus

Plant species Asystasia gangetica Butterfly species Doleschallia bisaltide Hypolimnas alimena Hypolimnas bolina Hypolimnas misippus Junonia orithya

Plant species Asystasia tranvancorsica Butterfly species Hypolimnas bolina (egg-laying only)

Plant species Breynia disticha Butterfly species Eurema hecabe Plant species Cassia tomentella Butterfly species Catopsilia pomona

Advantages Moderately quick growing. Easy to propagate by seed. Disadvantages Must be grown inside. Prone to 2 spotted mite and mealy bug. Needs to be contained to a frame, this can be labour intensive. Advantages Can be grown outside. Propagates very easily by seed, quick germination. Disadvantages Prone to aphid attack. If grown outside, not all of the plant is palatable, only the soft new tips are consumed. Advantages Can be grown outside. Propagates very easily by seed, quick germination. Disadvantages Prone to aphid attack and occasionally whitefly (these occasional attacks can completely devastate the whole crop). Goes backwards outside during Melbournes winter. Advantages Easy to propagate by tip cuttings. Less plants required to feed a batch of Common Eggflies than, for example, Alternanthera. Foliage has a high nutrient content. Disadvantages Prone to broad mite infestation. Must be grown inside. Dislikes a cold climate. Takes up a large area of glasshouse space. Advantages Easy to propagate by tip cuttings. Used for egg laying only (Common Eggfly caterpillars dont do well on it, but th e adults happily oviposit on it), therefore large quantities are not required. Disadvantages Prone to broad mite infestation. Must be grown inside. Advantages No major pest problems. Easy to maintain. Easy to propagate by division. Disadvantages May be prone to whitefly. Advantages Can be grown in a cool place such as a shadehouse Disadvantages Will put on more growth in a war m environment such as a polyhouse, however, this tends to encourage mealy bug infestation. May lose their leaves in winter, due to the colder conditions, however, if they're kept dry, they will keep their leaves.


Plant species Cinnamomum camphora Butterfly species Chaetocneme beata Chaetocneme porphryopis Graphium macleayanus Graphium sarpedon Polyura sempronius Plant species Citrus sp Butterfly species Papilio aegeus Papilio anactus Papilio fuscus Papilio ambrax Papilio demoleus

Advantages Relatively low maintenance. Disadvantages Larger plants become pot bound quickly.

Plant species Cullen adscendens Butterfly species Papilio demoleus

Plant species Cullen pinnata Butterfly species Papilio demoleus

Plant species Cullen tenax Butterfly species Papilio demoleus Zizina labradus

Plant species Hemigraphis colorata Butterfly species Yoma sabina Junonia hedonia Plant species Melicope elleryana Butterfly species Papilio ulysses

Advantages No problems with pests. Very easy to propagate by cuttings. Recover well from hard pruning and defoliation by caterpillars. Disadvantages Require frequent fertilising. Thorns can cause injury. Prone to various nutrient deficiencies. Takes up lots of space. Require hand watering, which can be time consuming. Plants dry out rapidly during hot periods, and frequently blow over on windy days. Can take between 6 months and a year to r ecover foliage, depending on weather conditions. Advantages Very easy to propagate by seed. Has large leaves compared to Cullen tenax. Disadvantages Sometimes prone to whitefly and powdery mildew. Can become pot-bound due to rapid growth. Advantages Very easy to propagate by seed. Disadvantages Sometimes prone to whitefly attack. As a result of their rapid growth, they tend to become potbound very quickly. Require a large amount of watering. Advantages Very easy to propagate by seed. A preferred host plant for the Chequered Swallowtail. Disadvantages Prone to rabbit attack. Sometimes prone to whitefly. Leaves are small, therefore a lot of plant material is required by the caterpillars. Weed invasion in the pots can sometimes be a problem (particularly Medicago ) as they can quickly take over and smother the plant if not kept in check this can be labour intensive. Sometimes prone to powdery mildew. Advantages Very easy to propagate from cuttings. Relatively quick growing . Disadvantages Sometimes affected by broad mite, mealy bug, loopers and, more often, aphids. Advantages Grows well outside in a shadehouse over summer. New stock is readily obtainable fro m rainforest nurseries. Seed is also relatively easy to obtain.

Plant species Nerium oleander Butterfly species Euploea core Plant species Passiflora cinnabarina Butterfly species Cethosia cydippe Cethosia penthesilea Acraea andromacha

Plant species Sida rhombifolia Butterfly species Hypolimnas bolina

Old plants respond well to repotting. Disadvantages Can be prone to broad mite and aphid. Dislikes the cold, and has been known to drop leaves over winter in Melbourne. Advantages Very easy to grow and propagate by cuttings. Disadvantages Prone to aphid. Advantages Can be grown outside. A prefer red host plant for Red and Orange Lacewings. Disadvantages Prone to damage from a native moth caterpillar. Very difficult to germinate from seed. Propagation from cuttings is also difficult. Prone to two-spotted mite, ground mealy bu g and mealy bug. Slow growing over winter, and therefore unreliable as a food source during this time. Dislikes wet soil, needs to be well -drained. Advantages Very easy to propagate by see d. Good source of winter food if it can be grown outside. Grows well outside during summer. Disadvantages Prone to whitefly and two -spotted mite. Can become pot-bound quickly during summer due to its rapid growth.

Compiled by Leanne Maas, formerly of Mel bourne Zoo, currently at the Cranbourne Botanic Gardens. Any comments, additions or other contributions would be welcomed by Patrick Honan. SELECTED INVERTEBRATE REFERENCES Wanderer Butterflies (Part four) Rothschild, M., Marsh, N. & Gardiner, B. (1978) . Cardioactive substances in the Monarch butterfly and Euploea core reared on leaf -free artificial diet. Nature 275: 649-650. Rothschild, M., Gardiner, B. & Mummery, R. (1978). The role of carotenoids in the "golden glance" of danaid pupae (Insecta: L epidoptera). J. Zool. 186: 351-358. Rothschild, M., Moore, B.P. & Brown, W.V. (1984). Pyrazines as warning odour components in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus and in moths of the genera Zygaena and Amata (Lepidoptera). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 23(4): 375-380. Rothschild, M. & Kellett., D.N. (1972). Reactions of various predators to insects storing heart poisons (cardiac glycosides) in their tissues. J. Ent. (A) 46: 103-110. Seiber, J. N., Tuskes, P.M., Brower, L.P. & Nelson, C.J. (1980). Phar macodynamics of some individual milkweed cardenolides fed to the larvae of the Monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 6: 321-339. Sheppard, P. M. (1965). The Monarch butterfly and mimicry. J. Lepidop. Soc. 19: 227-230. Singh, P. & Clare., G.K (1988). A note on rearing of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) on an artificial diet. NZ Entomol 11: 73-75. Slansky, F. (1971). Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae) attacking red -winged blackbird. J. Lepidop. Soc. 25: 294.

Smithers, C. N. (1965). A note on overwintering in Danaus plexippus (L) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae) in Australia. Aust. Zool. 13: 135-136. Smithers, C. N. (1973). The food plants of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae) in Australia. Ent. Mon. Mag. 109: 54-56. Smithers, C. N. (1973). A note on natural enemies of Danaus plexippus (L) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae) in Australia. Aust. Ent. Mag. 1: 37-40. Smithers, C. N. (1977). Seasonal distribution and breeding status of Danaus plexippus (L) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae) in Australia. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 16: 175-184. Smithers, C. N. (1983). Migration records in Australia. 3. Danainae and Acraeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Aust. Ent. Mag. 10: 21-27. Taylor, R. L. (1964). The metallic gold spots on the pupa of the Monarch butterfly. Entomological News 75: 253-256. Tilden, J. W. (1981). Attempted mating between male Monarchs. J. Res. Lepidop. 18: 2. Tuskes, P. M. & Brower., L.P. (1978). Overwintering ecology of the Monarch Butterfly Danaus plexippus L. in California. Ecol. Ent. 3: 141-153. Urquhart, F. (1960). The Monarch Butterfly . Canada, University of Toronto Press. Urquhart, F. A. (1966). Virus -caused epizootic as a factor in population fluctuations of the Monarch butterfly. J. Invert. Pathol. 8: 492-495. Urquhart, F. A. (1970). Fluctuations in the numbers of the Monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ) in North America. Atalanta 3: 104-114. Urquhart, F. A. (1972). The effect of micro -cauterizing the ALPPM ("gold spot" of authors) of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Can. Ent. 104: 991-993. Urquhart, F. A. (1972). Functions of the prismatic pigmented maculae (PPM) of the pupa of Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Ann. Zool. Fenn. 9: 193-198. Urquhart, F. A. (1973). Reduction of abdominal scales of the Monarch butterfly imago as a result of cauterising the Abd PPM of the pupa. J. Res. Lepidop. 11: 241-244. Urquhart, F. A. (1974). Fluctuations in Monarch butterf ly populations. News Lepidop. Soc. 1974(3): 1-2. Urquhart, F. A. (1978). Monarch migration studies. News Lepidop. Soc. 1978(3): 3-4. Urquhart, F. A. & Stegner., R.W. (1966). Laboratory techniques for maintaining cultures of the Monarch butterfly. J. Res. Lepidop. 5: 129-136. Urquhart, F. A. & Tang, A.P.S. (1971). The effect of cauterizing the PPM ("gold spots" of authors) of the pupa of the Monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ). J. Res. Lepidop. 9: 157-167. Urquhart, F. A. & Urquhart., N.R. (1 979). Aberrent autumnal migration of the eastern population of the Monarch butterfly , Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera : Danaidae) as it relates to the occurence of strong westerly winds. Can. Ent. 111: 1281-1286. Van-Hook, T. & Zalucki., M.P (1991). Oviposition by Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae: Danainae) on Asclepias viridis in northern Florida. J. Lepidop. Soc. 45(3): 215-221. Wagner, W. H. (1973). An orchid attractant for Monarch butterflies. J. Lepidop. Soc. 27: 192196.

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Wells, H., Wells, P.H. & Cook, P. (1990). The importance of overwinter aggregation for reproductive success of monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus ). J. Theor. Biol. 147(1): 115-131. Wells, H. & Wells., P.H. (1992). The monarch butterfly: A review. Bull. South Calif. Acad. Sci 91(1): 1-25. Wilson, M. F., Bertin, R.I. & Price, P.W. (1979). Nectar production and flower visitors of Asclepias verticillata . Am. Midl. Nat. 102: 23-35. Zalucki, M. P. (1978). Population ecology of Danaus plexippus - tracking butterfly movements. News Bull. Ent. Soc. Qld 6: 99. Zalucki, M. P., Kitching, R.L., Abel, D. & Pearson, J. (1980). A novel device for tracking butterflies in the field. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 73: 262-265. Zalucki, M. P. (1981). Animal Movement and its Population Consequences with a Case Study of Danaus plexippus . Brisbane, Griffith University. Zalucki, M. P., Chandica, A. & Kitching, R.L. (1981). Quantifying the distribution and abundance of an animals resource using aerial photography. Oecologia 50: 176-183. Zalucki, M. P. (1981). Temporal and Spatial Variation of Parasitism in Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Aust. Entomol. Mag. 8(1): 3-8. Zalucki, M. P. (1982). Temperature and rate of development in Danaus plexippus and D. chrysippus (Nymphalidae). J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 21: 241-246. Zalucki, M. P., Oyeyele, S. & Vowles, P. (1989). Selective oviposition by Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae) in a mixed stand of Asclepias fruticosa and A..curassavica in Southeast Queensland. J. Aust. Entomol., Soc 28(2): 141-146. Zalucki, M. P. & Kitching, R.L. (1982). The analysis and description of movement in adult Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Behaviour 80: 174-198. Zalucki, M. P. & Kitching, R.L. (1982). Dynamics of oviposition in Danaus plexippus (Insecta: Lepidoptera) on milkweed, Asclepias spp. J. Zool. 198: 103-116. Zalucki, M. P. & Kitching, R.L. (1982). Temporal and spatial variation in mortality in field populations of Danaus plexippus L. and D.chrysippus larvae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Oecologia 53: 201-207.

Eggs wanted Anthony Hiller Mt Glorious Rd Mt Glorious QLD 4520 ph 07 3289 0161 Silke Weiland PO Box 348 Kuranda QLD 4872

Gary Stibbard Lot 663 Bagortville Rd Bagortville NSW 2477 Terry Baxter 79 Mueller Rd Malak, Darwin NT 0812 ph 08 8927 6019

Cairns Birdwing Ulysses Common Eggflies Orchards Common Eggflies Orchards Lurchers Cruisers Orange Lacewings Ulysses Butterflies Cruisers Cruisers Orange Lacewings Common Eggflies Cairns Birdwings
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Gary Sobey Cnr Midland Highway & Blackjack Rd Harcourt VIC 3453 Butterfly House, Melbourne Zoo PO Box 74 Parkville VIC 3052 Phillippe Lasserre, Jewel of the Fo rest PO Box 700 Bowen QLD 4805 Bob Moffatt PO Box 541 Alstonville NSW 2477

Orange Lacewings Wanderers Orchards Ulysses Butterflies Ulysses Butterflies Cairns Birdwings Birdwings Orchards Common Eggflies Lurchers Brown Soldiers Ulysses

Ian Blow Coffs Harbour Butterfly House 5 Strouds Rd Bonville NSW 2450 Chris Barter 29 Chestnut Rd Mill Park VIC 3082 Jack and Sue Hausenpusch PO Box 26 Innisfail QLD 4860 Ross Kendall 17 Eldon St Indooroopily QLD 4068 ph 07 3378 1187 The Invertebrator is compiled by the Invertebrate Department, Melbourne Zoo. For queries or contributions, contact: Patrick Honan PO Box 74 Parkville VIC 3052 ph : 03 9285 9457 fax : 03 9285 9360 email :

Wanderers Common Eggflies Orchards Common Eggflies Orchards Lurchers Cairns Birdwings Ulysses

Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria PO Box 20 Mosman NSW 2088 Australia ph : 02 9978 4797 fax : 02 9978 4761 email :

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