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Voice over IP

Robert Warnke

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© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agenda
• • • • Voice over IP Fundamentals PacketCable Overview PacketCable Multimedia Current Status of PacketCable Residential VoIP Solution

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© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Why Voice over IP?
• Traditional TDM
– High recurring maintenance costs – Monolithic switch design with proprietary interfaces – Uses dedicated, voice-only bandwidth in HFC network

• IP
– Many services, one network – Leverages existing data infrastructure – Enhanced services – Open standards

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© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Why VoIP over Cable?
• Deployed architecture
– Existing Physical network – Existing Data Network – Available bandwidth

• Widely accepted standards
– DOCSIS, Euro-DOCSIS – Enables construction of networks with “Best of breed” equipment – don’t have to buy everything from one vendor

• Provides MSO’s with “Triple Play” of Video, Data and Voice helping to reduce customer churn
Presentation_ID
© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Traditional Telephony Network
SCP STP STP
Class 4 Tandem IMT Class 5 GR-303 COT GR-303 RDT Twisted Pair IMT

STP
Class 4 Tandem IMT Class 5 GR-303 COT GR-303 RDT Twisted Pair

STP

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© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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All rights reserved. Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.Traditional Telephony Network • Class 5 Switch – Provides ‘line-side’ connectivity – Implements call features (*69.) – Acts as SS7 Signaling Switch Point (SSP) – Bearer traffic carried on Inter-Machine Trunks (IMT) • Line Side Concentration – Facilitated by GR-303 – 4 to 1 concentration – 4 subscribers per DS0 – RDT aggregates analog twisted-pair lines • End-to-end connection – DS0 (64kbps PCM) is allocated on all links in network for duration of call. 6 . Call-waiting. *72. Inc. forming a ‘virtual circuit’. etc.

7 . All rights reserved.VoIP and Traditional Telephony Network Interconnection SCP STP STP Class 4 Tandem IMT Class 5 GR-303 COT GR-303 RDT CMS/ SoftSwitch STP Class 4 Tandem IMT Signaling GW STP IMT Class 5 GR-303 COT GR-303 RDT MGC V DOCSIS 1. Inc.1 NCS EMTA CMTS CMTS NCS EMTA HFC Plant Provider Backbone HFC Plant MG Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

728 – 16kbps – high complexity • Each packetization interval. 8 . Inc.Voice Sampling and CODEC’s • Digitally encoded audio – Audio is sampled at 8000 samples/sec – Samples for regular time intervals (‘time slices’) are assembled into frames.729E – enhanced – 11.8kbps – high complexity – G. All rights reserved. sampled audio is encapsulated into an IP packet and transmitted Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.711 – corresponds to PSTN DS0 64kbps – low complexity – G.8kbps . frame size varies according to Codec (codec = coder/decoder) – Sample data may be compressed depending on Codec • Example Codecs – G.729A – 8x compressed .medium complexity – G.

Packetization Interval Tradeoffs • Short interval – Lowers end-to-end latency – Lost packet contains smaller amount of actual voice data. less efficient use of network bandwidth • Long interval – Greater network bandwidth efficiency – Fewer packets = less stress on packet forwarding network elements • Most deployments use 20ms packetization interval Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. less impact on voice quality – Higher overhead. 9 .

10 . Inc.VoIP Transport • Packet Encapsulation – RTP – Real Time Protocol • Provides timestamp and packet sequence numbering so destination applications can reassemble and playback speech – UDP – User Datagram Protocol • Provides port number addressing. so that the correct destination application can receive the packet • Provides data integrity via CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) – IP – Internet Protocol • Provides routing info for packets to get to appropriate destination • Provides packet prioritization Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Building a Voice over IP Packet (G. All rights reserved. 11 .711u. 20ms) 20 ms 20 ms 20 ms 6 18 20 8 12 DOCSIS 802. Inc.3 IP UDP RTP MAC 160 Voice Data = 224 bytes Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

ensure the following: – Low latency (minimal delay in delivering packets) – Low jitter (expected arrival vs. actual arrival time) – Very few dropped packets Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 12 . All rights reserved. on an inherently asynchronous IP network • In simplest terms.Network Requirements • Deliver a service that approximates that provided by the synchronous PSTN. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. 13 .Agenda • • • • Voice over IP Fundamentals PacketCable Overview PacketCable Multimedia Current Status of PacketCable Residential VoIP Solution Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.PacketCable Overview • Founded in late 1997 to address the need for a multimedia architecture • Requires a DOCSIS 1. Inc.1 access network with cable modem and CMTS as the core delivery components • Addresses issues such as: –Signaling for services –Media transport at variable QoS (Quality of Service) levels –Security –Provisioning of the client device –Billing –Network Management Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 14 .

ability to “plug and play” different components – Each functional element of the solution is described individually.Packet Cable Architecture Highlights • Focus is on a standards based solution • Flexible Architecture. MGC. allowing for the MSOs to implement best of breed – At the same time credence has to be given to a solution that is also operable as one end to end solution. MGW. eMTA. All rights reserved. and that needs to be weighed when defining the solution • PacketCable certifies different features and functionality during its certification waves – Cert Waves include CMS. Inc. 15 . Calea etc – Basic Interoperability is tested Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.PacketCable Reference Architecture SS7 The Switch and Gateway Components are The Switch and Gateway Components are Fundamental to Call Control and Speech Transmission Fundamental to Call Control and Speech Transmission Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 16 . Inc.

Media Servers 17 . Inc.PacketCable™ Network Architecture MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP DOCSIS 1.1 V MG NCS EMTA (NID) CMTS HFC Plant Provider Backbone Provisioning Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CALEA ANN SRV CONF SRV VM PSTN Voice Path Signaling Billing Events Presentation_ID CUST. DB Provisioning © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

G.728) • Supports secure provisioning from the back office • NCS (Network-based Call Signaling) to the CMS (Call Management Server) – based on MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) • Support for QoS – interaction with DOCSIS-level QoS is required Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 18 .Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1. G.729E.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP V NCS EMTA (NID) • MTA has specialized Telephony hardware and software • CPE is considered outside the trust boundary • Three types – Embedded (inside house). Inc. All rights reserved. Non-Embedded MG PSTN HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CUST. G. NID (outside house).g. DB CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV Provisioning Media Servers • Black-phone (RJ-11)) capability with support for standard audio codec speeds (e.711.

Headend (CMTS) MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1. functional components that classify and enforce QoS policy per voice session as directed by a gate controller • Event messages are generated for billing purposes (QoS info only) Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 19 . DB CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV Provisioning Media Servers • PacketCable uses dynamic QoS (dQoS) • Uses DOCSIS mechanisms on the access side. CUST. Inc.g.1 access to CMs on the HFC network • Provides connectivity to the Managed IP Network • CMTS is the first entity within the trust boundary V NCS EMTA (NID) MG PSTN HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC • Support for Electronic Surveillance as required by CALEA • CMTS plays a central role in setting up QoS.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP • CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System) provides the DOCSIS 1. and IP (e. All rights reserved. DSCP) on the core • Implemented using gates.

PacketCable functionality on the CMTS CMS Gate Controller RKS CALEA DF CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA COPS Gate Control Radius Event Msgs RTP Multicast DOCSIS 1.1 Dynamic Service Policy Enforcement HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone NCS EMTA (NID) DQoS Gate Database Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. 20 .

MGCP) for setting up voice sessions and invoking telephony features • Maintains the state of all calls. Call Forward) • Includes a Gate Controller initiating DQoS set-up HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CUST. local number portability.g. 21 .Call Management Server (SoftSwitch) MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP V NCS EMTA (NID) MG PSTN • Provides call control and signaling (NCS. All rights reserved. DB CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV Provisioning Media Servers • Supports call routing both on-net (terminating on an IP endpoint) and offnet (routed to the PSTN – Public Switched Telephony Network) • Generates most of the event messages used for billing per voice session • Enables Electronic Surveillance as required by CALEA • May support such telephony features as directory listings. E911 Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. Provides Line Side Features (e.. Inc.

DB CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV Provisioning Media Servers • MGC is often part of the CMS – controls the MG and SG using PacketCabledefined signaling protocols and maintains call state • Generates event messages (interconnect-related) used for billing per voice session • Enables Electronic Surveillance as required by CALEA Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.g. All rights reserved. T1 trunks) • SG (Signaling Gateway) provides signaling to an SS7 network V NCS EMTA (NID) MG PSTN HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CUST.. 22 . Inc.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP • MGC (Media Gateway Controller) manages access to the PSTN • MG (Media Gateway) provides bearer channel access to the PSTN (e.PSTN Connectivity MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1.

the FBI) •Initiates surveillance per subscriber with the CMS •Collects call detail information from the CMS. DB CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV Provisioning Media Servers •CALEA Server allows for lawful electronic surveillance to be initiated: •Provides a gateway to the law enforcement entity (e. All rights reserved. 23 . and PSTN gateway •Collects call content information from the CMTS and PSTN gateway •Other back-office servers may include servers for such functions as voicemail and directory listing Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP V NCS EMTA (NID) MG PSTN HFC Plant CMTS •ANS (Announcement Server) manages and plays customized informational messages •Consists of an ANC (Announcement Controller) and an ANP (Announcement Player) Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CUST. CMTS. Inc.Back-office Server Components MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1..g.

Inc.1 CMS/ SoftSwitch LNP STP • RKS (Record Keeping Server) collects event messages From CMS. DB • KDC (Key Distribution Server) for security keys • A provisioning server supporting SNMP-V3 drives the MTA initialization and provisioning from subscriber data using PacketCable Provisioning MIBs. Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. Minimal PacketCablespecific MIBs exist for network management. All rights reserved. MGC and CMTS and interfaces with a billing system • DHCP server allocates IP addresses • DNS is required for naming the PacketCable components V NCS EMTA (NID) MG PSTN HFC Plant CMTS Provider Backbone Provisiong Server DNS/DHCP TFTP TOD KDC CUST. Provisioning Media Servers CALEA ANN CONF VM SRV SRV • CMS provisioning support is described but not fully specified • TFTP is used to download device configuration files (driven by provisioning) • Network Management at the DOCSIS level is required.Operations Support Systems (OSS) Components MGC RKS Signaling GW CM NCS MTA NCS EMTA DOCSIS 1. 24 . fault and performance.

& MGC to RKS) & CALEA (from CMS. a MGCP profile • Trunking Gateway Control Protocol (TGCP) – Interface between MG and MGC. 25 . Inc. & MGC to DF) • Dynamic QoS Specification (DQoS) – various QoS interfaces defined between PacketCable components. a MGCP profile • Event Messages Interfaces – event message carries network info over RADIUS for CDR (from CMS. CMTS. CMTS. • Common Open Policy Service (COPS) – Transports DQoS between Gate Controller (QoS management component in CMS) and CMTS (IETF RFC 2748) Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.Interfaces Defined by PacketCable • Network-Based Call Signaling (NCS) – Interface between MTA and CMS. All rights reserved.

CALEA 26 . All rights reserved. FGD 911 AT. OPS Announcement. VM and IVR Server Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.Voice Signaling Interfaces NCS TGCP SIP COPS SSH Cable User MTA CMS/MGC PSTN SS7 A-Link Internet STP Router M M MGW IMT Cable IP Infrastructure Cable User MTA Class 4/ EO MF. Inc.

Bearer/Data Path Internet Data Voice RTP CMS/MGC PSTN SS7 A-Link Internet STP Cable User MTA Router M M MGW IMT Class 4/ EO MF. VM and IVR Server Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. CALEA 27 . FGD 911 AT OPS Cable IP Infrastructure Cable User MTA Announcement.

Bearer Traffic Highlights • Bearer traffic goes directly to the trunking gateway for off-net calls or to the terminating MTA for on-net calls • Traffic follows the best path defined by the network and the IP routing protocols • Bearer Traffic is not forced through a central location but rather through the optimum path to its ultimate destination. Inc. minimizing jitter and delay Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 28 .

1 QoS • Participating network elements include CMS. and use of DOCSIS 1. 29 . All rights reserved. CMTS and eMTA • Introduces Concepts of Gates on the CMTS – COPS(Common Open Policy Server) signaling for Gate-Alloc and Gate-Set messages – RADIUS signaling for Gate Open and Gate Close messages Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. arguably the single most important PacketCable specification • Creates an association between application specific signaling (NCS). Inc. subscriber information.PacketCable DQoS • Dynamic Quality of Service.

Gate Close messages are sent by CMTS such that other CMTS knows far-end call leg has been constructed. • Coordinated When both endpoints are on the cable network. Gate Open. Inc.DQoS Gates • Ephemeral (exist _only_ for duration of call) • Will automatically be deleted if not ‘used’ eMTA _must_ send DOCSIS DSA/DSC within short timeframe identifying Gate-ID to be used. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. • DOCSIS DSA/DSC must be within QoS limits specified within Gate spec. 30 .

stops Gate Timers Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. Start Gate Timers NCS EMTA HFC Plant DOCSIS 1. Signaling (NCS) w/ GateID Allocate/Set Gate. All rights reserved. DOCSIS 1. Inc.1 UGS Active ! 31 . DSC with GateID • CMTS verifies DSX against Gate.PacketCable™ dQoS CMS Initiate Call Continue Call Sgnlg.1 CMTS • DSA.

All rights reserved. 32 . informs other elements via call signaling • Bearer traffic is encapsulated by CMTS/MG and sent to the Delivery Function (DF) Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.PacketCable™ Electronic Surveillance • Supported by protocol elements of NCS. Inc. COPS Gate signaling and TGCP • CMS is made aware of subject under surveillance.

Inc.PacketCable™ Electronic Surveillance MGC RKS CMS Signaling GW LNP NTFY Gate Set NCS EMTA STP DSX NTFY Call Ans. CMTS Sig Start Provider Backbone V MG PSTN NCS EMTA HFC Plant QoS Start Call Content CALEA DF Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 33 .

All rights reserved.Circuit Switch (TDM) to VoIP Component Decomposition TDM Switch SCP VoIP over Cable IPRTP Network VoIP Control TDM Switch Fabric SIGTRAN Application Server SIP DQoS SS7 Network A-Link Control Plane TGCP SS7 GW PSTN Gateway PSTN T1/T3 IMT DOCSIS CMTS NCS Trunk Cards Softswitch (CMS/MGC) CPU & Call Processing Software OAM&P HFC MTA Line Cards Analog Phone Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 34 . Inc.

Inc. 35 . All rights reserved.Agenda • • • • Voice over IP Fundamentals PacketCable Overview PacketCable Multimedia Current Status of PacketCable Residential VoIP Solution Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc.Introducing PacketCable MultiMedia New and Improved way of obtaining QoS! • Signaling Agnostic • More Generic • MSO generated Policy Controls • Dumb devices = less $$ Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. 36 .

Inc. video. Soft-phones Residential S-MTA X-Box/Playstation gaming consoles Business-class IADs. and data applications: Bandwidth on Demand Low-latency Gaming Gaming with Audio/Video Video Telephony IM/Chat with QoS voice and video ‘Presence-based’ voice/video * Not required for all PCMM Apps Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.PacketCable Multimedia • Prescribes how DQoS and BW can be used to create services that are formidable competitive weapons. 37 . IP Phones • Builds upon Docsis and PacketCable*. • Provides a generic application framework for enabling cable QoS for non-QoS-aware devices. enabling numerous voice. All rights reserved.

Inc.New Components • Application Manager Any service controlling host which has detailed knowledge of the application’s bandwidth requirements – Gaming Server – SIP Proxy Server – PacketCable CMS • Policy Server Host which polices Application Manager Requests Communicates directly with the CMTS MSO driven rule set Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 38 .

All rights reserved. .1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 39 © 2004 Cisco Systems.Sample Call Flow Step 1. Inc. User A is initiating a session to User B Application Manager “I’d like to play Quake with Brian” Policy Server You DOCSIS 1.

Inc.1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 40 © 2004 Cisco Systems.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 2. All rights reserved. AM sends 2 Gate-Set to the Policy Server (one for each flow direction) Application Manager Gate-Set Policy Server You DOCSIS 1. .

All rights reserved. . Application Manager Policy Server You Gate-Set DOCSIS 1. If the AM requests pass the MSO policies.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 3. the PS will forward the requests to the CMTS. Inc.1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 41 © 2004 Cisco Systems.

CMTS initializes the service flows to the CM if they pass admission control Application Manager Policy Server You DSA DOCSIS 1. All rights reserved. Inc.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 4. .1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 42 © 2004 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. .1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 43 © 2004 Cisco Systems. Inc.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 5. CM responds to the CMTS Application Manager Policy Server You DSA-RSP DOCSIS 1.

1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 44 © 2004 Cisco Systems. Inc.ACK DOCSIS 1. . CMTS finishes the 3 way handshake Application Manager Policy Server You DSA. All rights reserved.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 6.

1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 45 © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. CMTS responds to the PS Application Manager Policy Server You Gate-Set-Ack DOCSIS 1.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 7. . Inc.

PS responds to the AM Application Manager Gate-Set-Ack Policy Server You DOCSIS 1. All rights reserved.Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 8.1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 46 © 2004 Cisco Systems. . Inc.

The AM tells the user that the flow is ready Application Manager “Go for it” Policy Server You DOCSIS 1.1 CM Presentation_ID CMTS 47 © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. .Sample Call Flow (cont) Step 9.

48 . Inc.PCMM benefits: • CPE can be any application (SIP. Game Consoles) • CM is off the shelf DOCSIS 1. All rights reserved.1 cable modem • Neither the CM nor the CPE need to be PacketCable QoS aware • Policy servers allow the MSO to build flexible rules regarding which applications are allowed Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

Inc. 49 . All rights reserved.Agenda • • • • Voice over IP Fundamentals PacketCable Overview PacketCable Multimedia Current Status of PacketCable Residential VoIP Solution Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

50 . All rights reserved. trialing and now deploying a PacketCable compliant Residential Voice solution • All Tier One. Inc. several MSOs have been evaluating.Status of Packet Cable Residential Voice over Cable NA • Over the past several years. Two and Three MSOs have been considering a residential voice solution • Several of the Tier Ones and smaller MSOs have already rolled out a solution • The solution is here TODAY! – Over 300K+ subscribers are currently being served on PacketCable based residential Voice solutions Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems.

© . All rights reserved.Status Report – Where We are Today Cable Telephony Systems Adoption Lifecycle Establish the Market MSO Business Case/ MSO Business Case/ Market Validation Market Validation Technology Incubation Technology Incubation & Validation & Validation Voice Solution Validation Voice Solution Validation First Customer Trial First Customer Launch MSO Adoption Operationalize and Scale MSO Operations MSO Operations Optimization Optimization Differentiate the Services Advanced Application Advanced Application Deployment Deployment Cisco Adoption Management/Systems Management/Systems Operations Maturity Operations Maturity Services Scaling and Services Scaling and Partner Enablement Partner Enablement 1M Cisco Cable Voice Lines (Est 7/05) 1998 Cable Town Hall Presentation_ID 2001 2004 Today 2007 2010+ 51 © 2004 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Systems. Inc. 2003. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc.Where The Industry Focus is Heading Towards MSO Adoption Establish the Market MSO Business Case/ MSO Business Case/ Market Validation Market Validation Technology Incubation Technology Incubation & Validation & Validation Operationalize and Scale MSO Operations MSO Operations Optimization Optimization Differentiate the Services Advanced Application Advanced Application Deployment Deployment Cisco Adoption Management/Systems Management/Systems Operations Maturity Operations Maturity Services Scaling and Services Scaling and Partner Enablement Partner Enablement 1M Cisco Cable Voice Lines (Est 7/05) Voice Solution Validation Voice Solution Validation First Customer Trial First Customer Launch 1998 Cable Town Hall Presentation_ID 2001 2004 2007 2010+ 52 © 2004 Cisco Systems. 2003. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. © .

Presentation_ID © 2004 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 53 . Inc.