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Equations and Applications
II
Rogelio de las Casas
Introduction
Cathodic Protection System Design
Determine ideal distance between groundbed and protected
structure
The optimization of the groundbed location improve the CP
system efficiency
Predict the optimum distance of groundbed from foreign line
structures
Calculate the amount of interference current on foreign
structures.
Potential to remote earth of any amount or anode
configuration can be determine.
Linear current density on pipelines in function of groundbed
distance from pipeline.
Use of New Potential Equations in
Cathodic Protection System Design
Permit determine Remote Earth distance:
Point where the anode’s potential influence on the earth
surface is not longer observed.
Can be used for Groundbeds Installed Either Close To
or Remote From the Structure
Close groundbeds concentrate current on a small area of the
structure
Remote groundbeds protect a larger area of the structure with
less concentrated current
Optimal placement distance from the structure is calculated
for remote and distribute groundbeds.
Permit determine Influence on Foreign Structures;
(Interference by stray current)
Horizontal Anodes in a Line Perpendicular to Structure,
with anodes perpendicular to Structure as well.
The integral is:
The potential equation for the action of one anode over any point in the earth will be:
Groundbed Schematic diagram
Horizontal Anodes in a Line Perpendicular to Structure, with
anodes perpendicular to Structure as well.
¯
÷
=
÷ ÷  ÷ + + ÷ ÷  ÷ +
÷  ÷ + + ÷  ÷ +
 =
1
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
ln
N
p ξ L S p y t ξ) L S p (y x
ξ S p y t ξ) S p (y x
ο ): Uremot(x,y
The potential equation for groundbed with N anodes is then:
The potential equation, for the case of potential in the surface of the earth (z=0 m)
is:
L N
Idis
 

=
t
p
o
2
:
Where:
S: Distance between consecutive anodes
(meters)
N: Total number of anodes
L: Anode length including
coke backfill (meters)
t: Depth of the anode (meters)
Idis: Current applied at groundbed (Amperes)
p: Soil resistivity at the groundbed location
(ohmm)
c: Distance of first anode from pipeline
Individually Located Horizontal Anodes in Parallel
Distribution with Respect to the Structure
The integral is:
Groundbed Schematic diagram
The potential equation in any point in the earth for single anodes is:
Individually Located Horizontal Anodes in Parallel
Distribution with Respect to the Structure
¯
÷
=
÷ + + ÷  ÷ + ÷
+ + ÷  ÷ +
 =
1
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
) (
ln
N
p L x t ξ) S p (y L x
x t ξ) S p (y x
ο ): Uremot(x,y
L N
Idis
 

=
t
p
o
2
:
The potential equation in the case of multiple anodes in a groundbed configuration is:
The potential equation, for the case of potential in the surface of the earth (z=0 m)
is:
S: Distance between
consecutive anodes (meters)
N: Total number of anodes
L: Anode length including
coke backfill (meters)
t: Depth of the top of the anode (meters)
Idis: Current applied at groundbed (Amperes)
p : Soil resistivity at the groundbed location
(ohmm)
c: Distance of first anode from pipeline
Where
Vertical Anodes in a Groundbed Perpendicular to a
Structure
The potential for single vertical electrode, acting in the earth is:
The integral is:
Groundbed configuration diagram
Vertical Anodes in a Groundbed Perpendicular to a
Structure
¯
÷
=
+ ÷  ÷ + +
+ + ÷  ÷ + + +
 =
1
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
) (
ln
N
p t ξ) S p (y x t
L t ξ) S p (y x L t
ο ): Uremot(x,y
The potential equation in the case of multiple anodes in a groundbed configuration is:
The potential at the surface of the earth (z=0 m) will be:
L N
Idis
 

=
t
p
o
2
:
S: Distance between
consecutive anodes (meters)
N: Total number of anodes
L: Anode length including
coke backfill (meters)
t: Depth of the top of the anode (meters)
Idis: Current applied at groundbed (Amperes)
p : Soil resistivity at the groundbed location
(ohmm)
c: Distance of first anode from pipeline
Horizontal Distributed Anodes inside stations.
Where Xw and Yw are the coordinates of the distributed
anodes.
This is the total potential distribution
on the plant:
Compressor station, refinery, electrical
substation, etc.
Equations’ Application
Equations Provide:
Optimal groundbed location
Graphical representation of
anodes combined potential
applied to structure
Visual representation of
cathodic protection
efficiency
Identification of impact that
groundbed location has on
foreign structures
Graph of Combined Potentials on a
pipeline provided by a groundbed
with multiple individually anodes in
parallel distribution with respect to
the pipe. Example of Equation 2.
Example of a horizontal groundbed that is not
remote from pipe
Example of the use of the new equations, in the case
of perpendicular to pipe horizontal anode
installation, equation 1.
Remote earth example calculation for horizontal groundbed,
anodes perpendicular to pipe.
To determine the remote earth distance to install the groundbed from the
pipe, the following subprogram can be used.
Freshour remote distance determination.
Distance
from last
anode (ft):
Potential
meas. (volt)
5 0.066
10 0.134
15 0.212
20 0.288
40 0.507
60 0.678
80 0.796
100 0.898
120 0.985
140 1.052
160 1.12
180 1.179
200 1.225
220 1.275
240 1.3
260 1.34
280 1.36
300 1.375
320 1.4
340 1.42
360 1.433
380 1.439
400 1.44 Percentage of potential change between 600 ft and 480 ft: 1.929474
420 1.45 Remote distance: 600 ft
440 1.478 Potential to remote earth at 332' : 0.083 Volt
460 1.492 Percentage of potential change between remote earth (600 ft from the last anode)
480 1.503 and minimum remote distance calculated during design calculations (332'): 5.42
600 1.532 The actual distance selected for groundbed was 460 ft,
So we can regard that the groundbed is remote from the pipeline.
Potential to remote earth 460' from last anode: 0.040 Volt
Percentage of potential change between remote earth (600 ft from the last anode)
and actual distance between first anode and pipeline, 460 ft: 2.610966
Potential meas. (volt)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Distance from last anode (ft)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
w
o
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
c
e
l
l
s
(
V
)
Potential mea
Alexander Rd.
Distance
from last
anode (ft):
Potential
meas. (volt)
2 0.044
100 0.968
200 1.147
300 1.226
400 1.312
500 1.351
545 1.36
Percentage of potential change between 545 ft and 500 ft 2.972561
Remote distance: 450 ft
Potential to remote earth measured at 362': 0.068 Volt
Percentage of potential change between remote earth (545 ft from the last anode)
and minimum remote distance calculated during design calculations (362 ft): 5.00
Actual distance selected for groundbed was 465 ft,
So we can regard that the groundbed is remote from the pipeline:
Potential to remote earth measured at 465 ft from last anode: 0.007 Volt
Percentage of potential change between remote earth (600 ft from the last anode)
and the actual distance between first anode and pipeline 460 ft: 0.5
Potential meas. (volt)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Distance from last anode (ft)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
t
w
o
r
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
c
e
l
l
s
(
V
)
Potential meas. (volt)
Calculation example in congested
area.
In the case of congested area, when we need to
keep the local groundbed at the same energetic
distance from the structures to be protected; we
can calculate the optimum distance to keep the
groundbed delivering the same protection level
to different structures around the groundbed
location.
Example for the case of gas
distribution station.
A five anode one trench horizontal groundbed is
designed to be installed between a 30” gas line and a
30” water line, with a 16” gas line crossing the above
lines perpendicularly, at the south side of the station.
The distance between the two 30” lines is 35.052 m
(115 ft). The potential at the lines with the horizontal
anode parallel to the two 30” lines, located in the
middle point between the two lines is calculated as
follow:
Example for the case of gas
distribution station.
Using the equation for
horizontal groundbed with a
single anode (single bed),
without the remote component
included in the equation, for the
case of anodes parallel to pipe:
Design data:
Example for the case of gas
distribution station.
Potential at parallel lines:
This is the potential to remote earth that the two
lines will see from the horizontal anode.
Example for the case of gas
distribution station
Now if we want to keep the same influence over the
16” line at the south, the distance from the groundbed
to this pipe can be determined using another Mathcad
subprogram with the following conditions:
Example for the case of gas distribution station.
So 40 ft is the distance between the south end of the groundbed and the 16”, to keep the
Same influence over this line than over the other parallel lines.
Example for the case of gas
distribution station.
In the case of the two parallel pipelines, with
another line crossing these two lines, we can
determine accurately the distances in each
direction to keep the same influence over all the
buried structures.
Example for the case of gas
distribution station
Also in the case of congested areas you can
determine the current density at the structure
surface.
Now, if we calculate the gradient of the
potential, we can obtain the current density at
the structure surface as follow:
Example for the case of gas
distribution station
This is the equation for the potential at the two
parallel 30” pipelines
These are the coordinates of the points where we want to
Calculate the current density from the groundbed location.
This is the equation to calculate the potential gradient at the
point x, y determined above.
And this is the equation to calculate the current
density at the structure surface due to the horizontal
groundbed; at the closest point between the
groundbed and the two 30” lines.
Example for the case of gas
distribution station
Now, the current density for the 16” line that is
perpendicular to the two 30” line, the calculation is as
follow:
Potential equation
Potential gradient equation
Coordinates where the current density is needed:
Current density equation:
Current density value
Interference current calculation
For the case when the groundbed is affecting a foreign
line, the amount of current getting to the foreign line
can be calculated.
Potential due to a vertical semideep anode:
The potential gradient can be calculated as follow:
Interference current calculation
Potential gradient calculation using Mathcad.
Parametric equation for a pipeline located at the x axis.
Tangent vector to the pipeline, parallel to x axis
Tangent vector to the pipeline, parallel to y axis
Interference current calculation
The remote earth distance from the semideep well
calculated as follow:
Interference current calculation
The length of pipe that is receiving current from the
semideep well is calculated as follow:
These are the integration limits on the pipe to calculate the total current
getting in to it due to the semideep well.
Interference current calculation
This is the normal vector to the pipeline
centered on x axis.
This is the current density due to the
Semideep anode well
Magnitude of the normal vector
Total of interference current picked up
by the foreign line.
Potential profile of distributed anodes on
Compressor station
The potential profile in the compressor station due to the
presence of all the distributed anodes.
Where Xw and Yw provide the NorthSouth and EastWest anode coordinates
on the Compressor station, and z is the anode’s depth. This is the equation for
horizontal anodes, the same can be developed for vertical anodes as well.
The entire potential distribution on the station is:
It provides the potential to remote earth in each point inside
the station as a function of each and all anodes.
Potential profile of distributed anodes on
Compressor station
And the potential profile in the station is:
First graph shows the anodes spatial
distribution and potential
profile
Second graph includes the potential profile
And total anodes influence in the station.
Potential, current density and linear current density
on Gas wells
Total potential due to deep well and Gas well in ground.
Potential profile in the surface of the ground.
Potential profile in the well axis
For the case that the deep well is just 5 meters (16.4 ft) from the Gas well
Potential, current density and linear current density
on Gas wells
Well casing parametric equation:
Well casing graph:
Current density profile in the well.
Linear current density on the well surface
Potential, current density and linear current density
on Gas wells
Potential profile in the ground. Potential profile in the well access.
Current density
Profile on Gas
well
Linear Current density in Well surface
For the case that the deep well is 100 meters (328 ft) from the Gas well
Conclusion
New Equations Facilitate Optimum Groundbed Placement
Increased efficiency of Cathodic Protection System
Ensure entire structure protected, either for locate, distributed or remote
groundbeds.
Prevent interference with foreign structures
Cathodic Protection System Area of Influence is Accurately
Identified
Equations provide graphical representation of potential influence on the
soil surface.
Equations identify cumulative effect of multiple anode systems
In the case of distributed anode system, the appropriate location of the
anodes can be determine and the current density at the structure surface
accurately calculated.
The amount of interference current can be predicted with accuracy.
The current density on the structure surface can be calculated.
Questions?
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