You are on page 1of 7


non job related factors. job security.3 Managing People 1 (a) December 2003 Answers The case illustrates Herzberg’s motivation theory. Understanding Herzberg’s theory identifies the nature of intrinsic satisfaction that can be obtained from the work itself. It is poorly designed with a lack of job descriptions. targets. The most important part of this theory of motivation is that the main motivating factors are not in the environment but in the intrinsic value and satisfaction gained from the job itself. The structural and cultural implications of the scenario suggest that this organisation is in fact an inefficient bureaucracy. Hygiene (or maintenance) factors lead to job dissatisfaction because of the need to avoid unpleasantness. procedures and position required for such an organisation to operate do not exist. rationality. understanding and loyalty. improved social skills and opportunities. In addition there is a lack of training and skill development appropriate to supervisors. the sense of achievement. These attempt to explain those factors which motivate the individual by identifying and satisfying the individual’s needs. desires and the goals pursued to satisfy these desires. 7 . content theory. they can be prevented. its activities and culture are based on formality and procedures. Clearly. This is not the case in the scenario. scope for enrichment and be of interest to the job holder. the quality of management. it could lead to greater staff commitment. salary and the perceived differences with others. the roles and functions are the pillars with the management at the top. have clear roles and are not required to be innovative or imaginative. Hygiene factors (or ‘dissatisfiers’) are concerned with those factors associated with. Part of the training could lead to improved work methods. coupled with enhanced skills and abilities could in turn lead to enhanced promotion opportunities for the supervisors. They are so called because they can in turn be avoided by the use of ‘hygienic’ methods i. unclear lines of authority. Attention to these hygiene factors prevents dissatisfaction but does not on its own provide motivation. the need for personal development. This lies at the heart of the organisation’s problems. employees are process and rule oriented. but not directly a part of. This theory of motivation is a two factor. It is based upon the idea that motivation factors can be separated into hygiene factors and motivation factors and is therefore often referred to as a ‘two need system. Motivators lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and a sense of self achievement. The environment is stable.e. Most importantly from the scenario. Individual supervisors would feel that he or she is of value to the organisation and acquire new skills which may be useful in the future. level of recognition. responsibilities and role definition within which the supervisors undertake their duties. the job itself. in the longer term.Part 1 Examination – Paper 1. working conditions. Motivators (or ‘satisfiers’) are those factors directly concerned with the satisfaction gained from the job itself. organisational policy and administration and interpersonal relations. draws attention to job design and makes managers aware that problems of motivation may not necessarily be directly associated with the work. It follows therefore that the job itself must have challenge. regulations. The organisation is – paradoxically – insufficiently bureaucratic. opportunities for advancement and the status provided by the job. the clarity of roles. A shortage of those factors which positively encourage employees (motivating factors) will cause those employees to focus on other. A lack of motivators leads to over concentration on hygiene factors. this kind of organisation is slow to adapt or respond to change. (b) Organisations such as Swandiff Local Authority can be described by Handy’s Role Culture and the structure may also be depicted as Mintzberg’s machine bureaucracy. that is those negative factors which can be seen and therefore form the basis of complaint and concern. illustrated by the supervisors regarding themselves and their role as menial and unrecognised and their lack of responsibility and decision making powers within their own departments. one of the content theories of motivation. the increasing of employee knowledge and. the intrinsic value felt of the job itself. These can be detected in the scenario.’ These two separate ‘needs’ are the need to avoid unpleasantness and discomfort and. predictable. This structure is illustrated by the Greek temple. The organisation is efficient. the so called ‘hygiene’ factors. logic and predictability and is invariably associated with government organisations. there appears to be little or no intrinsic satisfaction from the supervisor’s work. none of this applies to the supervisors at Swandiff. at the other end of the motivational scale. level of responsibility. These are illustrated in the case with the attitude of the supervisors to senior management and their concerns for example with shortages. (c) The benefits for the supervisors can be identified by increased motivation accompanied by greater job satisfaction and improved organisational performance. A matching of individual goals with those of the organisation. recognition and training and ‘we’ve seen it all before’. increase the value of the organisation’s human assets. This is the traditional organisational structure and culture based on rules.

Advertising must be seen to be cost effective because advertising in any media is expensive. the American writer Thomas J Peters has suggested that successful businesses demonstrate eight particular cultural and organisational characteristics. things are kept simple and chaos is tolerated in return for results. However. It must be constructed in such a way as to be attractive to the maximum potential employees and at the same time the advertisement must present the organisation in a positive way. (b) The types of organisation. The cost. Government sponsored employment organisations are the cheapest way of advertising. SIMULTANEOUS LOOSE-TIGHT PROPERTIES. The readership. the expense of trade and professional journals or international newspapers may be seen to be worthwhile. It must be honest and not contain claims that are exaggerated and its contents must be relevant and appropriate. Staff are encouraged and praised. LEAN STAFF. There are no complicated organisational and management structures. Such successful businesses understand the basics. Local newspapers are a useful medium and inexpensive. However. STICK TO THE KNITTING. common organisational culture. The purpose of the advertisement is to attract potential employees and act as a means of pre-selection. 3 Organisations need to recruit the best possible individuals and a common means of recruitment is to place an advertisement. by the organisation’s members is encouraged. An organisation seeking a financial director may advertise in a professional journal or national newspaper. HANDS ON. capable of motivating employees to unusual performance levels. The values of the business and its objectives are shared by all the organisation’s members. Advertisements for skilled factory workers would appear in the local press. Different vacancies will be advertised in different ways. AUTONOMY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP The fostering of innovation and the use of product champions when practical risk taking . Peters focused on the process of organising and ignored many of the standard tools of management such as budgets and plans. SIMPLE FORM. He emphasises the importance of culture and values to organisational success and the desirability of developing a strong. CLOSE TO THE CUSTOMER. A culture of listening to customers. The encouragement of an informal. because these encourage a culture that rejects mistakes and concentrates on negative measures. For example. He rejects ideas based on detailed forecasting and control. being obsessed with customer service. The firm’s core values are prized. He suggested that successful (‘excellent’) businesses displayed particular characteristics. Local businesses may advertise only through local outlets while large international businesses may well look at a wider employment market. The frequency with which the organisation needs to recruit staff. PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH PEOPLE. 8 . A system of ‘management by wandering around’. There is no movement into markets or products outside the core business. simple product divisional forms are used. a team approach is developed based on mutual trust. thinking is encouraged. rewards and specifications. (a) Writing a recruitment advertisement that is attractive and informative is no easy task. Management is involved at all levels and there is encouragement for doing the job well. The organisation grows through internally generated diversification. circulation and suitability of the chosen medium. Although there are different approaches. Preparing an advertisement requires: Skill and attention to fulfil the objective of attraction and pre-selection and must be concise yet contain enough information about the job. An organic system of management is developed. core values such as the control of quality are centralised. The type of job. task oriented culture not based on formal systems.2 Success is a basic requirement of all business organisations. for senior appointments. Autonomy and responsibility is pushed down the organisation. innovative. A BIAS FOR ACTION. accountants read national newspapers but would look for job advertisements in their own professional journals or magazines. People in the organisation are seen as the basic source of quality. If it is poorly constructed then the appropriate potential employees will not be reached. VALUE DRIVEN. The advertiser should strike a balance between advertising to a large audience and yet reaching the target market of suitable candidates.

and what particular personal forces motivate people. Managers must understand the different internal methods and be able to evaluate the effectiveness of training. An understanding of human relations skills are required in motivating people. or one with particular skills to provide guidance and direction to the trainee. which are: Trainees’ reaction is the most important measure. This theory holds that the individual seeks only security and is driven solely by self interest. Mentoring is the use of an especially trained individual. monitored and feedback provided to the trainee but is however expensive in terms of time. they provide an instant response. Change in job behaviour and application post-training is based on the study of the trainees after the completion of the training to measure and ensure that the training has had a beneficial effect on work practices. Management is based on fear and punishment and will have an exploitive or authoritarian style. However. This form of training must be planned. It may well be undertaken by the line manager of the person and will focus on special skills. techniques or to replace other individuals. it can be frustrating. Although such questions and answers are likely to be ambiguous. organised or coerced. Trainees must be asked whether they thought the training to be useful and relevant. It assumes that for most people. This form of training also requires careful planning and feedback. has no ambition and is resistant to change. behaviour and attitude of others who did not benefit from the training has changed. Control and punishment are not required and management therefore has to encourage and develop the individual. It is based on the idea that the goals of the individual and the organisation can be integrated. ranging from external courses to internal training. most have to be directed. It is a specialised form of training often which occurs when an employee has to have skills improved and deepened quickly due to new technology. sustains and regulates good. Theory Y is at the opposite end of the continuum and is in keeping with more modern thinking on motivation. something that can be expensive and time consuming. and that these needs can be satisfied through work. The intellectual ability of the average person is only partly used and should therefore be encouraged as individuals are motivated by seeking self-achievement. best way to motivate everybody. work is as natural as rest or play and that individuals will exercise self discipline and self direction in helping to achieve the organisation’s objectives. the average human being will seek and accept responsibility. (Students may recognise the evaluation criteria is based partly on the work of Hamblin) 5 The way in which managers’ duties are undertaken can significantly influence the satisfaction that employees derive from their work. These two typologies are not discrete. directed behaviour. Creativity and innovative thinking is widely distributed amongst the population as a whole and should be encouraged in the work situation. (i) Theory X is based on traditional organisational thinking. The style of management adopted will stem from the view taken as to how subordinates behave. physical and mental effort in work is perfectly natural and work is actively sought as a source of satisfaction. It assumes that the average person is basically indolent and has an inherent dislike of work which should be avoided at all costs. Organisational changes due to learning requires an examination of whether the practices. It holds that personal satisfaction can be achieved through the workplace. (ii) (b) Evaluation of training is often seen as satisfying five criteria. (b) Douglas MacGregor has suggested that the individual’s attitude to work can generally be divided into two categories. (ii) 9 . This is the ultimate test of the value of training. It follows that because of this dislike of work. who is often a new recruit possibly at a management level. The individual lacks ambition. Training and the impact on organisational objectives requires investigation as to whether the training provided has assisted with the achievement of the organisation’s objectives. They focus on what arouses. the operation of Theory Y is not easy. shuns responsibility. (a) Content theories ask the question ‘What are the things that motivate people?’ Content theories are sometimes called need theories and assume that human beings have a set of needs or desired outcomes. Content theories assume that everyone responds to motivating factors in the same way and that therefore there is one. In addition. they represent the two ends of a continuum. For the average human being. Trainee Learning measures the depth of the trainees’ learning through some form of test or method of evaluation of the training. It is usually not performed by the line manager of the subject and is more developmental and broadly based than coaching. which he called Theory X and Theory Y.4 There are many forms of training. (a) (i) Coaching is where the trainee is supervised by an experienced individual who gives instruction on the task to be undertaken. controlled. which in turn take many forms. time consuming and sometimes regarded with suspicion.

As with the ‘Y. both formal and informal. such as departmental managers or supervisors meeting regularly. This is the best for solving complex problems with a high degree of satisfaction obtained by the participants. who obtains the greatest satisfaction. it becomes a wheel or disintegrates under pressure. (a) Communicated information flows in three main directions. Its purpose is to give specific directives. This corresponds to Foyol’s gang plank. The direction of the three main information flows can be said to be downwards. upwards and lateral. or conflict resolution and to resolve inter-departmental friction. Each member of the group communicates only with the person next to them. This method of communication is the slowest. The All Channel allows communication in all directions. There is a mixed response from the remainder of the participants. It also describes inter-departmental sharing of ideas. Upwards communication tends to be non directive in nature and generally takes two forms: personal problems or suggestions and/or technical feedback as part of the organisation’s control system. This form of communication is often the one most easily recognised. Although traditional communication theory assumes only vertical communication. (b) Structural characteristics can limit group performance in the accomplishment of a task. However.6 There are many forms of communication within an organisation. (Students may wish to illustrate these patterns with appropriate diagrams) 10 . Participants’ satisfaction is the lowest. The central figure obtains the greatest satisfaction although the remainder do not. Lateral or horizontal. It takes the form of task co-ordination.’ each member of the group communicates only through the central position of the network. This configuration solves problems the quickest. The Wheel. It also serves to tell subordinates about their performance and to provide information on organisation and departmental objectives. or problem solving where departmental members meet to resolve an issue and information sharing. communicated information often flows in quite clear directions. In the main. although this depends on the ability of the central figure.’ members of the group communicate only through the central figure. The Circle. horizontal communications is becoming increasingly important and necessary. In the ‘Y. to provide information about procedures and practices and to provide information about the job. Downwards. lacks co-ordination and proves slow in problem solving.

December 2003 Marking Scheme Up to 5 marks Up to 10 marks (Maximum for Part (a) 15 marks) (b) Recognition and description of role culture and structure.3 Managing People 1 (a) Explanation of Herzberg’s Theory and relevance to the scenario.Part 1 Examination – Paper 1. (5 marks for recognition and description of role culture and 5 marks for description of inefficient bureaucracy) Up to 10 marks (Maximum for Part (b) 10 marks) (c) Advantages of training and relevance to the scenario. Description of hygiene and motivator factors and relevance to the scenario. Up to 15 marks (Maximum for Part (c) 15 marks) (Total for Question 40 marks) 2 Brief description of the thinking behind the characteristics Description of any six individual characteristics Up to 2 marks each to a maximum of 12 (3 marks) (12 marks) (Total for Question 15 marks) 3 (a) Description of factors Up to 5 marks (Maximum for Part (a) 5 marks) (b) Brief description of factors (2 marks for each of the five factors) Up to 10 marks (Maximum for Part (b) 10 marks) (Total for Question 15 marks) 4 (a) (i) (ii) Brief description and understanding of coaching Brief description and understanding of mentoring Up to 5 marks Up to 5 marks (Maximum for Part (a) 10 marks) (b) Explanation of evaluation (1 mark for each evaluation factor) Up to 5 marks (Maximum for Part (b) 5 marks) (Total for Question 15 marks) 5 (a) Explanation of content theory Up to 5 marks (Maximum for Part (a) 5 marks) (b) (i) (ii) Explanation of Theory X Explanation of Theory Y Up to 5 marks Up to 5 marks (Maximum for Part (b) 10 marks) (Total for Question 15 marks) 11 .

6 (a) Description of the three communication flows (3 marks for each flow) Up to 9 marks (Maximum for Part (a) 9 marks) (b) Brief description of any three (i) (ii) Brief description of the circle Brief description of the ‘Y’ (iii) Brief description of the wheel (iv) Brief description of all channel (2 marks each) (Maximum for Part (b) 6 marks) (Total for Question 15 marks) 12 .