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Life Cycle ¡nventory of Biodiesel

Production from Jatropha
Bart MUYS°, Wouter ACHTEN°, Erik MATHIJS°,
Virendra P. SINGH*, Lou VERCHOT*
°Dept. Land Management & Economics, K.U.Leuven,
BeIgium
*ICRAF, New DeIhi, Nairobi
Contact: bart.muys@biw.kuIeuven.be
www.biw.kuIeuven.be/Ibh/IbnI/forecoman/engIish/inde
x.asp
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E

Jatropha's muItipIe promises
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
·
drought resistent (minimum 200mm rainfall)
·
high production of quality oil (up to 8 t seeds/ha/yr)
·
poverty reduction
·
combatting desertification
·
multipurpose

The Jatropha hype
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Jatropha projects reported on the Internet

Why is there a hype for tropicaI
biofueIs?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
in Europe:
·
EU policies on renewables
·
Kyoto obligations
·
but lack of space in Europe
·
and higher NPP in tropics
·
cheaper production in tropics (e.g. palm oil, soybean)
·
tax exemptions and subsidies also valid for imported
bioenergy

Why is there a hype for tropicaI
biofueIs?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
in developing countries:
·
become OPEC
·
produce cash crop with stable high prices (unlike
coffee, cocoa)
·
become independent from oil import (e.g. 300,000
ha of oil palm would suffice for Tanzania)
·
realize a positive import/export balance

Is their use sustainabIe?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Let's take oil palm as an example:
·
highly positive energy and GHG balances thanks to
high production if locally used
·
important loss of this balance through shipping and
transformation to diesel
·
strong negative GHG balance if resulting from
conversion of natural forest (extremely negative if
conversion from peatland forest, cfr. SE Asia)
·
in this case also high land use impact as a
consequence of biodiversity loss

TropicaI deforestation and peatIand
drainage for oiI paIm deveIopment
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E

Objective of our study:
Comparison of biodieseI from Jatropha and
OiI paIm with fossiI dieseI
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Agroforestry JCL
Village scale
JCL
Ìndustrial JCL
Oil palm based bio-
diesel production
Fossil diesel
production
Competing bio-diesel system Jatropha bio-diesel systems Reference diesel system
Agroforestry JCL
Village scale
JCL
Ìndustrial JCL
Oil palm based bio-
diesel production
Fossil diesel
production
Competing bio-diesel system Jatropha bio-diesel systems Reference diesel system

Research strategy
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Ìdentification and
characterization of the
different JCL production
systems
Life cycle assessment
(LCA) of the different JCL
production systems
Socio-economic
impact study
Formulate concrete
recommendations towards
sustainability
Energy and greenhouse
gas balance
LCA linked land
use impact study
Link with LCA
O
B
J
E
C
T
I
V
E
S
Specific
literature review
and on field
evaluation
LCA according to ÌSO 14040 - 14043
On field
description of
LCA and
traditional
production
systems
Evaluation of in
÷and outputs
per process unit
of JCL and
reference
system
Thematic indicator
score:
· Soil
· Water
· Vegetation Structure
· Biodiversity
M
E
T
H
O
D
S

PreIiminary resuIts: unit processes
and their Iife cycIe inventory
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
1. Plantation unit process
2. Oil extraction unit process
3. Biodiesel production unit process
4. By-products unit process

1. PIantation unit process
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Jatropha Seed
Production
Land area + site
characteristics
Plantation
establishment
Plantation
management
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions
Stand biomass
Seeds
Jatropha Seed
Production
Land area + site
characteristics
Plantation
establishment
Plantation
management
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions
Stand biomass
Seeds

Propagation
Generative (seeds)
Vegetative (cuttings)
Direct seeding
- Sowing according to plant geometry
- Rainfall or life saving irrigation
Precultivating seedlings
- Nursery polybags 12,5×22,5 cm
- Nursery seedbeds: 2×25-30 cm
Direct Planting
- Rainfall or life saving irrigation
Precultivating plants
- Nursery beds: 30×30 cm
-
30 ÷ 200 cm long
-
2,5 ÷ 4,5 cm diameter
- lower part of branch
- 2 seeds at 2 cm depth
Plantation design
Living fences
Block Plantation
- Planting pits: 45×45×45 cm³
- spacing: 2×2; 2,5×2,5 or 3×3 m
- 15-25 cm within and between rows
Also erosion control and prevention

W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
PIantation management
Pruning
Weeding
Fertilizing
Ìrrigating
Field should be free of weeds at all times
Depending on site and agro-climatic situation
Canopy management
Around 6 month age
Cut back at 30-45 cm
During 2nd and
ongoing years
Prune branches at ½ - ½
30-45 cm
End of 1st year
Pinch or prune the
secondary and tertiary
branches
- Pruning during
dry winter period
- Every 10 years
cut back plant till
45 cm stump
Living fence:
Pinch terminals
Drawings from Henning R. ÷ The Jatropha Booklet - http://www.jatropha.de/ - visited 30/01/2006

W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
·
Combatting desertification by restoration of
vegetative cover in degraded areas
·
Prevention and control of soil erosion through its
unique root architecture (taproot + 4 laterals)
PotentiaI environmentaI
benefits of Jatropha
cuItivation

Meta-anaIysis of dry seed yieId
against (a) rainfaII and (b) age
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 2 4 6 8 10
Age (yr)
D
r
y

s
e
e
d

y
i
e
l
d

(
k
g
/
h
a
/
y
r
)
Paraguay
NÌcaragua
Mix
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Average annual rainfall (mm)
D
r
y

s
e
e
d

y
i
e
l
d

(
k
g
/
h
a
/
y
r
)
Mean = 1132
StDev = 608.6
Mean = 2653
StDev = 1644.3
a.
b.
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy

OiI extraction unit process
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Oil Extraction
Jatropha seeds
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions &
waste water
Crude oil
Seed cake
Oil Extraction
Jatropha seeds
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions &
waste water
Crude oil
Seed cake

KerneI and sheII composition
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
KerneI
0.18
30.35
4.13
2.82
4.41
2.70
24.85
54.59
4.48
0 20 40 60 80
gross energy
(MJ/kg)
Acid detergent
lignin (wt%) *
Adic detergent
fibre (wt%) *
Neutral
detergent fibre
(wt%) *
crude fibre
(wt%)
Ash (wt%)
Crude protein
(wt%)
Crude fat (wt%)
moisture (wt%)
n=27
n=8
n=8
n=24
n=8
n=38
n=37
n=38
n=14
SheII
9.33
1.17
4.37
75.59
86.64
30.93
4.93
19.38
51.13
0 20 40 60 80 100
gross energy
(MJ/kg)
Acid detergent
lignin (wt%)
Adic detergent
fibre (wt%)
Neutral
detergent fibre
(wt%)
crude fibre
(wt%)
Ash (wt%)
Crude protein
(wt%)
Crude fat (wt%)
moisture (wt%)
n=9
n=8
n=8
n=8
n=3
n=9
n=8
n=8
n=8
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy
Liquid Biofuel potential
Fodder potential
Biofuel potential
Solid biofuel &
composting potential
Biofuel potential

Crude oiI composition and
characteristics
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Range Mean StDev

SpeciIic gravity / density (g/cm¹) 0.860 - 0.933 0.914 0.018 13
CaloriIic value (MJ/kg) 37.83 - 42.05 39.63 1.52 9
pour point (°C) -3 2
cloud point (°C) 2 1
Flash point 210 - 240 235 11 7
Cetane value 38.0 - 51.0 46.3 6.2 4
saponiIication number (mg/g) 102.9 - 209.0 182.8 34.3 8
viscosity at 30°C (cSt) 37.00 - 54.80 46.82 7.24 7
Free Iatty acids (wt°) 0.18 - 3.40 2.18 1.46 4
UnsaponiIiable (wt°) 0.79 - 3.80 2.03 1.57 5
Iodine number (mg iodine/g) 92 - 112 101 7 8
Neutralization number (mg KOH/g) 0.92 - 6.16 3.71 2.17 4
monoglycerides (wt°) nd - 1.7 1
diglycerides (wt°) 2.50 - 2.70 2
triglycerides (wt°) 88.20 - 97.30 2
Carbon residue (wt°) 0.07 - 0.64 0.38 0.29 3
SulIur content (wt°) 0 - 0.13 2
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy
Potential for high
diesel yield
Better than palm oil, less
good than fossil diesel
Too high for direct
combustion
Degumming before
transesterification if
>2%

Fatty acid composition of crude oiI
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
C16:0
C18:1
C18:0
C18:2
Other Acids
C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2

22.3%
77.5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
S
a
t
u
r
e
d
U
n
s
a
t
u
r
e
d
n=22
Mean 14.54 6.30 42.02 35.38
StDev 2.37 3.41 8.07 6.26

n=10
C16:0 = Palmitic Acid; C18:0 = Strearic Acid; C18:1 Oleic Acid; C18:2 = Linoleic Acid. Other Acids
containing Capric Acid, Myristic Acid (C14:0), Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1), Linolenic Acid (C18:3),
Arachidic Acid (C20:0), Behenic Acid (C22:0), cis-11-Eicosenoic Acid (C20:1) and cis-11,14-
Eicosadienoic Acid (C20:2).
More unsaturated
than palm oil but less
than rapeseed oil and
fossil diesel
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy
Fatty acids with C-16-18 will yield methyl esters comparable
to petrodiesel

BiodieseI production unit process
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Alcohol reagens
Reaction catalyst
Transesterification
Jatropha oil
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions
and waste water
Biodiesel
Glycerin
Alcohol reagens
Reaction catalyst
Transesterification
Jatropha oil
Energy, machines,
infrastructure and auxilaries
Air emissions
and waste water
Biodiesel
Glycerin

JCL (m)ethyI ester characteristics compared
with the EU and USA Standards
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E

JME JEE
range mean sd n n÷1
EN
14214:2003
ASTM
D6751

Density (g/cm¹) 0.864 - 0.880 0.875 0.007 6 0.89 0.86 - 0.90
CaloriIic value (MJ/kg) 38.45 - 41.00 39.65 1.28 3
Flash point 170 - 192 186 11 4 190 120 130
Cetane value 50.0 - 56.1 52.3 2.3 5 59 min 51 min 47
saponiIication number (mg/g) 202.6 1
viscosity at 30°C (cSt) 4.84 - 5.65 5.11 0.47 3 5.54 3.5-5.0* 1.9-6.0*
Iodine number (mg iodine/g) 93 - 106 max 120 max 115
Neutralization number (mg KOH/g) 0.06 - 0.50 0.27 0.22 3 0.08
monoglycerides (wt°) 0.24 1 0.55 max 0.8
diglycerides (wt°) 0.07 1 0.19 max 0.2
triglycerides (wt°) nd 0 nd max 0.2
Carbon residue (wt°) 0.02 - 0.50 0.18 0.27 3 max 0.3
SulIur content (wt°) 0.0036 - 0.5 2
SulIated ash (wt°) 0.005 - 0.014 0.013 0.002 4
max 0.01 max 0.015
Methyl ester content (wt°) 99.6 1 99.3 min. 96.5
methanol (wt°) 0.06 - 0.09 2 0.05 max 0.2
water (wt°) 0.07 - 0.1 1 0.16 max 0.5 max 0.2
Iree glycerol (wt°) 0.015 - 0.03 2 nd
total glycerol (wt°) 0.088 - 0.1 2 0.17
max 0.25 max 0.24
JME = Jatropha methyl ester. JEE = Jatropha ethyl ester.
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy

Seeds
Seeds
Seedcake
Seedcake
Compost
Compost
Fruit
Fruit
Fruit Hulls
Extraction
Seed OiI
Bio-dieseI
Transesterification
Fermentation
Fertilizer
Biogas
(~CH
4
)
Seed Shells
Combustibles
Combustibles
CO
2
H
2
O

Drawings from Henning R. ÷ The Jatropha Booklet - http://www.jatropha.de/ - visited
30/01/2006
By-products unit process

KerneI cake composition
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
KerneI Cake
0.16
18.25
9.82
6.27
8.71
6.57
58.13
1.29
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Gross energy
(MJ/kg)
Acid detergent
lignin (wt%)
Acid detergent
fiber (wt%)
Neutral
deteregent fiber
(wt%)
Crude fibre
(wt%)
Ash (wt%)
crude protein in
DM (wt%)
lipid (wt%)
n=13
n=6
n=9
n=9
n=7
n=13
n=13
n=13
Potential fodder after
detoxification
Higher nutrient
concentration than
chicken or cattle
manure
Relatively high energy
content: briqetting
Achten et al., in prep. for Biomass & Bioenergy

Some outIooks per impact
category
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
1. Land use impact
3. GHG balance
5. Energy balance

How to measure the Iand use
impact?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
The most simple way is to measure how much
Iand is used during how much time to produce
1 functionaI unit of the product (e.g. 100km
transport with JCL biodiesel):
S = A* t
Where S is the impact score, A and t the area
and time needed to produce 1 functional unit.

How to make Iand use impact
assessment more reaIistic?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Using indicators comparing the ecological quality of the land (Q) between
the actual land use and a reference situation (the PNV - potential natural
vegetation of the site)
Time
Q
u
a
l
i
t
y

o
I

t
h
e

l
a
n
d
AQ
actual land use
reIerence situation
Qref
Qact

Which indicators?
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Using 17 quantitative indicators covering 4 themes:
Ecosystem Structure
Ecosystem Function
-
Vegetation (biomass & structure)
-
Biodiversity (genetic information)
- Soil (buffering of sediment- and nutrient
flows)
- Water (buffering of water flows)

Vegetation indicators
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
No
harvest
FD
ref
TB
ref
Refe-
rence
state
Crop biomass Free Net
Primary
Production
(fNPP)
V3
Leaf area index,
canopy height,
root FD
Canopy
fractal
dimension
(FD)
V2
Total above-
ground living
biomass
Total living
Biomass
(TB)
V1
AIternatives CaIcuIation Indicator Code
100 * 1









ref
act
TB
TB
100 * 1









ref
act
FD
FD
100 * 1


















ref
act
NPP
harvest NPP

Biodiversity indicators
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
No
application
A=area; N=number of
applications; Ì=intensity
factor
Fertilization B3
No
biocides
No
exotics

ref
Refe-
rence
state
N=number of applications per
decade; A=area
Use of
biocides
B4
Exotic
species
cover (EX)
B2
Number of species
compared to
regional species
pool
Shannon
Diversity
index (SÌ)
B1
AIternatives CaIcuIation Indicator Code
100 * 1









ref
act
SI
SI
100 * act EX








I N
A
A
tot
aff
* *








I N
A
A
tot
aff
* *

SoiI indicators
No disturbance
A=area; D= depth in m;
N=number of applications
Disturbance
of structure
S2
USLE
ref
PE
ref
Reference
state
Soil erosion S3
Loss of
permeability
(PE)
S1
CaIcuIation Indicator Code
( )
100 *
*
*







⎛ −
ref tot
act ref aff
PE A
PE PE A








N
A
D A
tot
aff
*
*
100 * 1









act
ref
USLE
USLE

SoiI indicators
No disturbance
Base saturation
(BS)
S5
CEC
ref
Reference state
Cation
Exchange
Capacity (CEC)
S4
CaIcuIation Indicator Code
100 * 1









ref
act
CEC
CEC
100 * 1









ref
act
BS
BS

Water indicators
RO
ref
Surface
runoff (RO)
W2
No artificial
change of
water
balance
ET
ref
Refe-
rence
state
A=area
Drainage,
irrigation
W3
Evapotranspi
ration (ET)
W1
CaIcuIation Indicator Code
100 * 1









ref
act
ET
ET
100 *








tot
aff
A
A
100 * 1









act
ref
RO
RO

ExampIe
Jatropha production in semi-arid area in Ethiopia.
Production 1500 kg of seeds/year yielding 640 l of
biodiesel per hectare. With a consumption of 8l/100km
the area*time requirement is 1.25 m
2
*year/km
Jatropha replaces traditional cereal production yielding
1000 l of bio-ethanol per hectare. With a consumption
of 10l/100km the area*time requirement is 1
m
2
*year/km

ExampIe
100%*1*0.3 25%*1*0.3 0 Use of fertilizers
0
0.6
0.3
0.2
2
20
BiodieseI
from
Jatropha
0 0 Use of biocides
0.3*
*0.9 during 4 months
0 Exotic species
cover (% of total
cover)
0.2 1 Shannon diversity
0.1 1 fNPP
1*
*3 during 4 months
4 Leaf Area Ìndex
2*
*6t during 4 months
50 Avg. living
biomass (ton)
BioethanoI from
cereaIs
Reference
system
(dryIand forest)
Indicator

ExampIe
40
6
1
10%*0.25*0.02
= 0.05
0
BiodieseI
from
Jatropha
50 30 Base Saturation
(%)
4 10 CEC (Organic
matter content in
%)
10 0 Soil erosion
(t/ha/yr)
100%*0.25*2 = 50 0 Soil disturbance
100%*0.1 0 Soil compaction
BioethanoI from
cereaIs
Reference
system
(dryIand forest)
Indicator

ExampIe
0
50
400
BiodieseI
from
Jatropha
0 0 Drainage/irrigation
(mm)
150 10 Surface runoff (mm)
300 400 Evapotranspiration
(mm)
BioethanoI from
cereaIs
Reference
system (dryIand
forest)
Indicator

ExampIe
veg
biodiv
soil
water
jatropha
cereal 0
20
40
60
80
100
jatropha
cereal
veg
biodiv
soil
water
jatropha
cereal 0
20
40
60
80
100
jatropha
cereal
Result on a hectare basis
Result per functional unit (m
2
*yr/km)

Expected Land use impact
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
1. Ìmpact on vegetation structure
·
Positive if reclamation of wasteland; negative if destruction of
(semi-)natural vegetation
3. Ìmpact on biodiversity
·
Monoculture: improved by intercropping, agroforestry, and set
aside part of the land
·
Some unchecked reports on invasiveness
·
Positive: low use of biocides
4. Ìmpact on soil
1. Mostly positive impact (erosion control, carbon seqestration)
2. Negative impact if intensively grown with high input of fertilizers
and machinery
6. Ìmpact on water
·
Positive on-site, negative off-site (cfr. Heuvelmans et al. 2005,
J. of LCA); more research needed

Expected GHG baIance
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Positive GHG balance. But may become less positive
·
After transesterification
·
without energetic use of the byproducts
·
with increasing N-fertilisation
·
if shipped to remote markets such as Europe

Expected GHG baIance
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Source: K. Prueksakorn & S.H. Gheewala, 2006. Energy and Greenhouse
Gas Ìmplications of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas L.

Expected Energy baIance
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Positive energy balance. But may become less
positive:
·
After transesterification
·
without energetic use of the byproducts
·
with increasing intensification and
mechanisation of the production cycle
·
if shipped to remote markets such as Europe

Energy consumption when producing
1 GJ of Jatropha methyI ester and co-products
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Source: K. Prueksakorn & S.H. Gheewala, 2006. Energy and Greenhouse
Gas Ìmplications of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas L.

Energy production when producing
1 GJ of Jatropha methyI ester and co-products
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
Source: K. Prueksakorn & S.H. Gheewala, 2006. Energy and Greenhouse
Gas Ìmplications of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas L.

FinaI concIusion
W W W.K U L E U V E N.B E
The Jatropha hype is not sufficiently supported
by hard data on crop production, production
optimization, and environmental impact
Urgent need for:
-
Reliable inventory data for the complete life
cycle
-
Special focus on land use impact (including
benefits)
-
Research on water relationships

Thank you for your
attention!
Contact: bart.muys@biw.kuIeuven.be
Ackowledgements: VLÌR (Flemish Ìnteruniversity Council)

         

  
  
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