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D Analysis of Heat Transfer in Solar Collector by Using Diamond Shaped Roughened Absorber Plate Chapter-1 Introduction
In general the new energy production and radiated by the sun, more specifically the term refers to the sun’s energy that reaches the earth. Solar energy, received in the form of energy, such as heat and electricity, which can be utilized by man. Since the sun is expected to radiate at an essentially constant rate for a few billion years, it may be regarded as an in-exhaustible source of useful energy. The major drawbacks to the extensive application of solar energy are: 1. The intermittent and variable manner in which it arrives at the earth’s surface and 2. The large area required to collect the energy at a useful rate. Experiments are underway to use this energy for power production, house heating, air conditioning, cooking and high temperature melting of metals. Energy is radiated by sun as electromagnetic waves of which 99 percent have wave lengths in the range of 0.2 to 4.0 micrometers (1 micrometer =10-6 meter). Solar energy reaching the top of the earth’s atmosphere consists of about 8 percent ultraviolet radiation (short wave length, less than 0.39 micrometer ), 46 percent infrared radiation (long wave length more than 0.78 micrometer). Diagram Direct, diffuse and total radiation A solar collector is a device for collecting solar radiation and transfers the energy to a fluid passing in contact with it. Utilization of solar energy requires solar collectors. These are general of two types: (i) Non concentrating or flat plate type solar collector. (ii) Concentrating (focusing) type solar collector. The solar energy collector, with its associated absorber, is the essential component of any of any system for the conversion of solar radiation energy into more usable form (e.g. heat or electricity). In the non-concentration type, the collector area (i.e. the area that intercepts the solar radiation) is the same as the absorber area (i.e. the area absorbing the radiation). On the other hand, in concentrating collectors, the area intercepting the solar radiation is greater, sometimes hundreds of times greater than the absorber area. By means of concentrating collectors, much higher temperatures can be obtained than with the non-concentrating type. Concentrating collectors may be used to generate medium pressure steam. They use many be used to generate medium pressure steam. They use many be used to generate medium pressure steam. They use many different arrangements of mirrors pressure steam. They use many be different arrangements of mirrors and lenses to concentrating collectors may be used

to generate medium pressure steam. They use many different arrangements of mirrors and lenses to concentrate the sun’s rays on the boiler. This type shows better efficiency than the flat plate type. For best efficiency, collectors should be mounted to face the sun as it moves through the sky. Heat transfer enhancement is a subject of considerable interest to researchers as it leads to saving in energy and cost. Because of the rapid increase in energy demand in all over the world, both reducing energy lost related with ineffective use and enhancement of energy in the meaning of heat have become an increasingly significant task for design and operation engineers for many systems. In the past few decades numerous researches have been performed on heat transfer enhancement. These researches focused on finding a technique not only increasing heat transfer, but also achieving high efficiency. Achieving higher heat transfer rates through various enhancement techniques can result in substantial energy savings, more compact and less expensive equipment with higher thermal efficiency. Heat transfer enhancement technology has been improved and widely used in heat exchanger applications; such as refrigeration, automotive, process industry, chemical industry, etc. One of the widely-used heat transfer enhancement technique is inserting different shaped elements with different geometries in channel flow.


Literature Review
The use of artificial roughness in the form of repeated ribs has been found to be an efficient method of enhancing the heat transfer to fluid flowing in the duct. Detailed information about the heat transfer and flow characteristics in ribbed ducts is very important in designing Solar air Heater Ducts, Heat Exchangers and cooling systems of gas turbine engines. The application of artificial roughness in the form of fine wires and ribs of different shapes has been recommended to enhance the heat transfer coefficient by several investigators. It has been found that the main thermal resistance to the convective heat transfer is due to the presence of laminar sub layer on the heat-transferring surface. The ribs break the laminar sub layer and create local wall turbulence due to flow separation and reattachment between consecutive ribs, which reduce the thermal resistance and greatly enhance the heat transfer. However, the use of artificial roughness results in higher friction and hence higher pumping power requirements. Therefore, it is desirable that the turbulence should be created in the vicinity of the wall, i.e. only in the laminar sub-layer region, which is responsible for thermal resistance. Hence, the efforts of researchers have been directed towards finding the roughness shape and arrangement, which break the laminar sublayer, enhance the heat transfer coefficient most with minimum pumping power penalty. 2.1. J.C. Han et al [1] investigated the developing heat transfer in rectangular channels with rib turbulators for rib angle varying from 90° to 30°. The combined effects of rib angle and channel aspect ratio on local heat transfer coefficient were studied. The results indicate that the best heat transfer in square channel was obtained with angled ribs at 30- 45° and was about 30% higher than the 90° transverse ribs for constant pumping power. However, for rectangular channel with aspect ratio of 2 and 4, the heat transfer enhancement using 30°-45° ribs was only 5% more than the 90° transverse rib. In general, it was noted that in square channel the heat transfer increased with decrease in rib angle whereas in rectangular channel the dependence of heat transfer on rib angle was negligible. 2.1.1. Y.M. Zhang et al [2] observed that deploying of groove in between the ribs enhances the turbulences as well as reattaches the free shear layer nearer to the rib. They have reported that the addition of grooves in between adjacent square ribs enhances the heat transfer capability of the surface considerably with nearly same pressure drop penalty. It appears that it will be fruitful to investigate an artificially roughened surface with optimally chamfered rib combined with grooves present between two ribs in order to achieve further decrease in relative roughness pitch and enhancement of heat transfer rate from such a surface. In view of the above an experimental

Investigation has been planned to investigate the heat and fluid flow characteristics of artificially roughened surface with chamfered rib-grooved roughness. 2.1.2. Liou and Hwang et al [3] investigated the fully developed flow in channels roughened with three rib shapes, namely square, semicircular and triangular cross section. The results showed that the three types of rib channels had comparable thermal performance, but the square-ribbed geometry is the most likely the one to yield hot spots behind the rib. Gupta et al [4] carried out an experimental investigation on solar air heater with angled ribs with circular cross-section. They have investigated the effect of relative roughness height (e/D), inclination of rib with respect to flow direction and Reynolds number on fluid flow characteristics in transitionally rough flow region and evaluated the thermo hydraulic performance of solar air heaters. 2.1.3. R. Kamali , A.R. Binesh et al [5] investigated the flow over two-dimensional ribs of different shapes is studied to examine the heat transfer characteristics as well as the friction characteristics. The simulations were performed for four rib shapes, i.e., square, triangular, trapezoidal with decreasing height in the flow direction, and trapezoidal with increasing height in the flow direction. The recirculation zones were clearly identified and the flow is seen to reattach before the following in all cases. It is found that features of the interrib distribution of the heat transfer coefficient are strongly affected by the rib shape. For the range of Reynolds number studied, the trapezoidal shaped rib with decreasing height in the flow direction (case C) has the highest value of heat transfer, meanwhile, the trapezoidal shaped rib with increasing height in the flow direction (case D) has the lowest friction factor. Also the simulations were performed for various P/e ratios to investigate case C to highlight the effect of the rib pitch. The P/e ratio 12 provides the highest enhancement factor among the four pitch ratios investigated. However, they found that in the recirculating region just behind the upstream rib, the heat transfer coefficients seem to be less sensitive to the rib spacing.


Taslim et al.5. [8] studied the effects of turbulator profile and spacing on heat transfer and friction in a channel with traverse ribs. 2. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient was higher for aspect ratios greater than unity but resulted in higher pressure loss.4 times compared to smooth duct under similar operating conditions at higher Reynolds number. Han. The sensitivity of Nusselt number was found to decrease with decrease in the blockage ratio (e/Dh).Their study illustrated that rib turbulators with greater number of sharp corners yield increasingly higher heat transfer coefficient as well as pressure drop.1. [9] experimentally investigated the heat transfer and friction in channel roughened with angled V-shaped and discrete ribs on two opposite walls for Reynolds number raging from 5. For V-shaped 5 rib at p/e = 12 . Taslim et al.000. The results showed that the 90° transverse ribs produced the lowest heat transfer performance. The optimum pitch to height ratio for the 90° square turbulator was found to be around 8. Chandra et al.6.5% for e = 1.5 mm and reported heat transfer coefficient of roughened duct improves 1. The trapezoidal shaped ribs spaced properly were found to be effective in heat removal.1.1 Friction factor ratios for different rib shape Fig.1.2 Nusselt number ratios for different at Shapes at P/e=12 2. A pitch of 20 mm gives the highest thermal efficiency of 83. The 45° angled V-shaped ribs produced the highest heat transfer performance in comparison to other rib configurations.25–1. 2. [6] studied a square channel with two ribbed walls for five different rib profiles. 2.4. 2.1.000 to 30.7. Sahu and Bhagoria [7] have investigated the effect of 90° broken wire ribs on heat transfer coefficient of a solar air heater duct.Fig 2.

12.9. Most of the investigations carried out so far have been with ducts of circular cross-section or of rectangular section having two opposite roughened walls and with all the four walls heated. were solved by a finite-volume method.ribs facing downstream of flow. Ryu et al. 2. Bhagoria et al. [15] used wedge shaped ribs to study enhancement of heat transfer coefficient and they have shown experimentally that a maximum enhancement of heat transfer occurs at a wedge angle of about 10° while on either side of this wedge angle. Nusselt number decreases. They used these relations to compare the effect of height and pitch of roughness element on heat transfer and friction factor with already available experimental data.1. 2. coupled with the k–ω turbulence model with a special near-wall treatment.8.Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The roughness elements cross-section was square. This application makes the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics distinctly different from those found in the case of two roughened walls and four heated wall ducts. triangle. roughness elements have to be considered only on one broad wall. It needs to be mentioned that for the application of this concept of enhancement of heat transfer in the case of solar air heaters. It has recently been proposed by several investigators that providing artificial roughness on the absorber plate could substantially enhance the heat transfer capability of a solar air heater. The friction factor increases as the wedge angle increases. 2. In solar air heaters. The discrete ribs also produced better performance in comparison to the transverse ribs. Prasad and Saini [22] developed the relations to calculate the average friction factor and Stanton number for artificial roughness of absorber plate by small diameter protrusion wire.1. 2. [10] have studied numerically friction and heat transfer in the flow in rib-roughened channels with one smooth wall . Prasad and Mullick [21] recommended protruding wires on the underside of the absorber plate of an unglazed solar air heater used for cereal grains drying to improve the heat transfer characteristics and hence the plate efficiency factor 2. semicircle and cosine wave. the one with lowest blockage ratio had better heat removal rate. The friction factor for one side rough duct is determined by assuming that the total shear 6 . only one wall of the rectangular air passage is subjected to uniform heat flux (isolation) while the remaining three walls are insulated.1. Karwa et al. [14] experimented on integral chamfered rib roughness on the heated wall and reported that the chamfer angle of 15° gives the maximum heat transfer. which is the only heated wall. The roughness function was found to be a function of the rib shape and pitch ratio but was independent of the absolute rib size.

0289 and relative pitch (p/e) of 10.1.P. Fig 2. roughness parameters of the geometry can be selected by considering the net heat gain and corresponding power required to propel air through the duct. They used the friction similarity law and heat–momentum transfer analogy 2. Comparison of Experimental values and predicted values 7 . R. While minimum value of friction factor has been found correspond to relative roughness height (e/D) of 0. It is therefore. Saini. Further different arrangement mode of the dimple-shape artificial roughness on the absorbing plate may be investigated in order to get the optimal arrangement mode of such artificial Roughness.force in the one side rough duct is approximately equal to the combined shear force from three smooth walls in a four-sided smooth duct and the shear force from one rough wall in a four-sided rough duct.0379 and relative pitch (p/e) of 10. Jitendra Verma [25] investigated and concluded that heat transfer can be enhanced considerably as a result of providing dimple-shape roughness geometry on the absorber plate of a solar air heater duct. Nusselt number and friction factor are the strong function of the system and operating parameters.3. The maximum value of Nusselt number has been found corresponds to relative roughness height (e/D) of 0.13.

S. however. Saini.C.14.2. For different p/e and for fixed value of e/D. J.4. Considering the heat transfer and friction characteristics can fulfill this requirement of the collector simultaneously. Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number and for Fig.Fig 2. 2. It is.5 Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different values of e/D and for fixed value of p/e. accompanied by a substantial increase in the friction factor. This enhancement is. S. therefore. 8 . desirable to select the roughness geometry such that the heat transfer coefficient is maximized while keeping the friction losses at the minimum possible value. 2. Fig. Solanki [29] studied and found that the artificial roughness in the form of chamfered rib groove on the absorber plate results in considerable enhancement of heat transfer.1.6 (a) Nusselt number and (b) friction factor as a function of Reynolds number for Smooth ducts. Apurba layek .

Chapter-3 9 .

25 mm thick.3. Calibration of these instruments will vary to some degree if the instrument is inclined to measure radiation on other than a horizontal surface.1. There are following types of pyranometers: (i) Eppley pyranometer. (vi) Thermoelectric pyranometer etc. appropriate coated black and white.Pyranometers A pyranometer is an instrument which measures total or global radiation over a hemispherical field of view.f. (iii) Moll-Gorczyhski solarimeter. Pyranometer with alternate black and white sensor segments.m. As a result an e. Eppley Pyranometer It is based on the principle as stated above that the there is a difference between the temperature of black surface (which absorb most solar radiation) and white surface (which reflect most solar radiation). 3. The Eppley pyranometers and similar instruments are calibrated in a horizontal position. which is usually in the range of 0 to 10mV calibration of about ±2 percent can be obtained. First two types are described briefly in the following paragraphs. The cold junctions of the thermopile are located in such a way that they do not receive the radiation. If a shading ring is attached.1. the sun’s radiation is allowed to fall on a black surface to which the hot junctions of a thermopile are attached. the beam radiation is prevented from falling on the instrument sensor and in then measures only the diffuse component of the radiation. proportional to the solar radiation is generated. In most pyranometers. Later models use wedges arranged in a circular pattern. The disks or wedges are enclosed in a hemispherical glass cover.m. Similar instruments are manufactured in Europe under the name Kipp. (iv) Bimetallic Actionographs of Rabitzsch type (v) Velochme pyranometer. with either 10 or 50 thermocouple junctions to detect temperature differences between coated rings. (ii) Yellot solarimeter (photo-voltaic solar cell. The e. The detection of temperature difference is achieved by thermopile.f. It uses concentric silver rings 0. Fig. with alternate black and white coatings. 10 .

Silicon solar cells have the property that their light current (approximately equal to the short circuit current at normal radiation levels) in a linear function of the incident solar radiation. Silicon cells are the most common for solar energy. Fig.2. Photovoltaic solar cell 11 . They have the disadvantages that the spectral response is not linear.3. so instrument calibration is a function of the spectral distribution of the incident radiation.2 Yellot Solarimeter (Photovoltaic solar cell) Pyranometers have also been used on photovoltaic (solar cell) detectors.3.

Once the sun’s energy has passed through the glass windows and has been absorbed by some material inside. even in the middle of winter . although various plastic and other transparent materials are often used instead of glass. but it is a very poor transmitter of long-wave radiation. Solar collectors for home heating usually called flat plate collectors. act as a heat trap. When this radiation strikes a solid or liquid. the heat will not be reradiated back outside. this has come to be known in fact. shows how temperature on earth is affected by the ‘green house effect’. This reradiation is a long wave radiation. The name come from its first use in green houses. at a Fig. Glass therefore. 12 . Visible sunlight is absorbed on the ground. a shortwave radiation.1.Chapter-4 Solar Energy The fundamental process now in general use for heat conversion is the green house effect.4. other solids or liquids) or reradiates it to other materials of lower temperature. Most of the energy we receive from the sun comes in the form of light. which can get quite warm on sunny days. a phenomenon which has been recognized for sometime in the construction of green houses.4. which means that it poses little interference to incoming solar energy. Hence the green house effect brings about an accumulation of energy of the ground. it is absorbed and transformed into heat energy. but CO2 in atmosphere absorbs light of that wavelength and back radiates part of it to earth. the green house effect radiated to Co2 content of atmosphere. conducts it to surrounding materials (air water. Temperature of 20ºC. almost have one or more glass covers. Glass easily transmits short-wave radiation. the material becomes warm and stores the heat. Fig. in which it is possible to grow exotic plants in cold climates through better utilization of the available sunlight. not all of which is visible to the human eye. (CO2 does not absorb the incoming sunlight which has a shorter wavelength). as the ‘green house effect’. for example emits infra-red light at wavelength of about 10μm.

A black-painted plate absorbs the incoming sunlight. ideal black bodies have not only the highest absorption rate but also the highest emission coefficient for all wavelengths of light. Emission increases with temperature.2.T = constant = 2989 μm Kelvin T being the surface temperature of the black body and λ max the wave-length at which light emission reaches a maximum. When the temperature of the black plate increases. About it is fixed a plate of ordinary window glass.In Fig. its emits an increment of thermal heat in the form of infra-red light. The infra-red light absorbed 13 . The ordinary glass plate fixed above the black plate in a green house has a spectral absorption which is relatively transparent for visible light is absorbent for the infra-red light emitted by the black plate when it evacuates its thermal energy. The re-emitted light if so progressively shorter wavelength and greater energy as the Fig.4. A black body at a room temperature emits radiation with a maximum at about 10 μm.5 μm. Principle of green house effect. The black absorber has the properties of a black body. this corresponds to maximum emission of 0. Temperature of the black body increases. which is within the spectrum of invisible of infrared light.4.2. which may be written as: λ max . This is expressed by Wien’s law. The sun emits radiation like a “black body” whose surface temperature is about 5700ºC. following T4 law.

the wavelength of the infra-red emission becomes shorter. Equilibrium is reached when the energy gain by absorption of visible light is exactly balanced by loss of energy through infra-red emission of the glass plate. glass is partially transparent for infra-red light. Finally at about 500ºC (773ºK) the bulk of the radiation would be emitted at 4 μm. whose temperature thus increases. the other half re-emitted towards the black plate which absorbs it again. unless concentration of sunlight is combined with the green house effect. practice. More and more heat is accumulated in the way in the black plate. the equilibrium temperature achieved are much lower because. However.1. at which the glass is remitted in all directions. the equilibrium temperature is further reduced by heat losses from the black plate due to thermal conductivity and air convection. At 200ºC (473ºK) the maximum radiation is emitted at about 6 μm. 4. It follows that an efficient green house effect is possible only below 500ºC. half of it is emitted to the outside and lost. Solar Cooking 14 . compared with 10 μm at room temperature. With rising temperature.

It is affecting the fuel bills for those who use it for heating the houses and cooking their food. firewood. M. which also affected the rural areas. on which the food materials used to be placed in pots. Basically there are three designs of solar cooker: (i) Flat plate box type solar cooker with or without reflector. The main reason for non-acceptance of these devices was the cheap availability of cooking fuel during these days. Cow dung too precious to be allowed to be used for burning and cooking. They all reflect the solar radiations into the cooking zone in which cooking utensils are placed.K. (ii) Multi reflector type solar oven and. (iii) Parabolic disc concentrator type solar cooker. The maximum temperature can reach to 250ºC. temperatures of the order of 450ºC can be obtained in which solar radiations are concentrated onto a focal point.In our country energy consumed for cooking shares a major portion of the total energy consumed in a year. Temperature obtained is of the order of 200ºC. The solution for the above problem is the harnessing of solar energy for cooking purposes. Mr. The problem of harnessing and utilization of solar energy arise after the fuel crisis of the 1970s. The first solar cooker was developed in the year 1945 by Mr. if the compound cone reflector system is used. it should be used in proper way. With parabolic disc concentrator type solar cooker. At present.Ghosh of Jamshedpur a freedom fighter. In multi reflector oven four square or triangular or rectangular reflectors are mounted on the oven body. picked up from the fields and forests as domestic fuel in the rural areas. dung cakes and agricultural waste are used. He developed a box type solar cooker with a reflecting mirror and a copper coil inside. 15 . Maximum no load temperature with a single reflector reaches upto 160ºC. Flat plate box type design is the simplest of all the designs. kerosene or cooking gas. The energy crisis is affecting everyone. cooking gas. Thus solar cookers have a very relevant place in the present fuel consumption pattern. The poor of the developing countries who have been using dry wood. The supply of wood is also fast depleting because of the indiscriminate felling of trees in the rural areas and the denudation of forests. Ghosh also designed a parabolic reflector which was used for sometime as a boiler of Neera (palm juice). Variety of fuel like coal. Various designs of solar cookers have been developed in our country. Kerosene. firewood and cow dung cakes are the most important sources of fuel to cook food. Later in 1953 NPL of India developed a parabolic solar cooker. It is very useful to improve the fertility of the soil. There is a rapid deterioration in the supply of these fossil fuels like coal. In villages 95% of the consumption goes only to cooking.

(a) Principle of box type cooker (b) Reflector type solar cooker 16 .

Insulating material like glass wool.(c) Principle of concentrating type cooker. 4. are placed inside with food material. 4. The higher wavelength radiation is not able to pass through the glass cover . With this type of cooker is placed in the sun.2.). which are also blackened. The cooking pots. the blackened surface starts absorbing sunrays and temperature inside the box starts rising.1. Details of box type cooker. The principle of operation of box type solar cooker is illustrated in Fig (8. paddy husk. The loss due to convection is minimized by Fig.1. The solar radiations entering the box are of short wavelength. The solar rays penetrate through the glass covers and absorbed by a blackened metal tray kept inside the solar box. reradiation the glass cover.4. saw dust or any other material is filled in space between blackened tray and outer cover of the box. Fig. These minimize heat loss due to conduction. Two glass cover are provided to gain minimize the heat loss. Making the box air tight by providing a rubber strip all round between the upper lid and the box. get heat energy and food will be cooked in a certain period of time 17 . Principle of operation of solar cookers.2 Design Principle and Constructional Details of a Box Type Solar Cooker.

A small vent for vapour escape. The amount of solar radiation intensity can be increased by provided mirror or mirrors. Depending upon the factors such as season and time of the day. The solar cooker is made up of inner and outer metal or wooden box with double glass sheet on it. The top cover contains two plain 20 mm distance between them. 18 . Vegetables take from ½ to 2½ hours. Maximum air temperature obtained inside the cooker box (without load) is 140ºC. In winter. A 15 to 25ºC rise in temperature is achieved inside the box when reflector is adjusted to reflect the sun rays into the box. Rice is cooked between 30 minutes and 2 hours. Overall dimensions of a typical model are height. Absorber tray (blackened tray) is painted black with suitable black paint like boiler interior paint. (v) Vitamins of the food are not destroyed and food cooked is nutritive and delicious with natural taste. The entire top cover can be made tight with padlock hasp. steadily and surely with delicious taste and preservation of nutrients. reflector is a most useful addition. A mechanism (guide for adjusting mirror) is provided to adjust the reflector at different angles with the cooker box. All types of Dals can cooked between 1½ to 2 hours. Following are the some merits of solar cooker: (i) No attention is needed during cooking as in other devices. This type of cooker is termed as family solar cooker as it cooks sufficient dry food material for family of 5 to 7 people. Collector area of the solar cooker is increased by providing a plane reflecting mirror equal to the size of the box. in winter and 160ºC in summer. (iv)No pollution. The best of the day for cooking is between 11 am and 2 pm. when sun rays are mush inclined to horizontal surface. type of the food and depth of the food layer. This temperature is enough to cook food slowly. This paint should be dull in colour so that it can withstand the maximum temperature attained inside the cooker as well as water vapour coming out of the cooking utensils. (ii) No fuel is required. time of the cooking with this cooker ranges from 1 hr to 4 hrs. and hinged on one side of the glass frame. Meat should be allowed to stay for 3-4 hours. The temperature inside the solar cooker with a single reflector is maintained from 70 to 110ºC above the ambient temperature. Neoprene rubber sealing is provided around the contact surfaces of the glass cover and the cooker box. Cooking is faster in summer than in winter due to high ambient temperature. The temperature attained depends upon the intensity of solar radiation and material of insulation provided. (iii) Negligible maintenance cost. in provided in the sealing.depending upon the actual temperature attained inside.

In flat-plate absorbers. The heart of a solar collector is the absorber. 5. Chapter-5 Collectors A device used to collect. The carrier fluid for heat transfer flows through a heat-carrying pipe.1 Types of solar collector include: (i) Flat-Plate Collectors (ii) Typical Liquid Collector (iii) Typical Air Collectors or Solar Air Heaters (iv) Non-porous absorber plate type collectors. (a) Focusing Type (b) Line Focusing Collectors: Parabolic Trough Reflector. Types of concentrating collectors. 19 . such as water or air. to back up heating systems. which is usually composed of several narrow metal strips. and transfer solar energy to a working fluid. Limitations of solar cooker are: (i) One has to cook according to the sun shine. (v) Collectors with porous absorbers. (iii) It takes comparatively more time.(vi)No problem of charring of food and no over flowing. (vi) Concentrating Collector. or for heating swimming pools. the menu has to be preplanned. which is connected to the absorber strip. The solar heat can be used for heating water. (c) Mirror-Strip Reflector. (iv) Chapaties are not cooked because high temperature for baking is required and also needs manipulation at the time of baking. absorb. two sheets are sandwiched together allowing the medium to flow between the two sheets. (ii) One cannot cook at short notice and food cannot be cooked in the night or during cloudy days. (d) Fresnel lens Collector.

(g) Concentrating Collectors: Non-Focusing Type. 20 . as they are for space and service water heating flat plate collectors. (f) Point Focusing Collector (Paraboloidal Type). they are consequently partially effective even on cloudy days when there is no direct radiation.9sq. and are relatively simple to construct and erect.(e) Receiver pipe. in area. Air or gas heating collectors are employed as solar air heaters.7 to 2. are particularly convenient. They are made in rectangular panels. Flat-plate solar collectors may be divided into two main classifications based on the type of heat transfer fluid used. from about 1. Liquid heating collectors are used for heating water and non-freezing aqueous solutions and occasionally for non-aqueous heat transfer fluids. which are of the non-concentrating type. Flat plates can collect and absorb both direct and diffuse solar radiation.1 Flat-Plate Collectors Where temperature below about 90ºC are adequate. 5. m.1. (h) Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC).

The principal difference between the two types is design of the passages for the heat for the transfer fluid. Standard insulating materials such as fiber glass or styro-foam are used for the weather. absorbing surface and orientation devices of focusing collectors. (iv) Insulation. air or other fluid. (ii) Tubes. but most are based on the principle shown in Fig. passages or channels are integral with the collector absorber plate or connected to it.2. (iii) They require little maintenance. Advantages of Flat-plate Collector (i) They have the advantages of using both beam and diffuse solar radiation. (ii) They do not require orientation towards the sun. 5.2 A Typical Liquid Collector There are many flat-plate collector designs. normally metallic or with a black. The majority of the flat-plate collectors have five main components as follows: (i) A transparent cover which may be one or more sheets of glass or radiation transmitting plastic film or sheet.1. (iv) They are mechanically simpler than the concentrating reflectors. surface. 21 . fins.5. which carry the water.1. which should be provided at the back and sides to minimize the heat losses. although a wide variety of other materials can be used with air heaters. It is the plate and the tube type Collector. (iii) The absorber plate.

Selection through typical flat-plate collector. ensuring a good thermal bond between the sheet and the tube. Typically metal plates. show two ways in which it has been used.1 (d) and (e) while Fig. usually of copper.2. which are also of metal. They are soldered.1.Fig5.2. The methods of bonding and clamping tubes to flat or corrugated sheet are shown in Fig5.2.1 (c) is one of the simplest practical applications. steel or aluminum material with tubing of copper in thermal contact with the plates. The absorber plate is usually made from a metal sheet 1 to 2 mm in thickness.1 (f) is the “tube in strip” or roll bond design in which the tubes are formed in the sheet. while the tubes. 5.2. The use of conventional standard panel radiators shown in Fig. and range in diameter from 1 to 1. to the top) of the absorber plate with the pitch ranging from 5 to 15 cm.5 cm. are the most commonly used materials. called the absorbing surface. the tubes are also in line and integral with the absorber plate. For the absorber plate corrugated galvanized sheet is a material widely available throughout the world. brazed or clamped to the bottom (in some cases.5. In some designs. It basically consists of a flat surface with high absorptivity for solar radiation. (a) (b) 22 .

Thermal insulation of 5 to 10 cm thickness is usually placed behind the absorber plate to prevent the heat losses from the rear surface. The glass covers act as convection shield to 23 . Heat is transferred from the absorber plate to a point of use by circulation of fluid (usually water) across the solar heated surface.(c) (d) (e) (f) Fig.2. The front covers are generally glass (may be one or more) that is transparent to in-coming solar radiation and opaque to the infra-red rays.5.1.Cross-section through collector plates. Insulation a material is generally mineral wools or glass wool or fiberglass as stated above.

The rate of heat loss increases as the temperature of the air space rises. This is due to fact that each plate reflects about 15% of the incoming sunlight. Thickness of 3 and 4 mm are commonly used. because half of the 50% which is emitted outwards from the first glass plates is back radiated. The surface finish of the absorber plates may be a flat black paint 24 . while for air systems the space above or below the collector plate serves as the conduit.g. heat is trapped in the air space between the cover and the absorber plates in a manner similar to green house. The reflection of glass covers may be reduced by coating with thin films of certain substances (e. as will be seen shortly. but they have some drawbacks. A certain proportion of the incident solar radiation is lost by absorption in the glass cover plates. They also suffer a decrease in transparency and sometimes breakup in the course of time due to heating and the action of solar ultraviolet radiation. plastic or rubber sheet that incorporates water channels. magnesium fluoride) or by gentle etching with a solution of hydrofluoric acid. The effect is to reduce the loss of heat from the absorber. As we know that main purpose of the transparent cover of the flat-plate collector is to decrease heat loss without significantly reducing the incoming solar radiation. it permits the passage of solar radiations with wavelengths less than 2 micrometer (µm) but it is largely opaque to the longer wavelength thermal infra-red. The reflection loss increases as the direction of incidence departs from the perpendicular. conduction and radiation. Efforts are being made to develop better plastic material that might be used in solar collectors. there is some loss of heat to the surroundings from the top of the cover by convection. but the loss can be kept small by using a clear (“water white”) glass with low iron content. However. It is not worthwhile to use more than two glass plates. Glass is generally used for the transparent covers but certain plastic films may be satisfactory. In the first place. Advantages of second glass which is added above the first one are: (i) Losses due to air convection are further reduced. Most plastics are not as opaque as glass to the thermal infra-red radiation and so permit greater loss of heat from the absorber. the relatively still (or stagnant) air space between the cover and the absorber plate largely prevents loss of heat from the plate by convection. For water streams the absorber plate can be any metal..reduce the losses from the absorber plate beneath. since the enclosed air is inevitably warmer than the ambient air. This is important in windy areas. Transparent plastics have been used in place of glass. this affects the overall efficiency of the solar collector. Two glass plates may reflect some 15 percent of solar radiation coming from a perpendicular direction. As a result. (ii) Radiation losses in the infra-red spectrum are reduced by a further 25%.5 to 3 cm. if the cover is made of glass. Such antireflective coatings add to the cost of the collectors but make them more efficient. Furthermore. A much larger loss occurs as a result of partial reflection. The usual practices is to have 1or 2 covers with a specific ranging from 1. Glass is the most favorable material.

Several types of backed on or chemical finishes are also available. The liquid heated is generally water. Black painted absorbers are preferred because they are considerably cheaper. in a layer 0. The coatings applied on absorbed plate are called “selective coatings” which reduces the amount of energy emitted by thermal infra-red radiation. The primer coat should preferable be thin since a thick under coat of paint would increase the resistance to heat transfer.3 Typical Air Collectors or Solar Air Heaters Fig.with an appropriate primer.15 to 2 µm thick. the repeated thermal expansion and contraction of the plate may cause the paint to peel after a year or so.1. if ambient temperatures below 0ºC are likely to be encountered. If the primer is not a self etching type. Shows a schematic flat-plate collector where an air stream is heated by the black side of the collector plate. 5. A promising selecting coating is “black chrome” form of chromium metal. The primer should be of etching type. electrodeposited on a nickel base. These are poor emitter for longer wavelengths. The back side of the collector 25 . Typical collector dimensions are 2m × 1m × 15cm. Fins attached to the plate increase the contact surface. However sometimes mixtures of water and ethylene glycol are used.3. 5.1.

Moreover.1. 26 . wider flow channels are used. For example. for heating only is facing due south at an inclination angle to the horizontal equal to the latitude plus 15º.1. The most favourable orientation of a collector.3. and small air leaks are of less concern than water leaks. the air may be passed through a space between the absorber plate and insulator with baffles arranged to provide a long (zig-zag) flow path Fig. (ii) Zig-zag air flow path in flat-plate collector The use of air as the heat-transport fluid eliminates both freezing and corrosion problems.Fig. Air has been used so for to a lesser extent as the heat-transport medium in solar collectors.5.3. (i) A Typical Solar Air Collector. To decrease the power required to pump the necessary volume of air through tubes. the heated air can be used directly (or by way of heat storage) for space heating. larger duct sizes air than when water is heat transport medium. On the other hand. but it may have some advantages over water. Another drawback is that transfer of heat from air to water supply system is inefficient. is heavily insulated with minerals wool or some other material.5.

Flow may be straight through. several layer of metal screening and overlapped glass plates. The second type has a porous absorber that includes slit and expanded metal. curing of industrial products such as plastics. 1. Numerous variations is the design of collectors for heating air by solar energy are shown in Air can be passed in contact with black solar absorbing surface such as finned plates or ducts as mentioned above. as shown in 2. Possible applications of solar air heaters are drying or curing of agricultural products. space heating for comfort. or through a porous absorber material. corrugated or roughened plates of various materials. seasoning of timber. It can be used as subsystems in many systems meant for the utilization of solar energy. regeneration of dehumidifying agents.But solar air heater has an important place among solar heat collectors. 27 . transpired honey comb and over-lapped glass plate absorber. The first type has a non-porous absorber in which the air stream does not flow through the absorber plate. Air may flow above and or behind the absorber plate. serpentine. above or below or on both direction of the absorber plate. Basically air heaters are classified in the following two categories.

1.3.(a) (b) (c) Fig.(iii) Non-porous type air heater 28 .5.

To improve collection efficiency selective coating may be applies provided there is no much cost.1. Performance of air heaters is improved by: (a) Roughing the rear of the plate to promote turbulence and improve the convective heat transfer coefficient. Usually turbulence is also increased which enhances the convective heat transfer. A solar collector with V-corrugated copper foil is illustrated in.4 Non-porous absorber plate type collectors. efficiencies are lower than liquid solar heaters under the same radiation intensity and temperature conditions. Air flow the cover plate and therefore is not recommended if the air inlet temperature rise at the collector are large. 29 . it is shown in Transmission of the solar radiation through the transparent cover system and its absorption is identical to that of a liquid type flat-plate collector. A non-porous absorber may be cooled by the air stream flowing over both sides of the plate as shown in most common design the air flows behind the absorbing surface. Due to low heat transfer rates. or (b) Adding fins to increase the heat transfer surface. Absorption of solar radiation is improved due to surface radioactive characteristics and the geometry of the corrugations. which help in trapping the reflected radiation.5.

1. Unless selective coatings are used. The cool air stream introduced from the upper surface of the matrix is first heated by upper layers which are cooler than the bottom layers. The energy required for this cancels out saving from using solar energy. The lower matrix layers are hotter than the upper ones. therefore. The pressure drop along the duct formed between the absorber plate and the rear insulation may also be prohibitive especially in the case of added fins to increase the heat transfer and turbulence rate. The air stream warm up. These defects are eliminated in porous absorber type collectors in two ways. the air stream can effectively transfer heat from the matrix. (a). which is in the order of few microns. The main drawback of the non-porous absorber plate is the necessity of absorbing all incoming radiation over the projected area from a thin layer over the surface. Improper selection of the (a) Slit or expanded metal 30 .5.5 Collectors with porous absorbers. The solar radiation penetrates to greater depths and is absorbed gradually depending on the matrix density. while traversing the matrix layers. therefore the collection efficiency cannot be improved. The difficulty with turbulence is the pressure drop across the collector. particularly if fan is electrical and it the amount of energy which is burned at the power plant to produce the electrical energy is included. Too many surfaces and too much restriction to air flow will require a larger fan and a larger amount of energy to push the air through. radiation losses from the absorber plate are excessive.

The overlapped glass plate air heater as shown in can be considered as a form of porous matrix. The pressure drop is also significantly less than the non-porous flat-plate absorber design. Thus thermal losses could be significantly reduced. Plate and air stream temperature increase gradually along the collector length and across from top to bottom. although overall flow direction is along the absorber glass plates instead of being across the matrix. 31 . (d) Over-lapped glass plate air-heating collector. Although the matrix hinders the flow.5.5. may be readily used for agricultural drying purposes with minimal expenditure. (b). Fig. as shown in made by forming layers of broken bottles (bottom dark top clear glass). the pressure drops reported for porous absorbers. Whillier has suggested a method of using crushed glass layers to absorb solar radiation and the heat the air. Sketches of porous absorber-type air heaters matrix porosity and the thickness may result in reduced efficiencies since the additional matrix layers beyond on optimum may no longer absorb the solar radiation and heat the air stream further. The pressure drop for the matrix is usually lower than the non-porous absorber with flow behind the plate since flow per unit cross-section would be much lower.1. The solar air heating utilizing a transpired honey comb is also very favourable from the pressure drop stand point since the flow cross-section is much larger.(b) Transpired Honey Comb (c) Broken bottle absorber. A porous bed.

1. such as those close to the equator and in the desert southwest United States. and water purification. Some residential solar energy systems use parabolic-trough concentrating systems. Concentrators are used mostly in commercial applications because they are expensive and because the trackers need frequent maintenance. Single-axis trackers move east to west. which are less expensive and simpler than dual-axis trackers. Concentrating collectors also achieve high temperatures. In addition to these mechanical trackers. there are passive trackers that use Freon to supply the movement. Most residential systems use single-axis trackers. The receiver is located at the focal point or along the focal line. concentrators can only focus direct solar radiation. To do this.A Concentrating Collectors 32 . while others concentrate the sun's rays along a thin line called the focal line. Concentrators are most practical in areas of high insulation (exposure to the sun's rays). dual-axis trackers move east and west and north and south (to follow the sun throughout the year). However. they can do so only when direct sunlight is available. These collectors reach much higher temperatures than flat-plate collectors. Concentrating collectors use mirrored surfaces to concentrate the sun's energy on an absorber called a receiver.6 Concentrating Collector. Concentrators perform best when pointed directly at the sun. these systems use tracking mechanisms to move the collectors during the day to keep them focused on the sun.1. they do provide low-maintenance alternatives to mechanical systems.5.6. with the result being that their performance is poor on hazy or cloudy days. but unlike evacuated-tube collectors. 5. Some designs concentrate solar energy onto a focal point. These installations can provide hot water. While not widely used. A heat-transfer fluid flows through the receiver and absorbs heat. space heating. The mirrored surface focuses sunlight collected over a large area onto a smaller absorber area to achieve high temperatures. Fig.

only a very small proportion is form the direction for which focusing occurs.1. solar radiation coming from the particular direction is collected over the area Fig.5.6 (B) Line Focusing Collectors: Parabolic Trough Reflector. A focusing collector is a special form of flat-plate (concentrator) between the solar radiation increases from low value of 1.000.1. In these collectors radiation falling on a relatively large area is focused on to a receiver (or absorber) of considerably smaller area. These include reflection or absorption losses in the mirrors or lenses and losses due to geometrical imperfections in the optical system. The principle of the parabolic trough collector. 33 .6 (A) Focusing Type. the thermal loss terms do not dominate to the same extent as in a flat-plate collector and the collection efficiency is usually higher.6. Such collectors generally use optical system in the form of reflectors or refractors.Cross-section of parabolic-trough collector. since diffuse radiation arrives from all directions. As a result. which is often used in concentration collectors.5-2 to high values of the order of 10. Because of the optical system.5. An important difference between collectors of the non-focusing and focusing types in that the latter concentrate only direct radiation coming from a specific direction.1. As a result of the energy concentration. Focusing collector is a device to collect solar energy with high intensity of solar radiation on the energy absorbing surface. certain losses (in addition to those which occur while radiation id transmitted through the cover) are introduced. The combined effect of all losses is indicating through the introduction of term called the optical efficiency. (B) 1. 5. The introduction of more optical losses is compensated for by the fact that the flux incident on the absorber surface is concentrated on a smaller area. fluids can be heated to temperatures of 500ºC or more. is shown by the cross-section in. The optical system directs the solar radiation on to an absorber of smaller area which is usually surrounded by a transparent cover.

it is simpler. Instead of having a continuous form. Both schemes are used in different practical-designs. The trough/cylindrical reflector or the pipe is turned by partial rotation around a single axis parallel to the east-west or north-south directions.4 m. the slope angle should be changed periodically.For the solar radiation to be brought to a focus by parabolic trough reflector. the sun must be in such a direction that it lies on the Fig.Of the reflection surface and is concentrated at the focus of the parabola. On the other hand. of silvered glass or of a thin film of aluminized plastic on a firm base. the reflector may be constructed from a number of long flat strips on a parabolic base. construction costs are 34 . to) the ground. and the width about 1. if the reflector is in the form of a trough with parabolic cross-section. Ten or more such units are often connected end to end in a row. For the north-south orientation. however. Since the elevation of the sun is always changing. Ideally. The dimension of parabolic trough or parabolic cylindrical collector can be vary over a wide range the length of a reflector unit may be roughly 3 to 5m. however to used a fixed angle design. but less efficient. the north end of the trough is raised so the collectors are sloped facing south just like flat-plate collectors. is used as an absorber. the solar radiation is focused alone a line. Parabolic trough reflectors have been made of highly polished aluminum. (B) 2. The north-south orientation permits more solar energy to be collected than the east-west arrangement. either the reflector trough or the collector pipe (absorber) must be turn continuously about its long axis to maintain the required orientation.5.6. A typical cylindrical parabolic system plane passing through the focal line and the vertex ( the base) of the parabola. The collector pipe. preferably with a selective absorber coating.5 to 2. For the east-west orientation. Mostly cylindrical parabolic concentrators are used. the collector are laid flat on (or parallel. several rows may also be connected in parallel.1. except around the winter equinox. in which absorber is placed along focus axis.

Moreover.1. Alternatively. Allow for changes in the sun’s elevation. The angles of the individual mirrors are such that they reflect solar radiation from a specific direction on to the same focal line. 5.6 (D) Fresnel lens Collector.higher for the north-south (sloping) type. For the north-south orientation. 5.6. as mentioned for parabolic trough collectors. In another kind of focusing collector.6 (C) Mirror-Strip Reflector. however. the mirror strips may be fixed and the collector pipe moved continuously so as to remain on the focal line.1.1. (C) Mirror-strip solar collector. The angles of the mirrors must be adjusted to Fig. a number of plane or slightly curved (concave) mirror stripe are mounted on a flat base. 35 . while the focal line (for collector pipe) remains in a fixed position.5. the trough (or receiver) must be turned through a larger angle from sunset to sunrise. The choice of orientation in any particular instance depends on the foregoing and other considerations. The increased separation distance between rows of collectors also results in increased pipe line costs and greater pumping and thermal losses. a system of such collectors requires a larger land area to allow for the shadowing effect of the sloping troughs. Finally the sun set position of an east-west reflector is essentially the same as the sunrise position and little or no ever night adjustment is required.

both along and perpendicular to its length. in addition.1.6.4. Cross-section of Fresnel lens through collector. It is mad in sections from cost acrylic plastic and can probably be produced in quantity at low cost. The rounded triangular trough serves only as a container and plays no role in concentrating the solar energy. It utilizes the focusing effect of a Fresnel lens. For a trough-type collector. To be fully effective. as represented in cross-section in Fig.7 m in overall length and 0.1. rectangle. the north ends of the troughs are raised to increase the slope as the sun’s elevation decreases (and vice versa). 36 . 3. a refraction type of focusing collectors has been developed. the Fresnel lens must be continuously aligned with the sun in two directions namely.7.In addition to the reflecting collectors described above. rather than from the bottom as in the parabolic (reflection) type. the lens is Fig 5. In a Fresnel lens collector.95 m in width. The total solar radiation energy that can be collected annually is about 30 percent greater than for an east-west orientation. the solar radiation is focused into the absorber from the top. (D). A modified absorber design is then possible. This is achieved by orienting the troughs in the north-south direction with rotation about the length wise axis. about 4.

located at the focus. (D). Receiver for Fresnel lens collector. A stainless steel reflector adjacent to the pipe (absorber or receiver) reflects back emitted thermal radiation. 5.6. A dish 6. The absorber. Insulation at the bottom and sides of the absorber pipe and a flat-plate over the top reduce thermal losses.1.6 m in diameter has been made from about 200 curved mirror segments forming a Paraboloidal surface. A paraboloidal dish collector brings solar radiation to a focus at a point actually a small central volume.5.6 (E) Point Focusing Collector (Paraboloidal Type). The heat-transport fluid 37 .Fig.2. is a cavity made of a zirconium-copper alloy with a black chrome selective coating.1.

Thus.6. Point focus solar collector (Paraboloid) Concentration ratios of about 30 to 100 or higher would be needed to achieve temperatures in the range 300 to 500ºC or higher.1. Fig.1. the concentration ratio is lower than paraboloid counter-parts.flows into and out of the absorber cavity through pipes bonded to the interior. The concentration ratios (concentration ratio is the ratio of the area of the concentrator aperture to the energy absorbing area of the receiver. it determines the effectiveness of a concentrator). A broad classification of such collector is: (i) The linear focus collector in the form of a parabolic through or the ones employing faceted mirror strips. the receiver is placed at the focus along the focal line in cylindrical parabolic or parabolic trough system and the focus point in Paraboloidal system. In both the cases. (E).5. The dish can be turned automatically about two axes (up-down and left-right) so that the sum is always kept in a line with the focus and the base (vertex) of the Paraboloidal dish. 38 . In a cylindrical parabolic system. Collectors designed for such high concentration ratio necessarily have small angles of field of view and hence need to track the sun continuously. the sun can be fully tracked at essentially all times. are very high in the case of parabolic system and therefore can be used where high temperatures are required.

8).3. In the typical central receiver. (iii) of the above Central receiver collector.(E). such as the Paraboloidal mirror and the tower power plant using heliostat mirrors.1. 5.(ii) Spherical and conical mirror (Axicon) with aberrated foci. but when the situation is favourable. each with its own heliostat to follow the sun. This type of collector is classified as Central Receiver Collector. The physical upper limit to the concentration ratios achievable with paraboloids and parabolic troughs is determined by their ratios (focal length/diameter) and are about 10. This diluteness is generally termed as the fill factor. This means that the entire surface within the system is not covered with mirror surface.000 and 100 respectively for the two cases. called a heliostat. A system equivalent to a very large Paraboloidal reflector consists of a considerable number of mirrors distributed over an area on the ground. The heliostats are generally located in the horizontal plane. can simply follow the existing terrain.7. A central receiver with a fill factor of 40% of the land area is covered by the mirrors.1. tracking errors etc. the mirror is composed of many small mirrors.6. Distributed heliostat point-focusing reflector. Fig. The basic difference between a single mirror concentrator and the heliostat system is that the heliostat system has a dilute mirror. The concentration ratios achieved in practice are about values because of surface irregularities of the reflector. Each mirror. This is mostly used in tower power plant for generation of electrical energy. can be steered independently about two axes so that the reflected solar radiation is always directed towards an absorber mounted on a tower (Fig. 39 .

they reflect solar radiation on to the absorber plate. If the mirrors are set at the proper angle. Also radiation losses are small because of the small area of the absorber at the focus. A practical size for apertures area would be about 50 m2 from which 15 to 20 kW of useful energy could be extracted by thermal conversion processes. Among all the steerable concentrators mentioned above paraboloids have the highest efficiency in terms of the utilization of the reflector area because in a fully steerable paraboloid there are no losses due to aperture effects.6 (F) Concentrating Collectors: Non-Focusing Type. flat plate collector. 5.In a central receiver optical system as shown in figure many small mirrors are separately mounted to act together like a dilute paraboloid. It consists of a flat plate facing south with mirrors attached to its north and south edge. the latter receives reflected radiation in addition to that normally falling on it. The simplest type of concentrating collector is the mirror-boosted. Both then they are the most difficult to fabricate and operate too. 40 . Thus. Along with the problem is the requirement that the heliostat be rugged enough to survive storm and operate successfully in a moderate wind. The mirrors cut off part of the scattered radiation that would otherwise have reaches the absorber plate and only part of the scattered radiation falling on the mirrors will be reflected onto the absorber.1. The basic problem associated with the central receiver is that the heliostat mirrors require non-linear drive rate in two co-ordinates to achieve the requirement of keeping the reflected image point on a fixed receiver.

5. but solar radiation form many directions are reflected toward the bottom of the trough. and they can provide only a relatively small increase in the solar radiation falling on the absorber.6 (G) Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC). Furthermore.1. The CPC (or Winston Collector) is a trough-like arrangement of the two facing parabolic mirrors. When a number of collectors are combined in two or more rows. flat-plate collectors with mirrors are not widely used.6. the CPC is nonfocusing. in order for the mirror to be effective. 41 . 5. Flat-plate collector augmented with mirror Thus the concentration effects arise mainly from the increase in direct radiation reaching the absorber plate. the rows must be set further apart in the north-south directions to allow for the additional sun shading caused by the mirror extensions. (F).Fig.1. Unlike the single parabolic trough reflector described earlier. as they often are. the angles should be adjusted continuously as the sun’s attitude changes. For these reasons.

6. even seasonal adjustments may not be (ii) The efficiency for accepting diffuse radiation is much larger than conventional . in an east-west direction without (or only seasonal) adjustment for sun tracking. It is possible to concentrate solar radiation by a factor of 10 without diurnal tracking. (c) Wedge-like absorbers. vacuum enclosed receivers which decrease thermal losses from the collector. if they are used with selectively coated.1. They are suitable for the temperature range of 100-150ºC even if the absorber is not surrounded by a vacuum. a larger proportion of the solar radiation. using this type of collector. (b) Flat two sided absorbers (fin). It is claimed that Winston Collectors are capable of competitive performance at high temperatures of about 300ºC required for power generation. and 42 . CPC reflectors can be designed for any absorber shapes: For example: (a) Flat one side absorber. Because of this characteristic. concentrators. For concentration ratios of required. temperatures of about 200ºC are achievable with Winston collectors. Compound Parabolic Concentrator. an advantage of the CPC is that it provides moderately good concentration. or (d) Tubular absorbers.(G). With a concentric tubular absorber with an evacuated jacket. The advantages of this new type are: (i) There is no need for tracking as it has high acceptance angle only seasonal adjustments are required. For economic as well as for thermal reasons the fin and the tubular type of absorbers are preferable.Fig5. entering the trough opening is collected (and concentrated) on a small area. although less than a focusing collector. including diffuse (scattered) radiation. In addition to collecting both direct and diffuse radiations.

has the same general 43 . it is of the order of 10. shown in cross-section in.000. 5. The parabolic trough or a linear parabolic collector is also more commonly known as the cylindrical parabolic collector. The receiver pipe of a parabolic line focusing collector.(iii) Its concentration ratio is equal to the maximum value possible for a given acceptance angle. It has many commercial ratios are available with Paraboloidal system.2 Receiver pipe.

The absorber pipe is usually enclosed in a glass (Pyrex) jacket in order to decrease thermal losses by convection and radiation. A selective absorber surface. The main advantages of concentrator systems over flat-plate type collectors are: 44 .3. The annuls between this pipe and the plug may be as little as 2.4. The diameter of the glass jacket may be about 5cm and that of absorber pipe about 3 cm.3. The solar radiation absorber is a central steel pipe with a treated surface. This results in high flow velocity of the fluid and consequently a high rate of heat transfer from the absorber. Cross-section of solar energy pipe receiver characteristics as a flat-plate collector.1 Advantages. such as the black chrome referred to earlier. may be advantageous. A hollow steel plug within the absorber pipe restricts the flow of the heat-transfer fluid to a narrow annular region.Fig.1. The space between the pipe and the jacket is sometimes evacuated to reduce convection losses.5 mm wide. 5.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Concentrating Collectors over Flatplate Type Collectors 5.

3. Reflecting surface required less material and are structurally simpler than flat-plate collectors. Because the temperature attainable with concentrating collector system is higher. 4. the amount of heat which can be stored per unit volume is larger and consequently the heat storage costs are less for concentrator systems than for flat-plate collectors. 2. 6. the working fluid can attain higher temperatures in a concentrating system than in a flat-plate collector of the same solar energy collecting surface. Because of the area from which heat is lost to the surroundings per unit of solar energy collecting area is less than that for flat-plate collector and because the insulation on the absorber is more concentrated. the higher temperature of the working fluid attainable with a concentrating system makes it possible to attain higher efficiencies. Owing to the small area of absorber per unit of solar energy collecting area. The total useful operating time per year can therefore be larger for a concentrator system than for a flat-plate collector and the initial installation cost of the system can be regained by saving in energy in shorter period of time.1. 5. The absorber area of a concentrator system is smaller than that of a flat-plate system for same solar energy collection and therefore the insulation intensity is greater. Little or no anti-freeze is required to protect the absorber in a concentrator system whereas the entire solar energy collection surface requires anti-freeze protection in a flat-plate collector. 8. 45 . Focusing or concentrating systems can be used for electric power generation when not used for heating or cooling. In solar heating and cooling applications. in the cooling cycle and lower cost for air conditioning with concentrator systems than with flat-plate collectors. selective surface treatment and/or vacuum insulation to reduce heat losses and improve collector efficiency are economically feasible. 7. For a concentrator system the cost per unit area of solar collecting surface is therefore potentially less than that for flat-plate collectors.

5. 46 . in others the reflector may have to be adjustable more than one position if year round operation is desired. 3. only beam component is collected in case of focusing collectors because diffuse component cannot be reflected and is thus lost. Non-uniform flux on the absorber whereas flux in flat-plate collectors is uniform.3. In some stationary reflecting systems it is necessary to have a small absorber to track the sun image. 2. weather.2 Disadvantages 1. Additional optical losses such as reflectance loss and the intercept loss. so they introduce additional factors in energy balances. High initial cost. Out of the beam and diffuse solar radiation components. Additional requirements of maintenance particular to retain the quality of reflecting surface against dirt. in other words costly orienting systems have to be used to track the sun. 6.5. oxidation etc. 4.

4 Heat Transport System.5. Some examples are already represented. the tubes are welded to the absorber plate (or from integral part of it) so as to assure effective heat transfer of heat to the fluid. flows upward through the tubes where it is warmed by the absorber. the absorber is a blackened sheet with close corrugations running from top to bottom through the grooves formed by the corrugations.5. collectors are almost invariably sloped. flows upward through the tubes where then enters at the bottom header. it is most commonly passed through metal tubes with either circular or rectangular cross-section. It is mainly in the design of the heat transfer system that plate collectors differ. In order to maximize the exposure to solar radiation. either water or air.4. In one simple type of flat-plate collector. and leaves by way of the top header. When water is used. The heat generated in the absorber is removed by continuous flow of heat-transport (or heat transfer) medium. The tubes are connected to common headers at each end of the collector. 47 . A problem with this design is that in cold weather. moisture may condense on the inside of the transparent cover plate and thus decrease the transmission of solar radiation. Cooler water then enters at the bottom header. Fig.

Chapter-6 FLUENT FLUENT is a state-of-the-art computer program for modeling fluid flow and heat transfer in complex geometries.4. although periodic chemical treatment of water is desirable. and flexible solver control are all made possible. but it suffers from certain drawbacks. leaks in water (or anti freeze) circulation system require immediate attention. FLUENT is written in the C computer language and makes full use of the flexibility and power offered by the language. the antifreeze solution is less effective than water for heat removed from the absorber. Another problem arises from corrosion of the metal tubes by the water. but difficulties have been experienced in refilling all the tubes in the morning.Fig. FLUENT provides complete mesh flexibility. true dynamic memory allocation. The oxygen in air increases the rate of corrosion of most metals. solving your flow problems with unstructured meshes that can be generated about complex geometries with relative ease. model more-complex geometries than you can handle with conventional. and mixed (hybrid) meshes. In addition. and let you adapt the mesh to resolve the flow-field features.5.Water Flow in flat-plate collector Water is very effective heat-transport medium. the water is drained from the collector tubes if freezing is expected. this is aggravated if the water is drained at night thus allowing air to enter. which allows it to run as separate simultaneous processes on client 48 . Consequently. FLUENT uses unstructured meshes in order to reduce the amount of time you spend generating meshes. multi-block structured meshes. 3D tetrahedral/ hexahedral/pyramid/wedge. Supported mesh types include 2D triangular/quadrilateral. Finally. but this generally adds to the complexity of the heating system. FLUENT also allows you to refine or coarsen your grid based on the flow solution. As stated earlier ethylene glycol is added to prevent freezing. FLUENT uses a client/server architecture. Furthermore. simplify the geometry modeling and mesh generation process. Aluminum is less expensive alternative. one is possibility of freezing in the collector tubes in cold climates during cold nights. Corrosion can be minimized by using copper tubing. In some cases. efficient data structures.

or hybrid volume mesh from an existing boundary mesh (created by GAMBIT or a third party CAD/CAE package). menu-driven interface. or MSC/ARIES. interactive control. and complete flexibility of machine or operating system type. and mixed element meshes. Once a grid has been read into FLUENT. 2D axisymmetric. It is also possible to create grids for FLUENT using ANSYS (Swanson Analysis Systems. Interfaces to other CAD/CAE packages may be made available in the future. CGNS (CFD general notation system). These include setting boundary conditions. 2D axisymmetric with swirl (rotationally symmetric). All functions required to compute a solution and display the results are accessible in FLUENT through an interactive. defining fluid properties. The user interface is written in a language called Scheme. triangular. for efficient execution. Inc. and 3D flows.desktop workstations and powerful computer servers. tetrahedral. executing the solution. based on requirements. Steady-state or transient flows.Use TGrid to generate a triangular. Fig. refining the grid. a dialect of LISP. prism (wedge). 2. 49 . all remaining operations are performed within the solver. pyramid. 3.6. and viewing and post processing the results. hexahedral (brick). MSC/PATRAN. The advanced user can customize and enhance the interface by writing menu macros and functions. The FLUENT solver has the following modeling capabilities: 1. Schematic diagram of fluent You can create your geometry and grid using GAMBIT. 2D planar. or IDEAS (SDRC). or MSC/NASTRAN (all from MacNealSchwendler Corporation). Note that preBFC and GeoMesh are the names of fluent preprocessors that were used before the introduction of GAMBIT. tetrahedral. Quadrilateral.).

including forced. Inviscid. laminar. and heat exchangers.) 6. (Note that this procedure includes only those steps necessary for the heat transfer model itself.2. pressure-based solver only. Incompressible or compressible flows. pumps.1 Steps in Solving Heat Transfer Problems The procedure for setting up a heat transfer problem is described below. boundary conditions. 7. etc. 8. Chemical species mixing and reaction. (Optional. 5. 6. you will need to set up other models. supersonic. enable the Viscous Heating option in the Viscous Model panel. and hypersonic flows). Heat transfer. transonic.1. Newtonian or non-Newtonian flows.1. enable the Energy Equation option in The Energy panel 6. including all speed regimes (low subsonic. To activate the calculation of heat transfer. Lumped parameter models for fans. conjugate (solid/fluid) heat transfer. and radiation. as usual. and turbulent flows.) If you are modeling viscous flow and you want to include the viscous heating terms in the energy equation.1. 9. and mixed convection. radiators. 50 . natural. including homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion models and surface deposition/reaction models. 6.4.

FLUENT requires specification of transported turbulence quantities. compressible flows 6.3. we can specify the turbulence quantities in 51 . Nevertheless. in lubrication problems) and/or in high-velocity. It also provides guidelines for the most appropriate way of determining the inflow boundary values.2.External radiation -.1.Specified temperature -. Alternatively. it is appropriate to specify a uniform value of the turbulence quantity at the boundary where inflow occurs. Define thermal boundary conditions at flow inlets. Examples are fluid entering a duct. At flow inlets and exits we will have to set the temperature. Uniform Specification of Turbulence Quantities In some situations. outlet.g. Determining Turbulence Parameters When the flow enters the domain at an inlet. far-field boundaries.2.combined external radiation and external convective heat transfer 6.1..) Viscous dissipation should be enabled when the shear stress in the fluid is large (e.Specified heat flux -. We can use the turbulence specification methods described above to enter uniform constant values instead of profiles. making the result of the calculation relatively insensitive to the inflow boundary values. (They are always included for the density-based solver.the viscous heating terms in the energy equation are (by default) ignored by FLUENT when the pressure-based solver is used. or even fully-developed duct flows where accurate profiles of turbulence quantities are unknown.Convective heat transfer -. This section describes which quantities are needed for specific turbulence models and how they must be specified. flow outlets. and walls. at walls we have to use any of the following thermal conditions: -. 6. caution must be used to ensure that boundary values are not so unphysical as to contaminate your solution or impede convergence. higher levels of turbulence are generated within shear layers than enter the domain at flow boundaries. This is particularly true of external flows where unphysical large values of effective viscosity in the free stream can swamp the boundary layers. In most turbulent flows. or far field boundary.

terms of more convenient quantities such as turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity ratio, hydraulic diameter, and turbulence length scale. These quantities are discussed further in the following sections.


Turbulence Intensity
The turbulence intensity, I, is defined as the ratio of the root-mean-square of the velocity fluctuations, u’ to the mean flow velocity, uavg. A turbulence intensity of 1% or less is generally considered low and turbulence intensities greater than 10% are considered high. Ideally, you will have a good estimate of the turbulence intensity at the inlet boundary from external, measured data for internal flows; the turbulence intensity at the inlets is totally dependent on the upstream history of the flow. If the flow upstream is under-developed and undisturbed, we can use low turbulence intensity. If the flow is fully developed, the turbulence intensity may be as high as a few percent. The turbulence intensity at the core of a fully-developed duct flow can be estimated from the following formula derived from an empirical correlation for pipe flows


Turbulent Intensity

Turbulent Intensity
For fully-developed internal flows, choose the Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter specification method and specify the hydraulic diameter L = DH in the Hydraulic Diameter field.


Setting Boundary Conditions

6.3.1 Velocity Inlet Boundary Conditions
Velocity inlet boundary conditions are used to define the flow velocity, along with all other relevant scalar properties of the flow, at the flow inlets. The total (or stagnation) properties of the flow are not fixed, so they will rise to whatever value necessary to provide the required velocity distribution. This type of boundary condition at inlet is intended to be used in incompressible flow. It requires the specification of velocity magnitude and direction, the velocity components, or the velocity magnitude normal to the boundary. In this case the velocity normal to boundary specification method was used. There are several ways in which the code allows the definition of the turbulence parameters for turbulent calculations. The method of specifying the turbulent intensity and hydraulic diameter was used for turbulence modeling purposes.

6.3.2 Defining the Velocity
(i) The procedure for defining the inflow velocity is as follows: (ii) Choose which method you will use to specify the flow direction by selecting Magnitude and Direction, Components, or Magnitude, Normal to Boundary in the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list.

(iii) If the cell zone adjacent to the velocity inlet is moving, you can choose to specify relative or absolute velocities by selecting Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone or Absolute in the Reference Frame drop-down list. If the adjacent cell zone is not moving, absolute and Relative to Adjacent Cell Zone will be equivalent, so you need not visit the list. (iv) If you are going to set the velocity magnitude and direction or the velocity components, and your geometry is 3D, you will next choose the coordinate system in which you will define the vector or velocity components. Choose Cartesian (X, Y, Z), Cylindrical (Radial, Tangential, Axial), or Local Cylindrical (Radial, Tangential, Axial) in the Coordinate System drop-down list. . (v) Set the appropriate velocity parameters, as described below for each specification method.

Defining the Temperature

For calculations in which the energy equation is being solved, you will set the static temperature of the flow at the velocity inlet boundary in the Temperature field.

Defining Turbulence Parameters

For turbulent calculations, there are several ways in which you can define the turbulence parameters as discussed in section 4.4.

6.6 Outflow Boundary Conditions
Outflow boundary conditions in FLUENT are used to model flow exits where the details of the flow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solution of the flow problem. We do not define any conditions at outflow boundaries (unless you are modeling radiative heat transfer, a discrete phase of particles, or split mass flow): FLUENT extrapolates the required information from the interior. Outflow boundary condition is obeyed in fully-developed flows where the diffusion fluxes for all flow variables in the exit direction are zero. However, you may also define outflow boundaries at physical boundaries where the flow is not fully developed and we can do so with confidence if the assumption of a zero diffusion flux at the exit is expected to have a small impact on your flow solution. The appropriate placement of an outflow boundary is described by example below.


Fig.6.6.Defining Outflow Boundary condition

6.7 Wall Boundary Conditions
Wall boundary conditions are used to bound fluid and solid regions. In viscous flows, the noslip boundary condition is enforced at walls by default, but you can specify a tangential velocity component in terms of the translational or rotational motion of the wall boundary, or model a slip wall by specifying shear

6.8 Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls
When you are solving the energy equation, you need to define thermal boundary conditions at wall boundaries. Five types of thermal conditions are available: (i) Fixed heat flux (ii) Fixed temperature (iii) Convective heat transfer

(iv) External radiation heat transfer (v) Combined external radiation and convection heat transfer 6.9

Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

For a fixed heat flux condition, choose the Heat Flux option under Thermal Conditions. We will then need to set the appropriate value for the heat flux at the wall surface in the Heat Flux field. We can define an adiabatic wall by setting a zero heat flux condition. This is the default condition for all walls.

Temperature Boundary Conditions

To select the fixed temperature condition, choose the Temperature option under Thermal Conditions in the Wall panel. You will need to specify the temperature at the wall surface (Temperature).

Chapter-7 7.1 Assumptions
(i) Steady Flow (ii) Incompressible flow (iii) Two-dimensional flow. (iv)Constant thermo physical properties of the fluid. (v) Neglecting conduction resistance of the heated absorber plate. (vi)Neglecting viscous dissipation in the energy equation as significance of viscous dissipation only for flows at high velocities.

7.2 Properties of Materials

225 kg/m3 1006.7894e-5 Chapter-8 56 .0242 w/mK 1.(i) Fluid (ii) Density (iii)Specific Heat Cp (iv) Thermal Conductivity K (v) Dynamic Viscosity µ - Air 1.43 J/KgK .0.

1.5√WH) and 354 mm (5√WH) respectively (ASHRAE. 1 Schematic diagram of experimental setup 57 . The optimum value of p/e id reported to be 10 (Han et al.. The test section is of length 1500 mm (33. a blower. In exit section after 130 mm three equally spaced baffles are provided in 87 mm length for the purpose of mixing the hot air coming out of solar air duct to obtain a uniform temperature of air at the outlet. 1997). Mixing section 4. Transition section 6. The entry and exit lengths are 177 mm (2. Inlet section 2. The outside of the entire set-up.I. The tests section of carries the roughened absorber plate at the top. Exit section 5. A digital micro-voltmeter is used to indicate the output of the thermocouples. 1. The heated plate is 1 mm thick G.Details of Experimental Set-up The experimental set up is an indoor open flow loop that consist of a test duct with entrance and exit sections. The schematic of the experimental set up is shown in fig.I. Orificemeter 9. 2 a and b show details of roughened plate. Inclined manometer 8. Test section 3. Calibrated copper-constantan thermocouples were used to measure the air and the heated plate temperatures at different locations. orifice plate and various devices for measurement of temperature and fluid head. sheet having W-shaped rib glued on its rear side by epoxy resin and this forms the top broad wall of the duct. G. pipe 7. Momin et al. from the inlet to the orifice plate is insulated with 25 mm thick thermocol. The mass flow rate of air is measured by means of a orifice meter connected with an inclined manometer and the floe is controlled by the control valves provided in the lines. Fig. The exit section of 354 mm length is used after the test section in order to reduce the end effect in the test section. control valve. 1978.. Blower Fig. 2002) have reported an optimum rib angle of 45º to 60º. Control valve 10.75 Dh ).

3 and Fig. 5. For each rib configuration 7 runs have been conducted at airflow rates corresponding to the flow change of flow rate. Pressure drop across the orifice plate 2.25 (1) Modified Dittus-Boelter equation 0. Modified Blasius equation. Flow control valve is adjusted to give a predetermined rate of airflow to the test section after switching on the blower. 1. Pr is Prandtl number.4 (2Ray / De )-0. Temperature of plate. 4 respectively. Under steady state conditions the test runs to collect relevant heat transfer data were conducted. The variation of Stanton number with Reynolds number for W-down and W-up ribs is shown in Fig. (2) for Nusselt number. s -0. It reveals that W-up ribs for the entire range of Reynolds number studied indicating clearly the effect of parameters investigated.. Outlet air temperature of collectors 4. It is seen that the smooth plate data for friction factor and Nusselt number agree reasonably good agreement with predicted values the validity of the experimental results is ensured.2 (2) Where 2Ray / De = (1. Table 1 gives range of parameters for investigation. Results Validity test: Friction factor and Nusselt number determined from the experimental dta on a smooth duct were compared with those obtained from the modified Dittus-Boelter (Sadik et al. Comparison of experimental and predicted values of Nusselt number and friction factor is shown in Fig. Re is Reynolds number. 2003). the instruments have been checked for proper operation. The following parameters were measured during the experiments.8 0. the system was allowed to attain steady state before the data were recorded.Experimental Procedure Before starting all components of setup. H is duct height (m) and W is duct width (m). The results are in broad agreement with previous investigations on V-shaped ribs (Karwa. 1987) eqn. Conclusion 58 . Where Fs is friction factor for smooth duct. Nus is Nusselt number for smooth duct.156 + H/W – 1)/ (H/W) for rectangular channel. Inlet air temperature of collectors 3. The blower is then switched on and joints have been checked for leakage.

On the basis of this investigation on heat transfer characteristics in solar air duct having on absorber plate. Chapter-9 Formula Used 59 . following conclusions have been drawn: Roughened solar air heater having W-shaped ribs pointing downstream to the flow.39 for W-down and 2. The maximum enhancement in Stanton number is 2.21 for W-up ribs respectively over smooth plate.

Hydraulic Diameter ( Dh ): 2.Friction Factor For Roughned Duct ( f ) : 9. Nusselt Number For Smooth duct ( Nuo) : This relation can be given by Dittus–Boelter correlation 7. Temperature Difference ( ΔT) : 4. 5. Prandtl Number ( Pr) : 8. Heat Transfer Coefficient ( h ) : As we know that.1. Nusselt Number For Roughned Duct ( Nu ): 6. Reynolds Number Re : 3. Friction Factor For Smooth Duct ( fo ) : 60 .

Velocity (V): 13.Hydraulic Diameter ( Dh ): 12.Heat Transfer Coefficient ( h ) : 61 .Thermal Performance : Thermal Performance SAMPLE CALCULATIONS Sample calculations for Square ribs with Re = 5000 with duct size of 50× 50 mm2 . 11.It can be expressed by the Blasius formula: 10.Temperature Difference ( ΔT) : 14.

Nusselt Number For Smooth duct ( Nuo) : 18.Nusselt Number For Roughned Duct ( Nu ): 16.Prandtl Number ( Pr) : 17.Friction Factor For Roughned Duct ( f ) : 62 .15.

Friction Factor For Smooth Duct ( fo ) : 20.00791 Turbulent Intensity for Re = 5000 Turbulent Intensity for Re = 6000 Turbulent Intensity for Re = 7000 Turbulent Intensity for Re = 8000 .19.27 5.00864 0.5 5.00812 Nuo for Re = 6000 Nuo for Re = 8000 Nuo for Re = 10000 fo for Re = 6000 fo for Re = 8000 fo for Re = 10000 = = = = 5.39 0.Turbulent Intensity : Turbulent Intensity Nuo for Re = 5000 Nuo for Re = 7000 Nuo for Re = 9000 fo for Re = 5000 fo for Re = 7000 fo for Re = 9000 = = = = = = 19 24.52 27.39 5.09 32.00898 0.2 63 = = = = = = 21.Thermal Performance : Thermal Performance 3.78 0.01 21.34 29.00940 0.00836 0.

12 5.Turbulent Intensity for Re = 9000 Turbulent Intensity for Re = 10000 = = 5.2 20 mm Pitch 22. Calculating Average Temperture from Tempeartrure contour plot 64 .

From the temperature contour plot take two readings at different location at the outlet. Outlet temperature = Chapter-10 Observation Table 65 . Let 1st reading = x1 And 2nd reading = x2 Then. Avg.

66 .

67 .

Fig 10.7 30.(Re) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 Experimental Values of Nusselt no. REYNOLD NUMBER (SMOOTH PLATE) Reynolds no.1.6 68 . (Nu) 11.4 21.85 37. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND PREDICTED VALUE OF NUSSELT NUMBER vs.61 44.42 15.

51 Fig10.42 47.(Re) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 Experimental Values of Nusselt no.2.03 82. VARIATION OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY WITH REYNOLDS NUMBER FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF e/d 69 .10.Fig. REYNOLD NUMBER (ROUGH PLATE) Reynolds no.3.1 20.83 34. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND PREDICTED VALUE OF NUSSELT NUMBER vs.11 61. (Nu) 13.

3 50.68 55.54 52.97 79.3 Rough Plate (e/D=0.3 85.3 60.Reynolds no.5 72. (Re) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 Smooth Plate Thermal efficiency in % Rough Plate (e/D=0.03 72 45.66 Chapter-11 Reattachment Point for 15mm pitch 70 .83 63.3 68.0225) 44.0315) 46.3 64.33 67.33 74 80.33 69.

71 .

72 .

73 .

74 .

Reattachment Point for 20mm pitch 75 .

76 .

77 .

Chapter-11 REFERENCES 78 .

601–617.C. Lau. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 1032–1040 [6] Han.Heat Transfer 116 (1994) 58–65. Heat transfer and friction in tubes with repeated-rib roughness. D. Effect of ridge shapes on turbulent heat transfer and Friction in a rectangular channel. [12] Hong-Min Kim. R. Solar Energy 1993. 120. [7] M. Lengkong. Saini JS. ASME J. Eckert. Hwang JJ.E. Heat transfer and friction in Rectangular channel with ribbed or ribbed-grooved walls. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in passages rib-roughened on all walls. [3] Liou TM. S.L. Renewable Energy (30) (2005) 2057– 2073.C.C.Z.D.H. Patel.G. [2] Y.1998. J. Gu. Goldstein. International 79 . 1971. Kwang-Yong Kim. Han. A.L.E.[1] J. Choi . International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 5159–5168 roughened by two-dimensional ribs and three-dimensional blocks. Int. W.R. ASME J. Chandra. Analysis of turbulent flow in channels Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007) 1098–1111 [11] Webb. [4] Gupta Dhananjay. 1988. Heat Mass Transfer 14. Binesh . ASME/J. 91–98. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 1993. Turbomach. E. Heat transfer and friction in channels with two opposite rib. 36:931–40. J.R.R.. 571– 580. ASME/J Heat Transfer 106 (1984) 774–781. [8] Taslim.M. V. staggered rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel. Spring. R.J. 564– 570. C. [5] R..C. Bhagoria. Ryu a. Part I: Resistance. M. Sahu. J. Local heat/mass transfer distributions around sharp 180 deg turns in two-pass smooth and rib roughened channels. Kamali . The importance of rib shape effects on the local heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of square ducts with ribbed internal Surfaces. 120. Solanki SC. [10] D.. S.. Li. Heat and fluid flow in rectangular solar Air heater ducts having transverse rib roughness on absorber plate.1998.. Heat Transfer 110 (February).. J. Design optimization of rib-roughened channel to enhance turbulent heat transfer.. Zhang. 51:31–7. T. 45deg.roughened walls.. M.M.N. J. P.. Augmentation of heat transfer coefficient by using 90° broken transverse ribs on absorber plate of solar air heater. Han. Turbomach. [9] Taslim.

1987. Solar Energy 1993.K. Bhagoria . Karwa. The importance of rib shape effects on the local heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of square ducts with ribbed internal surfaces. J.K.R.L. S. 1980. Park. Partankar.C. Saini. J. Solanki SC. Saini . J. Sun-Soo Kim. New York. [14] R. Heat transfer enhancement in channels with turbulence promoters. 51:31–7. effective and exergy efficiencies. [20] Gupta D. [21] Prasad K. Solanki. Solanki. Solar energy: principles of thermal collection and storage. Applied Energy 1983. Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 465–476 [19] Sukhatme SP. Lei.C. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002) 2719–2727 [17] . Renewable Energy 25 (2002) 341–369 [16] Kwang-Yong Kim.Power 107 (1985) 628–635. Saini JS. Sahua. C. Augmentation of heat transfer coefficient by using 908 broken transverse ribs on absorber plate of solar air heater. Shape optimization of rib-roughened surface to enhance turbulent heat transfer. S. Solar Energy 1988. Han. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (42) (1999) 1597–1615. Mullick SC. McGraw-Hill. Gas Turb. New Delhi.[13] J. S.C. J. Heat and fluid flow in rectangular solar air heater ducts having transverse rib roughness on absorber plates. Effect of artificial roughness on heat transfer and friction factor in a solar air heater. Gupta. Heat transfer characteristics of a solar air heater used for drying purposes. Kamali . Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations for the transitional flow regime in rib-roughened rectangular ducts. India: Tata McGraw-Hill.S. Saini JS. 13:83–93.V. [23] M. Binesh.S.L. Eng. Kaushik . [15] J. Bhagoria.M. 41:555–60. A. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 35 (2008) 1032–1040 80 . Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations for rectangular solar air heater duct having transverse wedge shaped rib roughness on the absorber plate. J. Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 2057–2073 [24] R.S.C.Performance evaluation of solar air heater for various artificial roughness geometries based on energy. [18] M. [22] Prasad BN. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.