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An Introduction:Today, BSNL is the No.

1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. Apart from vast network expansions, especial emphasis has given for introducing latest technologies and new services like I-NET, INTERNET, ISDN (INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK), IN (INTELLIGENT NETWORK), GSM and WLL (WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP) services etc. Now BSNL has also entered in mobile communication. BSNL has all the new services send technological advantages, which are available with any well, developed Telecom network anywhere else in the country. Full credit for all above achievement goes to the officers and staff of the BSNL. The administration is fully aware of the challenges lying ahead and quite committed to provide the latest and best telecom services by their continued support and active co-operation. BSNL Services:When it comes connecting the four corners of the country , and much beyond , one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle- BSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of the leader. It is working round the clock to take India in to the future by providing excellent telecom services for people of India. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from global leaders, it connects each inch of India to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step in to tomorrow. The telecom services have been recognized the world over as an important tool for socioeconomic development for a nation and hence telecom infrastructure is treated a crucial factor to realize the socio-economic objectives in India. Accordingly the Department of Telecom has been formulating developmental policies for the accelerated growth of the telecommunication services in various cities. The department is also responsible for frequency management in the field of radio connection in close coordination with the international bodies. MAKING A TELEPHONE CALL A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handsets of the base. Once the dial tone is heard, the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits, the telephone number of called party. The switching equipment from the exchange removes the dial tone from the line after the first digit is received and after receiving the last digit, determines the called party is in the same exchange or a different ones. If the called is in the same exchange, burst of ringing current is applied to the called party¶s line. Each telephone contains a ringer that responds to specific electric frequency. When the called party answers the telephone by pocking up the handset, steady start to flow in the called party¶s line and is detected by the exchange. The exchange than stops applying ringing and sets up the connection between the caller and the called party. If the called party is in different exchange from the caller, the caller exchange set up the connection over the telephone network to the called party¶s exchange. The called party then handles the process of ringing, detecting an answer, and notifying the calling and billing machinery when the call is completed. When conversation is over, one or both parties hang up by replacing their handset on the base, stopping the flow of current. The exchange when

ready to take over in a few seconds in the event of equipment failure. which in turns operates the switching to complete the call or routes it a higher level switch for further processing. It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. Various exchanges present in BSNL are: E-10B OCB283 EWSD All exchange has some purposes and some basic structural units. . Computer unit As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. Power Plant:. Computer Unit: . which perform the functions the human operator. switching network (CX) maintain the continuous temperature + or ± 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange). deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. including notifying billing equipment of the duration of the call if appropriate. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room.e. subscribers connection unit 2. OMC For smooth working of an exchange following unit are very important:1. MDF: . ABOUT THE EXCHANGE All telephone subscribers are served by automatic exchanges. it is the interface between subscribers and connect switch (exchange) with the external environment (subscriber) i. 2. one running the program that provides services and the second monitoring the operation of the first. The number being dialed is stored and then passed to the exchange¶s central computer. AC Plant: . Today¶s automatic exchanges uses a pair of feed proper power supply to exchange 3. which are: 1. control unit 4.initiates the process of taking down the connection.

Engine Room:-we know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time. by using this. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet. Thus. but there are also some instruments which cannot withstand with this type of power supply. . The main parts of the power room are: Batteries: . The main source of this exchange is AC supply. In this system when the user enters it¶s complained it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange. The main work of the discharging unit is to control the discharging of the batteries. even a microsecond delay will cause the loss of data. this room controls the supply of the engine. until it gets fully charged. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. the power is the main source or any organization.the batteries we are using in the power room need timely charging. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input. However. which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room. we make use of the charging unit present in the power room.Discharging Unit: . As we know there is some equipment which can withstand any type of power supply. subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. It is the case of E-10B exchange. Inverter and Converter Unit: . As soon as the AC power supply is on.the UPS must give supply to the computer. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the latest service by the exchange. They are of 885 KVA. In this type of charging awe take of the batteries from the load and charge separately. as soon as the power supply is gone off.It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. POWERPLANT As we know that. The server present in the main computer room provides this service. The slowly charging of the batteries is known as the trickle charging. thus for this. Even if the power supply gone off. Charging.these are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off. UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply):. we have an engine to generate the power supply. then what is source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. The main servers of this room are:IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange.the main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange. But sometimes we need the BOOSTER charging.

centrifugal compressors are used. we use the testing These testing are T. The refrigerant then passes trough the evaporator coils. testing. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME The primary function of MDF is: The fault of telephone number is removed in the MDF.On the rack. The basic advantages of cooling systems are followingIt provides the thermal stability so that the temperature does not reach the tolerance limit of electronic equipment It saves equipment from dust so to avoid malfunction of equipment¶s. The compressor is the heart of the AC system and the costliest.Y. Group testing. It protects equipment from excess humidity which can caused rusting of equipment. The capillary tube or the expansion valve pressurizes liquid refrigerant and meters it flows to the evaporator. which extract heat out of the ambience. number of that particular telephone number. printer and computer test N. cooling system is basic requirement.CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONER For the function of electrical equipment. Compressor comes in various types. etc. For removing the fault of telephone number. For any type of testing firstly we need the vertical no. For capacity more than 120 TR. The condenser liquefies the refrigerant gas by a heat exchange process. ORGANISATION OF THE MDF PARTS OF THE MDF Horizontal side Vertical side HORIZONTAL SIDE: It is again subdivided in to two parts Exchange side Line side Description of the horizontal side:RACK: . One rack is having eight tags.E. the tags are situated. The basic unit of measurement used in the industry is known as ³ton of refrigeration´ (TR) which is equivalent to the heat extracted in 24 hours for converting thousands kg of liquid to ice at zero degree. It increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas coming from the evaporator coils by compressing it. The most widely used is simple reciprocal type a cylinder and piston arrangement. or the live tester. .T. it is called as Fault Remove Section. The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the MDF because of some specific reason. The courting is done from up (0) to down (7).

VERTICAL SIDE: The vertical aside connected to the underground cable. which include the V-SAT network. V-SAT NETWORK What is V-SAT? It can be defined as a class of very small aperture Intelligent Satellite Earth Station suitable for easy on-premise installation. Now let us see how BSNL has kept up with the changing world and provided the subscribers with the latest facilities technologies. Capable of supporting a wide range of two ways integrated Telecom Services. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber. This is how the present day telephone system works. the WLL (wireless in local loop) and the GSM mobile. Different exchanges have different architectures of switching call routing and other features. This cable is having 100 pairs.Each rack consists of eight tags. 1 tag = 4 core 1 core = 4 bunch 1 bunch = 2 line N. WEDGE:-If we want to disconnect any two numbers then we insert a wedge between subscriber side and exchange side. Here wedge works as insulator made of plastic. The EWSD and MDF connected by NE.The word NE stands for the µNUMBER OF EQUIPMENT¶. Internet.E. It is a 128 pair cable. It has the following components: Micro Earth Station Mini Earth Station Personal Earth Station Roof Top Terminal Customer Premises Terminal . Vertical side is again subdivided in two parts: One part is connected with the horizontal side and another with the subscriber line by using 100 pair underground cable.:. usually operating in conjugation with a large size HUB earth station.TAG: .

The minimum speed offered to the customer is 256 Kbps at Rs. Subsequently. data and image transfer over the same line.per month only. the facility which no other ISP has. BSNL launched DataOne broadband service in January 2005 which shall be extended to 198 cities very shortly. the countrywide Internet Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line access. Video-on-Demand.Basic Telephone Services The Plain old. Multicasting. BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates. Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) with a host of Phone Plus value additions. BSNL has customer base of more than 1. Broadcast application etc will be added.7 million for sancharnet service. Countrywide telephone Service through 32.000 electronic exchanges. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. other services such as VPN. You can use your dialup sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' . Internet Keeping the global network of Networks networked. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video conferencing. . for web browsing and Email applications. Video Conferencing. 250/. CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service. ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital network providing high speed and high quality voice.

E-mail.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection) and frame relay services. Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international. It offers a choice of high.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104 cities of the country. Voice Mail.2 million. useful for Internet leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs). unified messaging service (send .25 x. medium and low speed leased data circuits as well as dial-up lines.28 leased. Cellular Mobile Service Postpaid and Prepaid BSNL¶s GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services. Leased Lines & Datacom BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various application on point to point basis. GPRS. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps. Bandwidth is available on demand in most cities. x. It offers x. such as: Free Phone Service (FPH) India Telephone Card (Prepaid card) Account Card Calling (ACC) Virtual Private Network (VPN) Tele-voting Premium Rae Service (PRM) Universal Access Number (UAN) and more I-Net India s x.

Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based network in urban areas. Wireless in Local Loop This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio freque ncy signals as a substitute for conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas. Limited mobility without any air-time charge .and receive e-mails) etc. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi). You can use BSNL Mobile in over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network.