You are on page 1of 63

Transforming Live, Inventing Future´

A Project Report On
NTPC POWER STATION, BADARPUR
By

SANDEEP JANGIR (09-ME-1249)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Echelon Institute of Technology
Kabulpur Faridabad - 121101 Haryana (JULY 2011)

ACKN

L

G

N

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Rachna singh Bahel for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of B / N C for their co -operation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training incharge of Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad and all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering Department for their effort of constant co- operation, which have been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.
¡ ¢¡    

SANDEEP JANGIR EIT, FARIDABAD

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that student of Batch Mechanical Branch IIird Year. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him. Echelon Institute of Technology Faridabad has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal power station New Delhi for 41 days from 18th July to 27th Augest 2011. Training Incharge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI .

which is one of our daily requirements of life. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks. senior student report. is produced. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity. In these eight weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were 1.Trai i g at BTPS I was appoi ted to do eight-week trai i g at this esteemed orga izatio from 18th July to 27th august 2011. Turbine Maintenance Department(TMD) This 41 days training was a very educational adventure for me. SANDEEP JANGIR . This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. Plant Auxiliary Maintenance(PAM) 3. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS. Boiler Maintenance Department(BMD I/II/III) 2. and trainer manual provided by training department.

INDEX 1. Turbine Maintenance Department . Basic steps of Electricity generation C AL TO STEAM STEAM TO MECHANICAL POWER COAL CYCLE ELECTRICITY FROM COAL £ 3. Boiler Maintenance Department ¨ BMD I ¨ BMD II ¨ BMD III 5. Plant Auxiliary Maintenance 6. RANKINE CYCLE PROCESS OF RANKINE CYCLE RANKINE CYCLE WITH REHEAT 4. Introduction ¨ NTPC ¨ Badarpur Thermal Power Station 2.

joint ventures. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of . 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. A public sector company. NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects. generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. Cenpeep is efficiency oriented. As a responsible corporate citizen. (USAID). the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c . The total installed capacity of the company is 31134 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations. it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (CENPEEP)" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. located across the country. the company endeavours to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. By 2017.ABOUT NTPC NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. Within a span of 31 years.5% of the total equity shares of the company and FIIs. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. with power generating facilities in all the m ajor regions of the country. NTPC is committed to the environment. it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. 10000MW through gas. about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socio economic status of the people affected b y its projects. Through its Rehabilitation and Resettlement programmes. eco -friendly and eco-nurturing initiative . subsidiaries and takeover of stations. At present. Government of India holds 89. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. expansion of existing stations. Domestic Banks. In addition under JVs. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land.5%. In 1991. 9000 MW through Hydro generation.a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India.. Public and others hold the balance 10.

enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors 200489. NTPC became a listed company with majority government ownership of NTPC became third largest market capitalization of listed by companies.5%. NTPC h s b n pl d und Ex ll nt cat o y (th b st cat o y) every year since the MOU system became operative. ¤ ¤ th JOURNEY OF NTPC 1975 .Und st ndin (MOU) with th Go n nt in 1987-88. Government of India granted NTPC status of ³Navratnabeing one of the Jewels of India. NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India 1997 nine In 1997. In the last 30 years. NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. ¤ ¥¤ ¤¦ ¤¤ ¦ ¥ §¤ ¤© ¥ ¤¨ ¤  ¥ §¤ § ¤ ¤  ¦ ¥¤ .

ABOUT BTPS   2017 National Thermal Power Corporation has e arke on plans to became  50. a 75.000MW Company by 2017. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it317th in the world. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company 2009 in India. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company 2008 in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world.000MW generation capacity   . National Thermal Power Corporation has als se up to a plan to achieve a target of 2012 .The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing 2005 business portfolio And transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.

95 MW August 1974 Unit III. New Delhi -110044 (STD-011)-26949523 26949532 720 MW 705 MW New Delhi Jharia coal fields Agra canal Delhi 3x95 MW 2X210 MW Unit I.210 MW .210 MW December 1978 Unit V .July 1973 Unit II.December 1981 Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06. Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01. Address: Telephone: Fax: Installed Capacity Derated capacity Location Coal source Water source Beneficary states Unit sizes Units Commissioned Badarpur. There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years.2006 through GOI s Gazette Notification.95 MW . Given below are the details of unit with the year they are installed.06.95 MW March 1975 Unit IV . Now it has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW.2006 through GOI s Gazette Notification Transfer of BTPS to NTPC BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION The basic steps in the generation of electricity from coal involves following steps: .Badarpur thermal power station started working in 1973 with a single 95 mw unit.

‡Coal to steam ‡Steam to mechanical power ‡Mechanical power to electrical power COAL TO ELECTRICITY: BASICS \ Coal to Steam .

Ash particles are attracted on to these plates.D. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. Fan. Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and the rotating table. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between roller and the table and ths forces the rollers to rotate. which are spaced 120 apart. This table is rotated with the help of a motor. When there is no coal. a part of which is sent to AirPreheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. There are three large steel rollers. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. which are electrically charged.A. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water.P. Fan takes atmospheric air. where it is ground to powder form.A.Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan. This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540°C) and finally it goes to the turbine. The coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill. Electrostatic Precipitator consists of metal plates. Coal is transported to Bowl mills by Coal Feeders. Atmospheric air from F. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P. which maintains balance draft in the furnace ( -5 to ±10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan. These flue gases emit their heat energy to various super heaters in the pent house and finally pass through air-preheaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. . Due to heat and density difference. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. the water rises up in the water wall tubes.

Steam to Mechanical Power From the boiler. a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut-off the steam in case of emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor. operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used. driven from the main turbine shaft. (This depends upon .

its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. which causes induced electricity to be produced. the steam is taken to the lowpressure cylinders. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine. The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder.Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a µstage¶ of turbine and in practice many stages are necessary. so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them.Finally. each of which enters at the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades through an arrangement called the µdouble flow¶. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine. (COAL CYCLE) From Jharia mines . Mechanical Power to Electrical Power As the blades of turbine rotate. which is coupled to that of the turbine. The second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of steam. It results in rotation of the coil of the generator. the shaft of the generator.the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required from the generator). These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. also rotates. where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades .to the extremities of the cylinder.

Railway wagon BTPS wagon tripper Magnetic separator Crusher house Coal stock yard RC bunker RC feeder Bowl mill Furna .

D fan. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines. which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. The stationary and moving blades together. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum .P. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft.H. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall.A fan. Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan. These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. Atmospheric air from F. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used.ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C. . this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine. This fan takes atmospheric air. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form.

99.49.Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3.MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.645.24.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 9( 6 neutral and 3 phase) MAIN TURBINE DATA Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1.33 23.49 98.24.5.27.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.7 .82 68.662 19. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1.24.65.21.67.652.55.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 210 MW 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 535 degree Celsius 535 degree Celsius 670 tons/hour 27000 cm/hour 24.30.4.9.

Bleed Steam Extraction: For regenerative system. if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed. of non-regulated extractions is taken from HP. by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine. to a reheat. is increased and. Regenerative heating of the boiler feed water is widely used in modern power plants.BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour+ liquid) phase cycle. . the effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle. thus improving the cycle efficiency. which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. By returning partially expanded steam. nos. the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely. the average temperature at which the heat is added. the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat. On large turbines. It is a close cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The cycle used is Rankine Cycle modified to include superheating of steam. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. IP turbine.

‡Whether reheat is used or not. RANKINE CYCLE .FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL CYCLE EFFICIENCY Thermal cycle efficiency is affected by following: ‡Initial Steam Pressure. and if used reheat pressure and temperature. ‡Regenerative feed water heating. ‡Condenser pressure. ‡Initial Steam Temperature.

The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle because. This energy is lost to the cycle because the condensation that can take place in the turbine is limited to about 10% in order to minimize blade erosion.. biomass. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid. as is most of the energy of vaporization of the working fluid in th e boiler. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine. But pumping the working fluid through the cycle as a liquid requires a very small fraction of the energy needed to transport it as compared to compressing the working fluid as a gas in a compressor (as in the Carnot cycle). This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations. including virtually all solar thermal. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. which usually uses water as the working fluid. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. Description . All of the energy in pumping the working fluid through the complete cycle is lost. The main difference is that heat addition (in the boiler) and rejection (in the condens er) are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle. coal and nuclear power plants. when an efficient turbine is used. a Scottish polymath. the vaporization energy is rejected from the cycle through the condenser. The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. A pump is used to pressurize the working fluid received from the condenser as a liquid instead of as a gas.The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work.

The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used constantly.A R n ine cycle escri es odel of the operation of steam heat en ines most commonly found in power eneration plants. While many substances could be used in the Rankine cycle. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of around63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. as well as its thermodynamic properties. such as nontoxic and unreactive chemistry . By condensing the fluid to liquid. when an efficient turbine is used. water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties. .Note that cooling towers operate using the latent heat of vapori ationof the cooling fluid. and nuclear. steam. Without the pressure going super critical the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small. due to the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. the T diagram will begin to resemble the Carnot cycle. This requires about 1/100th 1%) as much energy as that compressing a gas in a compressor as in the Carnot cycle). and low cost. Common heat sources for power plants usin the Ran ine cycle are coal natural as. The Ran ine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle as.abundance. One of the principal advantages it holds over other cycles is that during the compressions tage relatively little work is required to drive the pump. The water vapor and entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling systems not from the closed lo Rankine power cycle) and op represents the waste heat that could not be converted to useful work.The efficiency of a Ran ine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. turbine entry temperatures are typically °C the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. it is not. This low turbine entry temperature compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations. as commonly thought. The white billowing clouds that form in cooling tower operation are the result of water droplets which are entrained in the cooling tower airflow. oil. The main difference is that a pump is used to pressuri e li uid instead of gas.

These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right i. In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic . for instance. Processes 1-2and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle.Process 3-4 The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine.This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature. the efficiencies of steam cycles and gas turbines are fairly well matched. Nonetheles . The pressure and temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid is undergoing a phase-change.06bar and 0bar. Processes of the Rankine cycle Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of 0.i.Process 4-1 The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid.e. ii. and some condensation may occur. generating power.Process 1-2 The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. TheRankine cycle .the work required by the pump will only consume approximately 1% to 3% of the turbine power and so give a much higher efficiency for a real cycle.. iii. the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximi e the net work output. Gas turbines. as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. iv. s have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1 00°C.There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. each changing the state of the working fluid.Process 2-3 The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour.

In particular the efficiency of the steam turbine will be limited by water droplet formation. these processes are non-reversible and entropy is increased during the two processes. state 3 is above a two phase region of steam and water so after expansion the steam will be very wet. As the water condenses. On the Ts diagram above. Rankine cycle with reheat . state 3 will move to the right of the diagram and hence produce a dryer steam after expansion. In other words. This somewhat increases the power required by the pump and decreases the power generated by the turbine. which reduces the energy removed by the condensers. Real Rankine cycle (non-ideal) : Rankine cycle with superheat In a real Rankine cycle. water droplets hit the turbine blades at high speed causing pitting and erosion. the compression by the pump and the expansion in the turbine are not isentropic. gradually decreasing the life of turbine blades and efficiency of the turbine.shown here prevents the vapour ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine. The easiest way to overcome this problem is by superheating the steam. By superheating.

Among other advantages. After the vapour has passed through the first turbine. two turbines work in series. and improves the efficiency of the cycle. it re -enters the boiler and is reheated before passing through a second. Regenerative Rankine cycle The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser possibly as a sub cooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle.In this variation. this prevents the vapour fromcondensing during its expansion which can seriously damage the turbine blades. BOILER MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT Boiler and its description . The Regenerative Rankine cycle(with minor variants) is commonly used in real power stations. the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7. Another variation is where 'bleed steam' from between turbine stages is sent to feed water heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. lower pressure turbine. The first accepts vapour from the boiler at high pressure. On the diagram shown.

not steam.200 psi (22. two boilers per unit may instead be pro vided. The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side an d 130 ft (40 m) tall. because of its better thermal conductivity. air preheated (APH).A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns. In live steam models. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan. Here the steam is superheated to 1. redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan. Although these are usually termed "boilers". fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers . APH. their purpose is to produce hot water. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for steam pressure vessels. The generator includes the economizer. boiler furnace. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.000 °F (540°C) to prepare it for the turbine. and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheated coils. the chemical dosing equipment. For units over about 210 MW capacity. forming a large fireball at the c entre. copper or brass is often used. Historically copper was often used for fireboxes(particularly for steam locomotives). Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. and wrought iron. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. stainless steel. pressure and temperature required for t he steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. Cast iron is used for domestic water heaters.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. induced draft (ID) fan.On some units of about 60 MW. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid actual boiling.1MPa). . fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or bag house) and the flue ga s stack. the steam drum. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. The price of copper now makes this impractical. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications Construction of boilers is mainly of steel. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter.

pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. induced draft (ID) fan. air preheater (APH).The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. The air and flue path equipment include: forced draft (FD)fan. the chemical dosing equipmen t. the steam drum. Schematic diagram of typical coal-fired power plant steam generator highlighting the air preheater (APH) location . and The furnace with its steam generating tubes and the super heater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. boiler furnace. fly ash collectors(electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack . The boiler includes the economizer.

35 kg/cm2 24.20 kg/cm2 149.SPECIFICATION: .70 kg/ cm2 137. MAIN BOILER Evaporation Feed water temperature Feed water leaving economizer AT 100% LOAD 700t/hr 247°C 276°C STEAM TEMPERATURE: : Drum Super heater outlet Reheat inlet Reheat outlet 341°C 540°C 332°C 540°C STEAM PRESSURE: Drum design Drum operating Super heater outlet Reheat inlet Reheat outlet 158.50 kg/cm2 FUEL SPECIFICATION :COAL Fixed carbon Volatile matter Moisture Grind ability DESIGN 38% 26% 8% 50% hard grove WORST 25% 25% 9% 45% hard grove OIL: .00 kg/cm2 26.

BOILER DRUM Drum is of fusion-welded design with welded hemi -spherical dished ends. which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air.9% 13. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion area mount of fuel inside the furnace and turbulence. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. water -cooled furnaces are used. .63% 2% 0. 2. It is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes i. FURNACE Furnace is primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion.000 kcal/kg Sulphur content 4.3% 86. downcomers.7% AUXILIARIES OF BOILER 1. The function of steam drum internals is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm and also take care of the sudden change of steam demand for boiler.e.Calorific value of fuel oil 10.5% W/W Moisture content 1. pipes. risers.5% 4. In modern boilers.26% 1.1% W/W Flash point 66°C HEAT BALANCE Dry gas loss Carbon loss Radiation loss Unaccounted loss Hydrogen in air and water in fuel Total loss Efficiency 4. saturated steam outlet.

extending in layers across the length of the drum. The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part. 4. These screens perform the final stage of separation. Since the velocity is relatively low this water does not get picked up again but runs down the plates and off the secon d stage of the two steam outlets. Worm Conveyor It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of one system to bunker of other system.The secondary stage of two opposed banks o f closely spaced thin corrugated sheets. 5. Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. 3. From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards to the series of screen dryers. WATER WALLS: . Classifier It is an equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. It can be operated in both directions. which direct the steam and force the remaining entertained water against the corrugated plates.

7. Super heaters Whatever type of boiler is used. the saturated steam must pass through a superheater. a separately fired superheater may be needed to provide the additional heat. The front and the two side water walls constitute the main evaporation surface absorbing the bulk of radiant heat of the fuel burnt in the chamber. etc. isolating valves. 6 REHEATER Reheater is used to raise the temperature of steam from which a part of energy has been extracted in high. the superheater may be an additional pendant suspended in the furnace area where the hot gases will provide the degree of superheat required. Steam formed above the water surface in a shell boiler is alway s saturated and become superheated in the boiler shell. steam will leave the water at its surface and pass into the steam space. This is another method of increasing the cycle efficiency. The front and rear walls are bent at the lower ends to form a water-cooled slag hopper. Reheater is composed to two sections namely front and rear pendant section which is located above the furnace arch between water-cooled screen wall tubes and rear wall hanger tubes. If superheated steam is required. as it is constantly. high pressure feed pump. The water walls tubes are connected to headers at the top and bottom.pressure turbine. Heating surface co nnecting boiler and turbine pipe safety equipment like safety valve. . In water-tube boilers. The rear water walls tubes at the top are grounded in four rows at a wider pitch forming the grid tubes. This is simply a heat exchanger where additional heat is added to the steam. Reheating requires additional equipment I.e. The upper part of th e chamber is narrowed to achieve perfect mixing of combustion gases. In other cases. for example in CHP schemes where the gas turbine exhaust gases are relatively cool. non-return valve.Water flows to the water walls from the boiler drum by natural circulation.

as would be the case if the steam is to be used to drive turbines. then an attemperator (desuperheater) is fitted.    ECONOMISER .Fi . which injects water into the superheated steam to reduce its temperature. This is a device installed after the superheater. Earlier economi er were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in the flue gases that leaves the boiler and provision of this addition heating surface increases the efficiency of steam generators. 8. In the modern boilers used for power generation feed water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature. A water tube boiler with a super heater If accurate control of the degree of superheat is required. The function of an economi er in a steam-generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add as a sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporation circuit of the boiler.

Use of economizer or air heater or both is decided by the total economy that will result in flexibility in operation. by means of continuously rotating heat transfer element of specially formed metal plates. Tube elements composing the unit are built up into banks and these are connected to inl et and outlet headers. The air preheater . Modern medium and high capacity boilers are used both as economizers and air heaters. air heaters may alone be selected. AIR PREHEATER Air preheater absorbs waste heat from the flue gases and transfers this heat to incoming cold air. maintenance and selec tion of firing system and other related equipment. = 9. The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct connecting both the ends and is adequately scaled by radial and circumferential scaling. In low capacity. Special sealing arrangements are provided in the provided in the air preheater to prevent the leakage between the air and gas sides. Adjustable plates are also used to help the sealing arrangements and prevent the leakage as expansion occurs. Sloped compartments of a radially divided cylindrical shell called the rotor. An economizer Stop valves and non-return valves may be incorporated to keep circulation in economizer into steam drum when there is fire in the furnace but not feed flow. Thousands of these high efficiency elements are spaced and compactly arranged within 12 sections. .

soot blowers to clean normal devices and washing devices to clean the element when soot blowing alone cannot keep the element clean. An air preheate 10. For example.heating surface elements are provided with two types of cleaning devices. they are used to pulverize coal for combustion in the steam -generating furnaces of the fossil fuel power plants. . PULVERIZER A pulverizer is a mechanical device for the grinding of many types of materials.

a deep bowl mill and the shallow bowl mill. A tube mill is a revolving cylinder of up to five diameters in length used for finer pulverization of ore. containing a charge of tumbling or cascading steel balls. Bowl mill It uses tires to crush coal.7A Speed-980 rpm Frequency-50 Hz No-load current-15-16 A An external view of a Coal Pulverizer . pebbles or steel rods. up to three diameter sin length. Bowl Mill: . It is of two types.One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizes presently manufactured. Ball and Tube mills A ball mill is a pulverizer that consists of a horizontal c ylinder. Motor specification squirrel cage induction motor Rating-340 KW Voltage-6600KV Curreen-41. and passes out the other end as slime. the materials mixed with water is fed into the chamber from one end.A Pulverize Types of Pulverize. rock and other such mater ials.

Particles larger than the cut point will be removed with a greater efficiency. and smaller particles . then falling to the bottom of the cyclone where they can be removed. together with flow rate. It is easier to adapt to fluctuating load as there are no limitations on the combustion capacity. Greater surface area of coal per unit mass of coal allows faster combus tion as more coal is exposed to heat and combustion. Practically no ash handling problem. thus separating smaller and smaller particles. The cyclone geometry. the rotational radius of the stream is reduced. The furnace volume required is less as the turbulence caused aids in complete combustion of the coal with minimum travel of the particles. The use of secondary air in the combustion chamber along with the powered coal helps in creating turbulence and therefore uniform mixing of the coal and the air during combustion. without the use of filters. beginning at the top (wide end) of the cyclone and ending at the bottom (narrow) end before exiting the cyclone in a straight stream through the center of the cyclone and out the top. A high speed rotating (air)flow is established within a cylindrical or conical container called a cyclone. as the rotating flow moves towards the narrow end of the cyclone. gas or liquid stream. Coal with higher ash percentage cannot be used without pulverizing because of the problem of large amount ash deposition after combustion. In a conical system. Increased thermal efficiency is obtained through pulverizatio n. This is the size of particle that will be removed from the stream with a 50% efficiency. through vortex separation. The boiler can be easily started from cold condition in case of emergency. defines the cut point of the cyclone. The combustion process is almost free from clinker and slag formation. and strike the outside wall. CYCLONE SEPARATOR Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air.Advantages of Pulverized Coal Pulverized coal is used for large capacity plants. Larger (denser) particles in the rotating stream have too much inertia to follow the tight curve of the stream. Air flows in a spiral pattern. Rotational effects and gravity are fine droplets of liquid from a gaseous stream.

with a lower efficiency. Types of Boiler Circulating ystem i.Controlled circulation system iii. In drum type units (natural and controlled circulation). PLANT A XILIAR MAINTENANCE TEM 1.Combined circulation system . The water leaves the drum through the down corners at a temperature slightly below the saturation temperature. The ratio of the weight of the water to the weight of the steam in the mixture leaving the heat absorption surface is called circulation ratio. WATER CIRCULATION Theory of Circulation Water must flow through the heat absorption surface of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into steam. the water is circulated from the drum through the generating circuits and then back to the drum where the steam is separated and directed to the super heater. The flow through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature. Heat absorbed in water wall is latent heat of vapori ation creating a mixture of steam and water.Natural circulation system ii.

Natural circulation System Water delivered to steam generator from feed water is at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. the difference in density between water and steam reduces. the steam is separated. This system is applicable in the high sub-critical regions (200 kg/ cm). In the water walls. iv. Therefore natural circulation is limited to the boiler with drum operating pressure around 175 kg/ cm. circulation is to be assisted with mechanical pumps to overcome the frictional losses. a part of the water is converted to steam and the mixture flows back to the drum. Controlled circulation System Beyond 80 kg/ cm of pressure. As the pressure increases. . In the drum. Remaining water mixes with the incoming water from the economizer and the cycle is repeated. From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system. Water entering the drum flows through the down corner and enters ring heater at the bottom. To regulate the flow through various tubes. iii. ASH HANDLING PLANT The widely used ash handling systems are: i. Pneumatic System. orifices plates are used. Steam jet System. it is heated to about 30-40°C below saturation temperature. Mechanical Handling System ii. Entering first the economizer. and sent to super heater for superheating and then sent to the high-pressure turbine. Thus the hydrostatic head available will not be able to overcome the frictional resistance for a flow corresponding to the minimum requirement of cooling of water wall tubes. Hydraulic System.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal . absence of working parts in contact with ash. In the high velocity system a jet of water is sprayed to quench the hot ash. The ash is carried along with the water and they are separated at the sump. considerable distance can be traversed.Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. Two other jets force the ash into a trough in which t hey are washed away by the water into the sump. Hydraulic Ash Handling System The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump. In the low velocity system the ash from the boilers falls into a stream of water flowing into the sump. the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. where they are separated. The hydraulic system is divided into a low velocity and high velocity system. Generally. New Delhi The Hydraulic Ash handling system is used at the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. large ash handling capacity. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. The molten slag formed in the pulverized fuel system can also be quenched and washed by using the high velocity system. The advantages of this system are that its clean.

ii. i. The degree of de-ionization i. No doubt. treated water quality. its treatment costs and overall economics. A water treatment plant The type of demineralization process chosen for a power station depends on three main factors. ‡Demineralization sectio . The quality of raw material. WATER TREATMENT PLANT As the types of boiler are not alike their working pressure and operating conditions vary and so do the types and methods of water treatment. iii. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace.e. Selectivity of resins. Water treatment plants used in thermal power plants used in thermal power plants are designed to process the raw water to water with a very low content of dissolved solids known as µdemineralised water¶.At the bottom of every boiler. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinker sand for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. this plant has to be engineered very carefully keeping in view the type of raw water to the thermal plant. Water treatment process is generally made up of two sections: ‡Pre-treatment section. a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace.

which is either done by passing through activated carbon filter or injecting along the flow of water. A demineralization tank A DM plant generally consists of cation. an equivalent amount of sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. Demineralization This filter water is now used for demineralising purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed.Pre-treatment Section Pre-treatment plant removes the suspended solids such as clay. The turbidity may be taken as two types of suspended solid in water. which is maintained in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water. Finer particles. but enroute being first dechlorinated. will not settle in any reasonable time and must be flocculated to produce the large particles. silt. firstly. The coarse components. etc: can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. however. the separable solids and secondly the non-separable solids (colloids). The residual chlorine. plants and other microscopic organism. anion and mixed bed exchangers. such as sand. Long term ability to remain suspended in water is basically a function of both size and spec ific gravity. is now detrimental to action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed. organic and inorganic matter. silt. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which . which are settling able.

is the chemical composition of pure water. a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. the Vacuum side). The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salt sin the raw water input. For this purpose.. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel.e. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The DM water. such as PVC. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. However. D) Degasser pump -Anion (NaoH used) Strong base anion Mixed bed(6. C. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i. B. with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself. Sometimes. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption.57 ph) DM Storage tank . The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. WTP-II Flash mixture (Cl2 +Pac (Poly aluminium chorine) ) Clarifier tank Storage tank Clarifier pump(A or B) +Cation anion Degasser tank (Co2 removed) Active carbon filter Pressure filter (A. being very pure. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated.

Due to small pressure difference.DRAUGHT SYSTEM There are four types of draught system: i.Forced Draught iv.Induced Draught iii.Balanced Draught Natural Draught System In natural draft units the pressure differentials are obtained have constructing tail chimneys so that vacuum is created in the furnace.Systematic arrangement of water treatment II 1.Natural Draught ii. air is admitted into the furnace A natural draught system Induced Draft System .

The flue gases are taken out due to the pressure difference between the furnace and the atmosphere.6 KV Lubrication-by oil An ID fan . 1. Normally all the power stations utilize this draft system. ID Fan INDUSTRIAL FANS The induced Draft Fans are generally of Axial-Impulse Type. The fan consists of the following sub -assemblies: ‡Suction Chamber ‡Inlet Vane Control ‡Impeller ‡Outlet Guide Vane Assembly ID Fans: . the air is admitted to natural pressure difference and the flue gases are taken out by means of Induced Draught (I.D. Balanced Draught System Here a set of Induced and Forced Draft Fans are utilized in maintaining a vacuum in the furnace. Impeller nominal diameter is of the order of 2500 mm.In this system. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.) fans and the furnace is maintained under vacuum.) fans is made use of for supplying air to the furnace and so the furnace is pressurized.Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Forced Draught System A set of forced draught (F.D.

Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. The characteristic pressure volume curves of the fan may be changed in a large range without essentially modifying the efficiency. consists of the following components: ‡Silencer ‡Inlet Bend ‡Fan Housing ‡Impeller with blades and setting mechanism FD Fans: . The blade shafts are placed in combined radial and axial anti-friction bearings. Some amount of the velocity energy is converted to pressure energy in the spiral casing.FD Fan The fan. The fan is driven at a constant speed and varying the angle of the inlet vane control controls the flow. normally of the same type as ID Fan. NDFV type. Lubrication and cooling these bearings is assured by a combined oil level and circulating lubrication system.6 KV An FD fan The centrifugal and setting forces of the blades are taken up by the blade bearings. backward curved bladed radial fan operating on the principle of energy transformation due to centrifugal forces. single stage suction. which are sealed off to the outside. The angle of incidence of the blades may be adjusted during operation. Primary Air Fan PA Fan if flange-mounted design. The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings and an inclined ball be aring at the drive side absorbs the axial thrust. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6. The special feature of the fan is that is provided with inlet guide vane control with a positive and precise link mechanism. . 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. The fan can then be easily adapted to changing operating conditions.

.Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius.It is robust in construction for higher peripheral speed so as to have unit sizes.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous Primary air fan 1. Fan c an develop high pressures at low and medium volumes and can handle hot -air laden with dust particles. Primary Air Fans: . 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. The control air compressors and station air compressors have been housed separately with separate receivers and supply headers and their tapping. devices. Station air meets the general requirement of the power station such as light oil atomizing air. diaphragm valves. for cleaning filters and for various maintenance works. COMPRESSOR HOUSE Instrument air is required for operating various dampers. etc: in the 210 MW units. burner tilting.

Air-Drying Unit Air contains moisture which tends to condense. while extends around the valve also. From the receiver air passed through the dryers to the main instrument airline. Service Air Compressor The station air compressor is generally a slow speed horizontal double acting double stage type and is arranged for belt drive. Adequate numbers of tapping have been provided all over the area.P.A compressor house Instrument Air System Control air compressors have been installed for supplying moisture free dry air required for instrument used. and causes trouble in operation of various devices by compressed air. The cylinder heads and barrel are enclosed in a jacket. which runs along with the boiler house and turbine house of 210 MW units. cooling water flows through the nest of the tubes and cools the air. Air drying unit consists of dual absorption towers with embedded heaters for reactivation. cylinder enters at one end of the intercooler and goes to the opposite end where from it is discharged to the high-pressure cylinder. The intercooler is provided between the low and high pressure cylinder which cools the air between tag and collects the moisture that condenses Air from L. The absorption towers are adequately filled with specially selected silica gel and activated alumina while one tower is drying the air. non-stop have been provided on the control panel of the compressor. In auto start-stop position. . Two selectors switch one with positions auto load/unload and anoth er with positions auto start/stop. The output from the compressors is fed to air receivers via return valves. A safety valve is set at rated pressure. the compressor will start. Therefore drying of air is accepted widely in case of instrument air.

Work done by the impulse effect of steam due to reverse the direction of high velocity steam. The essential features of impulse turbine are that all pressure drops occur at nozzles and not on blades.TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT TURBINE CLASSIFICATION: 1. Reaction turbine: In this type of turbine pressure is reduced at both fixed and moving blades. . 2. which causes the shaft to rotate. The high velocity steam from nozzles does work on moving blades. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles. Impulse turbine: In impulse turbine steam expands in fixed nozzles. The exp ansion of steam takes place on moving blades.

A 95 MW Generator at BTPS, New Delhi

COMPOUNDING:
Several problems occur if energy of steam is converted in single step and so compounding is done. Following are the type of compounded turbine:

i.

Velocity compounded Turbine :

Like simple turbine it has only one set of nozzles and entire steam pressure drop takes place there. The kinetic energy of steam fully on the nozzles i s utilized in moving blades. The role of fixed blades is to change the direction of steam jet and too guide it. ii. Pressure Compound Turbine : This is basically a number of single impulse turbines in series or on the same shaft. The exhaust of first turbine enters the nozzles of next turbine. The total pressure drop of steam does not take on first nozzle ring but divided equally on all of them. iii. Pressure Velocity Compounded Turbine:

It is just the combination of the two c ompounding and has the advantages of allowing bigger pressure drops in each stage and so fewer stages are necessary. Here for given pressure drop the turbine will be shorter length but diameter will be increased.

MAIN TURBINE
The 210MW turbine is a cylinder tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. and I.P and L.P cylinders. The H.P. turbine comprises of 12 stages the I.P turbine has 11 stages and the L.P has four stages of double flow. The H.P and I.P. turbine rotor are rigidly compounded and the I.P. and L.P rotor by lens type semi flexible coupling. All the 3 rotor are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing. The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passe s through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. Turbine. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating. The reheated steam from boiler en ters I.P. turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes. In the L.P. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust and enters the condenser p laced directly below the L.P. turbine. The cooling water flowing through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate the collected in the hot well of the condenser. The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps through L.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to the boiler through H.P. heaters thus forming a closed cycle.

STEAM TURBINE
A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. From a mechanical point of view, the turbine is ideal, because the propelling force is applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links, which are necessary to transform are reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Hence since the steam turbine possesses for its moving p arts rotating elements only if the manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed, it ought to be free from out of balance forces. If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also constant. A generator at a steady load offers a constant torque. Therefore, a turbine is suitable for driving a generator, particularly as they are both high speed machines. A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. This means that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. It also means that turbine is considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam engine of equal power. A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important

one is the fact that a turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether steam or oil.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES

A steam turbines two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor. The cylinder (stator) is a steel or cast iron housing usually divided at the horizontal centre line. Its halves are bolted together for easy access. The cylinder contains fixed blades, vanes and nozzles that direct steam into the moving blades carried by the rotor. Each fixed blade set is mounted in diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor, or directly in the casing. A disc and diaphragm pair a turbine stage. Steam turbines can have many stages. A rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the moving blades on the outer edges of either discs or drums. The blades rotate as the rotor revolves. The rotor of a large steam turbine consists of large, intermediate and low-pressure sections. In a multiple-stage turbine, steam at a high pressure and high temperature enters the first row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve/valves. As the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles, it expands and its velocity increases. The high velocity jet of stream strikes the firs t set of moving blades. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy, causing the shaft to rotate. The steam that enters the next set of fixed blades strikes the next row of moving blades. As the steam flows through the turbine, its press ure and temperature decreases while its volume increases. The decrease in pressure and temperature occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work. After passing through the last turbine stage, the steam exhausts into the condenser or p rocess steam system. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy through the impact (impulse)or reaction of the steam against the blades. An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. Steam expands as it passes through thee nozzles, where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. As the steam flows through the moving blades, its pressure remains the same, but its velocity decreases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the movi ng blades.

STEAM CYCLE .

P. The H. Al l the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing no.P. The reheated steam for the boiler enters the I.P.P.P. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam.P. turbine the steam is returned in boiler for reheating. I. and I. MAIN TURBINE The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H. The condensate collected is pumped by means . turbine stage via 2 no s of cross-over pipes. stage the steam expands in axially opposite direction to counteract the trust and enters the condensers placed below the L. motor by the lens type semi flexible coupling. and I.P. The cooling water flowing throughout the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate collected in the hot well of the condenser.P.P> turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L.P. turbine has 4 stages of double flow.P. turbines comprise of 12 stages.P. The cycle used is Rankine cycle modified to include superheating of steam. The H.P.P. cylinders. The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H. turbine rotors are rigidly compounded and the L. turbine. In the L. turbine.The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapor+liquid) phase cycle. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. 2 is combined with the thrust bearing. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H. turbine has 11 stages and the L.

After expansion through 12 stages at the H.P. Abs is supplied for the gland sealing. condensate is pumped with .P.10 and 1. four from I.P.P.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L.of 3*50% duty condensate pumps through L.P. Steam at 1. cylinder. cylinders on the front bearing end. steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on I.P. turbine and one from L. From the condenser. In L. The main Turbine TURBINE CYCLE Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop valve. cm. After flowing through I. turbine.P. From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in H.P.P.P. turbine. These are two extractors from H. heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H. The selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressure has been done with a view to achieve a high efficiency. heaters thus forming a close cycle.03 g/sq. turbine. Steam for this purpose is obtained from deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam is regulated.P. turbine. turbine the exhaust steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L. turbine through cross-over pipes.

heaters The turbine cycle SPECIFICATIONS OF THE TURBINE Type: Tandem compound 3 cylinder reheated type. Ejector steam parameter: 4. cm. 2017.the help of 3*50% capacity condensate pumps to deaerator through the low -pressure regenerative equipments. cylinder.05 kg /sq.5 kg /sq. Rated steam pressure: 130 kg /sq. turbine exhaust pressure: 27 k g /sq. cm (Abs) Critical speed: 1585.P. H.P. Number of stages: 12 in H.P. and 4*2 in L.09 kg /sq.03 to 1. Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H. Number of bearing.P. cm before entering the stop valve. Gland steam pressure: 1. 5 excluding generator and exciter. 1881. Condenser cooling water pressure: 1. 327°C Condenser back pressure: 0. Steam flow: 670T / hr. M /hr. Rated steam temperature: 535°C after reheating at inlet.. Type of governing: nozzle governing. cm. cm. heaters by means of 3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H. Lubrication Oil: turbine oil 14 of IOC. cm.P. 11 in I. Rated power: 210 MW.P. Condenser cooling water temperature: 27000 cu.0 to 1.1 kg /sq. ..

Number of extraction lines for regenerative heating of feed water: seven .

Rotor. Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom. Barring gear. the middle shell. Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. IP Turbine Casing: The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double -shell construction. Barrel-type casing suitable for quick start-up and loading.TURBINE COMPONENTS Casing. Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades. Independent of the outer shell. . Sealing system. LP Turbine Casing: The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow un it and has a triple shell welded casing. The inner casing.cylindrically. Blades. Couplings and bearings. Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides. Stop & control valves. The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. is supported at four points on longitudinal beams. The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction. TURBINE CASINGS HP Turbine Casings: Outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange. axially split The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all the directions and axially from a fixed point (HPinlet side).

In all the moving wheels. all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades.ROTORSHP Rotor: The HP rotor is machined from single Cr -Mo-V steel forging with integral dis cs. Shrouds. Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening. Shroud is used to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next set of moving blades. Blades have three main parts: Aerofoil: working part. First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shrouding. LP Rotor: The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft. BLADES Most costly element of the turbine. IP Rotor: The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. To adjust the frequency of thee moving blades. In all the stages lashing wires are provided to adjust the frequency of blades. The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr -Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. which results in reduction of axial thrust. Root. VACUUM SYSTEM This comprises of: . In the last two rows. satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet-steam erosion. balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them. The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings. riveted to the blades are periphery. lashing wires have been provided in some stages. Except the last two wheels. Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades.

Water enters the inle t chamber of the front water box. pump through the inlet pipe. losing its latent heat to the cooling water and is connected with water in the steam side of the condenser.5 to 5kg /cm the three nozzles in the three compartments. This condensate collects in the hot well. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is . From these. Steam exhausted from the LP turbine washes the outside of the condenser tubes. Steam expands in the nozzle thus giving a high -velocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the eject. Pumps: Normally two per unit of 50% capacity.W. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C. Typical water cooler condenser EJECTORS There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. CONDENSER There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L. passes horizontally through brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end. welded to the bottom of the condensers. Ejectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser located near the turbine. The ejector has three compartments.P. passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. C. The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non -condensation gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers.Condenser: 2 for 200 MW units at the exhaust of LP turbine.W. takes a turn. cooli ng water leaves the condenser through the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. Steam is supplied generally at a pressure of 4. turbine. These are surface-type condensers with two pass arrangement.

respectively. dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals.Deaerator. Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser hot well. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore. There are 410 W pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used. carbon dioxide and ammonia. L. L. one per unit located around 181 M level in CD bay. heaters in succession. the air and pressure zone.P. L.P.connected to the air pipe from the condenser. particularly at elevated temperatures. These pumps h ave four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation of vacuum. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the out let. Heaters Turbine has been provided with no n-controlled extractions. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are expanded into tube plate.1 located at the upper part of the condenser and nos. principally oxygen. which are utilized for heating the condensate. The pump is generally rated for 160 m/ hr at a pressure of 13. Heater -1 has two parts LPH-1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of the condenser A and condenser B.3 & 4 around 4 m level. CONDENSATE SYSTEM This contains the following i. The condensate flows in the U tubes in four passes and extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the second nozzle. special arrangements have been made for providing sealing.P. from turbine bleed steam. Condensate Pumps The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through ejectors.2 kg/ cm. These are of horizontal type with shell and tube construction.H. gland steam cooler and LP heaters. ii. Condensate passes through these four L. iii. These heaters are equipped with necessary safety valves in the steam space level indicator for visual level indication of heating steam condensate pressure vacuum gauges for measurement of steam pressure. 3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are mounted in a row of 5m level. etc: Deaerator The presence of certain gases.P.LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no. is that . 2. 2.

This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaera ting unit. The deaeration .the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. P PRINCIPAL OF DEAERATION It is based on following two laws. Henry s Law Solubility The Deaerator comprises of two chambers: Deaerating column Feed storage tank Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal construction with dished ends welded to it.005/ litre or less. Res idual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified are 0. depending upon the individual circumstances. whose function is to remove the dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible. The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achie ve efficient deaeration.

Liberated gases escapes to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it.A Deaerator Column is mounted on the feed storage tank. While flowing upwards through the trays.The condensate are admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards through the spray valves and trays. which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the centre. The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of condensate. Thus the liberated gases move upwards along with the steam. This opening is provided with a number of deflectors to minimize the loss of steam. scrubbing and heating is done. Manholes are provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and maintenance. The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates. . FEED WATER SYSTEM The main equipments coming under this system are: Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the 0 meter level in the T bay. Steam gets condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate.

After leaving the impeller it pass es through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. (One each per unit) Boiler Feed Pump This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a hydraulic coupling. Booster Pump Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. Lubricating Pressure . The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. Therefore all the feed pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure. Cavitations will occur when the suction pressure of the pump at the pum p section is equal or very near to the vapour pressure of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature. which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump. it is directed to the first impeller. Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters. By the use of booster pump in the main pump suction line. Function The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the pump under a certain minimum pressure. Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes through the l ast impeller and the end diffuser. always there will be positive suction pressure which will remove the possibi lity of cavitations. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. Thus the feed water reaching into the discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure. One of the major damages which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitations or vapour bounding at the pump suction due to suction failure. Starting Oil Pump (SOP). Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump (MOP). AC standby oil pumps and emergency DC Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). It passes through the suction branch into the intake spiral and from there.High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay.

P. pump moto r and hydraulic coupling are force lubricated. . The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump. In the event of tube rupture in any of th e HPH and the level of condensate rising to dangerous level. High Pressure Heaters These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water directly to boiler.All the bearings of boiler feed pump. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are connected to them. thus bypassing all the 3 H. the feed water. An HP heater Turbine Oil Lubricating System This consists of main oil pump. starting oil pump. heaters. HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement. emergency oil pump and each per unit. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside. The steam is supplied to these heaters to form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust bearing. after feed pump enters the HP heaters.