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DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : - Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. : Title of Experiment : - MOISTURE CONTENT DETERMINATION
AIM: - To determine the moisture content (water content) of a given soil Sample by oven drying method. THEORY AND APPLICATIONS: A soil is an aggregate of soil particles having a porous structure. The soil may have water &/or air. The pores are also called as voids. If voids are fully filled with water, the soil is called saturated soil & if soil has only air, the soil is called dry. Moisture content is defined as the ratio of the mass of water to the mass or mass of solids. Mw M = -----Ms Where w = water content. Mw = mass/Mass of water. Ms = mass/Mass of solids (mass of oven dried soil.) The mass of water used in the above expression is the mass of free pore water only. Hence for moisture content determination the soil samples are dried to the temperature at which only pore water is evaporated. This temperature was standardized to 1050 C to 1100 C. Soils having gypsum are dried at 600 C to 800 C. The method to determine the moisture content in the laboratory are oven drying, pycnometer, infrared lamp with torsion balance moisture meter. The approximate methods are alcohol burning method & calcium carbide method.
APPLICATIONS: Moisture content plays an important role in understanding the behavior of fine-grained soils. It is the moisture content which changes the soils from liquid state to plastic & solid states. Its value controls the shear strength & compressibility of soil. Compaction of soil in the field is also controlled by the quantity of water present. Density of soil is directly influenced by the water content & is used in calculating the stability of slopes, bearing capacity of soil- foundation system, earth pressure behind the retaining wall & pressure due to overburden. The knowledge of determining the water content is helpful in many of the laboratory tests such as Atterburg’s limits, shear strength, compaction & consolidation etc. APPARATUS: 1) Containers (non corrodible, air tight) 2) Balance (accuracy 0.04 % of the soil taken for test) 3) Oven (interior of non corroding material, thermostatically controlled) 4) Desiccator. 5) Tongs. PROCEDURE: 1) Clean, dry & weigh the container with lid. 2) Take the required quantity of the soil specimen in the container & weigh the lid. 3) Maintain the temperature of the oven between 1050 C to 1100 C for normal soils & 600 C to 800 C for soils having loosely bound hydration water &/or organic matter. 4) Dry the sample in the oven till its mass becomes constant. In normal conditions the sample is kept in the oven for not more then 24 hours. 5) After drying remove the container from the oven, remove the lid & cool in the desiccator. 6) Weigh the dry soil in the container with lid PRECAUTIONS : 1) The soil sample should be loosely placed in the container. 2) Over heating should be avoided. 3) Dry soil sample should not be left in open before weighing.
OBSERVATION TABLE : Determination No. 1 1) Container No. 2) Mass of container with lid, M1 (gm) 3) Mass of container with lid +wet soil, M2 (gm) 4) Mass of container with lid +dry soil, M3 (gm) 5) Mass of water, Mw = M2 – M3 (gm) 6) Mass of water, Ms = M3 – M1 (gm) 7) Moisture content, M = (M2 – M3 ) / (M3 – M1) X 100 (%) 8) Average Moisture content ( % ) CALCULATIONS: Mw M2 – M3 M = ------ = -----------Ms M3 – M1 X 100 2 3
= Where M2 = mass of container with lid + wet soil. M3= mass of container with lid + dry soil. M1= mass of container with lid. RESULT: - The Average moisture content of a given soil sample is, M= %
CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT
DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : - Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. : Title of Experiment :-DETERMINATION PYCNOMETER OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY BY
AIM: -To determine the specific gravity of soil fraction passing 4.75 mm I.S. Sieve by pycnometer. THEORY & APPLICATIONS: Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass or Mass in air of a given volume of dry soil solids to the mass or Mass of equal volume of distilled water at 270c. In the figure let, (a) represent the empty pycnometer of mass = M1 (b) represent the pycnometer + soil grains of mass = M2 (c) represent the pycnometer + soil grains + water of mass = M3 (d) represent the pycnometer + water of mass = M4 Mass of soil grains Ms = M2 - M1 Mass of equal volume of distilled water = (M4 + M2 - M1 - M3 ) Specific gravity of soil grains, ( M2 - M1 ) Gs ( M2 - M1 )
= ------------------------------------ = ------------------------------(M4 + M2 - M1 - M3 ) (M2 – M1) – (M3 – M4)
APPLICATIONS: Page no
Specific gravity of soil grains is an important property & is used in calculating void ratio, porosity, and degree of saturation if density & void ratio are known. Its value helps to some extent in indication & classification of soils. It gives an idea about the suitability of soil as a construction material, higher value of specific gravity gives more strength for roads & foundations. It is used in computing the soil particle size by hydrometer analysis. It is also used in estimating the critical hydraulic gradient in soil when a soil boiling condition is being studied and in zero air void calculations in the compaction theory of soils. Its value ranges as follows: Coarse grained soils 2.6 to 2.7. Fine grained soils 2.7 to 2.8. Organic soils 2.3 to 2.5. APPARATUS: 1) Pycnometer of about 900 ml capacity, with a conical brass cap screw at its top. 2) Balance sensitive to 1 g. 3) Glass rod. 4) 4.75 mm I.S sieve. 5) Drying oven. 6) Distilled water. PROCEDURE: 1) Clean the pycnometer & dry it. Find the Mass of the pycnometer, brass cap & washer, accurate to (M1) g. 2) Take about 200 g to 400 g of oven-dried soil & put it in the pycnometer. Weigh the pycnometer plus soil etc (M2). 3) Fill the pycnometer to half its height with distilled water & mix it thoroughly with glass rod. Add more water & stir it. Replace the screw top and fill the pycnometer flush with the hole in the conical cap. Dry the pycnometer from outside, & weigh it (M3) 4) Empty the pycnometer; clean it thoroughly & fill it with distilled water, to the hole of the conical cap and weigh it (M4) 5) Repeat steps 2 to 4 for 2 or more determinations of specific gravity. OBSERVATION TABLE: Page no
1 Pycnometer No.The Average Specific Gravity of a given soil sample is. G = CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. + Dry soil (M2) g Mass Of pycnometer + soil +water (M3) g Mass Of pycnometer + water( M4) g Specific Gravity (G) Average Specific Gravity 2 3 CALCULATIONS: The specific gravity is calculated from the equation (M2 -. Mass Of Pycnometer (M1) g Mass Of pycnometer.Determination No.M1) G s = ----------------------------(M2 – M1) – (M3 – M4) Result: . PUNE-1 Page no .
to be tested & level it.To determine the field density and dry density of soil by core cutter. Weigh the core cutter (without dolly).IS 2720 -1966 (Part AXIS): . 2) Expose the small area. 6) Spade or pickaxe or grafting tool.Determination of dry density of soil in place by the core cutter method. beveled at one end.DETERMINATION OF FIELD DENSITY BY CORE CUTTER METHOD AIM:. 9) Container for water content determination. 4) Palette knife. With the help of the straight Page no . with wall thickness 7.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No.4 mm long & 10 cm internal diameter. 2. 3) Steel rammer. with a wall thickness of 3 mm.25 mm) of the core cutter and calculate its volume. 127. PROCEDURE: 1) Measure the inside dimensions (accurate to 0.5 cm above the surface. : Title of Experiment :. & allow some soil to project from the lower end of the cutter. Put the dolly on top of the core cutter & drive the assembly into the soil with the help of the rammer until the top of the dolly protrudes about 1. 7) Straight edge. REFERENCE : .APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . APPARATUS: 1) Cylindrical core cutter of steel. about 30 Cm Square. 5) Steel rule. 3) Dig out the surface from the surrounding soil.5 mm fitted with a lip to enable it to be fitted on the top of the core cutter. accurate to 1 g.5 cm high & 10 cm internal diameter. 2) Steel dolly. 8) Balance accurate to 1 g.
3) Before lifting the cutter. 6) Repeat the test at 2 or 3 locations nearby and get the average dry density. 8) Mass of container & wet soil (g) 9) Mass of container & dry soil (g) 10) Mass of container (g) 11) Mass of dry soil (g) 12) Mass of water (g) 13) Water content (w) 14) Dry density. soil should be removed round the cutter to minimize the disturbances. ρ d = ρ b / ( 1+ w) ( g/cm3 ) 15) Dry unit weight. no soil should drop down. ρ b = M / V ( g/cm3 ) 6) Bulk unit weight. 1) Mass of core cutter (M1) (g) 2) Mass of core cutter + wet soil (M2 ) (g) 3) Mass of wet soil. 5) During pressing & lifting the cutter. Take out the dolly & also trim flat the other end of the cutter. PRECAUTIONS: 1) Steel dolly should be placed on the top of the cutter before ramming it down. 4) Weigh the soil full of soil. 2) Core cutter should not be used in gravels & boulders. W = M2 – M1 (g) 4) Volume of core cutter (V) (ml) 5) Bulk density. OBSERVATION TABLE: Determination No. γ b = ρ b X 9.edge. 4) While lifting the cutter. trim flat the end of the cutter.81 ( KN / m3 ) 7) Container no. 6) Values should be reported to second place of decimal. 5) Keep the same representative specimen of soil for water content determination. γ d = γ b / ( 1 + w ) (KN / m3 ) 1 2 3 Page no . care should be taken that the same soil is projected at both the ends of the cutter.
The dry density of a given soil sample is unit weight is KN / m3 gm / cm3 and dry Page no .CALCULATIONS :- RESULT :.
5) Tools for excavating hole. Determine the total initial mass of the cylinder plus sand (W1). mounted above a pouring cone and separated by a shutter cover plate and a shutter. 6) Balance accurate to 1 g.S sieve. AIM: . to run out of Page no . PROCEDURE: a) DETERMINATION OF MASS OF SAND FILLING THE CONE. 2.To determine the dry density of natural or compact soil. APPARATUS: 1) Sand pouring cylinder about 3 liter capacity. in place by the sand replacement method. closely graded natural sand passing the 600-micron I. Fill the clean closely graded sand in the sand-pouring cylinder up to a height of 1 cm below the top. 1. This total initial mass must be maintained constant throughout the test for which the calibration is used.DETERMINATION OF FIELD DENSITY BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD. 8) Clean. 2) Cylindrical calibrating container. fitted with flange approximately 5 cm wide & about 5 m thick. 3) Glass plate about 45 Cm Square & 1 cm thick. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : .CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. : Title of Experiment : . 7) Container for water content determination. 10 cm internal diameter & 15 cm internal depth. 4) Metal plate with a central circular hole of diameter equal to the diameter of the pouring cone. Allow the sand of volume equivalent to that of the excavated hole in the soil (or equal to that of the calibrating container).
Remove the cylinder & determine its mass (M4). Repeat step (5) at least thrice & find the mean mass M3. so that the base of the cylinder concentrically covers the hole. 3. Close the valve when no further movement of sand is observed. 2. Page no . and collect all the excavated soil in the tray. Remove the cylinder carefully. Find the mass of the excavated soil. c) DETERMINATION OF DRY DENSITY OF SOIL IN PLACE. Remove the pouring cylinder & find its mass (M3) to nearest gram. Weigh the sand collected on the glass surface. 3. Close the shutter when no further movement of sand is seen. Place the sand pouring cylinder concentrically on the top of the calibrating container. Open the shutter & allow the sand to run out. 1. close the shutter. Keep the tray on the level surface and excavate a central hole of approximately 10 cm diameter & 15 cm deep. Expose about 45 cm square area of the soil to be tested & trim it down to level surface. This volume should be checked by calculating it from the measured internal dimensions of the container. Open the shutter and permit the sand to run into the container. after being filled to constant mass (M1). Put the sand back into the cylinder. When no further movement of sand is seen. 2. Open the shutter & permit the sand to run into the hole. Determine the volume (V) of the calibrating container by filling it with water to the brim & finding the mass of water. Keep a representative sample of he excavated soil for water content determination. 3. Put the sand into the sand-pouring cylinder. Close the shutter & place the cylinder on glass plate. b) DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY OF SAND 1. to have the same constant mass (M1). The cylinder should have a constant mass M1.the cylinder by opening the shutter. Its mass (M2) will give the mass of the sand filling the pouring cone. Repeat this step at least three times & take the mean mass (M2). Remove the tray & place the sand-pouring cylinder.
ρ ’ = M’ / V g/cm3 C) Bulk density of soil 7) Mass of wet soil from the hole (M) g 8) Mass of sand (+cylinder) after pouring in the hole (M4) 9) Mass of sand in the hole M’’ =M1-M4-M2 g 10) Bulk density of soil. Ms = M3 – M1 (gm) 18) Moisture content. g/cm3 and dry Page no . w = (Mw / Ms) X 100 (%) 19) Dry density.OBSERVATION TABLE : Description A) Determination of mass of sand in the cone 1) Mass of sand (+cylinder) before pouring (M1) g 2) Mean mass of sand in cone (M2) g B) Determination of bulk density of sand 3) Volume of calibrating container (V) ml 4) Mean mass of sand (+ cylinder) after pouring (M3) g 5) Mass of sand filling the calibrating container (M’ = M1-M2-M3) g 6) Bulk density of sand. ρ b = (M / M’’) X ρ ’ g / cm3 11) Bulk unit weight. M2 (gm) 15) Mass of container with lid + dry soil. M1 (gm) 14) Mass of container with lid + wet soil. 1 2 3 RESULT :. Mw = M2 – M3 (gm) 17) Mass of dry soil.81 KN / m3 D) Water content determination 12) Container No. ρ d = ρ b / 1+ w g/cm3 20) Dry unit weight. γ b = ρ b X 9. 13) Mass of container with lid. γ d = γ b / 1 + w KN / m3 Sample No.The dry density of a given soil sample is unit weight is KN/m3. M3 (gm) 16) Mass of water.
apply one coat of melted wax.The object of the test specimen is to determine the dry density. clamp the clip in the tubing. Find the mass of water so collected. 6) Thermostatically controlled oven. 8) Cutting knife. 3) Balance of 5 kg capacity. having an overflow outlet tube fitted in the upper half. trim the sample to a more or less regular shape. 4) Paraffin wax of known specific gravity. : Title of Experiment : . taking care that it sinks completely. 9) Heater for melting wax & a brash. 1050 to 1100c 7) Glass beaker. accurate to 1 g. 4) Immerse the wax-coated sample slowly in the container. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . avoiding re-entrant air. 5) Container for water content determination. accurate to 1g. Weigh the sample (M1) 2) With the help of the brush. 500 ml capacity. dry unit Mass and voids ratio of cohesive soil sample received from the field. apply the second coat.DETERMINATION OF FIELD DENSITY BY SOIL CLOD METHOD AIM :. When the coat is hardened.CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 2) A rubber tube with spring clip. fitted to the overflow outlet tube. Collect all the over flown water. Page no . PROCEDURE: 1) With the help of a knife.Geotechnical engineering Experiment No. Put the beaker below the rubber tubing & open the clip. Weigh the wax coated sample (M2) 3) Fill the fresh water in the container to overflow through the tubing. APPARATUS: 1) A container about 30 cm diameter & 45 cm height . When the overflow stops.
No. γ d = γ b / 1 + w ( KN / m3 ) Sample No.5) Take out the wax-coated sample. ρ b = W1 / V (g / cm3 ) Bulk unit weight. γ b = ρ b X 9.81 KN / m3 Container Number Mass of container & wet soil (g) Mass of container & dry soil (g) Mass of container (g) Mass of dry soil (g) Mass of water (g) Water content (w) Dry density. Cut the sample into two pieces and keep a representative sample for water content determination. OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. ρ d = ρ b / 1 + w ( g / cm3 ) Dry unit weight. dry it from outside & remove the paraffin wax skin. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Description Mass of the specimen (M1) (g) Mass of waxed specimen (M2) (g) Mass of wax coated (Mp = M2 –M1) (g) Density of paraffin wax (Gp) (g/ml) Volume of wax coated Vp = Mp / Gp (ml) Volume of water displaced (Vw) (ml) Volume of specimen (V = Vw – Vp) (cm3) Bulk density. 1 2 3 CALCULATION:- Page no .
The dry density of a given soil sample is unit Mass is KN/m3.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : .RESULT :. hence the true value of liquid limit cannot be determined. construction & maintenance of the structures made up of soil or resting on soil. 2) A. At this water content soil just passes from liquid state to plastic state. will flow together for a distance of 12. Page no .To determine the liquid limit of the soil sample by casegrande’s apparatus. APPARATUS: 1) Casegrande liquid limit device. it helps a lot in understanding the behavior of soils & selecting the suitable method of design.M & B.S. which is about 17 N/mm2 . g/cm3 and dry CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. For determination purpose liquid limit is that water content at which a part of soil cut by a groove of standard dimensions.5 mm under an impact of 25 blows in an standard liquid limit apparatus. APPLICATIONS: . : Title of Experiment : -DETERMINATION OF LIQUID LIMIT BY CASEGRANDE’S APPARATUS AIM: . The soil at the water content has some strength.Liquid limit of the soil sample is the water content at which the soil passes from zero strength to an infinitesimal strength.S grooving tool (Casegrande type).The value of liquid limit & plastic limit are directly used for classifying the fine-grained cohesive soils according to Indian Standard on soil classification. THEORY: . Once the soil is classified.T.
5) Turn the handle at the rate of 2 revolutions per seconds & count blows until the two parts of the soil sample come into contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of 10 mm. 3) Mix it thoroughly with some distilled water to form a uniform paste. 4) After mixing distilled water to the soil sample. 2) Soil used for liquid & plastic limit determination should not be oven dried prior to testing. 3) In liquid limit test.3) Glass plate. 2) Take about 120 gm of an air-dried sample passing 425micron sieve. smooth the surface with spatula to a maximum depth of 1 cm. & determine the water content by oven drying. 4) Place a portion of the paste in the cup of the liquid limit device. 8) Repeat steps 4. Page no . holding the tool perpendicular to the cup. Draw the grooving tool through the sample along the symmetrical axis of the cup. sufficient time should be given to permeate the water throughout the soil mass.S sieve. the groove should be closed by a flow of soil & not by slippage between the soil & the cup. PROCEDURE: Adjust the cup of the liquid limit apparatus with the help of grooving tool gauge and the adjustment plate to give a drop of exactly 1 cm on the point of contact on the base. 7) Transfer the remaining soil in the cup to the main soil sample in the basin & mix thoroughly after adding a small amount of water(a).5 & 6. 4) 425 µ I. 1) PRECAUTIONS: 1) Use distilled water in order to minimize the possibility of iron exchange between the soil & any impurities in the water. 6) Transfer about 15 gm of soil forming the edges of the groove that flowed together to a water content tin. Obtain at least 4 set of readings in the range of 10 to 40 blows.
Md = (4– 6) (gm) Moisture content. 4. 8. Mass of container + wet soil(gm) Mass of container + dry soil(gm) Mass of container. 6. w = (Mw / Md) 1 2 3 4 5 RESULT :. 3. No. WL = % Page no . (gm) Mass of water. Determination No. 7. Mw = (3 – 4) (gm) Mass of dry soil. No 1. OBSERVATION TABLE :Sr. 6) For each test. The containers with soil sample should either be placed in desiccators or immediately be weighed. 2.5) Wet soil taken in the container for moisture content determination should not be left open in the air even for some time. 5. of blows Container No.From graph Liquid Limit of the soil sample is. cup & grooving tool should be clean.
3) Take about 10 gm of the plastic soil mass & roll it between the hand & the glass plate to form the soil mass into a thread. Page no . 4) Repeat this rolling & remoulding process until the thread starts just crumpling at a diameter of 3 mm. it shows that the water added in the soil is more than the plastic limit.The object of the test is to determine the plastic limit of soil sample. hence the soil is kneaded further & rolled into thread again.DETERMINATION OF PLASTIC LIMIT AIM :. If diameter of thread becomes less than 3 mm without cracks. 2) Mix thoroughly with distilled water on the glass plate until it is plastic enough to be shaped into a small ball. APPARATUS :1) Glass plate. 3) 3 mm diameter rod. 2) 425 µ I. : Title of Experiment : .Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : .S sieve.CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. PROCEDURE :1) Take about 30 gm of air-dried sample passing 425-micron sieve.
The plastic limit of given soil sample is %. Description No. hence some more water should be added & mixed to a uniform mass & rolled again. OBSERVATION TABLE :Sr. Page no . it shows that water added in the step 2 is less than the plastic limit of the soil. 2 3 CONCLUSION: . 7) Repeat this procedure twice more with fresh samples of 10 gm each. 6) Collect the pieces of crumbled soil thread at 3 mm diameter in an airtight container & determine moisture content.5) If crumpling starts before 3 mm diameter in step 3. 1) Container number 2) Mass of container & wet soil (g) 3) Mass of container & dry soil (g) 4) Mass of container(g) 5) Mass of dry soil (g) 6) Mass of water (g) 7) Water content (w) ( % ) 8) Average water content (plastic limit) 1 Sample no. until the thread starts just crumbling at a diameter of 3 mm.
To determine the shrinkage limit of the soil.DETERMINATION OF SHRINKAGE LIMIT AIM: . PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : .5 cm in diameter & 1. At shrinkage limit. embankments & dams. It is used for calculating the shrinkage factors which helps in the design problem of structures made up of soil or resting on soil. It gives an idea of the suitability of soil as a construction material in foundations. APPLICATION: The value of shrinkage limit is used for understanding the swelling & shrinkage properties of cohesive soils. THEORY & APPLICATIONS: Shrinkage limit is the maximum water content at which a reduction in water content does not cause an appreciable decrease in volume of the soil mass.CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. : Title of Experiment : . Page no . on further reduction in water. air starts to enter into the voids of the soil & keeps the volume of the voids constant. roads.5 cm high.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. APPARATUS: 1) Three circular shrinkage dish (porcelain/stainless steel/brass) with flat bottom about 4.
10) Transfer the mercury displaced by the dry soil pat to the mercuryweighing dish & weigh. This dish will be known as mercury weighing dish.2) Three porcelain evaporating dish (two about 12 cm (large) & one 6 cm (small) in diameter). Place the dry soil pat on the surface of the mercury & submerge it under the mercury by pressing with the glass plate with prongs. 2) Coat the inside of two shrinkage dish with a thin layer of Vaseline. 8) Spatula 9) Desiccator. then place it in another large dish. Dry the dish first in air & then in an oven. Page no . 4) One plane glass plate (7. fill it to overflowing with mercury. 10) Balance (sensitivity 0.5 cm high with level & smooth ground top rim. Transfer the contents of the shrinkage dish to the mercury-weighing dish & weigh. Strike off the top surface with a cutting edge. 5) Clean & dry the shrinkage dish & determine its empty Mass. 6) Mercury. which will be used for weighing mercury. 8) Place the glass cup in a large dish. Place the soil sample in the dish. 7) 425-micron sieve. 6) Also weigh an empty porcelain dish ( small size). 3) One glass plate with three prongs. by giving gentle taps.01 gm) PROCEDURE : 1) Mix about 30 gm of soil passing 425-micron sieve with distilled water. 7) Keep the shrinkage dish in a large porcelain dish. The water added should be sufficient to make the soil pasty enough to be readily worked into the shrinkage dish without inclusion of air bubbles. fill it to overflowing with mercury & remove the excess by pressing the plane glass plate firmly over the top of the dish. 9) Wipe the outside of the glass cup to remove any adhering mercury. 4) Weigh the shrinkage dish with dry soil pat. 3) Weigh the shrinkage dish immediately full of wet soil. 11) Repeat the test at least three times for each soil sample.5 cm). and remove the excess by pressing the glass plate with three prongs firmly over the top of the cup.5 cm X 7. 5) One glass or stainless steel cup ( about 5 cm diameter & 2.
the inside of the shrinkage dish should be greased with Vaseline. (V) = (10) / 13.6 (cc) C) Volume of Dry soil pat 12) Evaporating dish no.6 (cc) 2 3 Page no . (Vd) = (13) / 13.PRECAUTIONS: 1) The water content of the soil taken in shrinkage dish should be above liquid limit but within 10% from liquid limit. Ww = (2) – (3) (gm) 5) Mass of empty shrinkage dish (gm) 6) Mass of dry soil pat (Wd) = (3) – (4) 7) Initial water content. 13) Mass of evaporating dish + mercury displaced by dry soil pat (gm) 14) Mass of evaporating dish (gm) 15) Mass of mercury displaced (gm) 16) Volume of dry soil pat. 2) Mass of dish + wet soil pat (gm) 3) Mass of dish + dry soil pat(gm) 4) Mass of water. 3) During filling the shrinkage dish with soil paste. 2) To prevent the cake from adhering to the shrinkage dish & consequent cracking of the dry soil pat. OBSERVATION TABLE : Determination No. sufficient tapping should be done to remove the entrapped air. (w) = (Ww/Wd) x 100 (%) B) Volume of wet soil pat ( V ) 8) Mass of shrinkage dish + mercury (filling shrinkage dish) (gm) 9) Mass of empty shrinkage dish(gm) 10) Mass of mercury filling shrinkage dish (gm) 11) Volume of wet soil pat. 1 A) Water content of wet soil pat 1) Shrinkage dish No.
The degree of compaction of a soil is measured in terms of its dry density. AIM: 1) To determine the optimum moisture content & maximum dry density of a soil by proctor test.COMPACTION TEST. THEORY : Compaction is the process of densification of soil mass by reducing air voids. 2) To plot the curve of zero air voids line.17) Shrinkage limit (%) 18) Average Shrinkage limit ( Ws ) CALCULATION :V.The average shrinkage limit of a given soil sample is %. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . The degree of compaction mainly depends upon its moisture content. For a given compaction energy every soil attains the maximum dry density at a particular water content which is known as optimum moisture content.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. which is also a process of densification of soil mass but. : Title of Experiment : . Thus process should not be confused with consolidation.Vd Shrinkage limit = w – ------.X 100 = Wd CONCLUSION:. compaction energy & type of soil. . APPLICATION: Page no . by the expulsion of water under the action of continuously acting static load over a long period. CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.
6 kg.75 mm sieve. For light compaction. PROCEDURE: 1) Take about 20 kg for 1000 cc mould or 45 kg for 2250 cc mould of air dried & mixed soil. sensitivity 0. APPARATUS: 1) Cylindrical mould (capacity 1000cc.75 mm sieve thoroughly in the proportion obtained in step 3. embankments.8 kg of the soil for 1000 cc mould or 6. mass of 2. 3) Mould accessories (detachable base plate. The results of this test are useful in the stability of field problems like earthen dams.75 mm).3 mm).3 mm) Or Cylindrical mould (capacity 2250cc. Sieves (20 mm. 8) Clean. bearing capacity but reduces their void ratio. internal diameter 100 mm.89 kg. Or take about 2. 3) Calculate the percentage retained on 20 mm & 4. mass of 4. effective height 127. 5) Balance (capacity 10 kg. 4) Use the mould of 10 cm diameter if percentage retained on 4.Compaction of soils increase their density. Do not use the soil retained on 20 mm sieve. dry & grease lightly the mould & the base plate. 7) Add water to during its moisture content to about 4% in coarse grained soils & 8% in fine grained soils.5 kg of the soil for 1000 cc mould or 6 kg for 2250cc mould for light compaction. removable collar) 4) I.75 mm sieve & passing through 4. sensitivity 1 gm) 6) Balance (capacity 200 gm. free drop 450 mm).75 mm sieve is less then 20 or use a mould of 15 cm diameter if percentage retained on 4.5 kg for 2250 cc mould for heavy compaction. free drop 310 mm) or Rammer for heavy compaction (face diameter 50 mm.01 gm) 7) Drying oven (temperature 105o c to 110o c) 8) Desiccator. roads & airfields. porosity.75 mm sieves. 2) Sieve this soil through 20 mm & 4.75 mm sieves & passing from 4. Page no .S. 4. internal diameter 150 mm. permeability & settlements. 2) Rammer for light compaction (face diameter 50 mm. 6) Take about 2.75 mm sieve is more than 20. shear strength. 5) Mix the soil retained on 4. Weigh the mould with base plate. effective height 127. 9) Fit the collar & place the mould on a solid base.
8 kg & free fall 450 mm with 25 evenly distributed blows in each layer for 100 mm diameter mould & 56 blows for 150 mm diameter mould. In removing the collar rotate it to break the bond between it & the soil before lifting it off the mould. 5) Mould should be placed on a solid foundation during placing. For heavy compaction. 2) The blows should be uniformly distributed over the surface of each layer.e.10) Compact the wet soil in three equal layers by a rammer of mass 2. Page no . at the end of compacting the last layer the surface of the soil should be slightly (5 mm) above the top rim of the mould. 12) Clean the outside of the mould & base plate. 16) Next day. 14) Weigh the drying crucible with samples & put in the drying oven at temperature 105o C to 110o C for 24 hours. weigh the mould with soil & base plate. Compact the wet soil in five equal layers by a rammer of mass 4. 3) Each layer of compacted soil is scored with a spatula before placing the soil for the succeeding layer. PRECAUTIONS: 1) Adequate time is allowed for mixing the water with soil before compaction. 11) Remove the collar & trim off the soil flush with the top of the mould. first weigh the crucible with dry soil samples & then find the water content. 13) Remove the soil from the mould & obtain a representative soil sample from the bottom. middle & top for water content determination. 4) The amount of soil used should be just sufficient to fill the mould i.6 kg & free fall 310 mm with 25 evenly distributed blows in each layer for 100 mm diameter mould & 56 blows for 150 mm diameter mould. 15) Repeat the above procedure with change in water content on soil samples.
(gm) 2. (gm) 3 Mass of compacted soil. (gm) 10 Mass of water. (gm) 9 Mass of container + dry soil. of mould. 2 3 4 2 3 4 Page no . (gm) 4 Vol. 1 A) Density Determination 1 Mass of mould + compacted soil. 1 8 Mass of container + wet soil. Description No. (gm) 13 Water content (%) CALCULATIONS :Sample No.OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr. (cc) 5 Bulk density ( ρ b) (g/cc) 6 Dry density ( ρ d) (g/cc) B) Water Content Determination 7 Container No. Mass of mould. (gm) 11 Mass of container (gm) 12 Mass of dry soil.
b. d. k. Page no . l. : Title of Experiment : . a. 4. i. f.DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY BY FALLING HEAD. APPARATUS: Jodhpur permeameter complete with all accessories. j. g. e. c.75 mm and 2 mm is sieve Mixing pan or basin Stop watch Meter scale Beaker Graduated measuring cylinder Thermometer Containers for water content determination Straight edge or trimming knife.CONCLUSION:From graph we conclude that Optimum Moisture Content of given soil sample is % corresponding to Maximum Dry Density of g/cc. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . De – aired water Balance to weigh 1 kg. AIM :The object of this experiment is to determine the coefficient of permeability of soil in the lab.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. h. CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. by falling head test using Jodhpur permeameter.
in cm.) Coefficient of permeability K (cm / sec. 2) Keep the permeameter mould assembly in the bottom tank and fill the bottom tank with water up to its outlet. The mass in grams divided by the distance. Description Area of stand pipe (a) (cm2) C/s area of soil sample (A) (cm2) Length of the sample (L) (cm ) Initial Head (h1) (cm ) Final Head (h2) (cm ) Time interval (t) (sec. 4. 5) Repeat step (4) at least twice and determine the time for the water level in the standpipe to drop from the same initial head to the same final value. No. 5. 2. 3. 6) in order to determine the inside area of c/s of the stand pipe. bet.PROCEDURE: 1) Prepare the remoulded soil specimen in the permeameter and saturate it as explained in exp. No. two graduations will give the inside area of c/s of standpipe. note the time interval required for the water level in the standpipe to fall from some convenient initial value to some final value.) (i) (ii) (iii) Average time (t) (sec. 3) Connect the water inlet nozzle of the mould to the stand pipe filed with water. Weigh this water accurate to 0. collect the quantity of water required in between two graduations of known distance apart. 1. 4) With the help of stopwatch. OBSERVATION TABLE :Sr. 6.1 g. CALCULATIONS :- Page no . Permit water to flow for some timer till steady state of flow is reached.) Value 7.
p. : Title of Experiment :. Page no . De – aired water o.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. Jodhpur permeameter complete with all accessories. Beaker u.303 ----. by constant head method using Jodhpur permeameter APPARATUS:m.X log10 ---At h2 = cm / sec.75 mm and 2 mm is sieve q.DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY BY CONSTANT HEAD METHOD. Containers for water content determination x. CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 4.aL h1 K = 2. Mixing pan or basin r. Straight edge or trimming knife. Stop watch s. Meter scale t. Balance to weigh 1 kg. CONCLUSION :The coefficient of permeability of given sample by falling head method is cm / sec. n. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . Graduated measuring cylinder v. AIM:-The object of the experiment is to determine the coefficient of permeability of soil in the lab. Thermometer w.
with 15 blows remove the collar and trim off the excess soil. Weigh the assembly accurate to 1g. The 0.3 lit.PROCEDURE:A) Preparation of statically compacted remoulded specimen 1) Take 800 to 1000 g of representative specimen of soil and mix water to it so that its water content is raised to the optimum water content for the soil determined by proctor’s test.5 cm collar resting on the split collar kept around the 2. plug and collar. and release it .5 cm end plug. For the given volume of the mould calculate the Mass of soil mix so as to give the desired dry density using the following eqn.5 cm collar to its top end support the mould assembly over the 2. Assemble the permeameter for dynamic compaction. W= sd (1+w) V 2) Assemble permeameter for static compaction for this attach the 3cm dia. For this grease the mould lightly from inside and place it upside down on the dynamic compaction base. raise the water content of the soil to the desired value leave the soil mix for some time in air tight container. If permeability is to be determined at any other water content.5 cm end plug and collar.3 mould and 2. mould should be lightly greased from inside. collar to the bottom end of 0. 1. 4) Maintain the load for @ 1 min. after inserting the sealing gasket. 2. Apply compression force on the assembly till the flanges of both end plug touch the corresponding collars. Take 800 to 1000 g of soil specimen and raise its water content level the soil mix in air tight container for some time. keep the entire assembly into a compression machine and remove the split collar. Compact the wet soil mix in two layers. remove the top 3 cm gauge on the top of the specimen and fix the perforated base plate on it. B) Preparation of dynamically compacted remoulded specimen. The soil may be tamped with hand while being poured into the mould. put the 3cm collar to the other end. 3. Find the mass of mould assembly Page no . 3) Put the weighed quantity of soil into the mould assembly insert the top 3cm end plug into the top collar. Place a filter paper or fine wire 5) Turn the mould assembly upside down and remove the 2. The specimen is now ready for the test.5 cm end plug with the 2. Place the top perforated place on the top of soil specimen and fix the top cap on to it.
at the same time put a beaker under the outlet of the bottom tank. 4. Start the stop watch. b. Particulars Value Hydraulic head (h) (cm) Length of the sample (L) (cm) Hydraulic gradient (h/L) C/s area of Sample (A) (cm2) Time interval (t) (sec. Fill the desiccator with de aired water till the water level reaches well above the top cap and the water inlet nozzle is submerged . Run the test for some time interval. under some head and for the same interval. Apply vacuum of @ 70 cm of mercury in every increment sufficient time should be given so that the air bubbles come out without vibrating the specimen take out specimen when the saturation is complete. 5. c. Place the top perforated plate on the top of the soil specimen and fix the top cap on it after. Place filter paper or fine wire mesh on the top of soil specimen and fix the perforated based plate on it.) Page no . No. d. 3. Measure the quantity of water collected in the beaker during that time. 1. place the permeameter mould in the vacuum desiccator and open air release valve. Repeat the test twice.with soil. C) Saturation of Compacted Specimen To saturate the compacted specimen. 4. Adjust the hydraulic head by either adjusting the relative heights of mould and the constant head tank or by raising or lowering the air intake tube within the head tank. 5. OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr. Connect the outlet tube of the constant head take to the inlet nozzle of the permeameter after removing the air in the flexible rubber tubing connecting the tube. inserting a sealing gasket. Turn the assembly upside down and remove the compaction plate. 2. The difference of the two masses taken in steps 2 and 3 would give the mass of the soil compacted. D) Constant Head Test a. Place the mould assembly in the bottom tank and fill the bottom tank with water up to its outlet.
X – X -t h A = cm / sec. Quantity of flow (Q) 7.e. Page no .6. CONCLUSION:The coefficient of permeability i.) (i) (ii) (iii) Average Coefficient of permeability K (cm / sec.) CALCULATIONS:Q L 1 K = -. K of given sample by constant head method is cm/sec. (ml.
Grooves on its top face to fit into the shear box. two pairs. Porous stones. Container for shear box. one pair 6 mm thick. iii. to distribute the load from the yoke over the specimen. with suitable spacing screws.CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Shear box. 2) Loading frame. so that the samples of size 60 X 60 X 20 may be tested.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. 3) Set of Mass for normal loads. one pair plain and other pair perforated depth of serration to be 1. The box should be divided into two parts horizontally. with a steel ball on its top. Grid plates. normal to shear plane. ii.5 mm. APPARATUS:1) Shear box equipment consisting of i. Base plate. Loading pad. Page no . iv. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . 60mm square and 50mm deep. vi. : Title of Experiment :-DETERMINATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH BY DIRECT SHEAR TEST AIM:The object of the test is to determine the shear parameters of a soil with the help of shear box test. v. with cross.
The square specimen of size 60 X 60 is then cut from the circular specimen so obtained. plain grid plate over the base plate at the bottom of the specimen and plain grid plate over the top of specimen. as the porous stones are not used in the undrained test. the soil may be compacted to required density and water content. and 2 cm high. sample trimmer etc. straight edge. 5) Micrometer dial gauge. Non cohesive soils may be tamped in the shear box itself with the base plate and grid plate or porous stone as required in place at the bottom of box. In order to obtain remolded specimen of cohesive soil. Alternatively. in the undisturbed soil sample obtained from field. 6) Spatula.4) Proving ring with dial gauge accurate to 0. 2) Undrained Test a. so as to maintain the shear plane in the sample in the middle of its thickness. iii. ii. PROCEDURE:1) Preparation of Specimen i. in a separate bigger mould. Place the loading pad on the top of the plain grid plate. Shear box with the specimen. one at the bottom and the other at the top of two grids. In all the three cases mentioned above water content dry density of the soil compacted in shear box should be determined. Both the parts of the box should be tightened together by fixing screws. two no. Page no . b. The undisturbed specimen is prepared by pushing cutting ring of size 10 cm in dia. Put water inside the water jacket so that the sample dose not get dried during the test. 7) Stop watch.01 mm to measure horizontal and vertical displacement during shear.002 mm to measure the shear force. should be fitted into position. the soil may be compacted ( the required density water content ) directly into the shear box together by means of fixing screws . The serration of the grid plates should be placed at right angle to the direction of shear . accurate to 0. The sample is then extracted and trimmed to the required size. plane plates of equal thickness should be placed.
Take the reading of three dial gauges at constant interval of time. f. so that this Mass plus the wt of hanger equals the normal load required. Conduct the test by applying horizontal shear load to failure or to 20% longitudinal displacement whichever occurs first. one at the top of top perforated plat and the other at the bottom of the bottom perforated grid plate. Apply the horizontal shear load. Mount the shear box assembly on the load frame (or shearing machine) set the lower part of the shear box to bear against the proving ring. The rate of shear should be such that water does not drain from the specimen at the time of application of shear load.c. 2) Consolidated Undrained Test i. v. At the end of the test. ii. Assemble the box in the similar manner as described above. g. start the stop watch immediately at the start of the application of shear load.3 and 4 same as in undrained test. Remove the locking screw so that both the parts are free to move against each other . remove specimen from the box and determine its final water content repeat above steps on 3-4 identical specimens under varying normal loads. perforated grid plates should be used and saturated porous stones should be used. iii. iv. Not the vertical displacement dial gauge. raise the upper art by @ 1 mm . Steps 2. Put the loading yoke on the top of the loading pad. as is done in the consolidation test. Take the reading of proving ring dial gauge longitudinal displacement gauge and vertical displacement at regular time interval. The shear test should be conducted only after complete consolidation has accrued under a particular normal load. and adjust the dial gauge to zero to measure the vertical displacement in the soil sample put proper normal Mass on the hanger of the loading yoke. e.5 mm per min.2. Repeat the test on 3-4 identical specimens under varying loads. OBSERVATION TABLE:- Page no . The rate of strain may range from 1. except that instead of plain grid plates. d. Set the dial of the proving ring to zero. the vertical compression of the with time should be recorded. Remove the specimen from the box at the end of the test and determine its water content. By turning the spacing screws.
Normal Stress Mpa Shear Force Proving ring Load N Deflection Dial mm Corrected Stress MPa Shear Stress MPa CALCULATIONS:- CONCLUSION:From graph the values of shear parameters i.e. C= MPa and φ = Page no .
Attach a shear tester to calibrated torsion spring related by worm gear and wheel arrangement. Fill the container to be placed under shear test properly. worm gear and worm wheel arrangement. : Title of Experiment :. 4. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . PROCEDURE:1. Note down the rotation of the spring in degrees indicated by a pointer moving on a uniform graduated dial attached to the worm wheel shaft. 2. Vane shear tester. Measuring apparatus for torque. Page no . rotate torque and at a uniform speed. After pushing the vanes gently into the soil. II.VANE SHEAR TEST AIM:To determine the undrained shear strength of cohesive soil APPARATUS:I. 5. Add sufficient amount of water in the given soil to form a paste. 3.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No.CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.
where H Height of vane. 7. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) PARTICULAR Diameter of vane (d) Height of vane (h) Torsional stiffness (k) Twist in degree θ at failure Twist in radian θ at failure Applied torque T = k x θ Shear strength Tf VALUE CALCULATION:- Page no . OBSERVATION:Sr.6. Calculate the unit shear strength of soil by calculating je by knowing T.H. Find of water content of given soil as undrained shear strength depends upon moisture content. d. – diameter of vane. No.D.
Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. The test may be performed on both undisturbed and remoulded soil specimen. The purpose of the test is to obtain a quantitative value of compressive and shearing strength of soil in an undrained state. MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT:- Page no . : Title of Experiment :.CONCLUSION:Shear strength of given soil sample by vane shear test is N/mm2 CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : .DETERMINATION OF UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SOIL OBJECT AND SCOPE:The object of the experiment is to determine the unconfined compressive strength of the cloyed soil using controlled strain.
01 mm graduations. measure the angle between the cracks and the horizontal. Alternatively remoulded specimen may be prepared directly in the split mould. at every 1mm. adjust the upper plate to make contact with the specimen. if possible and if the specimen is homogeneous. Set the load dial gauge and the strain dial gauge to ‘o’. Alternatively field sample may be obtained directly in a thin sampling tube having the sample internal dia as the specimen to be tested. The split mould is oiled lightly from inside and the sample is then pushed out of the tube into the split mould.1. B) COMPRESSION TEST i. Split mould 3. Put the specimen on the bottom plate of the loading device. ii. Compression device of any suitable type. Compress the specimen until cracks have definitely developed or the stress strain curve is well past its peak or until a vertical deformation of 20% is reached. 7. iv. 3. 5. iii.5 cm long) PROCEDURE:A) Preparation of Test Specimen. deformation of the specimen. 2. Take the load dial readings approx. Strain measuring dial gauge with 0. Measure the initial length and dia. Stop – watch. 8. A lathe or trimmer may be used to trim the specimen to circular c/s. 6.5 cms dia.75 cm dia and 7. Oven Balance Miscellaneous equipment such as specimen trimming and curing tools remoulding apparatus. b. moisture con etc. The split mould opened carefully and sample taken out. In both cases the density and water content of the specimen is determined. of specimen. Undisturbed cylindrical specimen may be cut from the bigger undisturbed sample obtained from field A twice saw may be used to trim the ends parallel to each other. and 7 cm long (or 3. OBSERVATIONS:Page no . Object injector. Remoulded sample may be prepared by compacting the soil at the distilled water content and dry density in a bigger mould and then cut by the sampling tube. Sketch the failure pattern. 4. a.
INTRODUCTION :California Bearing Ratio (C.) is one of the most commonly used methods to evaluate the strength of subgrade soil for design of pavement thickness C.R.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. Load Deformation (P) N mm mm mm mm2 Strain ε Area A=Ao/1ε mm2 Stress N/mm2 CALCULATIONS:- CONCLUSION:The unconfined compressive strength of soil from graph is qu = N/mm2 and shear strength τ max.B.B. 2720 (Part II)-1975 comprises of Page no .S.R. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . = N/mm2 CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.TEST) OBJECT AND SCOPE:To determine the California bearing ratio of sub grade soil.) test originally developed by California division of highway (U.A. value defined by I. : Title of Experiment :-CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST (C.S.Initial dia. of specimen (Do) = Initial Length (Lo) = Initial Area (Ao) = Sr. No.B. Elapsed Time Sec.R.
The ratio is generally determined for penetration of 2. APPARATUS:The apparatus as per IS: 2720 (Part XVI)-1979 comprises of the following. value is taken to be 100 percent. The result of this test can be related accurately with fundamental properties of the material but are usefull in design of flexible pavement. Who’s C.a metallic cylinder of 150 mm internal diameter and 175mm height. soaking tank. filter paper dishes and calibrated measuring jar. Take about 4. straight edge scale. provided with detachable metal expansion. PROCEDURE 1. 3) Spacer disc: A metal disc of 148mm diameter and 47. 2) Steel cutting collar. It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate of standard material. 6) IS Sieve of size 4.following. The water content of remoulded sample is either the optimum water content or the field moisture as the case may be.5 kg of granular soil in a mixing pan.00 mm. 1) MOULD :.25mm/min.R. collar 50mm in height. The perforation in the base plate do not exceed 15mm in dia.B. 9) Miscellaneous apparatus like bowl. 2. 5) Dial gauge: Two dial gauges reading to 0. 8) Loading machine with at least capacity of 5000 kg and clamped with platform that can be moved vertically at a rare of 1. It has also a detachable perforated base of 10mm thickness. Standard load is that load which is obtained from test on a crushed stone.75mm and 20mm 7) Penetration Plunger: A metallic plunger having a diameter of 50mm and at least 100mm long.Preparation of test specimen: Remoulded samples are placed such that the dry density obtained from proctor compaction tests.01mm . remoulded sample are compacted either statically or dynamically. which can fit flush with the mould. 4) Surface weight: One annular metal weight and slotted weight each of 25 kg and 147 mm in diameter with central hole 53mm dia.70 mm in height. Sieve the material through 20mm IS Sieve 2. Dynamically compacted specimen: 1.5 kg or more of representative sample for the finegrained soil and about 5.50 mm and 5. Page no . drying oven.
3. bring the penetration plunger in contact with the soil surface and apply a load of 4 kg. 12.2mm/min. 3. 7.0. 10. 6. Add more soil and compact in similar fashion.0 . 13. Clamp mould along with the extension collar to the pore plate. So that full contact with soil and plunger is established this should be taken as zero load. 2. Place the annular weight of 2.5. 7. 2. Add water to the soil in the quantity such that the moisture content of the specimen is either equal to the specimen field moisture content or OMC as desired.5. 9. Pour soil water mix in the mould in such a quantity that after compaction about 1/5th of the mould is filled.6 kg dropping through 360mm in three layers (light compaction) or 4.0. 4. Place the mould containing the specimen with base plate in position on the testing machine.89 kg dropped through 450mm in five layers (heavy compaction) evenly spread on the surface. Place the coarse filter paper on the top of the spacer dose 7. fill the mould completely in five layers. spacer disc and filter paper and note down the weight of the mould and compacted specimen. Give 56 blows with rammer weighing 2. 11.0. 5. Invert the mould containing compacted soil and clamp it to base plate.00 and 12. Collect about 20 to 60 gm of soil to determine the water content. 6. 1.00 mm. Place the remaining surcharge weight equals to 5kg. 10.3. 6. remove the extension collar and trim of the excess soil by a straight edge. remove the base plate. 2. Place the coarse filter paper on the perforated base plate. 4. Mix together soil and water uniformly 5. Apply load so that penetration rate is 1.5 kg on the top surface of soil. record the read penetration of 0.50. Testing specimen: 1. COMPACTION RESULTS: Page no . 8. 4. Scratch the top layer of compacted surface.50mm. The maximum load has to be recorded if it occurred at less than 12. Set the reading of dial gauge to zero.
50 10. STANDARD LOAD FOR DIFFERENT PENETRATION VALUES Sr. Computed CBR values as follows. 2.50 5.5mm and 5. Plot the load penetration curve with load as ordinate and penetration as abscissa. 2.B.00 7. values = Test load corresponding to chosen penetration (PT) x 100 Standard load to the same penetration (PS) Usually the CBR value is calculated for 2. If the 5mm value is greater the test is repeated. If the same result follow the C. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Penetration in mm 2.B.5mm penetration will be greater than that of 5mm and in such a case the former is taken for design purpose. Generally the CBR values of 2. value corresponding to 5mm penetration is adopted for design purpose.50 Unit standard load kg/cm2 70 105 134 162 183 Total standard kg 1350 2055 2630 3180 3600 PRECAUTIONS: 1.R. The hole of the base plate of the mould should be blocked. OBSERVATIONS: Page no . The surcharge weight should be aligned with plunger so that the plunger penetrate freely into the soil.R. From the curve determination of load value corresponding to the penetration values or which CBR is desired. Sometimes the initial positions of the curves in concaves upwards due to surface irregularities. Draw tangent at the point of greatest slope. The point where this tangent meets the abscissa is corrected zero reading of penetration. C. In such a case apply a correction.0mm penetration.00 12.No.1.
3. surcharge weight. Condition of specimen: Period of soaking: Optimum moisture content. OBSERVATION TABLE Sr. mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No. Type of sample .50mm = Test load corresponding to chosen penetration point x 100 Standard load for the same penetration = 2 CBR value at penetration of 5mm = Test load corresponding to chosen penetration point x 100 Standard load for the same penetration = Page no . 4. 5. Penetration in No. of divisions of proving ring Corresponding load kg Corrected load kg x10 CALCULATION 1 CBR value penetration of 2. 2.1.
GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL AIM :Determination of grain size distribution by sieving. Design curves by road research lab UK have been adopted by IRC depending upon expected traffic values. PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . the thickness of base coarse and sub base course can be determined from their respective CBR values. The suitability of soil tested in road sub grade material be interpreted from the curves from graph of bearing value and penetration. RESULT: CBR value of given sample is maximum of the above is %. CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.5mm is penetration is % % sthen the 5mm INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: CBR is an empirical value and useful in design of flexible pavements. : Title of Experiment :.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No.CONCLUSION: CBR value at penetration of 2. OBJECT Page no .
6.75mm sieve and material passing through it in sample separate container keep material retained on 4. Wash material passing through 4. IS sieve from a 4. The friction retained on each sieve Page no . 3. The material from the sieve may be rubbed it necessary with rubber pestle in mortar taking care to see that individual soil particles oven broken are received to make sure that only individual particle are retained.75mm through following set of sieve. Oven 4. 300 mic. 4. 3. 150mic. 2. Using riffler take representative sample of soil received from field and dry in oven. Trays 5. 5. Wash slurry with jet of water.75mm to 75 microns. The weight of material retained on each sieve should noted. 75mic.75mm sieve. collect material retained on 4. Weighing balance 2. washing should be continued until water each sieve is sub sequentially clean. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL: 1. 600 mic. Alternatively material retained on 75mic sieve may not be dried out to be washed through rest of sieve specified in order of their fineness with fine bottom. which divides gravel friction from sand friction.The object of this test is to determine grain size distribution of course grain soil by sieving. Sieve dried material retained on 4. Mechanical sieve shaker and riffler PROCEDURE: 1. Wire brush 6. Puddle sample thoroughly in water and transfer slurry to 4. Weigh required quantity of dried soil keep it in tray and soak it with water depending upon more size of material present in soil. 425 mic. The set of sieve would arrange as above and fitted to mechanical sieve shaker for 10 min.75mm through 75 microns sieve so that silt and clay particles area separated from sand friction collect material 75 micron sieve material retained on it in separate container and keep them in oven. 212mic. Sieve dried material retained on 75 micron sieve through following set of sieve 2mm. after that take the weight of material retained on each sieve. The test covers both coarse sieve analysis as well as for sand friction. sieving should be done.75mm sieve. 1mm.
18mm 600mic 300mic 150mic 75mic Receive r TOTAL CALCULATIONS: From Graph D10 = D30 = D60 = Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) = D60 D10 = = Coefficient of Curvature (Cc) = (D30 )2 D60 x D10 = = Page no . Material passing 75mic sieve may be used for sedimentation analysis.75mm 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 IS sieve Mass retained (gm) Cumulative mass retained (%) (%) % Cumulative cumulative mass retained finer 4. 7.36mm 1.should be emptied carefully without base of material in separate container and oven dried. OBSERVATIONS: Total weight of soil sample = gm OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. No.
PUNE-1 APPLIED MECHANICS DEPARTMENT DEGREE PROGRAMME IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Course : . : Title of Experiment :. If Cu is greater than 1. CONCLUSION: CUSROW WADIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT: Page no .DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENTIAL FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOIL AIM: To determine free swell index of soil specimen.Geotechnical Engineering (16209) Experiment No. If Cu is 1. the soil sample is uniformly graded. the soil sample is well graded.
S. 2. 425mic IS sieve oven Balance and standard weights. Fill one cylinder with distilled water and other with kerosene up to 100ml mark. free swell index for water = VD = cc/gm 10 Page no . 3. free swell index = VD – VK X 100 VK 2. 5. Remove the entrapped soil from both the cylinder by shaking with glass rod.Take 10gm of oven dried soil and pour into a 100ml graduated jar. 6. Two graduated glass cylinders (100ml capacity) PROCEDURE 1. For soil containing max kaolin mineral. 4. OBSERVATIONS: VD = VK = CALCULATIONS:Differential free swell index (D. 4. 3. Dry soil about 50gm passing through 425mic IS sieve in oven at 100 + 50C 2.) Swelling potential = VD – VK X 100 VK = Swelling index = VD 10 = REMARK: 1. For soil containing bentonite and montmorolinite.1.F. Allow both cylinders settle down for 24 hours. Read the levels of soil in kerosene filled graduated jar VK and in distilled water filled graduated jar as VD.
5 1. Restriction on swelling develops swelling pressure making structure unstable.5 to 2 2 to 5 5 to 10 Greater than 10 Swelling potential Negligible Slight Moderate High Very high Knowledge of swelling index is must. Concrete structure supported on such swelling soil lifts up and cracks. No.Sr. CONCLUSION: Differential free swell index of given soil sample is So the soil sample swelling potential is Page no . as a structure built in dry season shows differential having as a result of swelling of soils during subsequent wet season. 1 2 3 4 5 Free swell index Less than 1.
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