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C33E.pdf 04.5.12

Noise Suppression by EMIFILr Digital Equipment

Application Manual

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

Cat.No.C33E

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C33E.pdf 04.5.12

Introduction
Because the process of EMI noise emission, conduction and radiation from electronic circuits is complicated, it is very difficult for us to suppress such EMI noise. To improve noise suppression efficiency, we must thoroughly examine the places and methods for taking noise suppressing measures. In the first half of this manual, by referring to experimental data, we will explain how electronic circuits emit EMI noise and how EMI noise is conducted through and radiated from circuits. Also, we will explain the techniques for suppressing EMI noise. The second half of this manual describes the precautions for using EMI suppression filters for noise suppression, and presents examples of EMI suppression filter applications in typical electronic circuits. We invite you to refer to this manual when considering noise suppressing measures. * EMIFIL®, EMIGUARD® and CERALOCK® are registered trademarks of Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

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C33E.pdf 04.5.12

1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment

YYYYYYYYY02 1. Digital Signals and Harmonic Components ..............................03 Example of Digital's Spectrum Measurement ................................04 Noise in IC Power Supply Line ......................................................05 2. Radiated Noise from Digital Circuit Boards ..............................06 Noise Generated by IC ..................................................................06 Radiated Noise from Patterns........................................................07 Effect of EMI Suppression Filter ....................................................08 3. Radiated Noise from Cables .......................................................09 Radiated Noise from Cable (1) ......................................................09 Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (1) ..............10 Radiated Noise from Cable (2) ......................................................11 Radiated Noise from Cable (3) ......................................................12 Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (2) ..............13 Radiated Noise from Cable (4) ......................................................14 Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (3) ..............15 4. Causes of Common Mode Noise ................................................16 5. Summary of EMI Noise Sources .................................................16

CONTENTS

1 2 3 4

Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Suppressing EMI Noise Emission How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length

2

Suppressing EMI Noise Emission YYYYYYYYYYYY17 1. Approaches to Suppressing Emission of EMI Noise ...............17 EMI Noise Emission Suppression Model .......................................17 2. EMI Suppression Filters ..............................................................18 Using EMI Suppression Filters ......................................................18 Effectiveness of EMI Suppression Filters Performance .................19 How to Use Inductor Type EMI Suppression Filters ......................20 How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (1) ................20 How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (2) ................21 How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (3) ................22 3. Improved Ground Pattern ...........................................................23 Influence of Ground Pattern ...........................................................24 Improved Ground Pattern with Ground Plane ................................25 4. Changing Component and Pattern Layout ................................26 Influence of Signal Frequency .......................................................27 Influence of Transmission Line Length ..........................................28 5. Influence of Signal Pattern Width ...............................................29 6. Influence of PWB Thickness .......................................................30 7. Shielding .......................................................................................31 Shielding of Case ...........................................................................31 Influence of Openings in Shielded Case ........................................32
Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (1) ...............................................33 Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (2) ...............................................34 Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (3) ...............................................35 1. Circuit Impedance and EMI Suppression Filters Performance.....36 2. Selecting Capacitor Type or Inductor Type EMI Suppression Filter ....37 3. Examples of EMI Suppression Filter Use at Noise Source ......38 1. Clock Line ..................................................................................38 2. Bus Line .....................................................................................38 4. Examples of EMI Suppression Filter Use on Conductive Noise Path ...39 1. Signal Cable Connecting Section ..............................................39 2. Power Supply Cable Connecting Section ..................................39 3. Power Supply Cable Connecting Section-2 ...............................40

3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters YY33

4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length YYYYYYYY41
1. Example of Change in Noise Suppressing Effect Depending on Transmission Line Length .................................41 Experimental PWB and Measuring Method ...................................41 Radiation Noise Measurement ......................................................42 2. Analysis of Cause of Variations in Noise Suppressing Effect ...43 Analyzing Cause of Variations in Noise Suppressing Effect..........43 Current Distribution Change after Connection of Ferrite Beads Inductor ....44 Analysis of Cause of Variations .....................................................45 Difference in Peak Current Loss Depending on Transmission Line Length ....46 Influence of Transmission Line Length on Ferrite Beads Inductor's Noise Suppressing Effect ..............................................47 3. How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect ...............................48 How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect Method 1 : Considering Ferrite Beads Inductor Mounting Position .................48 Measurement Result on Shift of Ferrite Beads Inductor Mounting Position ....49 Correction of Method 1 : Noise Suppression Using Several Ferrite Beads Inductors ....50 How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect Method 2 : Application of Capacitor ....51 Considering Addition of a Capacitor ..............................................52 4. Cause of Variations in Ferrite Beads Inductors Noise Suppressing Effect and How to Improve the Noise Suppressing Effect ..................53

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C33E.pdf 04.5.12

1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment
The electronic circuits that may raise EMI noise problems use many ICs, which makes the process of EMI noise emission very complicated. To explain the EMI noise phenomena simply, this chapter describes how electronic circuits, for example, experimental circuits with only two or three ICs, emit EMI noise.

1

2

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C33E.pdf 04.5.12

Noise Sources in Digital Equipment

1

1. Digital Signals and Harmonic Components
As a cause of EMI noise emission from an electronic circuit, a digital signal used in the electronic circuit is considered. A digital signal shows a rectangular voltage waveform, which is formed by overlaying many sine waves. The frequencies of these sine waves are integer times the repetition frequency of the digital signal. A sine wave with a frequency equal to the repetition frequency is called a fundamental wave, and those with a frequency n times the repetition frequency are called nth-order harmonics. The charts above show the signal wave calculation results, indicating that the resulting waveform gradually becomes close to a rectangular wave as a fundamental wave is combined with higherorder harmonics. From these charts, you can see that a signal with a sharper rising/falling edge is comprised of higher-order harmonics, i.e. higher frequency components. A digital signal with a 50% duty ratio is formed by harmonics based only on odd numbers. However, if the duty ratio is not 50%, the signal also includes harmonics based on even numbers. !Digital Signals Higher Harmonics Analysis Model

1
1 t T : Cycle Time t =d : Duty Radio T T

ƒ(x)=d(1+2A1coswot+2A2cos2wot+...) sink π d wo=2π/T,Ak= (k=1,2,...) kπd

0 d=49.5% -20 Strength (dB) -40 -60 -80 -100 0 10 20 Harmonic Order 30 40

!Relationship between Harmonics and Waveform

Strength (dB)

1

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3 Harmonic Order

Strength (dB)

1

2

3

4

5

Harmonic Order

Strength (dB)

1

2

3

4

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7

Harmonic Order

3

causing receiving interference. soldering.pdf 04. the harmonics will be superimposed on the radio wave.5. You can see that the frequency of this signal reaches several hundred megahertz. included in an actual digital signal. operating. Because of the high frequencies.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. etc. C33E. !Test Circuit 1 VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz Measurement Point High GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 < Signal Waveform > < Signal Spectrum > 120 Found Value 110 100 dBµV 90 80 H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 70 30 90 150 210 270 330 Frequency (MHz) 120 (Reference) Calculated Waveform 110 100 dBµV 90 80 H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 70 30 90 150 210 270 330 Frequency (MHz) 4 . Therefore. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. harmonics radiate easily. measured by a spectrum analyzer. rating. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. If a harmonic frequency is close to the frequency of a radio or TV broadcast signal.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Example of Digital's Spectrum Measurement The charts above show the harmonics. The digital signal is comprised of several tenth or higherorder harmonics. This catalog has only typical specifications. The harmonics included in the digital signal are considered a principal cause of EMI noise emission from the electronic circuit.

12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 Noise in IC Power Supply Line Power supply noise is considered as another cause of EMI noise emission from electronic circuits. This catalog has only typical specifications. The charts above show the voltages. operating. soldering.pdf 04. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.00000 s < Noise Spectrum > 100 80 Level (dBµV) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Frequency (MHz) 5 . According to the IC operation timing.000 ns 0. Therefore.0 mVolts/diV F100000 = 50. and the spectrum analysis data on this oscillation waveform proves that harmonics are included in the waveform. rating. and the DC current on the digital IC's power supply terminal will be interrupted according to the IC operation.1 = 200. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.0 ns/diV 200mV · 50ns/diV Offset = 5. C33E. the power supply terminal outputs an oscillation waveform.200 Volts Delay = 0. Such a sporadic change in current causes EMI noise.5.000 ns Cn. etc. Digital IC's use DC power supplies.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. !Test Circuit Measurement Point VCC (+5V) + 22µF 1µF 1µF CERALOCK® 5MHz 1µF HC04 1 GND HCU04 Oscillator Noise Source < Power Supply Waveform > -250.00000 s 250. These harmonic components cause EMI noise. on a power supply terminal of an IC that will operate at 5MHz. measured with an oscilloscope and a spectrum analyzer.

C33E. so that the noise radiation from the power supply terminal can be thoroughly suppressed. operating. This PWB is single-sided. In this case. With some of the recently used large ICs. Radiated Noise from Digital Circuit Boards Noise Generated by IC !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) 1 On the previous pages. This catalog has only typical specifications. and the residual part of the front side is entirely grounded.5 (in cm) !Radiated Noise 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 6 10 .22 limit value. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. To radiate noise. and the signal output terminal of IC2 that receives the oscillation signal is open. IC1 oscillates at 16MHz. their package itself may serve as a noise antenna. rating. we will explain how the noise is conducted through and radiated from digital circuits by referring to some experimental circuits. On the above PWB. both noise source and noise radiation antenna are required. we consider that the noise radiated from this PWB is low.pdf 04.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 2. soldering.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. The chart above shows the noise radiated from this PWB measured at a distance of 3m. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. CERALOCK® 16MHz GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 !Board Layout CERALOCK® IC2 (HC04) Entirely grounded IC1 (HCU04) 17. and measured the noise radiation from this PWB. Part of the front side is equipped with the circuit. Now. etc. You can see that the noise level is sufficiently low relative to the CISPRpub. although its IC serves as a noise source. Because the above PWB has no noise antenna. the noise radiation from the IC package cannot be ignored. we explained that noise emission occurs according to the digital IC operation. we prepared an oscillation circuit on a PWB. As the simplest example of a digital circuit. Therefore.5. Both ICs' power supply terminals are equipped with noise suppression components.

the noise and signal will flow in the same conduction mode.2 CERALOCK® 0. C33E. the noise conducted in the same level and in the reverse direction due to the current flow between the signal pattern and GND pattern is called "normal mode noise" (differential mode noise).5.e. i. As shown in this example. and the signal pattern is terminated with IC3. As shown in the diagram above. Therefore.3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern GND 3. 10cm signal pattern. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz High 1 GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4. soldering. 16MHz on this chart. etc. rating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. From noting the harmonics with the IC oscillation frequency. In this case. is connected to an approx. you can see that the noise levels at some frequencies exceed the CISPRpub.22 limit value.pdf 04.7 (in cm) !Radiated Noise 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 7 . This catalog has only typical specifications.8 1.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. operating.12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 Radiated Noise from Patterns Now we will show an experimental circuit with a noise source connected to a signal pattern that serves as a noise antenna. which is open in the previous experiment. This noise antenna is made by the following signal current flow: IC2 –> signal pattern –> IC3 –> GND –> IC2. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. the IC2 output terminal. This phenomenon is probably because a noise antenna is formed on the PWB when the IC2 output terminal is connected to the signal pattern. The noise radiation measurement from this PWB is shown in the chart above.

etc.8 1. The EMI suppression filter used in this experiment is a combination of the chip EMIFIL® for the signal line and a 30Ω resistor. C33E.7 (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Without EMI Filter > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < With EMI Filter > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 8 10 . !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz NFW31SP506X1E (cut-off frequency 50MHz) High 1 30Ω GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4. Inserting an EMI suppression filter between the IC2 output terminal and the signal pattern can remarkably suppress the noise level. Therefore. rating. This catalog has only typical specifications. so that distortion of the digital signal waveform can be suppressed.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern Filter GND 3.pdf 04. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. operating.2 CERALOCK® 0.5.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Effect of EMI Suppression Filter This chart shows the result of the experiment for suppressing the noise radiated through a signal pattern that serves as a noise antenna (normal mode noise). you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. soldering.

etc. operating. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. and connected to a 10cm cable that has the same length as the signal pattern. When a signal is connected with a cable as shown above. is connected to a cable instead of the signal pattern.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. the IC2 output terminal is disconnected from the signal pattern. or a noise source. C33E. the noise level in this experiment is increased by approx. As shown above. In comparison with the previous case. rating. you must be aware of the strong noise radiation from the cable. This catalog has only typical specifications.5. The noise radiated from this circuit is shown in the charts above. !Test Circuit 10cm Cable VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz Open 1 GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4.12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 3. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.7 (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Before Cable Connection > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < After Cable Connection > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 9 .pdf 04. Therefore.8 1. where the signal pattern is connected. soldering. Radiated Noise from Cables Radiated Noise from Cable (1) We will now show an example where IC2. You can see that the cable serves as a more efficient noise antenna than the signal pattern.3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Open GND 10cm Cable 3.2 CERALOCK® 0. 10dB at the maximum.

inserting an EMI suppression filter between the noise source and the antenna results in a large noise suppressing effect. inserting an EMI suppression filter between the IC2 output terminal and the cable can remarkably reduce the noise level. operating.pdf 04.2 CERALOCK® Filter 0.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. C33E.5. !Test Circuit 10cm Cable VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz NFW31SP506X1E (cut-off frequency 50MHz) 30Ω GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 1 Open !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4. This catalog has only typical specifications. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. soldering. Therefore. rating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.8 1. As with the case using the signal pattern. In the case where a noise source is directly connected with a noise radiation antenna as shown.7 (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Without EMI Filter > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < With EMI Filter > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 10 .3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Open GND 10cm Cable 3.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (1) These charts show the results of the experiment for suppressing noise radiation through the cable that serves as an antenna. etc.

As shown above. no signal current is flowing through the cable. Therefore. it increased by 30dB at a frequency of around 80MHz.pdf 04. we can consider that the cause of the remarkable increase in noise level at around 80MHz is that the cable serves as an antenna with 1/4 of the wavelength at this frequency.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. IC4 is mounted at the end of the PWB.7 GND 1m Cable IC4 (HC04) 3. In particular. C33E.2 CERALOCK® 0. and radiated from IC4 through the cable that serves as a noise antenna. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. rating. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz High 1 GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 IC4 : HC04 1m Cable 1m Cable !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4. In this example.5. operating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. soldering. etc. This cable is assumed to be an interface cable.12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 Radiated Noise from Cable (2) The next example shows a case where a cable mounted to a PWB serves as an antenna through which noise is radiated. and a 1m cable is connected to the IC4 output terminal and GND. assuming that the interface circuit is not activated. You can see that the noise level increased remarkably after the cable connection. The charts show the radiation noise levels measured before and after the cable connection. and the interface cable serves as an antenna through which the noise is radiated. Therefore. Also. we suppose that IC4 will not operate. This catalog has only typical specifications. In actual electronic equipment connecting an interface cable. we frequently see a similar phenomenon when the interface circuit receives the noise emitted from the internal circuit. a signal pattern is connected between IC2 and IC3 on a PWB. This phenomenon is probably because the noise emitted from IC2 is conducted into IC4 via the power supply line or GND line.3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern 1.8 1m Cable (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Before Cable Connection > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < After Cable Connection > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 11 .

7 GND 1m Cable (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Before Removal of Signal Cable > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < After Removal of Signal Cable > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 12 IC4 (HC04) 3. rating. etc. with only the signal line or the GND line. soldering. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. operating. As shown above. are almost equal to the noise level observed with both these lines. From the results of this experiment.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Radiated Noise from Cable (3) This experiment is intended to examine whether the noise conducted through the cable in the previous experiment is flowing on the signal line or GND line of the cable. In this experiment.pdf 04.3 IC3 (HC00) IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern 1.5. Therefore. This catalog has only typical specifications.8 10 . C33E. the noise conducted in the same level and in the same direction due to the current flowing through all lines is called "common mode noise. and the signal line and GND line function like a single noise antenna. we can see that the same level of noise is conducted through the signal line and GND line." !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz 1 Signal cable is removed GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 IC4 : HC04 1m Cable !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) 4. The noise levels. The charts show the noise levels with only the GND line after the signal line is disconnected.2 CERALOCK® 0.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. we measured the radiation noise level by connecting either the signal line or GND line. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.

Using the GND plane is effective in suppressing the common mode noise conducted through the GND line. Furthermore. To suppress common mode noise. rating.pdf 04.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. The metal plate is placed under the PWB.8 1m Cable (in cm) !Radiated Noise < Before Test > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < After Ground Plane is added > 60 < After EMI Suppression Filter is added > 60 50 50 dBµV/m 30 dBµV/m 40 40 30 20 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 13 . etc.2 IC2 (HC04) CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern Filter 0. C33E. an EMI suppression filter is connected to the IC2 output terminal so that the noise radiated from the signal pattern can be suppressed. you can use a common mode choke coil. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. in addition to the GND improvement method. a GND plane is used to improve the GND condition so that the common mode noise conducted through the GND line can be suppressed. Therefore.7 GND Ground Plane (Metal Plate) 1m Cable IC4 (HC04) 3. In this experiment. the radiation noise level can be reduced markedly. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. The GND plane is made of a metal plate with almost the same size as the PWB. Through these noise suppressing measures. operating.3 IC3 (HC00) 1. This catalog has only typical specifications. and the GND terminals on the PWB are connected with several parts of the metal plate. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz NFW31SP506X1E (cut-off frequency 50MHz) 30Ω High High 1 IC3 : HC00 IC4 : HC04 1m Cable 1m Cable GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 Ground Plane (Metal Plate) !Board Layout 10 4. soldering.12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (2) This diagram shows an example of the noise suppression circuit that uses the cable described in the previous experiment as an antenna for radiating common mode noise.5.

The charts show the noise radiation from this PWB.8 10 .5. As shown. This catalog has only typical specifications. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. On the experimental PWB with noise suppression measures taken as shown above.3 IC3 (HC00) Signal Pattern Filter 1. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz NFW31SP506X1E (cut-off frequency 50MHz) 30Ω 750kHz High 750kHz Oscillator Circuit 1 GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 IC5 : HCU04 IC4 : HC04 IC6 : HC74 1m Cable 1m Cable Ground Plane (Metal Plate) !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) 0. C33E.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment Radiated Noise from Cable (4) Now consider the case where the interface circuit is being activated.2 GND Ground Plane (Metal Plate) CERALOCK® 1m Cable (in cm) 1m Cable !Radiated Noise < Before 750kHz Oscillator Circuit is Activated > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < After 750kHz Oscillator Circuit is Activated > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 14 IC5 (HCU04) IC4 (HC04) IC6 (HC74) 3.pdf 04. the harmonics of this signal are radiated through the cable.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Therefore. a signal flowing through an interface cable may cause radiation noise. operating. a 750kHz oscillation circuit is connected to IC4 to generate a 750kHz digital signal from its output terminal. When the cable receives the 750kHz signal input. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. soldering. rating.7 4. etc.

As a result. taking noise suppressing measures for both the signal line and GND line can improve the noise suppressing effect. First. rating.12 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 1 Example of Suppressing Radiated Noise from Cable (3) The diagram shows an example of the noise suppression circuit for suppressing radiation noise due to the signal flowing through a cable. a combination of chip EMIFIL® and chip ferrite beads inductor is connected to the signal line.5. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. operating.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz NFW31SP506X1E (cut-off frequency 50MHz) 30Ω High 750kHz Oscillator Circuit NFM21CC102R1H3 (1000pF) BLM18AG601SN1 (600Ω) GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 IC5 : HCU04 IC4 : HC04 IC6 : HC74 1m Cable 1m Cable 1 Ground Plane (Metal Plate) !Board Layout 10 IC2 (HC04) CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) 0. an EMI suppression filter is connected between the cable and IC4 that serves as a new noise source.pdf 04. This catalog has only typical specifications. resulting in a further noise suppressing effect. C33E. most of the radiation noise can be eliminated. soldering.3 IC3 (HC00) Signal Pattern Filter 1. etc.2 GND Ground Plane (Metal Plate) Filter 2 Filter 4 Filter 3 1m Cable (in cm) 1m Cable !Radiated Noise < Before Countermeasure > 60 50 dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) < With EMI Filter on Signal Line > 60 60 < With EMI Filter on Ground Line > 50 50 dBµV/m 30 dBµV/m 40 40 30 20 20 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) 10 30 84 138 192 246 300 Frequency (MHz) IC5 (HCU04) IC4 (HC04) IC6 (HC74) 3. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.7 4. another chip ferrite beads inductor is connected to the GND line. As shown.8 10 15 . Therefore. In this experiment. Then.

In this experimental circuit. and transmitted to IC3. the GND pattern has inductance. causing voltage on the GND terminal due to the return current of the signal. Therefore. soldering. and noise is conducted through a signal line. To suppress the common mode noise. there should be no voltage on the GND terminal. noise interference occurs. rating. Noise Source Noise Transfer Route Radiation Noise Antennas Signal Line (High Frequency harmonics) I/O Cable (Signal line) Signal Pattern Induction Digital IC Power Supply Line Ground Power Supply Cable Printed Circuit Board I/O Cable (Power supply. or to connect EMI suppression filters to the signal line and power supply line to reduce the return current. In addition to this. shield) 16 . When the noise flowing through these lines is radiated directly from the PWB or radiated via an I/O cable or power supply cable that serves as an antenna. If the GND functions ideally in this circuit. ground. the power supply current flowing through the IC generates a voltage on the GND terminal. C33E. a 16MHz digital signal is generated from IC2. It can be considered as a cause of the common mode noise. power supply line and GND line. causing common mode noise. Summary of EMI Noise Sources This diagram summarizes the descriptions on the previous pages. Causes of Common Mode Noise Now we will discuss the causes of the common mode noise observed in the previous experimental circuit. The noise suppression using EMI suppression filters is intended to suppress noise radiation by eliminating the noise flowing through these transmission lines.5. However.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. operating. it is effective to reduce the GND impedance through GND improvement. A digital IC serves as a noise source. 1 Potential difference (Common mode noise) Pattern's inductance IC2 IC3 Potential difference (Common mode noise) Current dissipated in IC2 Current carrying signal to IC3 5. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.12 1 Noise Sources in Digital Equipment 4. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.pdf 04. etc. since the GND pattern on this experimental PWB is relatively small. This catalog has only typical specifications. and accordingly no common mode noise.

or conducted into an interface circuit and then radiated from the interface cable that also serves as an antenna. operating. 2 1. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. it is effective to connect an EMI suppression filter to the signal line from which the noise will be emitted first. For your reference on PWB design. The noise emitted from a digital IC is radiated through a signal line that serves as an antenna. for your reference on PWB shielding. If the relevant circuit cannot be identified. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission This chapter provides techniques for using EMI suppression filters to suppress noise radiation from a PWB. To suppress such noise. Approaches to Suppressing Emission of EMI Noise EMI Noise Emission Suppression Model These diagrams show the noise suppression models of a PWB using EMI suppression filters.pdf 04. etc. !Without EMI Filter (Antenna 1) Signal Line Coupled (Antenna 2) Digital Circuit Board Interface Cable !With EMI Filter EMI Suppression Filter Signal Line EMI Suppression Filter Digital Circuit Board Interface Cable 17 . and by improving the GND condition. Furthermore.5. we will present the noise measurement data taken by changing the component or pattern layout on a PWB. C33E. then an EMI suppression filter should be used for the interface cable connection terminal. we will present the measurement data on variations in noise suppressing effect depending on the opening dimension of the shielding. rating. or an EMI suppression filter cannot be connected to the signal line due to limitations on the signal specifications. soldering. This catalog has only typical specifications.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Therefore.

mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. and those for improving noise immunity should be located near the device exposed to external noise.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2. EMI Suppression Filters Using EMI Suppression Filters The EMI suppression filters are connected to noise transmission lines to eliminate noise emitted from a noise source. operating.pdf 04. Noise Source Conductive Path (O/P) 2 (a) Suppressing Noise Formation Noise Receiver Conductive Path (I/P) (b) Improving Noise Immunity 18 . Therefore. This catalog has only typical specifications. the EMI suppression filters can be used for both noise suppression purposes: for suppression of noise emission. and for improvement of noise immunity. C33E.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Therefore.5. soldering. If you intend to use an EMI suppression filter for a cable connection. the EMI suppression filters for suppressing noise emission should be located near the noise source. it should be located at the root of the cable. etc. rating. or intruded from an external device. In order to prevent the noise on the filter input and output sides from being mixed with each other.

The inductor type EMI suppression filter is connected to a signal line in series to suppress unnecessary harmonic current. C33E. Both types of EMI suppression filters are low pass filters. We will explain how to use these EMI suppression filters on the following pages.pdf 04. The capacitor type EMI suppression filter is connected to a signal line and GND line. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) Measurement Point 16MHz EMI Suppression Filter GND HC04 HC00 High 2 EMI Suppression Filter Signal Waveform Spectrum 120 110 dBµV H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 Without Filter 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor 110 dBµV BLM18AG221SN1 (220Ω at 100MHz) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip EMI Filter 110 dBµV NFM21CC470U1H3 (47pF) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 19 . Therefore. This catalog has only typical specifications. rating.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 Effectiveness of EMI Suppression Filters Performance EMI suppression filters are generally classified into two types: inductor type and capacitor type. and the chip EMIFIL® is categorized as typical capacitor type EMI suppression filters.5. so that unnecessary harmonics are forced to flow into the GND line via the bypass capacitor.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. operating. Chip ferrite beads are categorized as typical inductor type EMI suppression filters. soldering. which eliminate unnecessary harmonics from digital signals. etc. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.

it should be connected to the GND terminal of the noise source at the minimum distance. soldering. Therefore. When the EMI suppression filter is located at a distance from a noise source. it should be connected only to a signal line. EMI suppression filters for signal lines") should be inserted into a noise transmission line in series. because noise may conduct through a power line and GND line as well as the signal line. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. When the EMI suppression filter is located near a noise source. When the EMI suppression filter is located near a noise source.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission How to Use Inductor Type EMI Suppression Filters The inductor type EMI suppression filter (EMI suppression filter whose primary component is inductor "Examples : Ferrite bead inductor") should be inserted into a noise transmission line in series. because noise may conduct through the GND line as well as the signal line. a) Application at Noise Source VCC (+5V) Noise Source Noise Current GND Connect to noise source with low impedance b) Application on Noise Transfer Route Interface cable VCC (+5V) GND Ground Plane Connect to stable ground with low impedance 20 . a) Using at Noise Source VCC (+5V) Noise Source GND 2 B) Using on Noise Transfer Route Interface cable VCC (+5V) GND How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (1) The capacitor type EMI suppression filter (EMI suppression filter that has capacitor built-in "Examples : Three terminal capacitors. etc.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. it should be connected to all transmission lines. This catalog has only typical specifications. and also connected to a GND line. so that a preferable noise return path can be established from the capacitor type EMI suppression filter to the noise source. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.5. you should use a GND plane to intensify the GND condition in addition to the noise suppression component. C33E. When the EMI suppression filter is located at a distance from a noise source.pdf 04. operating. rating.

1. The signal pattern-to-ground pattern loop is small 2 Thru hole Three terminal capacitor Ground Patterm Board (Entire back side surface grounded) Thru hole Ground Patterm Ground Patterm Entire surface is grounded Component Side Back Side !Poor 1. This catalog has only typical specifications. rating. Ground's high frequency impedance is small 2. The signal pattern-to-ground pattern loop is large. etc. so that a preferable noise return path can be established. (Noise may be radiated from this loop.pdf 04.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (2) These figures show examples of the pattern designs that locate the capacitor type EMI suppression filter near a noise source. C33E.) Three terminal capacitor Signal Patterm Ground Patterm Board (No ground on back side) 21 .5. Therefore. operating. The GND terminal of the EMI suppression filter and the GND terminal of the IC that serves as a noise source should be connected to the ground that covers the entire back surface of the PWB. !Good Filter's ground terminal is connected via a thru hole to the back side whose entire surface is grounded. soldering.) 2. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Impedance between filter's ground and IC's ground terminal large. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. (Little noise current is returned to the ground.

12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission How to Use Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter (3) These figures show examples of the pattern designs that locate the capacitor type EMI suppression filter near an interface connector. !Good 1. (Harder for noise to be induced signal pattern) 2. C33E. etc. Ground pattern on the board and ground plane connected by screws.pdf 04. Signal pattern between three terminal capacitor and connector is long. Therefore. (Ground pattern's high frequency impedance is small) 3. and connected to the filter GND terminal on the back surface of the PWB. This catalog has only typical specifications. rating. 3. 2 Screw Signal Pattern Three terminal Capacitor Connecor Board (Entire back side surface grounded) Screw Ground Plane Thru hole Ground Patterm Ground Patterm Entire surface is grounded Component Side Back Side Connecor Screw Board Ground Plane Side View !Poor 1. (ground plane) Lead Wire Screw Connecor Three terminal Capacitor Ground Pattern Signal Pattern Board (No ground on back side) Screw Ground Plane 22 .!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Signal pattern between three terminal capacitor and connector is shot. Increased high frequency impedance between board's ground pattern and stable ground. (Noise induced to signal pattern) 2. Ground pattern has increased high frequency impedance. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. soldering. operating. This filter GND terminal should be connected to the GND plane to intensify the GND condition. The EMI suppression filter should be placed as close as possible to the connector. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.5. Filter's ground terminal is connected via a thru hole to the back side whose entire surface is grounded.

we must reduce the GND impedance between the signal sending and receiving ICs. rating. This catalog has only typical specifications. soldering. a voltage applied to the GND terminal causes common mode noise. 23 . C33E. Common impedance is reduced by broadening the ground pattern to minimize cross talk between signal lines. so that the GND current from individual circuit blocks will not interfere with each other. etc.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 3.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. 2 [Good] High speed Signal IC1 IC2 Ground Pattern [Poor] High speed Signal IC1 IC2 Ground Pattern 2. [Good] IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 Ground Pattern [Poor] IC1 IC3 IC4 IC2 Impedance of this ground pattern is the common impedance. To suppress such voltage on the GND terminal. Improved Ground Pattern As a technique for suppressing common mode noise. 1. Therefore.pdf 04. operating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Ground impedance is reduced by making the ground pattern between the signal IC's input and output wide and short. we must reduce the GND impedance between individual circuit blocks. When a signal return current flows through the GND line.5. In order to prevent noise interference between circuit blocks. we can consider intensification of the GND condition. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. with attention to the high speed signal in the circuit. This minimizes the potential difference relative to the ground.

Furthermore. the noise radiation level is increased by 10dB or more.0 70 60 50 70 60 50 dBµV/m 84 138 192 246 300 40 30 20 10 300 IC2 (HC04) 2. inserting an EMI suppression filter into the signal line and providing a GND plane to intensify the GND condition.3 Signal Pattern 5. As shown. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.8 1. as described on the next page. 10dB.5 GND 10 440 580 720 860 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 10 2.3 40 30 20 Signal Pattern GND 3. rating.5. C33E. etc.2 50 IC3 (HC00) dBµV/m dBµV/m 84 138 192 246 300 40 30 20 10 30 (in cm) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC2 (HC04) 0. To suppress the noise radiated from the PWB. Therefore. !Board Layout and Noise Radiation Board Layout 10 70 60 4.5 CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC3 (HC00) dBµV/m 40 30 20 10 30 Signal Pattern 5.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. as the GND pattern width decreases.7 10 10 30 (in cm) 440 580 720 860 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 10 70 60 4. When the GND pattern is provided only on the front surface of the PWB (although the original PWB has GND patterns on both the front and back surfaces). operating. soldering. are effective. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. the noise radiation level increases. and the results of this experiment are shown in the charts.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission Influence of Ground Pattern We carried out an experiment to confirm variations in noise radiation level depending on changes in GND pattern width.pdf 04. the noise radiation level is further increased by approx.5 GND (in cm) 10 440 580 720 860 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 24 .2 50 IC3 (HC00) dBµV/m !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz High GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 2 Radiated Noise 70 60 50 dBµV/m 84 138 192 246 300 40 30 20 10 300 CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC2 (HC04) 0. This catalog has only typical specifications. when the front GND pattern width is reduced and the gap between the GND pattern and the signal pattern is enlarged.

rating.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. operating.5 GND (in cm) 300 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 10 2.5. Therefore.5 300 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 10 2.0 60 50 IC3 (HC00) dBµV/m dBµV/m 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 40 30 20 10 30 (in cm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 GND Ground Plane (Metal Plate) 5.5 EMI Suppression Filter and Ground Strengthening CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC2 (HC04) Signal Pattern 10 30Ω +NFW31SP506X1E Filter 2. C33E.5 Signal Pattern 5. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.5 dBµV/m dBµV/m 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 CERALOCK® IC3 (HC00) 40 30 20 10 30 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 Radiated Noise 70 Initial IC1 (HCU04) Signal Pattern 5.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 Improved Ground Pattern with Ground Plane !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) CERALOCK® 16MHz High GND IC1 : HCU04 IC2 : HC04 IC3 : HC00 2 !Board Layout and Noise Radiation Board Layout 70 10 2.0 60 50 IC2 (HC04) 2. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.0 60 50 dBµV/m dBµV/m 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 IC3 (HC00) 40 30 20 10 30 (in cm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 EMI Suppression Filter Only CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC2 (HC04) Signal Pattern 5.5 GND Ground Plane (Metal Plate) 10 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 10 2.0 10 60 50 IC3 (HC00) dBµV/m dBµV/m 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 300 40 30 20 10 30 (in cm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 Ground Strengthening Only CERALOCK® IC1 (HCU04) IC2 (HC04) 2.5 300 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 25 . This catalog has only typical specifications. soldering.pdf 04. etc.5 GND 10 30Ω +NFW31SP506X1E Filter 2.

5. or as the signal line is extended. rating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. As shown in the experimental data on the following pages. the noise level increases as the signal frequency increases. we can suppress the noise level by reducing the length of a high speed signal line with higher priority over other low speed signal lines. C33E. resulting in radiation from the cable. the high speed signal circuit that may emit strong noise must be located at as long a distance from the interface cable as possible. 1. 2 [Good] IC1 Low speed Signal High speed Signal 5MHz 20MHz IC2 IC3 [Poor] IC1 High speed Signal Low speed Signal 20MHz 5MHz IC3 IC2 2. To prevent such radiation noise. Therefore.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 4. the noise level varies depending on the component or pattern layout on the PWB. soldering. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.pdf 04. Shorten shortening of high speed signal line to minimize radiated noise and common mode noise generation from signal line.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Separate high noise level circuit and cable to minimize noise coupling. etc. Therefore. This catalog has only typical specifications. the noise emitted from the circuit may conduct through the cable. operating. Changing Component and Pattern Layout Even if a circuit is designed for a similar operation. If a circuit that may emit strong noise is located near an interface cable. [Good] High speed Signal Area 20MHz IC1 IC2 Interface Cable [Poor] High speed Signal Area 20MHz IC1 IC2 Interface Cable 26 .

12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 Influence of Signal Frequency These charts show the variations in noise radiation level depending on changes in signal frequency. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Therefore. operating. and the noise level also increases. soldering.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.5.7cm Resonator or Oscillator 5V 7cm 3. The frequency range where the noise radiation is observed extends to higher frequencies. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.7 Characteristic impedance 130Ω Signal frequency 5MHz 25MHz 100MHz 2 !Radiated noise (actual measurement) 5MHz 60 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 25MHz 60 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 100MHz 60 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 27 . etc.3V Transmission line L=20cm 3. C33E.8mm ε=4. !Experimental PWB 29. This catalog has only typical specifications. Thickness t=0. rating.3V 74HCU04 74LVC04 74LVC00 Double-sided epoxy-glass PWB (the back surface of the PWB is entirely grounded).pdf 04. As the signal frequency increases. the spectrum interval increases.

operating. rating.3V Transmission line length L=5cm Ferrite Beads x=1cm 74HCU04 74LVC04 74LVC00 10cm 20cm 3.3V 2 !Radiated noise and signal waveform (actual measurement) Double-sided epoxy-glass PWB (the back surface of the PWB is entirely grounded).0V/diV 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) Transmission line length L=5cm 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 60 H : 10ns/diV V : 2. You can see that the noise level increases.7cm 25MHz Resonator (CERALOCK®) 5V 7cm 3. as the transmission line is extended.7 Characteristic impedance Z=130Ω 60 H : 10ns/diV V : 2. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.pdf 04. soldering.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.8mm ε=4. C33E. This catalog has only typical specifications. !Experimental PWB 29.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission Influence of Transmission Line Length These charts show the variations in noise level depending on changes in transmission line length at the same signal frequencies. Therefore. Thickness t=0.0V/diV 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) Transmission line length L=10cm 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 60 H : 10ns/diV V : 2.5. etc.0V/diV 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) Transmission line length L=20cm 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 28 . particularly at low frequencies.

3V Transmission line L=20cm 3.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.5mm (Z=50Ω) H : 10ns/diV V : 2V/diV Transmission line pattern width w=0.3V Waveform measuring point 74HCU04 74LVC04 74LVC00 2 Double-sided epoxy-glass PWB (the back surface of the PWB is entirely grounded).15mm (Z=130Ω) H : 10ns/diV V : 2V/diV 29 .5mm 0. rating. This catalog has only typical specifications. we can see that the ringing of the waveform is suppressed as the transmission line pattern width increases. As the transmission line pattern width reduces. Characteristic Impedance : Z L C L : Inductance per unit length C : Capacitance per unit length !Experimental PWB 29. Z=50Ω 50 Radiation (dBµV/m) w=0.5mm !Radiated noise and signal waveform (actual measurement) 60 w=1. It is probably because increasing the pattern width lowers the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. Therefore.15mm. This phenomenon is probably because the current flowing through the line decreases as the characteristic impedance of the line increases.15mm Characteristic impedance Z=50Ω 130Ω Transmission line pattern width w=1. and when the line impedance is reduced to the IC's output impedance (approx. 20Ω in this example). operating.7 Transmission line pattern width w=1. Influence of Signal Pattern Width The charts show the variations in radiation noise level and waveform depending on changes in transmission line pattern width.5. soldering. Z=130Ω Z= Vi Vr – Z Z Vi : Traveling wave voltage Vr : Reflected wave voltage 40 CurrentI = 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) !Signal waveform (actual measurement) Transmission line pattern width w=1. the radiation noise level reduces.5mm.8mm ε=4. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 5.pdf 04. C33E. the signal reflection is minimized. Regarding the waveform.7cm 25MHz Resonator (CERALOCK®) 5V 7cm 3. etc. Thickness t=0.

soldering. Z=50Ω 60 50 Radiation (dBμV/m) 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 30 .9mm 1.8mm. operating.8mm Transmission line pattern width w=2.9mm 2.7cm 25MHz Resonator (CERALOCK®) 5V 3. etc.9mm !Radiated noise and signal waveform (actual measurement) t=1. rating.pdf 04. Influence of PWB Thickness This chart shows the variations in radiation noise level depending on changes in PWB thickness. w=2.9mm. the radiation noise level is lowered as the PWB thickness is reduced. w=1. When the PWB thickness and pattern width are changed simultaneously so that the same characteristic impedance can be obtained.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 6.6mm.8mm 0.3V 74HCU04 74LVC04 74LVC00 Double-sided epoxy-glass PWB (the back surface of the PWB is entirely grounded) ε=4.5. w=2.6mm 0.3V Transmission line L=20cm 2 7cm 3. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Z=32Ω t=0.5mm Characteristic impedance z=50Ω 32Ω 50Ω Transmission line pattern width w=2.5mm. Z=50Ω t=0. !Experimental PWB 29.9mm. This catalog has only typical specifications. Therefore. C33E.8mm. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.7 PWB Thickness t=1.

you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. and must be in close contact with each other without clearance. Make sure that the metal surface of the shielding case is not coated with an insulating material. However. C33E.pdf 04. To improve the shielding effect. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. etc. Therefore. we must increase the number of connecting parts in the shielding case.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. when a PWB is shielded with a metal case. rating. A key point to shielding effect improvement is how to design the openings and gaps between connecting parts in the shielding case. Shielding Shielding of Case We will now explain the precautions for shielding a PWB. we should shield a PWB with a conductive material such as iron or aluminum. !Shield Point Good Poor !Principle of Shielding Absorption Circuit Board 2 Reflection Shield Case Opening Area Shield Case Shield Case Intersperse smaller holes.5. so that the longest side of the openings and gaps can be minimized. operating.12 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission 2 7. As a general shielding method. reflection is more predominant than absorption. Shield Case Shield Case Cover Connection Shield Case Shield Case Use shorter intervals for low impedance connection. The connecting parts in the shielding case must have low impedance. This catalog has only typical specifications. soldering. 31 . a shielding effect depends on reflection and absorption. in the 30MHz or higher frequency range subjected to digital equipment noise regulations. Generally.

C33E.5. the opening dimensions change as shown above. On the assumption that a shielding case has a total of approx. soldering. etc. we can observe a preferable shielding effect when the opening area is divided into small holes. the shielding effect is reduced markedly when the shielding case has a single rectangular opening. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.12 2 Suppressing EMI Noise Emission Influence of Openings in Shielded Case The charts show the variations in noise radiated from a digital circuit under various shielding conditions. 2 Shape of Opening Area ø20mm Z 8 (2513mm2) Noise Level (dBµV) 30mm m m Noise Emission 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 ø20mm 30 Shield Case 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 50mm Z 50mm (2500mm2) Noise Level (dBµV) 50mm 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 50 m m Shield Case 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 125mm Z 20mm (2500mm2) Noise Level (dBµV) 20mm 60 50 40 30 20 10 300 12 5m m Shield Case 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 60 3500mm Noise Level (dBµV) Shield Case 50 40 30 20 10 300 25 00 m m 440 580 720 Frequency (MHz) 860 1000 Test board is shielded in a metal case and measured for radiated noise using 1 meter method. This catalog has only typical specifications. However.pdf 04. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. 2500mm2 in opening area. operating. Therefore. (Signal frequency : 25MHz) 32 . rating. From these measurements.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.

!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. !Example of Capacitor Type EMI Suppression Filter's Insertion Loss Chip Three Terminal Capacitor (Chip EMI Filter NFM21CC Series) 0 10 Insertion Loss (dB) 20 30 40 22000pF 50 60 1 10 100 Frequency (MHz) 1000 2000 22pF 47pF 100pF 220pF 470pF 1000pF 2200pF 3 !Example of Inductor Type EMI Suppression Filter's Impedance Characteristic Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor (BLM18AG/PG Series) 1500 1200 BLM18AG102SN1 Impedance (Ω) 900 BLM18AG601SN1 BLM18AG221SN1 600 BLM18AG121SN1 300 BLM18PG600SN1 BLM18PG300SN1 0 1 10 Frequency (MHz) 100 1000 33 . respectively. However. etc. which will distort the signal waveform while eliminating noise. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. The noise suppressing effects of the capacitor type EMI suppression filters and the inductor type EMI suppression filters improve as the capacitance increases. This catalog has only typical specifications. distortion of the signal waveform also increases.pdf 04. with an increase in noise suppressing effect. operating. Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (1) Generally. Therefore. EMI suppression filters are low pass filters. Murata offers various types of EMI suppression filters.5. soldering. Therefore. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. rating. and as the impedance increases. we should pay attention to the signal waveform quality. and how to use the EMI suppression filters effectively by referring to examples of EMI suppression filter applications in typical circuits.12 3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters This chapter describes how to select EMI suppression filters for noise suppression. when selecting EMI suppression filters. C33E. so you can select the optimum filters according to your intended applications.

!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.pdf 04. you can see that increasing the capacitance of the three terminal capacitor can improve the noise suppressing effect. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. but results in large distortion of the signal waveform. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. soldering.12 3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (2) These charts show examples of the signal waveform and harmonic spectra (cause of noise) measured in a circuit that uses a three terminal capacitor for a digital signal line. rating. Therefore. etc.5. C33E. operating. !Test Circuit VCC (+5V) Measurement Point 16MHz EMI Suppression Filter GND HC04 HC00 High 3 !Relation between EMI Suppression Filter's Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Rounding EMI Suppression Filter Signal Waveform Spectrum 120 110 dBµV H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 Without Filter 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip EMI Filter 110 dBµV NFM21CC470U1H3 (47pF) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip EMI Filter 110 dBµV NFM21CC101U1H3 (100pF) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 34 . From these measurements. This catalog has only typical specifications.

This catalog has only typical specifications. The measurements are shown above. C33E.12 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 3 Relation between EMI Filters Noise Suppression Performance and Signal Waveform Distortion (3) The EMI suppression filter for a signal line provides sharp frequency characteristics so that it can minimize distortion of the signal waveform while eliminating noise. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. etc. From these measurements. We measured the signal waveform and harmonic spectra in a circuit that uses this EMI suppression filter for a digital signal line. rating.pdf 04. Therefore.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. you can see that the EMI suppression filter for a signal line can reduce the distortion of the signal waveform and provide a significant noise suppressing effect. operating. in comparison with the data obtained with the three terminal capacitor. soldering. !EMI Suppression Filter's Insertion Loss Characteristic 50Ω 10dB Attenuator 50Ω Specimen 50Ω 10dB Attenuator RF Voltmeter 50Ω SG MIL-STD-220 Test Circuit 0 NFW31S Series Chip EMI Filter 3 20 Insertion Loss (dB) 40 60 80 1 5 10 50 100 Frequency (MHz) 500 1000 2000 EMI Suppression Filter Signal Waveform Spectrum 120 EMI Suppression Filter for Signal Lines dBµV 30Ω+NFW31SP506X1E (Cutoff frequency: 50MHz) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 110 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip EMI Filter 110 dBµV NFM21CC470U1H3 (47pF) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 120 Chip EMI Filter 110 dBµV NFM21CC101U1H3 (100pF) H : 10ns/diV V : 1V/diV 100 90 80 70 30 90 150 210 270 Frequency (MHz) 330 35 . mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.5.

This catalog has only typical specifications. On the other hand. respectively. Circuit Impedance and EMI Suppression Filters Performance EMI suppression filters' noise suppressing effect varies depending on the impedance of the circuit where the filter is mounted. the inductor type EMI suppression filter is easy to mount.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.5. Generally. etc. soldering. the capacitor type and inductor type EMI suppression filters have significant noise suppressing effects in high impedance circuits and low impedance circuits. operating.pdf 04. Using the capacitor type EMI suppression filter easily provides a relatively large noise suppressing effect. rating. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.12 3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 1. because it does not need to be connected to a GND line. and provides a stable noise suppressing effect. Chip Three-terminal Capacitor (Chip EMI Filter) (NFM21CC101U1H3 : 100pF) 0 20 Insertion Loss (dB) 40 60 80 100 100k 10Ω 50Ω 200Ω 1kΩ 5kΩ Parameter : Circuit impedance Calculated Values 3 1M 10M 100M Frequency (Hz) 1G 10G Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor (BLM18AG601SN1 : 600Ω at 100MHz) 0 Parameter : Circuit impedance Insertion Loss (dB) 10 5kΩ 1kΩ 200Ω 50kΩ 10kΩ Calculated Values 20 30 40 100k 1M 10M 100M Frequency (Hz) 1G 10G 36 . C33E. Therefore.

Clock line. Multiple lines that switch simultaneously and in which large current flows to the ground: Address/data bus. Selecting Capacitor Type or Inductor Type EMI Suppression Filter l. rating. etc. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Noise on Conductive Path Use a combination of capacitor type and inductor type EMI suppression filters. in most cases. control bus line) (b) Inductor type EMI suppression filter as primary device · Line with low circuit input or output impedance (Ex. When using a combination of many capacitors and inductors. the capacitors and inductors should be alternately connected). C33E. 3 37 . you should use the inductor type EMI suppression filter in combination with the capacitor type EMI suppression filter.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. To suppress noise in a transmission line such as an interface cable connector. make sure that different types of components are adjacent to each other (i. operating.5. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. control bus) 2.pdf 04.12 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 3 2. because such a line needs a significant noise suppressing effect and. Power supply line to which bus controller is connected) · Line with relatively low noise level (Because filter grounding is unnecessary and installation is simple) · Line requiring current control (Ex. Therefore. At Noise Source (a) Capacitor type EMI suppression filter as primary device · Line with high circuit input or output impedance · Line with high noise level (Ex.e. cannot provide a stable GND condition. soldering. This catalog has only typical specifications.

because a relatively low noise suppressing effect is enough for the line. Furthermore.5. For this purpose. When the signal line is long. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.12 3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 3. C33E. Bus Line Since many signals are simultaneously turned ON/OFF in a bus line. Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor BLM18PG300SN1 BLM18PG300SN1 (30Ω at 100MHz) (30Ω at 100MHz) Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor Chip EMI Filter for Signals BLM18BB141SN1 NFW31SP506X1E (140Ω at 100MHz) (Cut-off Frequency 50MHz) Gate Array Gate Array Gate Array 3 2. Examples of EMI Suppression Filter Use at Noise Source 1. soldering. rating. you may use the chip ferrite beads inductor. Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor BLM18PG600SN1 (60Ω at 100MHz) VCC (+5V) Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor BLM18PG601SN1 (600Ω at 100MHz) Address Bus Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor BLM18PG601SN1 (600Ω at 100MHz) Data Bus Chip EMI Filter for Signals NFR21GD4701012 (Cut-off Frequency 500MHz) Control Bus CPU 38 . operating. If a larger noise suppressing effect is required. or the chip ferrite beads inductor for high-speed signal lines to eliminate noise from the clock signal line. it is effective to suppress the current flowing through the power supply line and GND line by reducing the current flowing through a signal line. it is difficult to eliminate noise from a clock signal line while maintaining the signal waveform. Clock Line A clock signal has the highest frequency in a circuit.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. you should use a chip ferrite beads inductor in combination with a bypass capacitor. a large current flows through the power supply line and GND line instantaneously. since the signal frequency is close to the noise frequency. Therefore. If the signal line can be shortened. Therefore. you should use the EMI suppression filter for the signal line that provides sharp frequency characteristics. you should use a ferrite beads inductor for each signal line. To eliminate such noise. you should use the chip EMIFIL® for a signal line that has internal resistance. To eliminate noise emitted from a power supply for an IC driving a clock signal. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. etc. causing noise interference.pdf 04. This catalog has only typical specifications. the clock signal may emit strong noise.

a measure that is effective against both must be taken. Signal Cable Connecting Section If a larger noise suppressing effect is required. This catalog has only typical specifications. you must connect the GND terminal of the EMI suppression filter to a stable ground. operating. Therefore. In a circuit with unstable ground. If a relatively low noise suppressing effect is enough for the line. Examples of EMI Suppression Filter Use on Conductive Noise Path 1. Chip Ferrite Bead Inductor BLM18PG601SN1 (600Ω at 100MHz) Interface Cable Chip EMI Filter NFM21CC102R1H3 (1000pF) Board Ground Plane 3 2.12 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 3 4. soldering. you should provide a ground plane to intensify the GND condition. common mode noise is also present. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. you should use the chip EMIFIL®. Power Supply Cable Connecting Section For EMI noise suppression on a power supply line. you may use just the chip ferrite beads inductor. In a circuit with relatively stable ground. normal mode noise is the primary noise. the mode of the noise that is being conducted must be determined and an EMI suppression filter appropriate for the particular noise mode must be used.pdf 04. etc. or capacitor type EMI suppression filter. Chip EMI Filter NFM55PC155F1H4 (1. To utilize the capacitor type EMI suppression filter more effectively.5.5µF) VCC (+5V) GND DC Chip Common Mode Choke Coil DLW5AHN402SQ2 (4kΩ at 100MHz) 39 . C33E. rating. If a stable ground is not available. in combination with a chip ferrite beads inductor. When both normal mode and common mode noises exist. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.

operating.2µF) dBµV/m 50 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 300 Common Mode Choke Coil DLW5AHN402SQ2 (4kΩ at 100MHz) No Filter 60 50 dBµV/m Measured Against Common Mode Noise Only 60 50 dBµV/m Common Mode Choke Coil DLW5AHN402SQ2 (4kΩ at 100MHz) 30 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 300 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 300 40 30 20 10 40 .!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. Measured Against Normal and Common Mode Noise 60 Chip EMI Filter NFM41PC204F1H3 (0. noise suppression was tested against power supply cables. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. This test board initially had measures against both normal mode and common mode noises using the following EMI suppression filters to reduce radiation of noise from power supply cable: Against normal mode noise: Three terminal capacitor (Chip solid EMI Filter) Against common mode noise: Common mode choke coil !Test Board EMI Suppression Filter CERALOCK® 16MHz Open + – 3 The test involved removing one of these EMI suppression filters. Power Supply Cable Connecting Section-2 Using the test board in Chapters 1 and 2. This catalog has only typical specifications. Therefore.5. etc.12 3 How to Select and Use EMI Suppression Filters 3. The data shows that this board's power supply cable was radiating both common mode noise and normal mode noise.2µF) dBµV/m 50 40 30 20 10 30 84 138 192 Frequency (MHz) 246 300 Measured Against Normal Mode Noise Only 60 Chip EMI Filter NFM41PC204F1H3 (0. and the results were as indicated by the data shown above.pdf 04. rating. C33E. soldering.

7 Characteristic impedance Z=130Ω L=20cm L=5cm !Measuring position Horizontal Test Board 3m DC Power Supply Conforming to CISPR 41 . We prepared a digital signal with a frequency of 25MHz and measured the signal waveform and radiation noise level when the digital signal was flowing through the transmission line (micro strip line). we will explain how to improve the noise suppressing effect when a single ferrite beads inductor cannot provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect. operating. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length EMI suppression filters' noise suppressing effect varies significantly depending on the conditions of the transmission line between the input and output circuits. We carried out this experiment to evaluate variations in noise suppressing effect by changing the transmission line length from 5cm to 20cm. This catalog has only typical specifications.8mm ε=4. At the end of this chapter.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage.pdf 04. Example of Change in Noise Suppressing Effect Depending on Transmission Line Length Experimental PWB and Measuring Method The PWB and noise measuring conditions used in this experiment are shown above. Thickness t=0. we measured the current distribution in the transmission line to examine the relationship between the measured current distribution and the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect. To analyze the cause of variations. rating. This chapter shows examples of variations in a ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect depending on the transmission line length and analyzes possible causes of the variations in noise suppressing effect. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. When a ferrite beads inductor is connected to this signal line. !Experimental PWB 29. 4 1.3V Double-sided epoxy-glass PWB (the back surface of the PWB is entirely grounded). soldering.5. etc.7cm 25MHz Resonator (CERALOCK®) 5V 7cm 3. a decrease in the noise radiated from the signal line is defined as the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect.3V Transmission line length L=5cm Ferrite Beads x=1cm 74HCU04 74LVC04 74LVC00 10cm 20cm 3. even if the same input/output circuits are used. Therefore. C33E.

!Radiated noise (actual measurement) Before Mounting Ferrite Beads Inductor 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) !Mounted Ferrite Beads Inductor 200 Impedance |z| (Ω) 150 |Z| 100 R 50 X 0 0 200 400 600 Frequency (MHz) 800 1000 BLM18AG121S (120Ω at 100MHz) 4 After Mounting Ferrite Beads Inductor 60 375MHz Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 50 40 30 20 10 L=5cm 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 60 50 40 30 20 10 375MHz L=10cm 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 60 375MHz 50 40 30 20 10 L=20cm 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) Change in Noise Suppressing Effect Depending on Transmission Line Length 42 . In particular. we can see that the noise suppressing effect varies significantly depending on the transmission line length. With the 5cm transmission line.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. frequency characteristics of the ferrite beads inductor used as a sample and the radiation noise measurements.pdf 04. etc. rating. the noise level is reduced by only 2dB. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. This catalog has only typical specifications.5.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length Radiation Noise Measurement These charts show the impedance vs. however. where the peak noise level is measured. C33E. the noise level is reduced as much as 13dB. From these measurements. Therefore. operating. even if the same ferrite beads inductor is used. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. the radiation noise level shows a remarkable difference depending on the transmission line length. a significant change is observed at a frequency of 375Hz. soldering. the peak frequency and the peak noise level are almost constant. Although the initial noise level varies slightly depending on the transmission line length. after connection of the ferrite beads inductor. However. With the 20cm line.

the current/voltage distribution varies depending on the measuring frequency. and the current/voltage distribution also varies depending on the measuring frequency.1GHz) (To derive the correction coefficient. 43 . This catalog has only typical specifications. Therefore.5GHz) 4 !Examples of current/voltage distribution measurements (when transmission line length is 20cm) Current Distribution (Actual measurement) 85 75 110 Current (dBµA.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. operating.5.) Voltage distribution: Voltage probe (Frequency band: 2. we used a voltage probe and a spectrum analyzer. !Current/voltage distribution measuring method Current distribution: Magnetic field probe (Frequency band: 1MHz .12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 2. the current and voltage in the transmission line vary depending on the measuring position in the line. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.pdf 04. C33E. we measured the current and voltage distributions in the transmission line. rms) 100 90 80 275 70 60 375 75 175 Frequency (MHz) Voltage Distribution (Actual measurement) 130 120 Frequency (MHz) The The current/voltage in a transmission line varies depending on the measuring position in the line. soldering. rating. For the voltage measurement. a calibration PWB was prepared. The charts above show the measurements of current and voltage distributions for a 20cm transmission line prior to connection of the ferrite beads inductor. Also. etc. Analysis of Cause of Variations in Noise Suppressing Effect Analyzing Cause of Variations in Noise Suppressing Effect To analyze possible causes of variations in a ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect depending on transmission line length. rms) 65 55 275 45 375 35 475 25 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 50 40 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 475 75 175 Current (dBµA. we used a magnetic field probe and a spectrum analyzer and prepared a calibration PWB to derive a current correction coefficient. For the current measurement. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. As you can see from this example.

our attention is focused on the data at 375MHz. C33E. the measured current is reduced as a whole and the peak current is reduced by 13dB. we can see that the current distribution at 375MHz. rms) 75 70 65 No Filter 60 55 50 45 40 35 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 BLM Current drop: Medium Mounting position L=20cm Current (dBµA. soldering.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. as seen in the radiation noise measurement result. as well as the radiation noise level. operating. and the peak current is reduced by only 2dB. because we observed a remarkable difference in the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect at 375MHz when the transmission line length on the prototype experimental PWB was changed. the current distribution prior to connection of the ferrite beads inductor is compared with the data after connection of the inductor. L=5cm Current (dBµA.5. From these measurements. To compare the current distributions. The charts above show the measurements of current distributions for individual transmission line lengths. With the 5cm transmission line. rms) 75 70 65 No Filter 60 55 50 45 40 35 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 BLM Current drop: Large Mounting position 4 L=10cm Current (dBµA. etc. rms) 75 70 65 60 No Filter 55 50 45 40 35 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 BLM Current drop: Small Mounting position 44 . as seen in the radiation noise measurements. however. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. there is no remarkable current drop. !375MHz Current Distribution (Actual measurement). This catalog has only typical specifications. Therefore. rating. Focusing on the frequency shows a remarkable difference in the noise suppression effect.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length Current Distribution Change after Connection of Ferrite Beads Inductor Now. With the 20cm transmission line.pdf 04. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. is reduced as the transmission line is shortened.

you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. soldering. C33E. we calculated the impedance by dividing the current value by the voltage value. the impedance at the filter mounting position in the 20cm transmission line was approx.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. which was extremely larger than the former value. when the impedance at the filter mounting position is large. the impedance at the filter mounting position was as large as 1kΩ. Therefore.12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 Analysis of Cause of Variations We have learned that there is a relationship between a current distribution change and radiation noise change. where the ferrite beads inductor had significant noise suppression effects. On the other hand. In the experiment using the 20cm transmission line. it provides a significant noise suppressing effect when the impedance at the filter mounting position is small. rms) 4 Signal Length L=5cm L=10cm L=20cm Impedance Large Current Small Ferrite Beads Inductor's Noise Suppressing Effect is small. 10000 1000 100 10 1 Impedance Small Current Large Ferrite Beads Inductor's Noise Suppressing Effect is Large. we conclude that the ferrite beads inductor cannot provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect in a 20cm transmission line. we observed a large current in the 5cm and 10cm transmission lines. !Comparison of current values at filter mounting position (before connection of the filter) Filter Mounting Position 75 Current (dBµA. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. 1kΩ. However. The impedance at the filter mounting position in the 5cm and 10cm transmission lines was less than 100Ω. Therefore. 0 5 10 15 Position (cm) 20 45 . With attention to the current distribution at the ferrite beads inductor mounting position. Then. and the peak current appeared at a distance from the filter mounting position or at a position slightly near the load.5. We will compare the current distribution data for individual transmission line lengths before connection of the ferrite beads inductor. This catalog has only typical specifications. where the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppression effect is low. etc. operating. rating. rms) 65 55 45 L=20cm 35 0 5 10 15 Position (cm) 20 Signal Length L=5cm L=10cm Current Large Current Small !Comparison of impedance at filter mounting position (before connection of the filter) Impedance=Voltage/Current Filter Mounting Position Current (dBµA. Since the ferrite beads inductor is an impedance component. with the 20cm transmission line. On the other hand. it can hardly provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect. the current measured at the filter mounting position was the minimum value.pdf 04. although the ferrite beads inductor's impedance is 166Ω.

and the current and voltage distributions vary depending on the measuring frequency. etc. operating. rms) 0 5 10 15 Position (cm) 20 375 Frequency (MHz) Peak current loss = Peak current measured without filter . our attention was focused on the frequency of 375MHz. Therefore. rms) 55 45 35 25 Current (dBµA. In previous experiments. 46 . Also. we have learned that the current and voltage in a transmission line vary depending on the measuring position in the line. we can see that the frequency at which the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect becomes low varies depending on the transmission line length.5. which is obtained by subtracting the peak current measured in a transmission line with a filter from the peak current measured without a filter at each measuring frequency. This study is based on peak current loss. !Peak current loss measurement result Transmission Line Length 5cm -10 0 Insertion Loss (dB) 10 20 30 40 50 BLM18AG121S BLM18AG221S BLM18AG471S Insertion Loss (dB) -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 !Peak Current Loss (Definition) Derivation of peak current 65 Current (dBµA. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. soldering.pdf 04. but as the next step. 10cm and 20cm transmission lines. The charts above show the measurements of the peak current loss in 5cm. rating. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.Peak current measured with filter (Used as a reference value for evaluation of the filter's noise suppressing effect) 4 Transmission Line Length 10cm BLM18AG121S BLM18AG221S BLM18AG471S Insertion Loss (dB) -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Transmission Line Length 20cm BLM18AG121S BLM18AG221S BLM18AG471S 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) The frequency at which the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect becomes low varies depending on the transmission line length.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. we have learned that the difference in the current/voltage distribution influences the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect. C33E. we will study how the noise suppressing effect changes depending on the measuring frequency. From these charts. The peak current loss can be used as a reference value for evaluation of the filter's noise suppressing effect on radiation noise.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length Difference in Peak Current Loss Depending on Transmission Line Length Through previous studies. This catalog has only typical specifications.

the measurements suggest a strong possibility that the ferrite beads inductor provides a sufficient noise suppressing effect at 1GHz or lower frequencies in the 5cm transmission line.5.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Assuming that the ferrite beads inductor is used for a general C-MOS digital circuit. Therefore. however. soldering. etc. !Examples of the Frequencies at which Ferrite Beads Inductor's Noise Suppressing Effect becomes Low Transmission Line Length 5cm 1GHz 10cm 600MHz 700MHz 20cm 350MHz 4 (When the Ferrite Beads Inductor is Used for a C-MOS Digital Circuit) The Ferrite Beads Inductor Noise Suppressing Effect When the Transmission Line Length is 5cm or Less The Ferrite Beads Inductor can Easily Provide a Sufficient Noise Suppressing Effect at 1GHz or Lower Frequencies. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. If the transmission line becomes longer. When the Transmission Line is Longer than 5cm 47 . C33E. operating. This catalog has only typical specifications. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 Influence of Transmission Line Length on Ferrite Beads Inductor's Noise Suppressing Effect The table lists the frequencies at which the ferrite beads inductor on the prototype experimental PWB can hardly provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect.pdf 04. The Frequencies at which the Ferrite Beads Inductor cannot Provide a Sufficient Noise Suppressing Effect are Clearly Observed. rating. the frequencies at which the ferrite beads inductor can hardly provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect will be more clearly observed.

This catalog has only typical specifications. we have learned that the ferrite beads inductor may hardly provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect depending on the transmission line length. we have learned that the ferrite beads inductor's insufficient noise suppressing effect is caused by the minute current at the ferrite beads mounting position. rms) 55 Frequency (MHz) 45 35 375 25 0 5 4 10 Position (cm) 15 20 48 . In this experiment. we used a 20cm transmission line and paid attention to the noise level at 375MHz.5. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. assuming that changing the ferrite beads mounting position to the peak current point can improve the noise suppressing effect. C33E. We then carried out the following experiment. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. From the results of previous studies. rating. etc.pdf 04.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 3. operating. We will now discuss how to improve the noise suppressing effect to cope with such a case. How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect Method 1 : Considering Ferrite Beads Inductor Mounting Position In a general C-MOS digital circuit. 375MHz Current Distribution (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) Current Peak Point x=12cm 65 Current (dBµA. soldering. Therefore.

so we consider that it is a cause of the increased radiation noise level.12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 Measurement Result on Shift of Ferrite Beads Inductor Mounting Position These charts show the radiation noise level measurements when shifting the ferrite beads inductor to the peak current point at a frequency of 375MHz. !Radiation Noise (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) Mounting Position : x=1cm (Transmission terminal) 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) Mounting Position : x=12cm (Current Peak Point) 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 4 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) The Radiated Noise Level is Increased !375MHz Current Distribution (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) 65 Mounting Position 60 Current (dBµA. rating. the radiation noise level measured at 375MHz is higher than the initial value. This catalog has only typical specifications. C33E. Contrary to our expectation. in most cases. To examine the cause of this phenomenon. The charts also show the current distribution measurements. soldering. we should.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. etc. the current flowing through the transmission line between the ferrite beads inductor and the transmission terminal becomes large. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning.pdf 04. mount the ferrite beads inductor close to the transmission terminal in order to improve the noise suppressing effect.5. Taking such a phenomenon into consideration. operating. rms) 55 50 45 No Filter 40 35 30 25 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 BLM18AG121S x=12cm 49 . you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Therefore. When the ferrite beads inductor is moved away from the transmission terminal. we measured the current distribution at 375MHz.

the current flowing through the transmission line in the upstream of the ferrite beads inductor increases. The peak current is reduced by 7dB from the value measured without the filter. The radiation noise is 3dB lower than the value with a ferrite beads inductor with approx. twice the impedance mounted to the transmission terminal. !375MHz Current Distribution (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) 65 Mounting Position 60 Current (dBµA. soldering. it can be applied to a case where only the ferrite beads inductor can be used (a capacitor cannot be used) due to limitations on current consumption. we can see that mounting ferrite beads inductors at two points (transmission terminal and peak current point) can provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect. we evaluated the noise suppressing effect in terms of the noise radiation level. etc. the same ferrite beads inductor is mounted to the transmission terminal in addition to the peak current point. operating. From these results.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. C33E. we can see that the radiation noise level at 375MHz is reduced by 7dB from the value without the ferrite beads inductor. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. Therefore. rms) 55 No Filter 50 45 40 35 30 25 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 BLM18AG121S x=1cm BLM18AG121S x=12cm BLM18AG121S x=1cm and 12cm Mounting Position 4 !Radiation Noise (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) 350MHz x=12cm (BLM18AG121S) No Filter x=1cm (BLM18AG121S) x=1cm (BLM18AG221S) x=1cm and 12cm (BLM18AG121S) Impedance of the Mounted Ferrite Beads Inductor BLM18AG121S : 120Ω at 100MHz BLM18AG221S : 220Ω at 100MHz 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (MHz) 50 . This corrective method is not intended for general use because it needs the step of finding the peak current point. However. When ferrite beads inductors are mounted to both the transmission terminal and peak current point. rating. even if a single ferrite beads inductor with higher impedance cannot provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect.5.pdf 04. To suppress the increased current. This catalog has only typical specifications. The current distribution measurement is shown in the chart above. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length Correction of Method 1 : Noise Suppression Using Several Ferrite Beads Inductors When a ferrite beads inductor is mounted to the peak current point (at 12cm distance from the transmission terminal) to suppress the current at 375MHz. Also.

operating.5.pdf 04. C33E. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Therefore. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. In such a case. soldering. etc. At the frequency of 375MHz that we have mentioned so far. This catalog has only typical specifications.12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 How to Improve Noise Suppressing Effect Method 2 : Application of Capacitor We will now discuss the second method. the ferrite beads inductor cannot provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect because of the large impedance at the filter mounting position.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. We will now consider applying a capacitor. 51 . a bypass capacitor works effectively to lead the noise current from the transmission line into the ground by reducing the impedance between the transmission line and the ground. rating. !375MHz Impedance (Transmission Line Length 20cm: No Filter) 10000 Filter Mounting Positions 1000 Impedance |Z| (Ω) 100 10 1 0 5 10 Position (cm) 15 20 !Function of the Capacitor 4 The Bypass Capacitor Leads Noise Current into the Ground.

The capacitor's noise suppressing effect was observed at some frequencies.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. Therefore. The radiation noise level at 375MHz was reduced by 18dB from the value without the filters. we mounted a ferrite beads inductor in combination with a capacitor. Therefore. Also. we confirmed the waveform obtained with the combination of a ferrite beads inductor and a capacitor. in comparison with the waveform obtained with a single ferrite beads inductor.12 4 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length Considering Addition of a Capacitor After removing the ferrite beads inductor. operating. On the other hand. in this experiment. Since the additional capacitor's capacitance is relatively small (10pF). mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. soldering. where they could provide a significant noise suppressing effect in a wide frequency range. we mounted a capacitor with the relatively small capacitance of 10pF.5. it has little influence on distortion of the waveform at a signal frequency of 25MHz. Thus. we can see that the combined use of a capacitor and a ferrite beads inductor provides a significant noise suppressing effect when a single ferrite beads inductor alone cannot. C33E. etc.pdf 04.0V/diV 52 . A ferrite beads inductor provides a significant noise suppressing effect when the impedance at the mounting position is low. a capacitor provides a significant noise suppressing effect when the impedance at the mounting position is high. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. but could not be observed at other frequencies. rating. Absorption of noise current Ferrite Beads Inductor The Bypass of Noise Current Addition of a capacitor 4 !Radiation Noise (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) BLM18AG121S (120Ω at 100MHz) 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Radiation (dBµV/m) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 BLM18AG121S+10pF Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) 10pF 60 Radiation (dBµV/m) 50 40 30 20 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 375MHz Noise Suppressing Effect is Large Frequency (MHz) !Load waveform (Transmission Line Length 20cm : Actual Measurement) BLM18AG121S BLM18AG121S+10pF Little influence on distortion of the waveform H : 10ns/diV V : 2. This catalog has only typical specifications.

and analyzes possible causes of the variations. etc.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. To cope with such a case. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. Through the comparison of the current distribution data at individual frequencies and the ferrite beads inductor's radiation noise suppressing effects. we can see that the ferrite beads inductor can hardly provide a sufficient noise suppressing effect at the frequency where the current at the ferrite beads inductor mounting position is minimized. Therefore. and that the current/voltage distribution also varies depending on transmission line conditions such as the line length. Cause of Variations in Ferrite Beads Inductors Noise Suppressing Effect and How to Improve the Noise Suppressing Effect This chapter shows examples of variations in a ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect depending on the transmission line length.pdf 04. 4 53 . We measured the current distribution in the transmission line to examine the relationship between the current distribution and the ferrite beads inductor's noise suppressing effect. 2) Mount a ferrite beads inductor in combination with a capacitor. C33E. From the measurements.5. we consider that the following methods are effective for improving the noise suppressing effect: 1) Mount ferrite beads inductors to both the transmission terminal and the peak current point.12 Differences in Noise Suppressing Effect Caused by Transmission Line Length 4 4. operating. rating. This catalog has only typical specifications. we can see that the current/voltage in the transmission line varies depending on the measuring position in the line. soldering.

Export Control For customers outside Japan No muRata products should be used or sold. utilization. or otherwise contribution to (1) any weapons (Weapons of Mass Destruction (nuclear. operating.) u Traffic signal equipment i Disaster prevention / crime prevention equipment o Data-processing equipment !0 Application of similar complexity and/or reliability requirements to the applications listed above 3. Therefore. 7.murata.!Note Please read rating and !CAUTION (for storage. or when one of our products is intended for use in applications other than those specified in this catalog. you are requested to approve our product specifications or to transact the approval sheet for product specificaions before ordering. Japan Phone: 81-75-951-9111 International Division 3-29-12.12 Note: 1. we shall assume no responsibility whatsoever for any conflict or dispute that may occur in connection with the effect of our and/or a third party's intellectual property rights and other related rights in consideration of your use of our products and/or information described or contained in our catalogs. soldering. maintenance or operation of.co. etc. Shibuya-ku. Kyoto 617-8555. < < > > 2. http://www. This catalog has only typical specifications. C33E. q Aircraft equipment w Aerospace equipment e Undersea equipment r Power plant equipment t Medical equipment y Transportation equipment (vehicles. body or property. 4. No ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol are used in our manufacturing process. through any channels.5. In this connection. etc. Shibuya. ships. rating.jp . the export license specified by the law is required for export. Please contact our sales representatives or product engineers before using the products in this catalog for the applications listed below. Please read rating and CAUTION (for storage. please contact our sales representatives or product engineers. mounting and handling) in this PDF catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. production. For customers in Japan For products which are controlled items subject to the “Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law” of Japan. etc. development. This catalog has only typical specifications because there is no space for detailed specifications. Product specifications in this catalog are as of March 2004. please approve our product specifications or transact the approval sheet for product specifications before ordering. Higashi Kotari. Japan Phone: 81-3-5469-6123 Fax: 81-3-5469-6155 E-mail: intl@murata. chemical or biological weapons or missiles) or conventional weapons) or (2) goods or systems specially designed or intended for military end-use or utilization by military end-users. operating. Please check with our sales representatives or product engineers before ordering. Please note that unless otherwise specified. Therefore. They are subject to change or our products in it may be discontinued without advance notice.com/ Head Office 1-10-1. rating. no representation shall be made to the effect that any third parties are authorized to use the rights mentioned above under licenses without our consent. 5. trains. Tokyo 150-0002. If there are any questions. mounting and handling) in this catalog to prevent smoking and/or burning. for use in the design. Nagaokakyo-shi. soldering.pdf 04. which require especially high reliability for the prevention of defects which might directly damage a third party's life. 6.