IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY BY RECOVERY OF HEAT FROM IC ENGINE EXHAUST (THERMAL SCIENCES

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CONTENTS: 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. PRINCIPLE OF HEAT RECOVERY FROM IC ENGINE 4. NECESSITY OF THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM 5. LATENT HEAT THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM 6. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 7. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSIONS 8. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS STUDY 9. CONCLUSION

IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY BY RECOVERY OF HEAT FROM IC ENGINE EXHAUST

ABSTRACT The steady increased consumption of fuel and power over the years have been causing carbon-di-oxide emissions and have resulted in ozone layer depletion with

scientific evidence of global warming. As a result, many ways of conserving energy resources are being developed such as waste heat recovery system. Most of the process in industries like textile, sugar, cement, paper etc have large capacity Diesel Generators. The exhaust gas of such a generator set carries a lot of heat and it goes waste if it is not utilized properly. Air preheater using Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system to a certain extent. However, there is still a large potential to store and utilize the exit stream energy by the efficient implementation of suitable heat recovery system and improve the overall thermal efficiency. The major technical constraint, which prevents successful implementation of such a system, is intermittent, time mismatched demand availability of energy. In this paper, in order to overcome the above constraint an integrated Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger and a combined thermal storage system is designed and fabricated. The performance characteristics of the Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger and the storage tank during charging are also explained in detail.

INTRODUCTION There exists today a worldwide concern about the best ways of using the depletable sources of energy and for developing techniques to reduce pollution. This interest has encouraged research and development efforts in the field of alternative energy sources, cost-effective use of the exhaustible sources of energy, and the use of the usually wasted forms of energy.

As the fuel prices continues to escalate, the relevance of efficient energy management is apparent to companies everywhere, from the smallest concern to the largest multinationals. The methods and techniques adopted to improve energy utilization will vary depending on circumstances. But the basic principles of reducing energy cost relative to productivity will be same. A large number of industrial processes covering most industrial sectors, use significant amounts of energy in the form of heat, which are rarely efficient .Thus there is considerable scope for the use of heat exchangers and other form of heat equipment to enable waste heat to be recovered .The potential savings possible are greatest for the temperatures ranges from 200C to 500C. The developed countries are the pacesetters in energy consumption, discharging at the same time vast amounts of waste energy .The industry in these countries consumes the largest share of energy. RECOVERY AND UTILIZATION OF WASTE HEAT The energy that is wasted by an industry takes the form of unburnt but combustible fuel, sensible heat discharge from drain water and more notably, the sensible and latent heat discharge from flue gases(stacks). Waste energy can be recovered by the installation of combustion equipment to utilize the waste fuel, and the provision of heat recovery equipment to regain sensible, latent heat. Much effort has been expended during the past two decades to re-use the waste heat. Waste heat is usually but not always characterized by low temperature. There are many methods through which this energy can be recovered and utilized. Unburnt fuel can be expended in special combustion equipment. The recovered energy can be utilized to reduce the cost of waste disposal. Depending on the temperature level of the wasted heat and the proposed application, different heat exchangers can be employed to facilitate the use of recovered heat. Energy storage is needed when there is an interval between energy recovered and use. The application of heat recovery should be physically close to the source of waste heat for maximum benefits from the recovered energy. Diesel engine is the one of the most efficient and versatile prime movers. These engines are used in automobiles, stationary power generating plants, air compressors and construction machinery etc. About one third of the heat generated by the engine is lost in to the

surroundings of the combustion space and is being dissipated through exhaust and radiation from the engine. PRINCIPLE OF HEAT RECOVERY FROM IC ENGINE In all energy conversion methods due to thermodynamic constraints and other reasons, large quantity of heat available in the exit stream goes into the atmosphere without proper utilization and these result in a major drop in efficiency. Air preheater using Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system and cogeneration are successful techniques to improve the overall thermal efficiency of a system to a certain extent. However, there is still a large potential to store and utilize the exit stream energy by the efficient implementation of suitable WHR systems and improve the overall thermal efficiency. NECESSITY OF THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM Thermal storage units have received greater attention in solar and waste heat recovery thermal applications, because of the large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behavior during charging and discharging process. The major technical constraint, which prevents successful implementation of heat recovery system, is intermittent time mismatched demand and availability. In order to overcome the above constraint WHR device integrated with thermal storage unit can be adopted. Thermal energy storage provides one practical means of storing energy during availability and use this energy when needed.

TYPES OF THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM Thermal energy storage can be achieved in the form of sensible heat of a solid or liquid medium, latent heat of a phase change substance or by a chemical reaction. The choice of storage media depends on the amount of energy to be stored in unit volume or weight of the medium and the temperature range which is required for a given application.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experimental setup consists of a six cylinders Ashok Leyland engine, heat recovery heat exchanger and thermal storage system. Fig 1 shows a schematic diagram of the experimental setup. ENGINE SETUP The engine used for this work is a four stroke, water cooled, six cylinder Diesel engines. The rating of the engine is 82 hp at 1500rpm. The engine is mounted on the bed with suitable connections for fuel and cooling water supply. The engine is coupled with a generator to vary the load on the engine. HEAT RECOVERY HEAT EXCHANGER It consists of a vertical cylindrical shape heater core made of mild steel, with a circumference of 0.3m and an active length of 0.45m. A copper tube of size 0.01m is wound over this heater core at gradual intervals across its length. The copper tube is connected into the thermal storage tank that is filled with water and phase change material, and is made in the shape of a coil, inside the tank. The above said setup is fitted in the exhaust pipe of the engine to extract the waste heat from engine exhaust gas, using water as heat transfer fluid. The water inside the copper tube flows with natural Circulation. Fig shows the schematic diagram of the heat recovery heat exchanger. THERMAL STORAGE TANK The storage tank is a stainless steel vessel of diameter 0.25m and height 0.3m. It contains water as the sensible heat material and paraffin as the latent heat material. Hence it is called combined sensible and latent heat storage system. The water also acts as the heat transfer fluid to extract the heat from the flue gas. The tank is filled with 40 spherical containers made of low density polyethylene(LDPE) having diameter 0.05m and each spherical container contains approximately 100 grams of paraffin. The thermal storage tank is well insulated by using fibre coir to prevent heat radiation to the surroundings. In this paper, the experimental results are enumerated in the form of various graphs of exhaust gas temperature variation. Variations of temperature of the storage and

other performance parameters under various loads on the engine are studied. Based on these graph interferences are given for various observations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE VARIATION It is already seen that as the load increases the exhaust temperature also increases. Hence, when the load on the engine is increases, the exhaust temperature increases. However, initially for some period of time, the engine and auxiliaries will absorb part of the incremental heat till the system attains steady state. Thereafter the temperature of exhaust gas coming from the engine will be approximately at a constant temperature. WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATION The heat in the exhaust gas is extracted in the HRHE by circulating water from the storage tank. The time required to attain 65°C at the outlet of the storage tank is 240 minutes at no load condition and 180 minutes at 40 amps and 140 minutes at 60 amps load condition respectively. This is due to the increased heat extraction rate at higher loads. It is also evident from the graphs that at all load conditions the rate of increase in temperature is appreciable up to a temperature of 60degreeC to 65degreeC. It is due to the fact that when the temperature reaches 60degreeC, the paraffin in the storage tank start changes its phase and for the phase large amount of heat is taken from the water and this reduces the rate of increase in temperature of water.

TEMPERATURE VARIATION IN THE STORAGE TANK Fig shows the temperature variation of the water in the storage tank at the selected thermocouple locations. The temperature measurements are taken at 6 different locations (i.e., at three different heights and two radial locations at each height) in the storage tank. It is seen from the graphs that at any time, there is small difference in temperature

between the top and bottom thermocouples. This is due to stratification caused by the density difference of the hot and cold water. ENGINE FUEL CONSUMPTION The fuel consumed by the engine is noted in order to calculate the heat carried away by the exhaust gas. It is seen that the fuel consumption is increases as the load on the engine increases. The fuel consumed is 8 lit/hr at no load and 11lit/hr at 40 amps load and 13lit/hrat 60 amps load.

CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions are drawn.

 Approximately 0.2% of the energy in the fuel or 6 to 7% of the energy in the exhaust waste heat can be recovered using such a HRHE system can be stored in the storage tank depending on the load on the engine.  The percentage of heat recovered can be increased further by increasing the surface area of the HRHE.  The charging efficiency of the storage tank and the percentage energy saved can be improved further with proper insulation.  A combined storage system overcomes the main drawback of sensible storage system by exhibiting isothermal behavior.  The higher heat capacity of the combined system reduces the size and space requirements compared to conventional storage.

REFERENCES: 1. Abhat A. (1983) ‘Low Temperature Latent Heat, Thermal Energy Storage. Heat Storage Materials’, Solar Energy, and Vol.30 pp.313-332. 2. Desai A.D. (2001) ‘Design, Fabrication and Testing of Heat Recovery System from Diesel Engine Exhaust’, J.Institution of Engineers, Vol.82, pp.1-6. .

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS STUDY

Fig .VARIATION OF HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY EXHAUST GAS FOR DIFFERENT LOADS ON THE ENGINE

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS STUDY

Fig .VARAITION OF TEMPERATURE IN ‘C WITH TIME IN MINUTES FOR DIFFERENT LOADS ON THE ENGINE

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS STUDY

Fig. VARIATION OF CHARGING RATE FOR DIFFERENT LOADS ON THE ENGINE

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS STUDY

Fig. VARIATION OF CHARGING EFFICIENCY FOR DIFFERENT LOADS ON THE ENGINE

PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

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