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Desi gn of

El ec t r o-
Magnet i c
Devi c es
Depar t ment of Mec hani c al Engi neer i ng
Uni ver si t y of Cal i f or ni a, Ber k el ey
1
EM Devices Lecture #1: Review of Basic EM Theory
I. Review of Basic EM Theory
All of the devices to be studied in this course are based on the production of useful
magnetic fields. Thus it is necessary to ensure that everyone recall the basic theory of
magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are governed by the Maxwell Equations (and boundary
conditions).
A. Magnetic Intensity
Magnetic fields have several important properties, the first of which is magnetic intensity.
The magnetic intensity is an indicator of how "strong" a magnetic field is. For example, an
electromagnet which is energized by a low current level produces a low intensity field, but
when energized by a high current can produce a high intensity field.
Formally, any current moving along a differential element of electrical conductor will
produce a differential magnetic field. Mathematically,
d H
idl a
R
R
=
× $
4
2
π
idl
R
dH
where a
R
is the unit vector in the direction of R. This is known as the Biot-Savart Law.
Note the following important qualities: Magnetic field is proportional to the current, I, and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance, R. This makes sense intuitively, for a
point quantity in a sphere..
Also note that the SI units are in amperes per meter, or A/m.
Of course, differential current element do not exist in the field, so the integral form of the
Biot-Savart Law is usually used.
H
idl a
R
R
=
×

$
4
2
π
2
A closed line integral is used to ensure that all current elements are included.
Note that the integral may close at infinity.
Example 1. A straight wire of infinite length carries a current i. Find the magnetic
intensity at a distance r from the wire.
Solution to Example 1. Align the wire along the z-axis, as shown in the figure.
z
idl
dH
r
R
First, apply the differential form of Biot-Savart.
The unit vector in the direction of R is
2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ
z r
a z a r
R
a z a r
a
z r z r
R
+
+
=
+
=
Thus
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
ˆ ˆ
4
ˆ
ˆ
4 4
ˆ
z r
a z a r
z r
a idz
a
R
l id
R
a l id
H d
z r z
R
R
+
+
×
+
= × =
×
=
π π π
The cross product of unit vectors in the r and z directions is a unit vector in the φ direction.
The unit vector in the r direction crossed into itself is zero. Thus
( )
d H
irdza
r z
=
+
$
/
φ
π 4
2 2
3 2
The integration variable is z. The unit vector in the z direction does not change with z, so it
may be removed from the integrand. Thus
( )
H
irdz
r z
a
ir z
r r z
a
i
r
a =
+








=
+






=
−∞
+∞
−∞
+∞

4
4 2
2 2
3 2
2 2 2
π
π π
φ φ φ /
$ $ $
3
To evaluate the definite integral, divide top and bottom by z, and note that the limit of the
denominator approaches 4πr
2
.
An important result of this exercise is that is shows the magnetic intensity is inversely
proportional to distance from the wire, and is directed circumferentially around it,
following the "right hand rule".
Example 2. A loop of wire of radius r carries a current i. Find the magnetic intensity
along the axis of the loop.
Solution to Example 2. The z-axis is aligned with the axis of the loop as shown.
x
y
z
r
R
i
idl
dH
α
α
Once again we begin with Biot-Savart.
d H
idl a
R
R
=
× $
4
2
π
From symmetry, it can be seen that the radial components of H along the axis will cancel,
thus only the z-component needs to be calculated. For the z-components only,
( ) ( )
dH
idl
r z
idl
r z
r
r z
z
=
+
=
+
+






4 4
2 2 2 2
2 2
π
α
π
cos
The differential magnetic intensity is integrated over the circumference of the loop, for
which none of the variables above change.
4
dl rd r = =
∫ ∫
θ π
π
0
2
2
Thus
( )
H
r i
r z
z
=
+
2
2 2
3 2
2
/
At the center of the loop (z = 0), the magnetic intensity is simply
H
i
r
z
=
2
Plot of magnetic intensity in one loop.
Example 3. An infinitely long solenoid with n turns/meter carries a current i. Find the
magnetic intensity at center-line.
Solution to Example 3. We begin with the result of the single loop in Example 2. As
derived from Biot-Savart,
( )
H
r i
r z
z
=
+
2
2 2
3 2
2
/
The solenoid is modeled as a series of rings, as shown.
r
Rdβ
sinβ
β

R
r
5
First, consider the contribution from a ring located by an angle β on the z-axis. the
differential length of the solenoid at this location can be specified by
Rdβ
β sin
.
This differential element is element is equivalent to a ring carrying a current
di
inRd
=
β
β sin
.
Thus, since
R r z
2 2 2
= +
the contribution to the magnetic intensity from this differential
ring is
dH
r
R
inRd
z
=






2
3
2
β
β sin
In this case,
R
r
=
sin β
. Thus
dH in d
z
=
1
2
sin β β
The magnetic intensity can be calculated by integrating to the limits of the angle.
( ) H in d in
z
= = −

1
2
1
2 1 2
1
2
sin cos cos β β β β
β
β
For an infinitely long solenoid, the limits of integration span from 0 to π, in which case
H in
z
=
This is quite a simple relationship. In most solenoids, which have a 3:1 or 4:1 aspect ratio
of length to diameter, the magnetic intensity is pretty constant in the center, both radially
and axially.
6
EM Devices Lecture #2: Material Properties, Flux, Permeability
I. Material Properties, Flux, Permeability
The magnetic intensity H is a vector quantity which exists at a point in space. It can be
thought of as a potential element which causes a flow, as a force causes motion when
applied to a mass (as a rough analogy, technically incorrect)
The force field associated with the magnetic intensity is the flux density B, which is also a
vector quantity which exists at a point. B has the units of N/(A-m), or Teslas. H and B are
related by the material property called permeability.
B H = µ
Thus B has the same vector direction as H because µ is a scalar quantity. Thus a material
with a higher permeability will produce higher flux density. Typical steels have very high
permeability compared to plastic, about 1000X higher. In free space, the permeability has
the value
µ π
0
7
4 10 = ×

The units are henries/meter, (h/m). Permeabilities of most materials are stated as relative
to the permeability of free space
µ
µ
µ
r
=
0
or
µ µ µ =
r 0
The relative permeabilities of most materials are close to unity, except for a small group of
ferromagnetic materials.
The magnetic flux through a surface is defined as
Φ = ⋅

B dS
S
The unit of magnetic flux is the weber, Wb.
Thus 1 T = 1 Wb/m
2
. Also 1 H = 1 Wb/A
Webers may be positive or negative depending on the direction defined for the surface
vector.
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surface S
dS
B
Example 1. A long thin conductor is aligned with the z-axis and carries a current of 2.5
A. Find the flux crossing the area defined by θ = 0 rad, 0.01 < r < 0.05 m, and 0 < z < 2
m.
Solution to Example 1. As solve earlier, the magnetic intensity at any radius along a
long straight wire can be calculated by
H
i
r
a =

θ
$
Thus
B
i
r
a =
µ
π
0
0
2
$
at any radius location.
In this case
d S drdza = $
θ
So the flux is obtained by merely integrating over the prescribed area
Φ = ⋅
∫ ∫
µ
π
θ θ
0
0 01
0 05
0
2
2
i
r
a drdza
.
.
$ $
( ) = − =
2
2
005 001
2
2
005
0 01
0 0
µ
π
µ
π
i i
ln . ln . ln
.
.
Plugging in the values for permeability and the current, Φ = 1.61 x 10
-6
Wb.
II. Maxwell's Equations
Just as mechanics is governed by Newton's Laws, and thermodynamics is governed by the
Laws of Thermodynamics, magnetic fields are governed by Maxwell's Equations. We will
start with a review of Maxwell's Equation, first in their most basic form, and then as
applied to more realistic engineering applications. In their common form, Maxwell's
Equations are known as Ampere's Law, Faraday's Law, and Gauss' Law.
8
A. Ampere's Law
The first law to be examined will be Ampere's Law, which shows the relationship between
magnetic intensity and current density. For static magnetic fields at a point
∇× = H J +








D
t
for dynamic fields
where J is the current density that occurs at that point (amperes/m
2
). "∇ ×" is the curl
operator. Note that J is also a vector quantity.
Stokes' Theorem is applied, which says that for an open area defined by S and bounded by
a curve defined by l .
( ) H dl H dS
S
⋅ = ∇ × ⋅
∫ ∫
the integral form of Ampere's Law is formed:
H dl J dS
S
⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫
Most people who work with electro-magnetic theory use the point form of Ampere's Law.
These people include those who deal with magnetic fields in themselves and/or must
calculate fields at points, such as those involved in developing finite-element code for
field calculations In most engineering applications however, the current densities, areas,
magnetic intensities, and area boundaries are very well defined, thus it is more convenient
to use the integral form of the equation.
Example 2. A long, straight conductor of radius b carries a current i and is aligned
along the z-axes. Find the magnetic intensity at all points extending radially from its center
axis.
Solution to Example 2. The magnetic intensity inside the conductor and outside the
conductor will be examined separately. Both inside and outside, when the Biot-Savart
Law and symmetry are applied, the magnetic intensity has a direction aligned with a
φ
. This
is shown in the figure. It is also assumed that the current density is uniform across the
cross-section of the conductor (a very good assumption for low, time invariant currents)
and that the direction of the current is along the length of the conductor.
9
i
b
1
2
S
H
Ampere's Law is applied to the path 1, which is outside the conductor.
H dl J dS
S
⋅ = ⋅
∫ ∫
With the assumptions made, H is uniform along the circular path (by symmetry). Also H is
in the same direction as dl at all points. Thus
H dl H dl rH ⋅ = =
∫ ∫ φ φ
π 2 and J dS i
S
⋅ =

, for r > b
Thus 2π
φ
rH i = or H H a
i
r
a = =
φ φ φ
π
$ $
2
This was the same result as earlier, but reached more simply.
Inside the conductor, Ampere's Law is applied to path 2. For this case, the line integral for
the magnetic intensity along the path is the same as above.
H dl H dl rH ⋅ = =
∫ ∫ φ φ
π 2
However, the surface integral yields
( ) J dS J dS
i
b
r
S S
⋅ = =
∫ ∫
π
π
2
2
when r < b
Thus H H a
ir
b
a = =
φ φ φ
π
$ $
2
2
10
In most engineering applications, currents are carried by conductors in which case the
current density is always in the same direction as the cross-section surface of the
conductor. Also multiple conductors usually cross the bounded surface. Thus an even
more specialized form of Ampere's Law useful in engineering application is
H dl J dS i
S
enclosed
⋅ = ⋅ =
∫ ∫
Where i
enclosed
ii the total current enclosed by the boundary along which H is calculated. In
most cases, the boundary is chosen such that H is either parallel or normal to the path, to
simplify the calculation of the integral.
Example 3. An infinite current sheet lies in the z = 0 plane. It carries a current in the y-
direction only, with a linear density of K A/m. Thus the current is represented by K =
Ka
y
A/m. Find the magnetic intensity at all points above the sheet.
K
x
y
z
a
a
1 2
3
4
Solution to Example 3. Application of the Biot-Savart Law and symmetry conditions
show that H has a component in the x-direction only, and H is independent of x and y.
Also, H must be anti-symmetric below the plane. Ampere's Law is applied to the path
12341 as shown in the figure. Thus the line integral along this boundary is
H dl H a H a Ha ⋅ = + + + =

( )( ) ( )( ) 2 0 2 0 4
The enclosed current is i K a
enclosed
= ( )( ) 2
Thus 4Ha = 2Ka or H = K/2
The magnetic intensity is a constant above and below the sheet.
11
B. Faraday's Law
Faraday's Law states that at any point in space, the electrical field intensity and the
magnetic flux density are related by
∇× = − E
B
t


Again, Stoke's Theorem can be applied ( ) E dl E dS
S
⋅ = ∇× ⋅
∫ ∫
Thus, Faraday's Law can be written in integral form as
E dl
B
t
dS
S
⋅ = −





 ⋅
∫ ∫


For a fixed surface.
As with magnetic intensity and current density in Ampere's Law, the electrical field
intensity and the flux density are usually designed with very simple geometries. This is
done not only for ease of analysis, but also for efficient generation of magnetic fields and
force production.
Electrical charges, for example, are usually carried in wires (or other conductors), and the
direction of the electrical field is thus in the direction of the wire. If the path is also along
such a wire, then the closed line integral becomes simply
E dl V ⋅ =

Where V is the drop in voltage potential in the loop.
Also, the main flux in an electrical machine is usually designed to be parallel or normal to
the surfaces enclosed by the loop.
dt
d
A
dt
dB
S d
t
B
l d E V
loop
loop
S
Φ
= = ⋅ 





− = ⋅ =
∫ ∫


Thus Faraday's Law for most practical applications merely states that the induced voltage
in a circuit loop is equal to the rate of flux change in the loop.
Example 4. A uniform flux density B = 0.8sin120πt is passing through a 200 turn coil.
The coil cross section is 10 cm
2
. Find the induced voltage in the coil.
12
Solution to Example 4. The voltage induced in 200 turns is merely the voltage
induced in a single turn multiplied by 200. Thus
V NA
dB
dt
=
= (200)(0.001)(0.8)(120ω)cos120ωt = 19.2ωcos102ωt V
Example 5. An N-turn coil is wound around a magnetic toroid made of a high
permeability material such that the flux is confined within the toroid. A sinusoidal voltage
V(t) =V
0
sinωt is applied to the coil terminals at t = 0. The flux at t = 0 is zero. Assume
that the coil resistance is negligible. Find an expression for the flux in the coil.
V
Φ
N
Solution to Example 5. The flux is obtained by integrating the integral form of Faraday's
Law.
V NA
dB
dt
=
Thus
∫ ∫
+ − = = = Φ
1
0 0
cos sin
1
) ( C t
N
V
tdt
N
V
Vdt
N
t ω
ω
ω
Since the flux is zero at time zero,
N
V
C
ω
0
1
=
, Thus
( ) Φ( ) cos t
V
N
t = −
0
1
ω
ω
Wb
13
Example 6. A straight wire 20 cm long is passing over an area where the magnetic field
flux density is 0.5 T. The field is 15 cm wide (in the direction of the wire). The wire is
traveling at 10 m/s. Find the induced voltage in the wire.
l=15 cm
20 cm
v=10 m/s
B=0.5 T
Solution to Example 6. Faraday's Law in integral form applies only to closed
surfaces, therefore the wire loop must be closed (as with a voltmeter). So the flux change
within this loop must calculated.
The total flux is
Φ = BA
and the change in flux is
d
dt
B
dA
dt
Bl
dx
dt
Blv
Φ
= = =
Note that only the length of wire within the field is active. Thus
V
d
dt
Blv = = = =
Φ
( . )( . )( ) . 05 015 10 075
Volts.
C. Gauss' Law
For magnetic devices, Gauss' Law states that at a point, the divergence of the magnetic flux
density is zero
∇⋅ = B 0
The divergence theorem states that
( ) B dS B dv ⋅ = ∇⋅
∫ ∫
Thus, Gauss' Law in integral form is
14
B dS ⋅ =

0
In simpler terms, Gauss' Law merely states that flux must be conserved. The total flux
entering an enclosed volume must be equal to the flux leaving that volume.
For example, consider the magnetic circuit below. The core is made of a high permeability
material, thus the flux generated by the coil has a tendency to flow within the core, rather
than outside of it.
With any loop cutting the core, flux must always be conserved.
Φ Φ Φ
1 2 3
= +
Φ
1
Φ
3
Φ
2
Φ
1
Φ
1
15
EM Devices Lecture #3 Permeability, Permeance, Reluctance, Magnetic Motive
Force
I. Generating Magnetic Flux
The design of many electromechanical devices is basically the creation of a useful
magnetic flux density fields, the manipulation of the fields, the manipulation of reluctance
in the fields, and/or the manipulation of the current in a length of wire which carries an
electrical current in the field.
A magnetic field is easily created, however creation of a useful field which is stable and
makes efficient use of material requires some thought.
A simple bar magnet creates a field, however moving a file cabinet across the room will
change its characteristics. Also, if only part of the field (i.e. near the pole) is used, the rest
is wasted.
N
S
The most common way to engineer a field is to use high permeability materials in which a
flux density can be generated when a magnetic intensity is applied.
These same materials can be used as flux "conductors" (i.e. any magnetic material: iron,
steel nickel, ferrite, through which magnetic flux has an easier time passing than air) to
guide the flux to where it is needed. These materials can also be used to form the field
density into a desired shape and level.
Some examples of useful fields already: the field in the center of a solenoid is
concentrated (but also inefficient), the field in a loop of wire can be used, even the field
around a single straight wire can be used. All rather inefficient.
Typically a "closed" field is desired. Easier to predict and control its shape. Small gap,
high intensity, uniform field
Low leakage. Useful!
i
N
steel
air
smal l gap
16
Now can put a wire (with current) inside. A force is imposed on the wire, which can be
transmitted to perform work.
II. Lumped Circuit Definitions
A. Magnetic Motive Force (MMF)
All physical systems have the concept of potential, flow, resistance, etc.
System Potential Flow Resistance Capacitance Inductance
Electrical voltage current R C L
Mechanical force velocity damper spring mass
Fluid head vol. flow flow res. surf. area flow inertia
Magnetic F, MMF Φ, flux R, reluctance (small) (small)
In magnetic systems, one approach is to imagine that i creates a potential and Φ is the
resultant flow.
Since

⋅ · Φ A d B , then
A
B
Φ
·
i
N
steel
ai r
Φ
As with all flow, Φ is always conserved.
Φ is dependent also on some reluctance R, which has yet to be defined.
To find a definition for magnetic motive force, we recall that in an electric field, the
voltage drop in a closed loop (in space or in a circuit) is defined by

⋅ · l d E V
17
The magnetic motive force can thus be defined by Ampere's Law. It is the closed line
integral of the magnetic intensity over a path in space. The magnetic intensity is therefore
the differential drop in magnetic potential over a path in space. Recall that Ampere's Law
claims the following:
F · · ⋅

enclosed
i l d H
H has the units A/m, and therefore F has the units of A (Amperes).
dl
H
i
Example. Uniform steel, uniform section, has a uniform magnetic potential drop per
unit of length. It also has a very high permeability compared to that of air. Thus, in a
closed circuit, the magnetic intensity creates a high flux density, and therefore flux flow, in
the steel but not in the surrounding air.

⋅ · · l d H Ni F Ni = H
s
l
T
H
Ni
l
s
T
·
i
N
steel
air
Φ
Total path l ength l
T
Uniform intensity H
When an airgap is included, the differential potential drop over the air is much greater than
that for the steel, due to its greater reluctance to flux flow.
18
i
N
steel
air
l
g
l
s
H
g
H
s

⋅ · · l d H Ni F Ni H l H l
s s g g
· +
Note that even though the path lengths and the magnetic intensities in the steel and the air
are different, the flux (and usually the flux density) carried by each material is the same.
Thus, since the permeability of steel is much higher than that of air (B=µH), and the flux
densities are the same in both materials, the magnetic intensity in the steel is much less than
that in air.
In fact for a perfect iron, H ~ 0. Thus in most cases, unless l
s
is really large, H
s
l
s
can
usually be ignored. The magnetic intensity in the gap is thus simply
H
Ni
l
g
g
·
Why are we interested in calculating H?
Because from H we can calculate B from the material properties. B is the "useful" field
most designers are trying to create.
IV. Permeability and Permeance
The vector quantities B and H are in the same direction (at least in most practical
engineering situations) and are related by the equation
B H · µ
where µ = permeability of the material (h/m) Henries/meter.
The higher the permeability of the material, the greater the ease with which magnetic flux
passes through it.
i.e. for air µ π · ×

4 10
7
h/m ≡ µ
o
19
for steel µ µ ·1000
o
Most of the time, relative permeability is used for materials, e.g. µ
µ
µ
r
o
·
Ideally, the relationship between B and H is linear. Actually it is not. µ is defined as
the slope of a line drawn from the origin to the point of interest on the B-H curve for a
material.
µ
µ
1 1
B
H
B
H
i deal
real
Example. A 1010 plain carbon steel has the following characteristics
B | µ
r

0.6 2000
0.8 2300
1.0 1700
1.2 1500
1.4 1100
1.6 470
1.8 180
Note the existence of SATURATION. Beyond a certain value of flux density, it is
extremely difficult to increase B without large increases in H. The material begins to
behave very much like air in permeability. In other words, ferromagnetic materials seem
to have a maximum level of flux density that can be easily carried. This level is called the
saturation level.
Physical interpretation of µ: - a point quantity.
- indication of how much flux density can flow with a given
magnetic intensity.
- similar to material resistivity (to current for a given
voltage) in electrical systems.
For a given volume, a permeance and a reluctance can be defined.
20
B H
l
a
b
area A
The volume is small enough, or the magnetic field is uniform enough, so that B and H can
be considered uniform in the volume.
If we assume that the magnetic intensity, field, material is relatively uniform (and this is not
bad assumption for airgaps in many devices) then by using Ampere's Law:

ab
L
ab
Hl l d H
ab
· ⋅ ·

F
·

]
]
]
B
l
ab
µ
since
H
B
·
µ
·

]
]
]
Φ
A
ab
l
µ
·

]
]
]
l
A
ab
µ
Φ
We can define a reluctance as
]
]
]

·
A
l
µ
R A/Wb
We can also define a permeance
]
]
]

· ·
l
A µ
R
P
1
Wb/A or Henries (h)
The result is Φ · R F Which is "Ohm's Law" for magnetic "circuits."
How is this used? A magnetic device can be modeled with circuit analogy.
For a closed path device...
21
i
N
steel
air
Total path l ength l
s
Uniform area A
s
The analogous circuit model is...
F
R
Φ
Φ · R F Ni
l
A
s
s s
·

]
]
]
Φ
µ
Thus Φ ·

]
]
]
Ni
l
A
s
s s
µ
The flux field density is therefore B
A
Ni
l
s
s
s
· ·
Φ µ
In a circuit with an airgap, there are two reluctances in series. One due to the steel and one
due to the airgap, which the same total flux must travel through.
22
i
N
steel
air
l
g
l
s
cross section A
s
cross section A
g
The analogous circuit for this is...
F
R
s
R
Φ
F = Φ(R
s
+ R
g
)
Ni
l
A
l
A
s
s s
g
o g
· +
|
.

`
,

Φ
µ µ
However, the permeability of steel is much greater than that of air, so in most cases
Ni
l
A
g
o g
≈ Φ
µ
and thus Φ ≈
Ni A
l
o g
g
µ
when µ
s
>> µ
o
Thus the useful field in the gap is B
A
Ni
l
g
g
o
g
· ·
Φ µ
Definitions
Here are a few terms which you should know and will find extremely valuable for this
class. We will use all SI units in this class. Some units are strange and take some getting
used to.
23
Symbol Definition Type Units
F magnetic motive force scalar (region) Amperes (A)
µ permeability scalar (point) Henries/meter (h/m)
P permeance scalar (region) Henries (h) or Wb/A
R reluctance scalar (region A/Wb
Φ flux scalar (region) Webers (Wb)
B flux density vector (point) Teslas (T) or Wb/m
2
H magnetic intensity vector (point) A/m
24
EM Devices Lecture #4: Reluctance Circuits, Inductance, Speedance
I. Reluctance Circuits
A. Multiple Airgaps
Multiple airgap devices can be treated in the same way as a circuit with a single airgap.
The reluctance of the steel can usually be neglected (except in certain cases). The
reluctance of each airgap is treated as a resistor in the magnetic circuit with the coil
providing the MMF potential.
l
1 l
2
l
3
A
1
A
2
A
3
N
i
+
-
F=Ni
R
1
R
2
R
3
Φ
1 Φ
2
Φ
3
For the electrical analogy, we can use network analysis.
For the nodes, Φ Φ Φ
2 1 3
= +
For branches,
1 1 2 2
R R Φ + Φ = Ni
3 3 2 2
R R Φ + Φ = Ni
These equations represent 3 linear equations and 3 unknowns. Simply solve to get
3 2 3 1 2 1
3
1
R R R R R R
R
+ +
= Φ
Ni ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
3 1
2
R R R R R R
R R
+ +
+
= Φ
Ni
3 2 3 1 2 1
1
3
R R R R R R
R
+ +
= Φ
Ni
where
1
1
1
A
l
o
µ
= R ,
2
2
2
A
l
o
µ
= R ,
3
3
3
A
l
o
µ
= R
To get the gap flux in each gap, simply B
A
1
1
1
=
Φ
, B
A
2
2
2
=
Φ
, B
A
3
3
3
=
Φ
We can also rearrange the circuit for convenience (in case you have forgotten network
analysis). The location of MMF can be changed.
25
+
-
F
Φ
1 Φ
2 Φ
3
R
2
R
1
R
3
Two resistors can be combined, in this case
3 1
3 1
R R
R R
R
+
= for resistors in parallel.
+
-
F
Φ
2
R
2
R
The single equivalent resistance is now
3 1
3 2 3 1 2 1
3 1
3 1
2
R R
R R R R R R
R R
R R
R R
+
+ +
=
+
+ =
T
Since
2
Φ =
T
Ni R , we get the same result as before.
( )
3 2 3 1 2 1
3 1
2
R R R R R R
R R
+ +
+
= Φ
Ni
We also have the option of using permeances, instead of reluctances, in the circuit.
Remember that for permeance, permeances in parallel are added. Permeances in series
have their inverses added.
For two permeances in parallel, as with
1
1
1
R
P = and
3
3
1
R
P =
The flux flow through each air gap is simply
3 1
1 2
1
P P
P
+
Φ
= Φ and
3 1
3 2
3
P P
P
+
Φ
= Φ
Remember that for flux density, 1.0 Tesla is considered high for common devices.
For magnetic intensity, 1,000,000 A/m is considered high for common devices
26
II. Electrical Modeling
For a simple device now we can calculate the flux density in the airgap(s) if we know the
electrical current input to the circuit. However, most circuits are not static or even quasi
static. In a typical device, we typically have control of the input voltage to the device,
rather than the current. Thus, device control is dynamic, with voltage as the input and B as
the output.
G(s)
V,i
V(s), I(s)
B = flux density
Vol tage and current
The fundamental assumption we must make here is that B is set up instantaneously by i.
Thus we need only calculate i to find B.
The heart of most devices is usually a coil of wire, or multiple coils.
i
N
Φ
R
L
V
+
-
i
A coil has significant resistance R and inductance L, but very little capacitance C.
The general form of Ohm's law is
V IZ =
Where Z is the circuit impedance. For a resistor, Z = R. For an inductor, Z= Ls. For a
capacitor, Z = 1/(Cs), but we will not be using capacitance. "s" in this case is the Laplace
differential operator s
d
dt
= .
For a pure sinusoidal input V=e
jωt ,
s is replaced with jω in Z.
Recall that Ve V t jV t
j t ω
ω φ ω φ = + + + cos( ) sin( )
27
In the general case, if the capacitance is ignored
V(s) = (R + Ls)I(s)
The resistance R is pretty easy to get if we know the wire we are using.
w
w w
A
l
R
ρ
=
Where ρ
w
is the resistivity of the wire material, l
w
is the total length of wire, and A
w
is
the cross-sectional area of the wire.
Getting the inductance is a little more difficult.
II. Inductance
A. Self Inductance
If only a single coil of wire is involved, we only need worry about self inductance. We
can use Ohm's Law with Faraday's Law:
V iR V
e
= + where V N
d
dt
e
=
Φ
i
N
Φ
Since ) (Ni P PF = = Φ ("Ohm's Law for magnetic circuits)
then ( )
dt
di
N Ni
dt
d
N
dt
d
N V P P
2
= =
Φ
= (Faraday's Law)
By definition of (linear) inductance, V L
di
dt
=
Thus L = N
2
P
So if we can find the magnetic permeance in the circuit for a coil of wire, we can now
calculate the inductance of the coil.
B. Mutual Inductance
For circuits which have more than one coil of wire, we must be concerned with mutual
inductance, or the effect of one coil on the other(s). This is important in multiphase circuits
and devices such as motors.
28
Ex. The transformer
V
1
, i
1
V
2
, i
2
N
1
N
2
Φ
Classically, ideally, but not realistically: no resistance, no inductance
N
1
N
2
V
1
, i
1
V
2
, i
2
V
V
N
N
1
2
1
2
= ,
i
i
N
N
1
2
2
1
= ,
V i V i
1 1 2 2
=
1/r
e
1
f
1
e
2
f
2












=






1
1
2
2
1
0
0
f
e
r
r
f
e
For example, in a motor, T k i
T
= . In a transformer, i
N
N
i
2
1
2
1
=
The above is simple, but not realistic, or particularly useful for a motion device.
The two-phase circuit below has an airgap, at which useful flux is produced. One coil can
provide a large main flux field. Another coil can be used to produce a smaller control
field. Smaller fields are easier to produce and control because of the smaller electrical
currents required.
N
1
N
2
useful flux
main field (big) control field (small)
V
1
, i
1
V
2
, i
2
29
The 3-phase circuit below is the basic building block for a 3-phase motor.
N N N
V
1
, i
1
Φ
1
Φ
2
Φ
3
V
2
, i
2
V
3
, i
3
Consider first the analysis of the 2-phase circuit. By Faraday's Law, the flux through each
coil creates a "back" electromotive force (BEMF) against the driving voltage potential
V i R N
d
dt
1 1 1 1
1
= +
Φ
V i R N
d
dt
2 2 2 2
2
= +
Φ
By Ampere's Law, and the fact that flux is always conserved,
P P
2 2 1 1 2 1
i N i N + = Φ = Φ
Therefore, ( ) P P
2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
i N i N
dt
d
N R i V + + =
( ) P P
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
i N i N
dt
d
N R i V + + =
This can be rewritten as
dt
di
L
dt
di
L R i V
2
12
1
11 1 1 1
+ + =
dt
di
L
dt
di
L R i V
2
22
1
21 2 2 2
+ + =
The terms P
2
1 11
N L = and P
2
2 22
N L = are the self inductance terms.
The terms P
2 1 21 12
N N L L = = are the mutual inductance terms.
In matrix form, using the Laplace operator s
d
dt
= ,
V
V
R L s L s
L s R L s
i
i
1
2
1 11 12
21 2 22
1
2






=
+
+












30
The terms in the 2x2 matrix are entirely defined by the permeance (or reluctance) of the
magnetic circuit, and the number of turns length and type of wire in the coils.
III. Flux Linkage and Speedance
We now revisit the single phase circuit to develop the concept of flux linkage and
speedance. The single phase circuit is again drawn below.
i
N
steel
air
l
g
l
s
H
g
H
s
Once again, beginning with Ohm's Law
V iR V iR N
d
dt
e
= + = +
Φ
The term for back emf can be rewritten
N
d
dt
N
d
dI
di
dt
L
di
dt
Φ Φ
= =
Thus another definition of inductance is
L N
d
di
=
Φ
Example. Find the inductance of an ideal solenoid with a length of 0.50 m and 300
turns of wire. The radius of the coil is 0.02 m
Solution to Example. If we were to try and calculate the permeance of the coil by what we
know at this point, it would be tough to do. However, the flux generated by the coil is
easily determined. From the earlier solenoid example, the magnetic intensity and flux
density are fairly uniform in the center of the coil and are given by
H in
z
=
and
B H in = = µ µ
for a turn density of n turns/meter
Thus
B i i = =
300
05
600
.
µ µ
31
The inductance per meter length of coil is
L n
d
di
n
AdB
di
= = =
Φ
600 002 600
2
π µ ( . )
= 568 micro-henries/meter
For a coil length of 0.50 meters, the inductance of the solenoid is 284 micro-henries.
Note that if the system is linear, and this is not a bad approximation for most magnetic
systems operating well away from saturation, that
N
d
di
N
i
Φ Φ
=
Flux linkage is defined as the common flux that passes through a coil and "links" it to the
remainder of the magnetic system. For a coil with N turns, the flux linkage is simply NΦ.
Thus the inductance for the single phase system can also be expressed as
L
d
di
=
λ
where λ is defined as the flux linkage.
and ( ) i N Ni N N P P
2
= = Φ = λ in a linear system.
For the 2 phase system, the flux linkages are
[ ]
2 2 1 1 1 1 1
i N i N N N + = Φ = P λ
[ ]
2 2 1 1 2 2 2
i N i N N N + = Φ = P λ
Speedance is something that needs to be considered if the magnetic circuit has moving
parts, which affect the reluctance, and thereby also the flux in a circuit. This has been
ignored so far.
The back emf of a circuit can be written from Faraday's Law, using flux linkage.
V N
d
dt
d
dt
= =
Φ λ
If the flux linkage is also a function of some position variable, say x, then the differential
becomes
dt
dx
dx
d
dt
di
di
d
V
λ λ
+ = or
dt
dx
K
dt
di
L V
g
+ =
32
where K
d
dx
g
=
λ
is defined as the speedance.
33
EM Devices Lecture #5: Behavior of Permanent Magnet Materials
I. Permanent Magnet Materials
A. Magnetic Behavior
For any material (no such thing as a magnetic insulator) and applied magnetic intensity H
creates a resultant flux density B. Earlier, we described this relationship as being B = µH.
material
N
i
Being more specific, the relationship is true for "soft" magnetic materials, i.e. pure iron
(high µ); or wood, leather, plastic (low µ).
B
H
1
µ
saturation
When H is applied and then removed, B rebounds along the B-H curve. B-H curves for
many materials are published in handbooks.
There are other materials which retain a residual B field even after H is removed. These
are known as "hard" magnetic material, or "permanent magnets."
34
B
H
B
r
1
µ
1
µ
i.e. Certain grades of steel (high µ)
Alnico, ferrite, SmCo, NeFeBr (low µ)
These material curves can also be found in handbooks
B. Ferro-Magnetism
For hard magnetic materials, the B-H curve (and equation) must be modified to include the
effects of the residual magnetism.
B H M = + µ µ
The last term must be added, and is caused by the alignment of the electron spins in the
material. This term is usually a constant, unaffected by the application of an H field (until
the intensity becomes sufficient to case the spins to flip). The new B-H curve for a hard
magnetic material is the sum of the original B-H curve and the constant magnetization.
H H H
B B B
µM
1
µ
If the magnetization is in the reverse direction, then the B-H curve is
35
H H H
B B B
µΜ
1
µ
We can combine the curves. Note the presence of saturation, which is a real effect. Note
also that for a virgin (unmagnetized) material, switching of the magnetic domains is easy.
However once aligned, it is difficult to switch them back.
The domains "flip" and spin in the other direction of a sufficient H is applied. The Level
of H is known as "H
ci
", or the "intrinsic coercivity." When this level of H is applied, the
domains flip, all at once, and the B-H curve jumps for one to the other.
B
H
H
ci
"jump"
H
ci
"jump"
saturation
saturation
virgin mat'l
start,
What we get is the well known B-H curve for hard magnetic materials.
36
B
H
H
c
H
ci
B
r
B
r
= residual magnetism
(crossing of B axis)
H
c
= coercive force
(crossing of H axis)
H
ci
= intrinsic coercive force
("knee" of the curve)
Where can µ be found on the curve? It is the slope of the rebound line.
Note that in reality, H
ci
may have a value that is either less than, or greater than H
c
. It
depends on the material.
Also, H
ci
may occur at a value that is less that, or greater than the magnetic intensity at
saturation. Again, it depends on the material.
This curve is the sum of the permeability curve of the material and the intrinsic magnetic
material property curve for that specific material.
37
H H H
B B B
µΜ
1
µ
permeability curve
intrinsic material
curve
total B-H curve
H
ci
1
µ
1
µ H
ci
H
c
B
r
Typical values: Alnico 8: B
r
= 0.85 T
H
ci
= 100 kA/m
Ferrite 8: B
r
= 0.42 T
H
ci
= 210 kA/m
Neodymium 28 B
r
= 1.1 T
H
ci
= 1300 kA/m
B
H
B
H
B
H
B
H
rare earths
ferrites
alnicos
bonded ferrites
The permeability of most commercial hard magnetic materials is approximately the
same as that for air.
38
C. Magnetizing a Magnet
A hard magnetic material is magnetized by passing a H field through it.
H
N
S
There exist isotropic materials (material magnetic properties same in every direction) and
anisotropic materials (material magnetic properties different in each direction).
Isotropic materials, after magnetizing, retain a magnetization pattern nearly identical to the
H field pattern used to magnetize them.
Anisotropic materials usually exhibit a stronger residual magnetism, usually in the same
direction as the particle orientation in the material.
applied H
isotropic material
anisotropic material
magnetization pattern
In magnetizing an anisotropic material, therefore, need to ensure that the grain orientation is
the same as the direction of H, otherwise the result will be low magnetization levels.
How much H is necessary to get maximum residual magnetism? At least past H
ci
, usually
all the way to saturation to ensure all the domains have switched.
39
A more realistic B-H curve.
B
H
H
c
H
ci
B
r
start switching at H
ci
done switching at 2H
ci
start demag
By using B = µH, we can estimate the magnitude of the flux density field
required to achieve the necessary H to begin the process. To get to full magnetization, as a
rule of thumb, typically twice this value is needed. Assume that µ for the magnet material
is approximately the same as that for air, µ = 4π x 10
-7
h/m.
For Alnicos H
ci
= 100 kA/m ----> B = 0.125 T
For Ferrites H
ci
= 210 kA/m ----> B = 0.264 T
A simple circuit can be built to produce such a field.
material
N
i
For Neodymiums, H
ci
> 1300 kA/m ----> B > 1.625 T
which is beyond the saturation level of the steel yolk used to hold the magnet!
This means that we can no longer use iron or steel as the guide!
40
e.g. steel and iron now behaves like air (for the excess flux).
And even higher magnet grades exist.
How to design a charger in this case?
One solution is to use exotic materials (expensive)
The most common method is just to forget about the iron, just use air.
solenoid coil, H = in
S
S
N
N
coils
Can also modify the environment. For neodymiums raising its temperature reduces H
ci
.
For ferrite, reducing its temperature reduces H
ci
.
In practice, chargers only have a few turns of wire, to reduce inductance, maximize
throughput.
Big wires, large amps (sometimes several thousand for exotic magnets). Wires jump,
sometimes explode. Magnets fired. Enclosed room.
Voltage from a large bank of capacitors (which sometime explode), monopole generator.
Water cooled. Magnetically shielded (or computer users complain).
Example. A piece of grade 28 neodymium is 5 mm thick and 10 mm in diameter. The
material has an intrinsic coercivity of 1300 kA/m. It is to be magnetized at the center of a
coil of wire 12 mm in diameter with 4 turns. Estimate the current needed.
Solution to example. From the example in Lecture #1 for a single coil of wire,
r
i
H
z
2
=
Thus for 4 turns of wire
r
i
H
z
2
= or
2
min
r H
i
ci
=
so the current required to acheive Hci is 3900
2
) 006 . 0 )( 000 , 300 , 1 (
min
= = i Amps
41
Typically, twice as much current is needed to ensure full magnetization, so use around
7800 Amps.
Why so few turns? Because the current source is usually a bank of capacitors. Any
inductance in the circuit may cause a recirculating current that, on the back swing, will
cause the magnet to demagnetize.
The voltage needed can be calculated by V = iR.
The energy dissipated in the coil can be calculated by E = CV
2
/2. Some large capacitance
is needed to overcome whatever inductance exists (usually around 20,000 microfarads)
Most of this energy is dissipated in the coil. Thus need big wires to handle the current,
otherwise the insulation, or even the wire itself will melt.
42
EM Devices Lecture #6: Charging Permanent Magnets
I. Magnet Charging
A. Predicting B Using the Magnetic Property Curve.
1. If the material was not fully saturated upon initial magnetization, the rebound curves
occur on a reduced hysteresis version of the magnetic property curve. This is not
efficient use of the material as a permanent magnet.
2. If the material was fully saturated upon initial magnetization, and the applied H is
less than H
ci
, rebound occurs according to the material property curve.
3. If the material was fully saturated upon initial magnetization, and the applied H is
greater than H
ci
in the opposite direction of the original charging, it is hard to predict
what is going to happen, as this depends on the precise nature of the BH curve. The
curve near H
ci
is typically very steep and not well defined at certain places, and a
small change in H may result in a large change in B. Part or all of the magnetic
domains will switch. Result is usually partial or full demagnetization of the material.
The rebound may occur on a smaller hysteresis curve, resulting in a magnet that is less
than fully charged, or even uncharged. If a sufficiently large H is applied (i.e. past
2H
ci
), the material may become fully magnetized in the other direction.
B
H
H
c
B
r
original charging line
done switching at 2
H
ci
rebound past
H
ci
max operating line
actual operating line
Such an event may occur during the operation of a device when an externally applied field
is present, e.g. the coil field in a motor. It may even occur during the charging operation
itself, due to a negative recirculating current caused by the capacitance of the charger
(magnetizer) and the inductance of the charging coil (magnetizing fixture).
43
i
t
H > 2H
ci
H > H
ci
Sometimes, the positive rebound also exceeds H
ci
, in which case the BH behavior is along
a minor hysteresis loop. This loop can spiral inward, especially if the material has no
distinct H
ci
(as with many plastic bonded magnets, always check the BH curves), until the
material is completely magnetized This is how a demagnetizer works for low coercivity
materials (steel tools, magnetic recording media).
B. Avoiding Recirculating Currents
To get the high current necessary for charging a magnet, a bank of capacitors is usually
used. The magnetizing fixture itself is usually a coil of wire, with resistance and
inductance properties only. Thus, the system is a big LRC circuit.
C
R
L
As with any LRC circuit, the current in the system can reverse and recirculate (vibrate).
Such recirculation during the charging operation is very undesirable, since it might
partially or wholly demagnetize the magnet. With the simplest magnet charging systems,
during the charging operation, it is necessary that the current recirculation be overdamped.
With additional care, the system may be designed such that the rebounding current never
exceeds H
ci
(except at the initial peak at 2H
ci
). More sophisticated magnetizers use special
suppression circuits which act as diodes to prevent any negative current rebounds.
Please keep in mind that the following circuits are to be considered very dangerous, with
large currents, voltages, and energies that are released over very short periods of time.
44
II. A Simple (Common) Charger
A. Getting an Overdamped Current
The basic circuit can now be examined for the conditions required to produce a large,
overdamped current for a simple magnetizer.
For resistance iR V =
For capacitance q CV = or
dt
dV
C
dt
dq
i = = or

= idt
C
V
1
For inductance Li = λ or
dt
di
L
dt
d
V = =
λ
Looking at the voltage drop across each component

= + + 0
1
idt
C
Ri
dt
di
L or 0
1
2
2
= + + i
C dt
di
R
dt
i d
L
The roots of this second order equation are simply
s
R
L
R
L LC
1 2
2
2 2
1
,
= − ±





 −
We can define α =
R
L 2
ω
0
1
=
LC
and ω ω α
d
= −
0
2 2
If the roots to the differential equation are real, then the response is overdamped and the
solution becomes
t s t s
e a e a i
2 1
2 1
+ =
If the roots are complex, then the response is a damped oscillation
t e a t e a i
d
t
d
t
ω ω
α α
sin cos
4 3
− −
+ =
Since current recirculation is undesirable, the roots should be real and thus require the
condition
R
L LC 2
1
≥ or
R C
L
2
4

45
Thus, to avoid the recirculating current problem, it is generally desired that the inductance
be kept low, and the capacitance be kept high. To get high currents from a limited (or
reasonable) voltage level, the resistance must also be kept low.
Example 1. A magnetizing fixture has a coil resistance of 0.10 Ω (a very typical
number) and is to be attached to a capacitance discharge magnetizer with a capacitance of
1000 µF. Find the allowable coil inductance in order to suppress recirculating current.
Ignore the internal resistance and inductance of the magnetizer.
Solution to Example 1.
R C
L
2
4

( )
( ) 01 1000 10
4
2
6
. ×


L
Thus L < 2.5 µH is required.
The numbers from the example are typical. In order to achieve the required inductance,
only a few turns of wire on the magnetizing fixture are permitted. Even in with an air core,
a single loop of wire has an inductance of about 0.5 µH (for a typical coil diameter of 20
mm). Using a steel core increases the permeance, and the inductance, dramatically. Even
a straight length of wire has an internal inductance of about 0.5 µH/m (independent of wire
diameter).
B. Getting Sufficient Voltage for Charging
Without the effect of inductance, calculating the voltage required to get the desired current
is easy: V = iR
With the presence of a capacitance and an inductance in the circuit, the differential
equation must be solved, from the initial conditions.
t s t s
e a e a i
2 1
2 1
+ = or t e a t e a i
d
t
d
t
ω ω
α α
sin cos
4 3
− −
+ =
Looking at the overdamped case first, for the first initial condition assume that the current
is zero at time zero.
2 1
0 ) 0 ( a a i + = = or
1 2
a a − =
The second initial condition comes from the fact that at the moment the current is switched
on, the current is zero, so the voltage drop across the resistor is zero. Thus the entire
voltage drop is across the inductance.
0
) 0 (
V
dt
di
L = or
2 2 1 1
0
) 0 (
s a s a
L
V
dt
di
+ = =
46
Solving the initial conditions simultaneously gives
( )
2 1
0
2 1
s s L
V
a a

= − = where, again s
R
L
R
L LC
1 2
2
2 2
1
,
= − ±





 −
To find the maximum current, find the point at which the rate of current change is zero.
( )
t s t s t s t s
e s e s a e s a e s a
dt
di
2 1 2 1
2 1 1 2 2 1 1
0 − = + = = or s e s e
s t s t
1 2
1 2
=
Thus, the maximum current occurs at time
( )
t
s s
s s
=

ln
2 1
1 2
Example 2. A magnetizing fixture has a coil resistance of 0.10Ω and an inductance of
1 µH. It is attached to a capacitance discharge magnetizer with a capacity of 1000 µF.
Determine the voltage charge necessary to produce a peak current of 8000 amps. Ignore
the internal resistance and inductance of the magnetizer.
Solution to Example 2.
Integrate the differential equation 0
1
2
2
= + + i
C dt
di
R
dt
i d
L
Solution is
t s t s
e a e a i
2 1
2 1
+ = The roots are s
R
L
R
L LC
1 2
2
2 2
1
,
= − ±





 −
With the numbers above, the roots are s
1
1
11 270 = −

, sec , s
2
1
88 730 = −

, sec
The time at which the maximum current occurs is given by
( )
t
s s
s s
=

=
ln
. sec
2 1
1 2
26 6µ
The constants in the solution are
( )
0
2 1
0
2 1
9 . 12 V
s s L
V
a a =

= − =
The maximum current would appear as
0 max
35 . 8 V i =
Thus to attain 8000 amps, the required voltage would be V = 960 volts.
Note that a capacitor built to handle that level of voltage is pretty hefty.
C. Energy Dissipation
47
The total energy initially stored in the capacitor will eventually be dissipated as heat
through the wires in the fixture. The energy stored in a capacitor is
E CV
c
=
1
2
2
For the example above ( C = 1000 µF and V = 960 V), the energy stored would be 461
Joules. The copper in the magnetizing fixture must be able to accept this level of energy
(almost) instantaneously without an increase in temperature sufficient to melt the insulation
of the copper.
Use E mc T
c p
= ∆
Where E is the energy absorbed, m is the mass of the copper in the coils, c
p
is the heat
capacity of copper (0.0921 kcal/kg-°C), and ∆T is the temperature rise of the copper.
Copper melts at 1083°C.
Some of the larger commercially available chargers have energies of 45,000 Joules,
capacitance banks of 90,000 µF, voltages of 1500 V (difficult to get capacitors which can
handle larger voltages) to produce currents of 30,000 amps.
III. More Sophisticated Processes
The requirement to eliminate all recirculating current may, for many materials, be
unnecessarily strict. This results in unnecessarily strict limits on the inductance of the
magnetizing fixture, and unnecessarily high capacitances and voltages from the magnetizer.
Most good quality magnets have very linear behavior between the H
ci
points. For these
materials, it is only necessary to ensure (with a safety factor) that any rebounding negative
current does not produce magnetic intensities greater that H
ci
.
To see how to design a system, the LCR circuit and its second order linear differential
equation is once again considered. This time, the underdamped solution is considered.
C
R
L
0
1
2
2
= + + i
C dt
di
R
dt
i d
L
48
t e a t e a i
d
t
d
t
ω ω
α α
sin cos
4 3
− −
+ =
where α =
R
L 2
ω
0
1
=
LC
and ω ω α
d
= −
0
2 2
It must be ensured that the first negative current peak (and thus all other negative peaks)
does not produce a magnetic intensity in excess of H
ci
.
i
t
H > 2H
ci
H < H
ci
Note that for the solution, the initial conditions are that same as before. One of the initial
conditions is that the current at time zero is zero, thus
a
3
= 0
The second initial condition comes from the fact that at the moment the current is switched
on, the current is zero, so the voltage drop across the resistor is zero. Thus the entire
voltage drop is across the inductance.
0
) 0 (
V
dt
di
L =
or ) 0 ( cos ) 0 ( sin
) 0 (
) 0 (
4
) 0 (
4
0
d d d
e a e a
L
V
dt
di
ω ω ω α
α α − −
+ − = =
d
a ω
4
=
Thus
L
V
a
d
ω
0
4
= . and finally t e
L
V
t i
d
t
d
ω
ω
α
sin ) (
0 −
=
The time and amplitude of the first positive current peak, and the first negative current peak
can be found by an exact formula. For the purpose of expediency in this lecture, an
approximation is used.
The first positive current peak occurs at ω
π
d
t ≈
2
or t
d

π
ω 2
49
with an amplitude
d
e
L
V
i
d
ω
απ
ω
2 0
1


The first negative current peak occurs at ω
π
d
t ≈
3
2
or t
d

3
2
π
ω
with an amplitude
d
e
L
V
i
d
ω
απ
ω
2
3
0
2


For example, if a fixture has been designed and has a given inductance, then the voltage and
capacitance must be adjusted until the first positive peak creates greater than 2H
ci
, and the
first negative peak does not create greater than H
ci
.
Bear in mind that the total energy dissipated in the fixture is still E CV
c
=
1
2
2
Even more sophisticated chargers have suppression circuit that act as diodes, and suppress
any negative currents. The design of a fixture for such a magnetizer depends on the current
handling capacity of the suppression circuit. It is rather difficult to create a "diode" for
large currents (of several thousand amps). Note that for such chargers with suppression
circuits, all energies associated with the negative current are dissipated by the magnetizer
instead of the fixture. This is great for saving wear and tear on the fixture, but is not such a
good deal for the magnetizer (suppression circuit).
50
EM Devices Lecture #7: Permanent Magnet Circuits, Magnetic Operating Point,
Load-Line

I. The Magnetic Operating Point

For a simple magnetic circuit, if there is no gap, the flux density in the circuit is merely B
= B
r
. The total flux flowing is then simply Φ = B
r
A
m.


However, without a gap, the device is pretty much useless. Therefore we cut a gap in the
circuit to create an area where useful flux is available. To calculate the gap flux due to the
permanent magnet, we start with Ampere's Law.


l
m
l
g
l
s

Ampere's Law states

⋅ = l d Ni H
There is no current (no coils), so evaluating the integral assuming uniform gaps and areas
gives

g g s s m m
l H l H l H + + = 0

We will assume that the magnetic intensity drop in the steel is negligible, unless the path is
long. Eliminating this term and some rearranging gives
( )
m
g
m
g
H
l
l
H − =
By conservation of flux, Φ Φ
m g
= , thus. B
A A
m
m
m
g
m
= =
Φ
Φ

And by the definition of permeance,
g g g
F P = Φ , thus,
m
g g
m
A
B
F P
=
But also, in the gap,
g g g
l H = F , thus
m
g g g
m
A
l H
B
P
=
We now use the relationship between H
g
and H
m
above, so finally, ( )
m
m
m g
m
H
A
l
B − =
P


This can be written as ( ) B H
m LL m
= − η
51
where
m
m g
LL
A
l P
≡ η is defined as the slope of the load-line of the magnet. In
more general circuits, the permeance that should be used in the calculation for the load line
of a magnet is the total permeance of the magnetic circuit, not including that magnet itself.

More on the load line later.

B
m
and H
m
define the operating point of the magnet, i.e. B
m
is the flux density output of
the magnet. Multiplying B
m
by the area of the magnet thus gives the total flux output of the
magnet.

Φ
m m m
B A =

To find B
m
and H
m
the material property curve must be used. The operating point is the
intersection of the material property curve and the load line.


B
H
H
c
H
ci
B
r
B
m
, H
m
η
LL
1


Consequently, only the 2nd quadrant of the magnetic hysteresis curve, also called the
design curve, is used (for device design). A very common error is to use the intrinsic
curve instead of the design curve for the material.


B. PM Modeling in a Magnetic Circuit

Beginning with the magnet property curve for a permanent magnet material,

B H M
m m m m
= + µ µ or B H
m m m
= µ

In this case, the magnetic intensity within the magnet is the external applied intensity plus
the intrinsic intensity, or H H M
m m
= +
52



B
H
B
r
H
c
H
o
H
ci 1
µ



We can manipulate the equation above. Multiply both sides by A
m
and, multiply and
divide the right side by l
m
. The result is
( )
m m
m
m
m m m
l M H
l
A
B A +








= µ

m m m m m m m
M A Hl B A µ + = P

We can substitute A B
m m m
= Φ µ
m m m r m
A M B A =

and define
m m
Hl F = B A
r m
= Φ
0



to get the equation
0
Φ + = Φ
m m m
F P


On the BH material curve, the ordinate can be multiplied by A
m
, and the abscissa can be
multiplied by l
m
. The resultant plot of Φ
m
versus F
m
has exactly the same shape as the
magnetic property curve for the magnet, except that the slope of the design line is P
m
.


Φ
m
F
m
Φ
0
F
o
1
P
m

53

We can define
m o o
l H = F and Φ
o m r
A B =

From the modified design curve,
m m o m
F P + Φ = Φ

This is the equation which describes the current source below:

Φ
o
P
m
Φ
Φ
-
+
F
m


Also from the modified design curve,
m
m
o m
P
F F
Φ
+ =

This is the equation which describes the voltage source below:


-
+
F
m
F
o
R
m
Φ
m
Φ
m
-
+


C. Example of usage

Find the operating point of the magnet in the circuit below, and the flux densities in the two
airgaps.

54

A
1
l
1
A
2
l
2
l
m
A
m


The electrical analogy to the magnetic circuit is drawn below, using the current source
analogy:

Φ
o
P
m
P
1
P
2
Φ
1
Φ
2
Φ
m



The current source is Φ
o r m
B A =
The permeances in the circuit are
m
m m
m
l
A µ
= P ,
1
1
1
l
A
o
µ
= P ,
2
2
2
l
A
o
µ
= P

Permeances in parallel are merely added, thus


m
o m
P P P
P P
+ +
+
Φ = Φ
2 1
2 1
and B
A
m
m
m
=
Φ


m
o
P P P
P
+ +
Φ = Φ
2 1
1
1
and B
A
1
1
1
=
Φ


m
o
P P P
P
+ +
Φ = Φ
2 1
2
2
and B
A
2
2
2
=
Φ


III. The Load Line

A. Recall the Definition

55
The intersection of the load line and the magnetic property curve, or design curve (in the
second quadrant), is the operating point of the magnet. It gives the flux density output and
the magnetic intensity in the magnet.

B
H
B
r
H
c
H
o
H
ci
H
m
B
m
η
LL
1 operating point

A
m
A
g
l
g
l
m


As you recall from last time, ( )
m
m
m g
m
H
A
l
B
P
− =
or B H
m LL m
= −η where
m
m g
LL
A
l P
= η

and then the calculate the field density in the gap, B
A
A
B
g
m
g
m
=

This is true for most common machines, where the magnet geometry is has uniform length
(the length of a magnet is always measured in its direction of magnetization).

In most common machines, there is usually only a single gap, and the area of the gap is the
same as the area of the magnet. We will assume, for the following example, that this is the
case, because this example can be used to build some intuitive feel about magnetic circuit
behavior.
For a single, uniform gap machine,
m
g m
m g o
H
l A
l A
B
µ
− =

If the area of the magnet is the same as the area of the gap, then
m
g
m
o m g
H
l
l
B B µ − = =
This is a very good approximation for "small airgap" machine because the magnetic
leakage is rather low.

"Small" airgap: 5 ≥
g
m
l
l
"Large" airgap: 1 ≤
g
m
l
l



56
Note the B does not change very much for changes in gap length for small airgap machines,
whereas the change may be quite large for large airgap machines.


B. Caution for Low Coercivity Materials

If the magnet is separated from the circuit, even the magnetizing circuit, the slope of the
load line
g
m
o LL
l
l
µ η − = drops. If the drop causes H H
m ci
≥ then the
material rebounds along a minor hysteresis loop. This means the magnet has permanently
lost some or all of its residual magnetism, or it has become demagnetized.



B
H
1
H
c
∆B
∆H
2



For this reason, low coercivity materials, such as Alnicos, are usually magnetized in place,
and one magnetized, the circuit is never opened.


C. Effects of an Applied Coil Current

In many devices, in addition to a permanent magnet, there is also a coil or some sort of
other device which also creates a field.


57

B
H
1
Hc
∆B
∆H
2
3



This applied external current shifts (translates) the load line either upward or downward.

m
ext
m mT
A
B B
R
F
+ =

The permeance of the circuit must include the permeance of the magnet as well as that of
the gap, and Ni
ext
= F , therefore,



( )
m g m
m T
A
Ni
B B
R R +
+ =

The last term is the change in B caused by the external current

The change in H, can be calculated from Ampere's Law. Looking only at the external
potential source, and neglecting the magnetic intensity drop in the steel,


m m g g ext
l H l H Ni
ext ext
+ = = F

Since air and permanent magnet have roughly the same permeability, H H
g m

Thus
g m
ext
l l
Ni
H
+
= and
g m
m T
l l
Ni
H H
+
+ =

By applying too much current to the coil, the intrinsic coercive force may be exceeded,
causing the magnet to become demagnetized.


This is an important fact to remember in motor operation. Apply too much current, or short
the coils for braking, the resulting current may be sufficient to demagnetize the magnets.

58

N
N N
V
1
, i
1
V
2
, i
2
V
3
, i
3



Nd, SmCo good for active fields. Careful with Alnicos. Low H
ci



Must be careful to design well away from H
ci
to prevent irreversible demagnetization
during start-up, maximum operating conditions, or shutdown and braking.


D. Other Nasty Demagnetization Potentials

With ferrites, cool down results in H
ci
drop. Possible demag at low temperatures. Can
demag during shipping if low temperatures are encountered, or just sitting in a warehouse.

With neodymiums, heat up results in H
ci
drop. Possible demag at higher temperature. Can
demag during normal operation due to heating, or can demag all by itself during shipping
and storage if the temperature go high enough.




B
H
load line
FERRITE
20 degC
0 degC

B
H
load line
RARE EARTH
20 degC
80 degC

59
ME 229 Lecture #8: Experimental and Analytical Formulation of Magnetic Leakage

First, a discussion about reasonable designs...

"Small" devices: < 1/4 HP, computer peripherals, gadgets

5 V 10 mA
10 V 50 mA
12 V 100 mA

<60 V (no UL required) < 1 Amp
Usually pretty safe, unless careless or negligent.

"Medium" devices 1-5 HP , small appliances, major appliances, lawn mowers

60 V 5 A
110 V 10 A
220 V 15 A

Can be dangerous, possibly deadly, unless proper care is taken

"Large" devices 50 HP and higher, generators, drive motors for cars, rail-guns

>400 V >100 A

Dangerous energy and power levels, deadly unless proper care is taken.

Wire (handled by hand): Tiny- #40 AWG Medium- #20 AWG
Small- #30 AWG Large- #10 AWG

# turns (common devices): <100 turns/coil is reasonable >200 turns/coil is a lot

The power can be reduced by reducing the size of the gap. However the gap cannot be
reduced too much, or the useful flux cannot be accessed. Also the assumption that the
reluctance of the steel is negligible no longer applies.


I. Leakage in Magnetic Circuits

Up to this point, we have been studying idealized flux flow, e.g. flux flow through the
designated airgap only. In reality, flux flows wherever there is a magnetic potential
difference. There is no such thing as a magnetic field insulator, not even in a vacuum.

This in a magnetic circuit, flux flows not only through the airgap, but also all around the
airgap, because of the magnetic potential difference that exits there.

60


N
i

+
-
Ni
P
g
P
L
Φ
T
Φ
g
Φ
L



For a coil as the MMF source,
( )
g g
Ni P = Φ , which is the same as without leakage.
( )( )
L g T
Ni P P + = Φ which is greater than without leakage.



l
m

P
g
P
L
Φ
m
Φ
g
Φ
L
P
m
Φ
o




For a PM circuit, Φ
o r m
B A =

o
L g m
L g
m
Φ
+ +
+
= Φ
P P P
P P
which is greater than without leakage

o
L g m
g
g
Φ
+ +
= Φ
P P P
P
which is less than without leakage


Thus for EM design, leakage has little effect on the gap flux. But for PM designs, leakage
can greatly reduce the expected gap flux. Some caution is needed in EM designs. Because
the leakage increases the total flux through the system (to higher than expected levels), and
may cause the steel to saturate in places.


II. Permeance Formulation for Leakage
61

Flux will flow wherever there is a magnetic potential. The amount of flux depends on the
permeance of each path.


N
S
N
S
P
1
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
2
P
3


...
3 2 1
> > > P P P
Close to gap, about the same.

As we move further from the gap, the path becomes longer, P
n
gets smaller, flux and flux
density drop (and the flux lines get further apart).

In a 3 dimensional object, there is leakage from one face to another all around the object
due to the difference in potential. Especially concentrated around the gap because that is
where the permeance of the path is lowest.


A. Experimental Calculation

Can use a gaussmeter (a device that measures gauss). It uses a semiconductor device of
known area that produces a voltage ∝ flux through the area.

1 Gauss = 0.0001 Tesla

So make measurements across a face of the circuit. The flux leaving a face is the same a
the flux going into the other faces from that face.


Example 1. Calculate the gap flux, and the leakage flux across the right face (face 1), of
the model below. Use a gaussmeter to measure the flux densities at various locations.


62

N
i
+
-
l
g
h
w


w = 0.050 m h = 0.025 m
l
g
= 0.005 m
Ni = 3000 A-t
A
g
= 0.0005 m
2

Solution to Example 1.

∆ = Φ h w B
j L1
use ∆h = 0.005 m


∆h = 5
mm
h
j


Then Location | B (measured)
gap 0.8
∆h
1
0.5
∆h
2
0.1
∆h
3
0.02
∆h
4
0.001
∆h
5
0.0005

Then Φ
g g g
B A = = 0 4 . mWb
155 . 0
5
1
1
= ∆ = Φ

= j
j L
h w B mWb
and
7
3
1 1
1
10 18 . 5
3000
10 55 . 1


× =
×
=
Φ
=
Φ
=
Ni
P
L L
L
F
Wb/A (or h, henries)

63
If Ni is not known, as in a PM type circuit, we can use
g
g o
g
l
A µ
= P
Since
g L
F F =
1
,
g
g
L
L
P P
Φ
=
Φ
1
1
. Thus
g
g L
L
Φ
Φ
=
P
P
1
1

Finally
g
g o l
L
l
A
Φ
Φ
=
µ
1
P

Now, this must be done for all the faces of the circuit.


B. Experimentally with a cylindrical object



steel
steel
0.04 m
0.01 m


Example 2. Say the magnetic material is an Alnico. We want to see how close we are
to the knee in the magnetic material properties curve. Determine the operating point of the
magnet, due to the flux in the gap, and due to leakage from the (circular) pole ends.

Solution to Example 2. The analogous electric circuit is shown below.


P
g
P
L
Φ
m
Φ
g
Φ
L
P
m
Φ
0

H
B
H
c
η
LL
B
m
H
m
H
ci


64
We need to find Φ
m
.
L g m
Φ + Φ = Φ . Then B
A
m
m
m
=
Φ


First, find the gap flux. With a gaussmeter, 6400 gauss, or 0.64 Tesla, is measured.

g ave
airgap
g
A B d = ⋅ = Φ

A B
= (0.64 T)(0.01 m)π(0.04)
= 0.8 mWb

Next, find the leakage flux (from one source, the center pole, for this example):



∆ = = Φ r r B Brdr
j j L
π π 2 2
2 . 0
0
1


r | B(T) (measured from model)
0 0.0414
0.05 0.0732
0.1 0.0892
0.15 0.144
0.185 0.412

Thus 167 . 0
1
= Φ
L
mWb from this source. (What other sources are there?)

Finally ...
2 1
+ Φ + Φ + Φ = Φ
L L g m





C. Analytical Permeance Calculations

If the direction of the field is known, the calculation is straightforward.

For any given volume,
A
l
µ
= R or
A
dl
d
µ
= R

Let's say the magnetic circuit is that for the VCM shown below:


65

steel
r
2
r
1
h


For a differential change in length along the airgap, dl = dr and A = 2πhr
Thus,
hr
dr
d
o
πµ 2
= R and
h
r
r
hr
dr
o
r
r o
πµ πµ 2
ln
2
1
2
2
1
= =

R


If the direction is not known (exactly), we can often assume a reasonable shape.

Example 4. Determine an analytical formulation for the leakage between the two faces
shown below. Each face is a a different magnetic potential.


w
r
1
r
2

Solution to Example 4. For the face near the gap shown below, assume a semi -
circular shaped field lines.


r
1
r
r
2
dr

66

Since
l
A µ
= P , then
r
wdr
d
π
µ
= P where dA = wdr and l = πr

Thus
1
2
ln
2
1
r
r w
r
wdr
o
r
r
o
π
µ
π
µ
= =

P


D. Other formulas: see "Electro-magnetic Devices," by Roters (a classic)
71
EM Devices, Lecture #9: Creation of Magnetic Energy and Force


I. Energy in Magnetic Fields

The energy that is contained in a magnetic field is of considerable interest in the
formulation of force and torque for motion devices, and also for the calculation of energy
transferred to a magnetic field.

For coupled electromagnetic-mechanical type systems, energy is transferred between the
electrical components, the mechanical components, and the magnetic components.


A. Pure Magnetic Systems

The energy density contained in a magnetic field is given by

⋅ = B d H w
m

where the units are in Joules/cubic-meter. This is the area underneath the B-H curve.

In all the magnetic devices we will examine, H is parallel to B. In ferromagnetic
materials, saturation causes B to be a non-linear function of H, and therefore the integral
must be evaluated to calculate the energy.

If, however, the device is operated in the linear part of the B-H curve, the integral is easily
evaluated.
w HB H
B
m
= = =
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
µ
µ


By integrating over a volume, the energy stored in the volume is
W H dv B dv
m
vol vol
= =
∫ ∫
µ
µ 2
2 1
2
2


Note that, by the way the energy in a magnetic field is defined, the energy loss in a
magnetic material due to the hysteresis behavior of the material is merely the area
contained within the hysteresis loop during operation, multiplied by the material volume
(assuming that B and H are uniform through that volume).

This method of calculation of the stored magnetic energy is very important in magnetic
field analysis, especially in finite-element analysis. This is because the force generated by
a motion device in a magnetic field in a x-direction can be calculated by

F
W
x
m
const
= −


λ



B. Magnetic energy in an electrical device
72

The above formulation of energy is necessary for open field analyses, but for most electro-
mechanical devices the formulation can be made much simpler due to the simplicity of the
geometries used.

Consider the electrical circuit below.


+
-
V
i
Φ
L
g
A
g

+
-
V
R
L
i


The voltage equation gives
dt
d
iR V
λ
+ =
Thus the power input to the device is
dt
d
i Ri Vi Power
λ
+ = =
2

The electrical input energy in a time dt is λ id dt Ri dW
in
+ =
2


where the first term is the energy input, the second term is the heat dissipated through the
resistance of the windings, and the third term is the magnetic energy stored in the device.
An assumption is made that there are no hysteresis of eddy current losses.

Integrating the third term, the energy stored in the magnetic field is



= λ λ id W
m
) (


The energy is the area marked on the i vs. λ plot shown below. The "co-energy", which is
a non-existent, fictitious quantity, is the area on the opposite side of the curve, as shown.
The co-energy is defined by

′ =

W i di
m
( ) λ

The co-energy, which expresses λ as a function of i, is usually a much easier term to
derive.


73

non-linear
linear
i i
λ λ
energy
co-energy
energy
co-energy



The relationship between i and λ is generally non-linear, due to saturation effects of the
material. However, if the device is operated away from saturation in the linear part of the
curve, the energy and the co-energy become equal.

λ i W W
m m 2
1
= ′ =

Iλ can be expressed in terms of reluctance, permeance, or inductance since

λ= NΦ Φ = = R F Ni Ni P = Φ L N =
2
P

Thus
2
) ( ) ( Li Ni Ni Ni i = = Φ Φ = Φ = P R λ


The energy or co-energy operating in the linear region of the magnetic materials can be thus
expressed in several ways


2
2
1
) ( Φ = Φ R
m
W
2
2
1
P ) ( F F = ′
m
W
2
2
1
) ( Li i W
m
= ′


II. The Generation of Force and Torque

Now assume that the magnetic field causes something to mechanically move, e.g. an
armature of some sort. This motion can be linear, rotary or multidirectional. Assume for
the moment that the motion is only linear, i.e. in the x-direction.

The energy stored in the magnetic field is a function of the flux and the position of the
armature. The force generated by a change in this energy is given by
F
W
x
m
const
= −


λ


74
We can differentiate the previous expression for magnetic energy (in terms of flux and
reluctance) to get

dx
d
F
R
2
2
1
Φ − =

The force relationship is dependent on the change in the reluctance of the system. Devices
which use this principle of operation are called variable reluctance devices.

Co-energy is equal to the energy when the device is operated in the linear parts of the
magnetics curves. The co-energy is a function of the position and the current in the device.
Thus the force generated is also


iconst
m
x
W
F



=

and thus, from the previous expressions,
dx
dL
i F
2
2
1
=
dx
d
F
P
F
2
2
1
=

Example 1. For the figure shown at the beginning of the lecture, calculate the force
between the pole faces. For now, ignore the effects of leakage.

Solution to Example 1. Assume that the reluctance in the steel is negligible
compared to that in the airgap. Applying the virtual work approach, consider a differential
motion of one pole face toward the other (x-direction). Use the formulation of force

dx
d
F
R
2
2
1
Φ − =
since Φ = B A
g g
and
g
g
A
x
0
µ
= R ,
g
A dx
d
µ
1
=
R

Thus F
B A
g
=
2
0

This formula is very useful in many applications.

A useful rule of thumb is that when there exists a 1 Tesla field normal on a 1 in
2
area,
the attractive pull is 60 lb.

For the simple C-circuit shown,
g
l
Ni
B
0
µ
=

Some interesting questions:

How does the problem change when a permanent magnet is used as the MMF?

How does the problem change when the effects of leakage are included?

75

Example 2. For the electromagnet shown below, calculate the ampere turns needed to
lift a 1000 kg steel beam. The beam is 7 m long. Both the beam and the electromagnet
have a cross-sectional area of 25 x 25 cm. Assume that the reluctance of both the steels is
500µ
0
.

BEAM


Solution to Example 2. The electromagnet must lift 1000 kg, or 9800 N. Since the
electromagnet has 2 faces, each face must lift 4900 N. There is no airgap, and thus the
reluctance of the steel cannot be ignored. We can use the derived formula from the
previous example.

F
B A
g
=
2
0

Thus the flux needed is Φ = 2
0
µ AF


( )
Φ = × × × = 2 0 25 0 25 4900 0 028
0
µ . . . Wb

Reluctance is
A
x
s
µ
= R . Taking the mean path length in the steel,

( ) ( )
5
0
2
1
10 42 . 4
25 . 0 25 . 0 500
25 . 0 7 25 . 0 7
× =
× ×
− + −
=
µ
π
R h
-1

Thus the ampere-turn required is
5
10 24 . 1 × = Φ = R Ni A-t


III. Some Simple Reluctance Devices

Now take a look at a combined electrical-mechanical-magnetic system. The system below
is a rudimentary (cheap) speaker or earphone. It works, from the sense that if a current is
applied to the coil, the diaphragm mass moves and pushes air. Thus sound is produced or
reproduced. The goal is to be able to precisely control the motion of the mass by
controlling either the voltage or the current in the coil.

We will consider only the translation of the mass, and ignore the effects of magnetic
leakage (although leakage is very easy to include in this case.

76

m
A
A
2A
N
i
Φ/2
Φ
Φ/2
k
s
k
s
x


Notice right away that the force on the moving mass can be calculated as

=
0
2

i
A B
F
Also recall that
A
Ni
A A
B
P FP
= =
Φ
= Thus
2
i F ∝

The control problem is nonlinear, even with current control. This usually leads to
distortion of the output, since voice ∝ voltage or voice ∝ current.


Also note that
A
Ni
B
P
=
g
l
B
1
∝ ∝ P
g
l
B
1


Thus
2
1
g
l
F ∝

The device is also difficult to control since force is dependent upon the position of the
return steel. Might be fine if the motion is small, i.e. small speakers or headphones,
otherwise, distortion will occur.

Consequently, simple reluctance devices of this type are used mainly for on/off type
applications. Examples of such devices are electromagnets for lifting, doorbell and
telephone ringers (the type where a hammer strikes a bell), cheap speakers, some solenoid
actuators, hammers for impact printers.

The non-linearities involved with the control of force, velocity, and position make the fine
control of the device very challenging.

Pass out sample of hammer mechanism for a printer.
77


As an academic exercise, we will go ahead and develop the governing equations for the
control of the position of the mass, using the coil voltage as the input.

The electrical equation for the voltage across the coil is
dt
d
iR V
λ
+ =

The derivative of the flux linkage can be written in terms of the inductance and the
speedance of the device.


dt
dx
K
dt
di
L iR V
g
+ + = where K
d
dx
g
=
λ
and
di
d
L
λ
=

For the configuration shown, 





= =
x
A
N N L
0 2 2
µ
P

Also,
( ) ( ) [ ]
2
0
2
0 2
x
A i N
x
A
dx
d
i N
dx
Ni N d
dx
N d
K
g
µ µ
− = 





= =
Φ
=
P


The mechanical equation of motion is ( ) F m
d x
dt
k x x = − −
2
2
0
2

The magnetic force on the mass is








=
0
2
2
µ
A B
F

where
x
Ni
x
A
A
Ni
A
Ni
B
0 0
µ µ
= 





= =
P


The magnetics equation gives the relationship between current and force. The mechanical
equation gives the relationship between force and displacement (and thereby the
relationship between current and displacement). The electrical equation gives the
relationship between voltage, displacement, and current (and thereby the relationship
between voltage and displacement only).

Sum: Very powerful, high force device. Works in one direction only. Generates force and
motion control over a very small interval. Non-linear, hard to control. Cheap! Good for
on-off type applications.


IV. Maxwell's Stress Tensor

78
Another method of calculating force on an object is to use, from magnetic theory,
Maxwell's stress tensor. It is the relationship between the tensor for magnetic intensity and
the tensor for stress at a point in space.


( )
T H H H H
ij ij ij ij k k
= − − µ δ µ ρ
∂µ
∂ρ
1
2


We will assume that permeability does not change (much) with changes in material density,
so the last term is negligible.

Traction at the interface of two different materials can be calculated from

σ
N ij
a
ij
a
i j
T T n n = −

Note that within the same material, σ
N
is almost non-existent, because H is about the same
everywhere within the same material. Thus σ
N
exists only where the permeability of two
materials are different.

In other words, a magnetic field creates no internal forces within a material, i.e. steel. The
forces only exist at the interface of two material with different permeabilities, i.e. at the
surface where air meets the steel.


If we assume that we are still on the linear portion of the B-H curve, e.g. saturation has not
occurred, then


( )
T B B B B
ij i j ij k k
= −
1 1
2 µ
δ

Now let's say that material "a" is iron, and material "b" is air. We know that
1 1
µ µ
iron o
<<

Thus
( )
σ δ
µ N i j ij k k i j
o
B B B B n n = −
1 1
2


For most magnetic devices, B is normal to A. We thus get the familiar form of the equation
F A
B A
N
o
= = σ
µ
2
2


79
EM Devices, Lecture #10: Coreless (BIL) Devices, the Voice Coil Motor


Simple reluctance devices are very good in applications that require an on-off function
only. They are inexpensive and can generate a great deal of force over a small distance.
They are however difficult to control if the requirement calls for precise motion or force
control.

I. BIL Devices

BIL devices use slightly different design approach. Ultimately both BIL and reluctance
devices derive force (and torque) from the interference of magnetic fields, and thus the
Maxwell stress tensor. BIL devices, however, takes advantage of the law that a charge
moving in a magnetic field experiences a force.

B U Q F × =

Now consider a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. Current is defined as
dt
dQ
i = Thus the differential force on an element of the conductor, or wire, l
w
is

( ) ( )( ) ( ) B l d i B U idt B U dQ F d
w
× = × = × =

If the conductor is straight the field is uniform along its length, then the force on the
conductor may be found by integration. Thus

θ sin
w
Bil F =

If the field and the conductor are perpendicular to each other, as it is in most engineering
devices, the expression becomes simply


w
Bil F =

This expression is fondly referred to as "Bill's Law".


Example 1. Find the forces per unit length on two long, straight, parallel conductors if
each carries a current of 10 amps in the same direction and the separation distance is 0.02
m.
80

r
10 A
10 A



Solution to Example 1. The field seen by the second wire that is produced by the
first wire is perpendicular to the second wire. The flux density magnitude is

5 0 0
10
) 20 . 0 ( 2
) 10 (
2

= = =
π
µ
π
µ
r
i
B T
Thus the force produced is
4 5
10 ) 90 sin( ) 10 )( 10 ( sin
− −
= = =
o
w
Bi
l
F
θ N/m

The force is directed toward the other wire. Thus, wires carrying currents in the same
direction have a tendency to pull themselves together.

This force may not seem to significant, but consider the application of magnetizing a
magnet with a coil. With currents of several thousand amps, adjacent wires can come
together with forces on the order of hundreds of pounds per inch. Such forces can easily
smash the insulation on the wires and deform the wire itself.

In some applications of magnetizing with a coil on both sides of the magnet, the coils can
come together with such force that the magnet is damaged or cut.


Example 2. A rectangular wire loop is placed within a constant magnetic field as
shown. Find the forces and torques exerted on the loop when it carries a current i.


B
l
w
r r
i
ϕ


81
Solution to Example 2. For each of the wire lengths parallel to the pole faces, the
force is just
w
o
w w
Bil Bil Bil F = = = 90 sin sinθ . The forces on each of these sections
are equal and opposite in direction (normal to the face of the loop), and thus there is no
force imbalance. For the wire lengths that form the radii of the loop, the forces are
directed outward from the loop. The forces and torques on these sections cancel, and thus
do not affect the loop. The torque from each length parallel to the pole faces produce a
torqueT Fr = cosϕ. Thus the total torque produced (by both wire segments) is

ϕ cos 2 r Bil T
w
=

The above example shows a simple representation of a motor, a slotless motor to be more
precise. To keep the torque in one direction, the current in the loop is commutated, or
switched, so that the current direction reverses every 180°.

How can the force constant be increased? More turns, larger B field (better magnets,
more ampere turns on the stator field, ferromagnetic core within the loop.


II. The VCM

A. Typical configuration

A voice coil motor is also referred to as a a speaker motor or linear actuator, because of
its applications in the past. It is typically composed of a magnet structure which produces
a flux field, and a coil of wire within the field. The gap is usually uniform to provide a
uniform flux field in a linear or radial configuration.

The wire is usually positioned such that it is perpendicular to the flux field, thus
maximizing the force constant in a single direction. Applying a current to the wire causes
the coil to move in a direction normal to both the flux field and the orientation of the wire.
The coil is then attached to a carriage of some sort, to provide useful motion. This is
shown below.


magnet
coil (free)
airgap
center pole


82


Used to produce a useful force
FORCE



Under controlled current, i NBl F
w
= Newtons/Ampere

Where N = number of turns of wire
B = (constant) flux density within the airgap
l
w
= effective length of wire in the airgap for each turn of wire
i = applied electrical current
F = resultant force on the coil

This is sometimes written as i k F
f
=

where
w f
NBl k = is known as the force constant.


As compared to simple reluctance devices, VCM's have many advantages. Their control is
linear, the stroke is long and useful.

However, they are more complex to build, need support bearings for the coil, do not
provide as high a force.

VCM's are found in robots, disk drives, better audio speakers.
F
speaker cone

F



B. Other Configurations
83




The design concept is extremely flexible in geometry. This advantage makes VCM's easy
to custom design into robots and other devices.

Other variations also exist.



FORCE


Long coil design. Used in many old disk file linear actuators, e.g. IBM 3380 and copies.
Long coil, but only a part of it (that within the field) is active. Has an advantage when
magnet material is very expensive. A field is produced only where it is needed.
Disadvantage of high moving mass.


FORCE

84
Moving magnet design. Higher moving mass, but no moving wires. Senheiser headphones
use this design, with rare earth magnets.

FORCE

Flat coil designs. Saves space. Multiple actuator possibilities.


FORCE
N
S

Rotary Actuators. Simple bearing structure.

The actual structure depends on the application.


C. The Voltage Constant

When a current is applied to the coil, a force is produced. To calculate the current from an
applied voltage, we must use


e g
V iZ
dt
dx
K
dt
di
L iR V + = + + =

where V
e
is the back electro-motive force (BEMF) term, which is entirely due to the
speedance of the device. Another way to view this term is as the source due the VCM
acting as a generator when the coil is moved.

Without the BEMF term, any applied voltage would cause the coil to accelerate forever,
and the coil velocity would become infinite.

Notice that if the BEMF increases, the effective voltage across the coil decreases, and so
does the resultant current. When the BEMF equals the applied voltage, current no longer
flows, the velocity becomes constant.

To calculate V
e
, it is necessary to calculate the speedance K
d
dx
N
d
dx
g
= =
λ Φ

85

From the figure of the VCM below, the total flux enclosed by the coil is xB l
w
= Φ
where x is the travel from the end of the VCM and l
w
is the effective wire length per turn.


x


The flux passing through the coil at the center-pole is the same as the flux passing through
the area traversed by the coil from the end of the VCM

Thus ( ) B Nl xB l
dx
d
N K
w w g
= = Thus
dt
dx
B Nl V
w e
=

K
g
is also known as the Back EMF Constant, in this case, and is also commonly written as
K
e
.

Note that when SI units are used, the force constant and BEMF constant are numerically the
same!



D. The Maximum Speed

If the BEMF constant is known, it is a relatively simple matter to calculate the maximum
speed of the coil.

First, neglecting all friction, etc., the coil stops accelerating when the BEMF matches the
applied voltage and voltage drop due to coil resistance.


max






+ = + =
dt
dx
K iR V iR V
e e applied


Thus
e
applied
K
iR V
dt
dx

=






max
and i = 0
87
EM Devices, Lecture #11:
I. Mathematical Model of a VCM
A. General Formulation
In many VCM applications, the designer is interested in the motion of the carriage from one
location to another. Thus a relationship between the applied voltage and the velocity and
location of the carriage must be developed. Often the desire is to move from one location
to another in the shortest time possible. Usually also of interest is the average power
require to make such a motion.
To develop a set of modeling equations for a typical VCM, the VCM structure below is
considered.
FORCE
x
The force applied to the carriage due to the current i in the coil is F = k
f
i. Thus the
mechanical state equations are
′ · x
dx
dt
and
const s f d f
F x k F x k
dt
x d
m i k + + + ′ +

·
The electrical (including magnetic) state equation is
dt
d
Ri V
λ
+ ·
0
x k
dt
di
L Ri
e
′ + + ·
In this case, k
d
= viscous damping coefficient, due to air, or bearings
F
f
= constant Coulomb friction in the guideways, opposes velocity
k
s
= spring coefficient from suspensions or cables which act as springs
F
const
= constant load, as from gravity
The above equations can be rearranged as follows
88
dx
dt
x · ′
( ) ( ) i k x k x k F F
dt
x d
m
f d s const f
− ′ + − + − ·

( ) Ri x k V
dt
di
L
e
+ ′ − ·
0
In matrix form, the equation is
]
]
]
]
]


]
]
]
]
]




]
]
]
]
]

− − ·
]
]
]
]
]


]
]
]
]
]

i
x
x
R k
k k k
V
F F
i
x
x
dt
d
L
m
e
f d s const f
0
0 1 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 1
0
or more compactly, M
X
Y KX
d
dt
· −
The familiar state equation is then ( )
d
dt
X
M Y KX · −
−1
The only difference between this equation and that learn in your Controls class is that we
can now calculate every single element in the matrices from the construction of the device.
Note that the Coulomb friction term has a constant amplitude, but a direction which always
opposite of the velocity. In programming the solution, this must be taken into account.
To solve the state equation (and thus obtain x as a function of input voltage), it is necessary
to specify the input voltage, and the initial conditions.
Once the expression for current is obtained, the instantaneous power can be calculated
from
2
Ri P ·
and the average power over a move time t
m
is

·
m
t
m
ave
dt i
t
R
P
0
2
Earlier, it was determined that the force constant and the back EMF constant were
numerically equivalent (in SI units). From a power balance, this makes sense, since the
power input must be equal to the power output, e.g. P P
in out
·
The back EMF reduces the effective voltage applied to the coil, and represents that portion
of the electrical power being converted to mechanical power, e.g. x F Vi & ·
Thus ( ) ( )x i k i x k
f e
′ · ′ and k k
e f
·
89
B. Example of Current Controlled Input
The most sophisticated servo controllers and amplifiers (and also the most expensive)
provide a current controlled input to the device.
Consider the following application using current controlled input to a VCM. It is desired
to move from a distance x = 0 to a distance x = x
m
in as short as time t = t
m
as
possible. It is desired to do this in as short a time as possible, and to calculate the average
power to make such a move.
Clearly the optimal control strategy is to apply the maximum current possible (call it i
0
) to
accelerate the carriage, and then after a certain acceleration time t = t
a
, apply the
maximum negative current possible (call it -i
0
) to decelerate the carriage to the desired
distance.
Under current control, the electrical equation can be ignored. For the purpose of
demonstration, assume that all external forces on the coil and carriage are negligible for
this example. The mechanical equation becomes
ma
dt
x d
m i k
f
·

·
Thus to get the carriage to move fast, we naturally want a high force constant and low
mass. A large current also helps, but this option creates a large power dissipation. It is
usually desired in most application to keep the current, and thus the power dissipation, to a
minimum.
To move to x
m
, the maximum positive current is turned on for half the time, then the
maximum negative current is turned on for the remaining time. The resulting acceleration,
velocity and displacement profiles are shown below.
t
a
t
m
i
-i
t
a
t
m
a
-a
x
m
t
a
t
m
t
a
t
m
x
a
.
90
The total displacement is the area under the velocity curve, thus
x x t
m a m
· ′
1
2
The maximum velocity occurs at time t
a
. From the area under the acceleration curve, the
maximum velocity is

,
`

.
|
· ′
2
m
f
a
t
m
i k
x
Thus the total move time is
i k
m x
t
f
m
m
4
·
Note that the move time decreases with increasing force constant. This is because with
constant current control, the back EMF plays no role (until the back EMF approaches the
maximum bus voltage).
The power dissipation required to make the move is
2
Ri P · . The current as a function of
a desired move time can be calculated from the equation above.
2
1 4
m f
m
t k
m x
i

,
`

.
|
·
Thus the power dissipation require to move within a desired time is
4
2
2
1 4
t k
m x
R Ri P
f
m

,
`

.
|
· ·
This means, for example, that in order the drop the move time in half, the device will
dissipate 16 time as much power.
C. Example of Voltage Controlled Input
Current control is ideal, but expensive. By far the most common controllers and amplifiers
are voltage controlled.
The back EMF must be considered for these type of controllers. Once again, consider the
case of moving from a distance x = 0 to a distance x = x
m
in as short as time t = t
m
as
possible. It is desired to do this in as short a time as possible, and to calculate the average
power to make such a move.
Clearly the optimal control strategy, once again, is to apply the maximum voltage possible
(call it V
0
) to accelerate the carriage, and then after a certain acceleration time t = t
a
,
91
apply the maximum negative voltage possible (call it -V
0
) to decelerate the carriage to the
desired distance.
The mechanical equations are once again
′ · x
dx
dt
and ma
dt
x d
m i k
f
·

·
The electrical equation is
x k
dt
di
L Ri V
e
′ + + ·
0
Differentiate the electrical equation and plug in the mechanical equation to get
0
1
2
0
2
2
· + + i
dt
di
dt
i d
ω
τ
where τ ·
L
R
and ω
0
2
·
k k
mL
e f
The solution to this differential equation is very similar to the solution of the basic LCR
circuit once again. The general solution is
t s t s
e a e a i
2 1
2 1
+ · where ( ) s s
1 2 0
2 1
2
1 1 4 , · − t −

]
]
]
τ
τω
The roots are real for the overdamped case. In the case of the optimal control strategy, the
roots are real in the absence of any capacitance or spring type term.
Solving for the constants above, when a voltage is applied at t = 0 the initial current is
zero. Thus, at t = 0,
2 1
0 a a + · or
1 2
a a − ·
and the general solution becomes ( )
t s t s
e e a t i
2 1
) ( − ·
Also, at t = 0 the velocity is zero. Thus the electrical equation yields
L
V
dt
di
t
0
0
·
·
Differentiating the general solution at t = 0, the constant a is found to be
( )
0
2
0
1
0
2 1
⋅ ⋅
− ·
s s
e s e s a
L
V
or

,
`

.
|

·
2 1
0
1
s s L
V
a
Thus the current as a function of time can be specified. One the current is specified, the
velocity, and displacement, can be found by integrating the mechanical equation.

· ′
t
f
dt t i
m
k
t x
0
) ( ) ( and x t x t dt
t
( ) ( ) · ′

0
The carriage moves for a time t = t
a
, then a negative voltage is applied until time t = t
m
.
92
The general solution to the differential equation for the current is the same, but he initial
condition change. After time t = t
a
,
t s t s
e a e a i
2 1
4 3
+ ·
At time t = t
a
the accelerating and the decelerating currents are the same. Thus
( )
a a a a
t s t s t s t s
a
e a e a e e
s s L
V
t i
2 1 2 1
4 3
2 1
0
1
) ( + · −

,
`

.
|

·
Solving for the derivative of current in the electrical equation and the general solution,
) ( ) (
) (
0
t x
L
k
t i
L
R
L
V
dt
t di
e
′ − − − ·
t s t s
e a s e a s
dt
t di
2 1
4 2 3 1
) (
+ ·
The derivative of the current at time t = t
a
can be calculated because the current and the
velocity at that time have been determined already from the analysis on the acceleration
phase of operation. We can equate the two equations above at t = t
a
, and with the
previous equation obtain
a a
t s t s
a
e a e a t i
2 1
4 3
) ( + ·
a a
t s t s a
e a s e a s
dt
t di
2 1
4 2 3 1
) (
+ ·
These equations represent 2 equations and two unknowns, from which a
3
and a
4
can be
calculated.
Once the current is found as a function of time, the velocity and position of the carriage can
be found from the integration.

+ ′ · ′
t
t
f
a
a
dt t i
m
k
t x t x ) ( ) ( ) ( and x t x t x t dt
a
t
t
a
( ) ( ) ( ) · + ′

Some typical plots for the applied voltage, the current (acceleration), the velocity, and the
position are shown below.
93
t
a
t
m
V
-V
t
a
t
m
i, a
x
m
t
a
t
m
t
a
t
m
x
a
.
The roll-off in current is due to the back EMF which, as the velocity becomes greater,
opposes the applied voltage in the acceleration phase. During the deceleration phase, the
back EMF actually helps to slow the carriage down.
Note that at the end of the move time, the current is not zero, even when the voltage is
switched off. This means that there will be a negative velocity after the target position has
been reached, causing the carriage to "bounce back" slightly.
94
EM Devices, Lecture #12: Design Considerations, Configuration, some Non-Linear
Effects
I. VCM's Design Trade-offs
A. Choose an Application
(Have the class decide on an application)
B. Design Constraints and Restrictions
Energy (power) must be conserved. (Power in) = (Power out)
Ex. of unreasonable requirement: i.e.

≠ Vidt mv
2
2
1
0.5 kg. moving mass 15 V maximum voltage
0 to 100 m/s in 1 sec. 1 amp maximum current
Must look at:
Stroke
Maximum speed
Voltage available
Current available
Impedance-
mechanical (moving mass, friction)
electrical (inductance, resistance)
Total mass
Force constant
Volume (size)
Efficiency (is cooling available?)
Operating conditions (temperature, caustic environment)
Cost
More?
Design variables:
VCM configuration
Geometry within the configuration
Materials (magnetic properties)
Gap length
B field
Coil (material, # turns, layers)
C. The First Cut
Guess at the first approximation to get a value of gap flux. Ignore leakage for now.
Pick dimensions for the magnet and gap, number of turns, effective wire length per turn.
95
Find the load line by using
g m
g m
m g o
LL
B B
l A
l A
⇒ ⇒ ·
µ
η
Check for saturation in the circuit.
The force constant per coil turn is then
w g f
Nl B k ·
Does this match the desired force constant?
Does this match the desired BEMF constant at the desired maximum speed?
Resistance
w
w w
coil
A
l
R
ρ
· copper, ρ = 3 x 10
-8
Ω/m
silver, ρ = 1.5 x 10
-8
Ω/m
Inductance
]
]
]
]

+
+
· · terms leakage 2
2 2
g m
o
l l
A
N N L
µ
P
If not, must iterate the design. Usually changing one variable changes a bunch of stuff.
D. Design Tradeoffs
To get a larger force (BEMF) constant,
More turns - less efficient i
2
R, heat is generated
- more moving mass
- takes up more space in the gap
- more inductance
Better magnets - more cost
- more leakage
Bigger magnets - volume
- weight
Smaller gap - less room for coils
- cooling more difficult
- tighter tolerances required (tough for coils)
More back EMF, requires more voltage
II. A Non-linear Effect in Some VCM's
96
Sometimes a non linearity is seen in force vs. displacement exerted by a VCM at a
constant current. Any non-linearity may cause control problems for a control which
expects a linear device. Either the problem must be recognized and corrected, or
compensated in the controller.
One common non-linearity occurs even when the coil has no velocity. There is also a
difference in push vs. pull (direction of force).
x
F
Pull
Push
The cause of this type of non-linearity is the effect of the coil turns on themselves.
A. A Qualitative Discussion
A single wire with a current in air has a circular flux pattern. The flux farther away is less
due to the increase reluctance of the path. This pattern however changes when surrounded
by the steel and magnet structure of a VCM.
The coil flux treats the magnet as air, however the flux path changes because of the steel.
To the left of the wire in the figure below, the flux tends to travel through the steel rather
than air, due to the lower reluctance path in steel.
The result is that the field generated by the wire is practically non-existent to its left. The
flux on the right tend to become uniform because the reluctance in the path through the air
and steel is rather uniform in the gap.
97
Now with multiple turns and the flux from the magnets added to the picture. In a pull
situation (force to the left), the flux from the turns on the left add to the magnet flux on the
turns on the right. This effective will increase the expected force.
In a push situation (force to the right), the field from the turns on the left subtract from the
magnet flux on the turns to the right. This effect will decrease the expected force.
B. A More Quantitative Analysis
In a simple situation, consider a coil with N turns in a VCM.
B
N 1...
l
p
l
m
+l
g
98
Consider the center turn. The turns to the left of the center turn will have less of the flux
adding (subtracting) effect from their more-left turns. The turns to the right of the center
turn will have more of the flux adding (subtracting) effect from their more-left turns.
Assume that the center turn will have an average effect.
Using Ampere's Law: ( )
g m coil
l l H i
N
+ ·

,
`

.
|
2
e.g. H ~ 0 in steel
Rewritten ( )
g m
o
coil
l l
B
i
N
+ ·

,
`

.
|
µ 2
e.g. B = µH
Thus
( )
g m
o
coil
l l
Ni
B
+
·
2
µ
Then the force exerted on the coil turn is the force exerted on the center turn multiplied by
the total number of turns
( )
coil PM w coil
B B i Nl F + ·
where B
coil
is the average coil effect.
Thus
( )
]
]
]
]

+
+ ·
g m
PM w coil
l l
Ni
B i Nl F
2
0
µ
Rewritten
( )
2 2
2
i
l l
l N i l NB F
g m
o
w w PM coil
]
]
]
]

+
+ ·
µ
The first term is just the force expected from the coil without the non-linear effect. The
second term is the force added because of the non-linear effect. The non-linear effect is
thus quadratic and is always added to the total force.
99
F
i
non-linear term
linear term
pull
push
slope=NBl
w
When the force is positive (pull), the coil effect makes the total force more positive.
When the force is negative (push), the coil effect make the total force less positive.
The higher the current, the more serious the non-linearity. This may be especially a
problem in devices with high pulsed current, e.g. fast movements, seeks, etc.
The effect on the force constant (for control modeling) is to create a force constant that
varies linearly with current.
k
f
i
push
pull
k
f
=NBl
w
Not all VCM's exhibit this effect. It depends on its magnet and steel configuration. One
possible solution that is often used is the dual magnetic path actuator. It puts steel for a
magnetic return path at the other side of the actuator.
100
The advantage is that the second return path provides an equivalent effect on the more-right
coils as the original path does on the more-left coils. This eliminates the non-linearity.
Another advantage is that it reduces the magnetic leakage from the end on the magnet
structure.
The disadvantage is that it is a harder device to build, since the carriage must reach around
the steel to get to the coil.
Another disadvantage is that the additional steel decreases the reluctance (by a lot) for the
coil flux. Since P
2
N L · this means that the coil inductance is increased.
But there is a solution for this too.
101
EM Devices, Lecture #13: Theory of the Shorted Turn
I. The Shorted Turn
Sometimes in a VCM, the center pole is covered by a copper or aluminum sleeve.
magnet
coil (free)
airgap
center pole
shorted turn
This sleeve, usually the thickness of a wire diameter, is a shorted turn. This is sometimes
called a shunted turn, or a shunt.
The purpose of a shorted turn is to reduce the effective electrical inductance during the
initial response. This effect often (depending on the stroke length) reduces the response
time of the coil.
t
i
with ST
quicker rise
slower rise
no ST
The principle of operation follows Lenz's Law: a transient current flow i
1
in the primary
(moving) coil induces a transient current flow i
2
in the secondary coil in the opposite
direction. Eddy current work on the same principle.
So current in one coil induces a voltage and a current in a second coil. Hmm..., sounds like
a transformer. So let's try to model the phenomenon with transformer analogy.
102
i
st
i
coil

+
-
V
1
e
1
e
2
R
2
N
1
N
2
Φ
1
Φ2
Φ
12
R
1
i
1
i
2
Define: V
1
= applied voltage source
R
1
= coil resistance
R
2
= ST resistance of the active volume
e
1
= induced (Faraday) voltage in the coil
e
2
= induced (Faraday) voltage in the ST
N
1
= # of turns in the coil
N
2
= # of turns in the ST (N
2
= 1)
Φ
1
= leakage flux unique to coil 1 only
Φ
2
= leakage flux unique to coil 2 only
Φ
12
= mutual flux, linking both coils
i
1
= current in coil 1
i
2
= current in coil 2, following Lenz's Law
In a (dual path) VCM, the coil and ST flux patterns appear as below.
Φ
12
Φ
12
Φ
1
Φ
1
Φ
2
Φ
2
The purpose of the analysis is to calculate the coil current as a function of the voltage
applied to the coil.
We begin the analysis by writing the governing equations.
103
Faraday's Law:
( )
e N
d
dt
1 1
12 1
·
+ Φ Φ
(1)
( )
e N
d
dt
2 2
12 2
·
+ Φ Φ
(2)
Kirchoff's Law:
1 1 1 1
e i R V + · (3)
Ohm's Law:
2 2 2
0 e i R + · (4)
Ampere's Law
12
12
2 2 1 1
P
Φ
· + i N i N (5)
1
1
1 1
P
Φ
· i N (6)
2
2
2 2
P
Φ
· i N (7)
where P
12
= permeance seen by Φ
12
P
1
= permeance seen by Φ
1
P
2
= permeance seen by Φ
2
The object is to find i
1
as a function of V
1
. Now we go through some manipulation.
Put equations (5) and (6) into equation (1)
( ) [ ]
dt
i N i N i N d
N e
1 1 1 2 2 1 1 12
1 1
P P + +
· (8)
Put equation (8) into equation (3)
( )
dt
di
N N
dt
di
N i R V
2
12 2 1
1
1 12
2
1 1 1 1
P P P + + + · (9)**
Put equation (2) into equation (4)
( )
dt
d
N i R
2 12
2 2 2
0
Φ + Φ
+ · (10)
Put equations (5) and (7) into equation (10)
( ) [ ]
dt
i N i N i N d
N i R
2 2 2 2 2 1 1 12
2 2 2
0
P P + +
+ ·
( )
dt
di
N
dt
di
N N i R
2
2 12
2
2
1
12 2 1 2 2
0 P P P + + + · (11)**
The simultaneous solution of equations (9) and (11) will give i
1
(t ) and i
2
(t).
104
To get a more intuitive feel of what is happening, we can create an analogous circuit.
We define the terms
12
2
1 12
P N L ·
1
2
1 1
P N L ·
2
2
1 2
P N L ·
2
1
2 *
2
i
N
N
i ·
2
2
2
1
*
2
R
N
N
R

,
`

.
|
·
With these definitions, the ** equations (9) and (11) become
( )
dt
di
L
dt
di
L L i R V
*
2
12
1
1 12 1 1 1
+ + + · (12)
( )
dt
di
L L
dt
di
L i R
*
2
2 12
1
12
*
2
*
2
0 + + + · (13)
Equations (12) and (13) describe the Kirchoff Voltage Laws for the following circuit.
+
-
V
1
R
1
L
1
L
2
L
12
R
2
*
i
1
i
2
*
i
1
+i
2
*
Since
1 12
P P >> and
2 12
P P >>
Then L L
12 1
>> and L L
12 2
>>
Also, L
1
and L
2
are on the same order of magnitude, as are R
1
and R
2
*
.
Without the shorted turn, R
2
*
→ ∞ , and the circuit becomes
105
+
-
V
1
R
1
L
1
L
12
i
1
The time constant is τ
a
L L
R
·
+
1 12
1
and the asymptotic final value is i
V
R
Fa
·
1
1
With the shorted turn, L
12
is very large. It can be simulated initially as an open circuit at
that point in the analogous circuit. This is shown below.
+
-
V
1
R
1
L
1
L
2
R
2
*
i
1
= i
2
*
The time constant is τ
b
L L
R R
·
+
+
1 2
1 2
*
and the asymptotic final value is i
V
R R
Fb
·
+
1
1 2
*
The time constant is smaller than without the shorted turn, so the current rises faster.
However, the asymptotic final value for this part of the rise is also less than without the
shorted turn.
Remember the definition of time constant and final value for a first order system?
t
i
i
f
slope = R/L ·1/τ
106
With the shorted turn, the initial rise toward the final value i
Fb
with time constant τ
b
is
quickly completed. At this stage, the inductances L
1
and L
2
appear as short circuits.
The analogous circuit then appears as below.
+
-
V
1
R
1
L
12
R
2
*
i
1
Z i V
1 1
·

,
`

.
|
+
+ ·
*
2 12
*
2 12
1 1
R s L
s R L
R i

,
`

.
|
+
+ +
·
*
2 12
12
*
2 12 1
*
2 1
1
R s L
s L R s L R R R
i
Rewritten ( ) ( )
1 12
*
2 12 1
*
2 1
*
2 12 1
i s L R s L R R R R s L V + + · +
Assume that the applied voltage is constant, so
dV
dt
1
0 ·
We can then set the left side of the equation to zero to get the homogeneous solution
( )
1
*
2 1
1 *
2 1 12
0 i R R
dt
di
R R L + + ·
The time constant for this solution of the form
τ
t
ae
is
( )
τ
c
L
R R
R R
·
+
12
1 2
1 2
*
*
The final reaction with the shorted turn, compared to without the shorted turn is shown
below.
107
t
i
τ
b
τ
a
τ
c
i
fa
i
fb
The shorted turn improves the initial reaction, but slows the long term reaction. Thus, the
design is good for getting quick, short strokes, but not good for longer, lengthier strokes.
The price paid, however, is in valuable gap space. More magnet is needed to achieve the
same B field and demagnetization level as without the shorted turn.
The time constants and final current values are (with N
2
= 1)
( )
1
12 1
2
1
R
N
a
P P +
· τ i
V
R
Fa
·
1
1
( )
2
2
1 1
12 1
2
1
R N R
N
b
+
+
·
P P
τ i
V
R N R
Fb
·
+
1
1 1
2
2
( )
2 1
2
2
1 1 12
R R
R N R
c
+
·
P
τ i
V
R
Fc
·
1
1
All that is left is the calculation of the permeances. For the mutual (linkage) permeance,
this depends on the configuration of the VCM: airgap and leakage. Remember that this
permeance is for the coils and ST, not for the PM's.
+ -
For the leakage permeance around the coil only, P1, this is essentially the uniform airspace
around the coil, but not in the ST (or else it becomes mutual flux). Any flux that enters the
steel is captured and becomes mutual flux.
108
length
area
volume around coil
For the permeance around the ST, this is essentially the uniform space above the ST, but
not in the coil or the steel (or else the flux becomes mutual).
length
area
volume above ST
Putting It All Together...
Once a designer has specified the geometry and material used in a VCM, all the values of
N, R, P, and L can be calculated. We can then add the BEMF term to the governing
equations (see Lecture #12) and the dynamics term to model how the VCM behaves
mechanically.
( ) x k
dt
di
N
dt
di
N i R V
e
& + + + + ·
2
12 1
1
1 12
2
1 1 1
P P P
( ) x k
dt
di
dt
di
N i R
st
& + + + + ·
2
2 12
1
12 1 2 2
0 P P P
dt
x d
m i k F
f
&
· ·
1
where N
2
has already been set to 1, the force constant and the BEMF constant are
numerically the same in SI units , and k
st
is the BEMF constant for the active region of the
shorted turn.
In matrix format
109
( )
( )
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]

+
+
·
]
]
]
]
]

+
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −
x
i
i
dt
d
m
N
N N
V
x
i
i
k
k R
k R
f
st
e
& &
2
1
2 12 12 1
12 1 1 12
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0
0
0
0
0
1
0 0
0
0
P P P
P P P
or
]
]
]
]
]

· +
]
]
]
]
]

x
i
i
dt
d
V
x
i
i
& &
2
1
2
1
F E D Rewritten V
x
i
i
x
i
i
dt
d
E F D F
1
2
1
1
2
1
− −
+
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]

& &
110
EM Devices, Lecture #14: 2-Phase Devices, Cores and Slots, Commutation
I. Core-less Motors
Core-less motors are characterized by the following attributes:
- contain no moving iron or magnets
- similar to the moving coil in a VCM
- low moving mass, perfect for servo operations
- no reluctance (moving attractive force or torque) problems
A. Similarity to flat coil actuators
Linear configuration
F

F
Rotary configuration. Same basic geometry, magnets curved, coil pivoted.
N
S
Consider the extended linear motor configuration shown below. The steel may be
supported on the side or front-back. The supports actually need not be magnetic.
111
As the coil moves from left to right, with a current applied to the coil, the following force
profile is produced. The zero crossings are stable equilibrium points.
F
F
x
stable points
To keep the carriage going, reverse the current at the equilibrium points. This can be done
electronically (with transistors switching, photo-detectors or HES for sensing), or
mechanically with brushes (spring loaded carbon brushes riding on copper rails). The
result is the following.
F
x
unstable equilibria
This act of switching the current to maintain force and direction of travel is called
commutation. With electronic commutation, reversing the direction of the force can be
done electronically with logic. With mechanical commutation, reversing the direction of
force must be done by reversing the direction of the applied voltage.
Wrap the magnet structure back on itself, put the coil on a pivot bearing, and we have a
rotary motor.
112
Can also generate the field electro-magnetically.
The stationary coils are the field windings. The moving coils are called the armature
windings. The two can be wound in series or in parallel with each other.
+
-
field
armature
T
ω
Series wound: High starting torque. Field current same as armature current. However, as
the motor speeds up, the back emf causes the field to drop, thus dropping k
e
. As k
e
drops,
the motor speeds up even more, until limited by internal friction or external load (instead
of back emf). If load is light, there is a possibility of a run-away motor.
+
-
field armature
T
ω
Parallel wound (shunt wound). Limited by back emf. Severe torque drop-off near at
higher speeds as the back emf drops the field..
There also exist compound motors, with part of the field wound in parallel, part in series.
113
II. 2-Phase Operation and Commutation
The shape of the force (or torque) depends on the geometry of the motor, in this case, the
width of the coil. A wide coil provides a higher level of peak force, with large
variations.. A narrow coil provides less peak force but with a more uniform profile.
w
narrow
wide
F
x
Multiple phases can be used to smooth out the force (or torque) profile. One coil, one
phase. Two coils, two phases.
114
coil 1
coil 2
F
1
coil 1
x
F
2
coil 2
x
x
F
t
combined
switch from 1 to 2, forward current
switch from 2 to 1, reverse current
switch from 2 to 1, forward current
switch from 1 to 2, reverse current
F
x
final result
force ripple
115
III. Effects of Slots (motor core)
Core-less motors have many applications, however they are not as common as the motor
types which have windings set in slots of a motor core. A slotted motor has many
advantages. It makes more efficient use of both the stator and armature fields.
Slotted motors have the disadvantage of higher moving mass in the armature, and cogging
torque (often call reluctance torque).
To gain some intuition on how a slotted motor works, first start with a core-less motor
coil. But now attach the coil to the backing steel. The coil and steel receive a force in one
direction according to Bill's Law. The magnets and their back-iron receive an equal
reaction force in the opposite direction. Here l
s
is the length of the stator, assuming that the
wire stretches across the stator’s entire length, and the stator is entirely beneath the
permanent magnet field
F = 2BNl
s
i
l
s
Now sink the wires into the surface of the steel. Note that the coil field seen by the
magnets is the same shape as in the previous case, as is the magnet field seen by the coil.
Thus the mechanism of force generation is the same, however B is increased because the
magnets are closer to the steel.
F = 2BNl
s
i
l
s
More B!
Finally, we set the coil into slots in the steel. This allows more space for turns without
altering the shape of the coil field. We bring the steel closer to the magnets to increase B
as much as practical. We also add a second coil set within slots, because we have the
space to do so.
F = 4BNl
s
i
l
s
116
What we get is a 4 pole, 4 slot, single phase motor. The torque pattern is the following.
The current needs to be reversed each time a pole transition crosses a slot. Need to switch
4 time per revolution, or every 90°.
θ
T
To get more torque (constant), increase the number of turns in the slot, or the number of
times the pattern is repeated.
This does not necessarily mean a larger motor. Depends on whether or not the design is at
it magnetic saturation limit.
Problem. There is a position where there is zero torque generation by the applied current.
This position also happens to be a minimum reluctance or cogging point for the motor, a
stable point.
Thus this motor is not self starting
Let's try a two-phase winding. This can be done similar to the core-less motor by doubling
the number of slots. Note that a coil can now be modeled as a single wire a slot with a
current of Ni.
phase 1
phase 2
Each phase consists of coils (in parallel or series) which have the same current. The
torque generated by each phase is shown below.
117
switch 1 to -2
switch -2 to -1
switch -1 to 2
switch 2 to 1
T
θ
phase 1
phase 2
Note that the ideal place to commutate is where the torque from each phase overlaps. This
occurs whenever any pole transition crosses the center of any tooth. Commutation occurs 8
times per revolution, or every 45°.
Using HES for position sensing for electronic commutation, place the HES at the center of
any 2 adjacent teeth.
Note that when we wind the motor in this manner, only half the slot is filled (for a practical
wire winder) . We can add more wire and fill the other half of the slot. This will double
the torque constant of the machine.
phase 1
phase 2
For a practical motor, we can create the following 4 pole, 8 slot, 2 phase design.
118
phase 1 phase 2
The first phase is shown as wound. The second phase is exactly the same, except offset by
one tooth pitch.
The motor above is 1/2 symmetrical. the torque from each half is 4BNl
s
ri. For the entire
motor,
ri BNl T
s
8
max
=
r BNl k
s t
8 =
where k
t
is the torque constant.
l
m
l
g
Also, it can be shown that in SI units (Newton-meters/amp, Volts/radian/sec), that
k k
t e
=
where k
e
is the back EMF constant.
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Lecture Module 15
• Demagnetization in a Motor
• 3-phase Windings
• The Motor Constant
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Motor Demagnetization
• The coils in a motor can act as coils in any
magnetizing device
• If too much current is applied, in the wrong
direction, the magnets may be demagnetized
• May occur especially during start-up of motor
– low impedance of the coils
– no BEMF due to speedance
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Motor Demagnetization
• High currents may also occur during shutdown
– typical braking procedure is to short the phases
– BEMF is used to drive the current in the coils
– i
2
R loss within the wires dissipates rotor energy
– unless the current is limited, it may be sufficiently
high to cause demagnetization
• It is very important to discover the current limit
a motor can endure prior to demagnetization
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
• Need to calculate the magnetic intensity
generated in the magnet as created by the coils
• Check under a worst case condition
• Check if it (added to the operating point of the
magnet) exceeds the intrinsic coercivity of the
magnet
phase 1
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
• Using Ampere’s Law, draw a path through two
coils on any phase
• The path goes through the airgap and into the
steel of both the stator and the rotor
• The magnets can be treated approximately as air
• Assume that the magnetic intensity in the steel
is negligibly small compared to that in air.
phase 1
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
phase 1
B
H
B
m
H
m
H
coil
( )
g m coil
l l H Ni + = 2 2
Ampere’s Law
g m
coil
l l
Ni
H
+
=
H due to coil
H H H
m coil ci
+ ≥
Damage occurs
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
3-Phase Windings
• Extremely popular in engineering applications
• For large devices especially (above 10 HP) they
can be built with better energy and power
density than single or dual phase machines
• The controllers are not much more expensive
• Pre-built 3-phase controller are prevalent
• Partially due to the popularity of 3-phase AC
machines, where 3-phase operation produces a
very linear torque profile
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
3-Phase Windings
• Consider a 6-pole, 9-slot, 3-phase motor with
salient pole windings
• This motor is 1/3 symmetrical
• There are 3 common ways to wind this motor
(or any 3-phase motor)
• Let’s examine how this device operates
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
c
o
i
l

1
c
o
i
l

2
c
o
i
l

3
R
,

L
R
,

L
R
,

L
Center-Tap
• Simplest for control
• Resistance = R
• Inductance = L
• Active coil current = i
• Inactive coil current = 0
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Phase 1
P
h
a
s
e

2
P
h
a
s
e

3
c
o
i
l

1
c
o
i
l

2
c
o
i
l

3
R
,

L
R
,

L
R
,

L
Wye (Y or Star)
• Higher k than center-tap
for switched DC
• Resistance = 2R
• Inductance = 2L
• Active coil current = i
• Inactive coil current = 0
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Phase 1
P
h
a
s
e

3
P
h
a
s
e

2
coil 1
c
o
i
l

2
c
o
i
l

3
R, L
R
,

L
R
,

L
Delta (or Polygon)
• Same k, but less resistive
losses than center-tap
• Resistance = 2R/3
• Inductance = 2L/3
• Active coil current = 2i/3
• Inactive coil current = i/3
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
Phase 1: 1 to common
Phase 2: 2 to common
Phase 3: 3 to common
common
1 2 3
Center-
Phase 1 on
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
common
1 2 3
Phase 1: 1 to common
Phase 2: 2 to common
Phase 3: 3 to common
T
2BNl
s
ri
θ
40 deg
20 deg
Center-
Phase 1 on
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
1 2 3
Phase 1: 1 to 2
Phase 2: 2 to 3
Phase 3: 3 to 1
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
Wye-
Phase 1 on
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
1 2 3
Phase 1: 1 to 2
Phase 2: 2 to 3
Phase 3: 3 to 1
T
2BNl
s
ri
θ
4BNl
s
ri
20 deg
Wye-
Phase 1 on
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
2/3 1/3 1/3 2/3
Phase 1: 1 to 2
Phase 2: 2 to 3
Phase 3: 3 to 1
1 2 3
Delta-
Phase 1 on
1/3 1/3 2/3
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Phase 1: 1 to 2
Phase 2: 2 to 3
Phase 3: 3 to 1
coil 1 coil 2 coil 3
1 2 3
2/3 1/3 1/3 2/3
T
2BNl
s
ri
θ
40 deg
20 deg
Delta-
Phase 1 on
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Relative Winding Efficiencies
• Although the same torque is produced, the delta
winding is more efficient than the center tap
design due to its lower phase resistance (the
individual coil resistance is the same
• To examine the relative efficiencies of winding
patterns (and also packing factors), need to
examine what is called the motor constant
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Motor Constant
• Takes into consideration that if you increase the
number of turns to increase the force or torque
constant, you must decrease the diameter size of
the wire to get it to fit into the same, previous
space
k
k
R
m
t
p
=
R
p
is the phase resistance
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
For example...
• To double the torque constant in a center-tap
wound motor, double the number of turns
• Doubles the resistance of the phase
• Must reduce cross-sectional area per turn by 50%
• Doubles the resistance of the phase again
• Total 4X increase in resistance
k
k
R
m
t
p
=
R
p
is the phase resistance
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
For example...
Compare the winding efficiencies, using the torque constant of
the center-tapped winding, k
t
= k
0
, as a reference
k
k
R
m
=
0
For the Center-tap winding
k
k
R
m
= 2
0
For the Wye winding
k
k
R
m
=
3
2
0
For the Delta winding
High
Low
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
End of Lecture Module 15
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Lecture Module 16
• Electronic Elements
• Current Switching H-bridge
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Current Switching in Motors
• A method must be used to produce the desired
direction of current in a D.C. motor
• Can be done mechanically with brushes
– dirt, wear, low efficiency, sparking
• Increasingly popular to switch electronically
• Direction of rotation reversed electronically
• Speed regulated with logic (i.e. on-off) and
current limiters.
• Price of electronics going down
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Transistors
• Power transistors are the usual switching
element used
• Act as control gates for current to motor phases.
• Larger currents and voltages require larger
(more expensive) transistors
• For very small motors (sub-fractional hp),
controllers are available as a complete unit with
the drive transistors on a single chip
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Transistors
• Two types of
transistors: NPN
and PNP
• Difference, from a
design viewpoint, is
the desired polarity of
the emitter or
collector
• The load likes to be
on the collector
B
E
C
V
cc
+
i
c
i
E
i
B
R
NPN Ex. TIP29
i
c
> 0
V
BE
> 0
V
CE
> 0
B
E
C
V
cc
+
i
c
i
E
i
B
R
PNP Ex. TIP30
i
c
< 0
V
BE
< 0
V
CE
< 0
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Typical Transistor Behavior
0.5 0.8
V
BE
i
C
cut-in saturation
typically a small current
leakage past the gate, i.e.
i
c
= 200 µA at V
BE
= 0
DC current gain, ~ 15 to 75
@ i
c
= 1 amp
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
H-Bridge
pnp pnp
npn npn
R
L
V
+
V
-
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
H-Bridge
pnp pnp
npn npn
R
L
V
+
V
-
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
H Bridge
• Common method of getting a current to flow in
either direction in a load
• Due to coil inductance, current is forced through
the transistors even after they are shut down,
causing their rapid deterioration
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Diodes
• Another (passive) gate for current flow
• Typically permit current to flow in a single
direction only
i
V
+
-
i
V
V
f
~ 0.7 V
i
s
= 0.005 - 0.01 mA
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Flyback Diodes
pnp pnp
npn npn
R
L
V
+
V
-
Provide an alternate path to the inductance driven current,
to protect the transistors
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Inductance Effects
• Actual current pattern is different than the ideal
pattern
• A first order exponential rise or fall must be
included
• If the commutation rate is slow, there is usually
very little effect from this.
• If the switching rate is high (high rpm), the rise
or fall is a significant percentage of the total up
or down time
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Inductance Effects
Desired
Realistic
Time constant
τ = L/R
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Field Effect Transistors (FET's)
• FET's control current by an electric field
– JFET - Junction
– IGFET - Insulated Gate
– MOSFET - Metal-Oxide Semi-conductor
• Characterized by
– higher input resistance
– larger safe operating range
– less sensitive to temperature
– more expensive
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
G
i
G
D
S
i
S
i
D
N-channel, like NPN
i
D
> 0
V
DS
> 0
V
GS
> 0
G
i
G
D
S
i
S
i
D
P-channel, like PNP
i
D
< 0
V
DS
< 0
V
GS
< 0
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Typical FET Behaviour
i
D
V
GS
5
2
4
6
8
turn-on voltage
i
D
V
DS
2 4 6 8
6 V
5 V
4 V
Can use V
GS
to control i
D
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
H Bridge with FET’s
P P
N N
R
L
V
+
V
-
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Firing Sequence
The center-tap winding pattern is the simplest, and has the simplest
controller that will work. It can be built with only 3 transistors
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
c
o
i
l

1
c
o
i
l

2
c
o
i
l

3
R
,

L
R
,

L
R
,

L
V
+
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
Note the use of flyback diodes
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Torque Diagram: Center-tap Winding
• 3-phase, 6 pole, 9 slot motor discussed earlier
• Second phase torque is exactly the same as the
first, except with a phase shift of one tooth pitch
(40° for a 9 slot, salient pole stator)
T
θ
1 2 3
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
• Firing sequence is {1,2,3}, switching every 40°
when pole transition crosses directly over slot
• Problem: cannot invert the current, has torque
ripple and dead spots like single phase motor
• Unlike a single phase motor, can eliminate these
problems by using a better controller
T
θ
1 2 3
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Enhanced controller (3 more transistors)
R L R L R L
V
+
V
-
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
Enhanced controller (3 more transistors)
• The firing sequence is {+1, -3, +2, -1, +3, -2},
switching every 20°
• Whenever pole transition crosses 10° from a slot
T
θ
1 2 3
Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California, Berkeley
End of Lecture Module 16
Permeance Formulas for Common Configurations


g t t
h
P between faces of steel (Roters)
g t < 3 :






+ =
g
t
h
2
1 ln
0
π
µ
P g t > 3 :






+
=
t
g
h
1
64 . 0
0
µ
P


g
h
P between edges of steel (Roters)
h
0
26 . 0 µ = P


g
P between corners of steel (Roters)
g
0
077 . 0 µ = P
t
t
P between co-linear edges of steel (Roters)
t
0
25 . 0 µ = P

t
g
P between vertical edge and plane (Roters)
t
0
5 . 0 µ = P

steel PM steel
h
t
P through edge of PM (Wagner)

π
µ h
0
= P

steel
h
t
P through edge of coil (Wagner)

π
µ h
0
= P
w 2r
h
P around tops of two planes (Wagner)

r
w r h
2
2
ln
2
2
0
′ +
+
=
π
µ
P
( )
′ =

w
w
2
2
1 cos
π


t
h
coil,
PM
w
P around coil or PM (Roters)
( )
t
w
h
ln
0
π
µ
= P

t g r
area ignored
P between ends of circular cylinder (Roters)
t r < :






+






+ =
g
t
g
r
2
1 ln
2
2
0
µ P t r > :






+






+ =
g
r
g
r
2
1 ln
2
2
0
µ P

t g r
P between circular edges of steel (Roters)







+ =
2
63 . 1
0
g
r µ P
g
h
P between edge and plane (Roters)
h
0
52 . 0 µ = P
t
g
h
P between a face and a plane (Roters)
g t > 3 :






+ =
g
t
h
1 ln
2
0
π
µ
P g t > 3 :






+
=
t
g
h
2
1
28 . 1
0
µ
P



g
P between a corner and a plane (Roters)
g
0
308 . 0 µ = P

EM Devices Lecture #1: Review of Basic EM Theory

I.

Review of Basic EM Theory

All of the devices to be studied in this course are based on the production of useful magnetic fields. Thus it is necessary to ensure that everyone recall the basic theory of magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are governed by the Maxwell Equations (and boundary conditions). A. Magnetic Intensity

Magnetic fields have several important properties, the first of which is magnetic intensity. The magnetic intensity is an indicator of how "strong" a magnetic field is. For example, an electromagnet which is energized by a low current level produces a low intensity field, but when energized by a high current can produce a high intensity field. Formally, any current moving along a differential element of electrical conductor will produce a differential magnetic field. Mathematically,

idl R

dH =

$ id l × a R 2 4πR

dH

where aR is the unit vector in the direction of R. This is known as the Biot-Savart Law. Note the following important qualities: Magnetic field is proportional to the current, I, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance, R. This makes sense intuitively, for a point quantity in a sphere.. Also note that the SI units are in amperes per meter, or A/m.

Of course, differential current element do not exist in the field, so the integral form of the Biot-Savart Law is usually used.

H =∫

$ id l × a R 2 4πR

1

A closed line integral is used to ensure that all current elements are included. Note that the integral may close at infinity. Example 1. A straight wire of infinite length carries a current i. Find the magnetic intensity at a distance r from the wire. Solution to Example 1.
z

Align the wire along the z-axis, as shown in the figure.

r R idl

dH

First, apply the differential form of Biot-Savart. The unit vector in the direction of R is ˆ aR = Thus dH = ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ idza z ra + za z id l × a R id l ˆ = × aR = × r 2 2 2 2 4πR 4πR 4π r + z r2 + z2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ra r + za z ra r + za z = R r 2 + z2

(

)

The cross product of unit vectors in the r and z directions is a unit vector in the φ direction. The unit vector in the r direction crossed into itself is zero. Thus dH = 4π ( r 2 + z 2 ) $ irdzaφ

3/ 2

The integration variable is z. The unit vector in the z direction does not change with z, so it may be removed from the integrand. Thus
+∞  +∞   irdz ir  z i aφ = $ $ $ H = ∫ a  2 2  aφ = 3/ 2 4π  r r + z 2  −∞ 2πr φ  −∞ 4π ( r 2 + z 2 )   

2

z dH α The z-axis is aligned with the axis of the loop as shown. dH z =   idl idl r cos α =  2  4π (r 2 + z 2 ) 4π (r 2 + z 2 )  r + z 2  The differential magnetic intensity is integrated over the circumference of the loop. R y idl α r x i Once again we begin with Biot-Savart. divide top and bottom by z. for which none of the variables above change. dH = $ id l × a R 2 4πR From symmetry. Find the magnetic intensity along the axis of the loop. it can be seen that the radial components of H along the axis will cancel. Solution to Example 2. 3 . and is directed circumferentially around it.To evaluate the definite integral. A loop of wire of radius r carries a current i. For the z-components only. and note that the limit of the denominator approaches 4πr2. thus only the z-component needs to be calculated. Example 2. following the "right hand rule". An important result of this exercise is that is shows the magnetic intensity is inversely proportional to distance from the wire.

r Rdβ sin β β dβ R r 4 .∫ dl = ∫ rdθ = 2πr 0 2π Hz = Thus 2( r 2 + z 2 ) r 2i 3/ 2 At the center of the loop (z = 0). Find the magnetic intensity at center-line. As Hz = 2( r 2 + z 2 ) r 2i 3/ 2 The solenoid is modeled as a series of rings. Example 3. We begin with the result of the single loop in Example 2. the magnetic intensity is simply Hz = i 2r Plot of magnetic intensity in one loop. as shown. derived from Biot-Savart. Solution to Example 3. An infinitely long solenoid with n turns/meter carries a current i.

the Rdβ sin β . the magnetic intensity is pretty constant in the center. differential length of the solenoid at this location can be specified by This differential element is element is equivalent to a ring carrying a current inRdβ di = sin β . in which case H z = in This is quite a simple relationship. Thus. H z = 1 in ∫β sin βdβ = 1 in(cos β1 − cos β2 ) 2 2 β2 1 For an infinitely long solenoid. both radially and axially. r sin β . since ring is R2 = r 2 + z 2 the contribution to the magnetic intensity from this differential dH z = r 2  inRdβ  2 R 3  sin β    R= In this case. which have a 3:1 or 4:1 aspect ratio of length to diameter. consider the contribution from a ring located by an angle β on the z-axis. Thus dH z = 1 in sin βdβ 2 The magnetic intensity can be calculated by integrating to the limits of the angle. the limits of integration span from 0 to π. 5 .First. In most solenoids.

Thus a material with a higher permeability will produce higher flux density. Thus 1 T = 1 Wb/m2.EM Devices Lecture #2: Material Properties. as a force causes motion when applied to a mass (as a rough analogy. It can be thought of as a potential element which causes a flow. about 1000X higher. Material Properties. Typical steels have very high permeability compared to plastic. Permeability The magnetic intensity H is a vector quantity which exists at a point in space. technically incorrect) The force field associated with the magnetic intensity is the flux density B. Flux. (h/m). The magnetic flux through a surface is defined as Φ = ∫ B⋅dS S The unit of magnetic flux is the weber. Permeabilities of most materials are stated as relative to the permeability of free space µr = µ µ0 or µ = µr µ0 The relative permeabilities of most materials are close to unity. Flux. 6 . B = µH Thus B has the same vector direction as H because µ is a scalar quantity. H and B are related by the material property called permeability. except for a small group of ferromagnetic materials. Wb. Also 1 H = 1 Wb/A Webers may be positive or negative depending on the direction defined for the surface vector. B has the units of N/(A-m). or Teslas. the permeability has the value µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 The units are henries/meter. which is also a vector quantity which exists at a point. Permeability I. In free space.

first in their most basic form. and Gauss' Law. II.surface S dS B Example 1.5 A.01 ∫ = 2 µ0 i 2 µ i 0. Faraday's Law.61 x 10-6 Wb.05 µ0 i $ $ a ⋅ drdzaθ 2πr θ 0. the magnetic intensity at any radius along a long straight wire can be calculated by H= In this case i $ a 2πr θ Thus B= µ 0i $ a 2πr 0 at any radius location. A long thin conductor is aligned with the z-axis and carries a current of 2. Maxwell's Equations Just as mechanics is governed by Newton's Laws. 7 . We will start with a review of Maxwell's Equation. Find the flux crossing the area defined by θ = 0 rad. As solve earlier.01) = 0 ln 2π 2π 0. magnetic fields are governed by Maxwell's Equations.05 ( ln 0.01 < r < 0.05 m. $ d S = drdzaθ So the flux is obtained by merely integrating over the prescribed area Φ=∫ 0 2 0. Maxwell's Equations are known as Ampere's Law.01 Φ = 1. 0. and then as applied to more realistic engineering applications. and 0 < z < 2 m.05 − ln 0. Plugging in the values for permeability and the current. In their common form. Solution to Example 1. and thermodynamics is governed by the Laws of Thermodynamics.

Stokes' Theorem is applied. Note that J is also a vector quantity. For static magnetic fields at a point ∇× H = J  ∂ D +  for dynamic fields  ∂t  where J is the current density that occurs at that point (amperes/m2). which says that for an open area defined by S and bounded by a curve defined by l . Solution to Example 2. A long. This is shown in the figure. Ampere's Law The first law to be examined will be Ampere's Law. the magnetic intensity has a direction aligned with aφ. The magnetic intensity inside the conductor and outside the conductor will be examined separately. thus it is more convenient to use the integral form of the equation. These people include those who deal with magnetic fields in themselves and/or must calculate fields at points. Find the magnetic intensity at all points extending radially from its center axis. when the Biot-Savart Law and symmetry are applied. such as those involved in developing finite-element code for field calculations In most engineering applications however. 8 .A. straight conductor of radius b carries a current i and is aligned along the z-axes. which shows the relationship between magnetic intensity and current density. time invariant currents) and that the direction of the current is along the length of the conductor. the current densities. and area boundaries are very well defined. magnetic intensities. Both inside and outside. ∫ H ⋅ dl = ∫ (∇ × H ) ⋅ d S S the integral form of Ampere's Law is formed: ∫ H ⋅ dl = ∫ S J ⋅dS Most people who work with electro-magnetic theory use the point form of Ampere's Law. It is also assumed that the current density is uniform across the cross-section of the conductor (a very good assumption for low. Example 2. areas. "∇ ×" is the curl operator.

the line integral for the magnetic intensity along the path is the same as above. Inside the conductor. ∫ H ⋅ dl = H ∫ dl = 2πrH φ φ However. which is outside the conductor. For this case. Thus ∫ H ⋅ dl = H ∫ dl = 2πrH φ φ and ∫ S J ⋅ dS = i . for r > b i $ a 2πr φ Thus 2πrHφ = i or $ H = Hφ aφ = This was the same result as earlier. but reached more simply.S i b 1 2 H Ampere's Law is applied to the path 1. Also H is in the same direction as dl at all points. the surface integral yields ∫ Thus S J ⋅ dS = J ∫SdS = i 2 2 ( πr ) πb ir $ a 2πb 2 φ when r < b $ H = Hφ aφ = 9 . ∫ H ⋅ dl = ∫ S J ⋅dS With the assumptions made. H is uniform along the circular path (by symmetry). Ampere's Law is applied to path 2.

to simplify the calculation of the integral. z 1 a 2 a y x 4 K 3 Solution to Example 3. In most cases. Find the magnetic intensity at all points above the sheet. An infinite current sheet lies in the z = 0 plane.In most engineering applications. Also. Thus the current is represented by K= Kay A/m. currents are carried by conductors in which case the current density is always in the same direction as the cross-section surface of the conductor. Application of the Biot-Savart Law and symmetry conditions show that H has a component in the x-direction only. and H is independent of x and y. 10 . H must be anti-symmetric below the plane. Example 3. with a linear density of K A/m. Thus an even more specialized form of Ampere's Law useful in engineering application is ∫ H ⋅ dl = ∫ S J ⋅ d S = ienclosed Where ienclosed ii the total current enclosed by the boundary along which H is calculated. the boundary is chosen such that H is either parallel or normal to the path. Thus the line integral along this boundary is ∫ H ⋅ dl = ( H )( 2a ) + 0 + ( H )( 2a ) + 0 = 4 Ha The enclosed current is ienclosed = ( K )( 2a ) Thus 4Ha = 2Ka or H = K/2 The magnetic intensity is a constant above and below the sheet. It carries a current in the ydirection only. Also multiple conductors usually cross the bounded surface. Ampere's Law is applied to the path 12341 as shown in the figure.

Faraday's Law can be written in integral form as ∫ E ⋅ dl = ∫  −   ∂ B  ⋅dS S ∂t  For a fixed surface. Electrical charges. are usually carried in wires (or other conductors).B. for example. then the closed line integral becomes simply ∫ E ⋅ dl = V Where V is the drop in voltage potential in the loop. the electrical field intensity and the flux density are usually designed with very simple geometries. The coil cross section is 10 cm2. 11 . V = ∫ E ⋅ dl = ∫ −  dΦ loop dB  ∂ B Aloop = ⋅dS = S ∂t  dt dt Thus Faraday's Law for most practical applications merely states that the induced voltage in a circuit loop is equal to the rate of flux change in the loop. Example 4. Faraday's Law Faraday's Law states that at any point in space. the main flux in an electrical machine is usually designed to be parallel or normal to the surfaces enclosed by the loop. This is done not only for ease of analysis. Also. but also for efficient generation of magnetic fields and force production. and the direction of the electrical field is thus in the direction of the wire. the electrical field intensity and the magnetic flux density are related by ∇× E = − ∂B ∂t Again. Find the induced voltage in the coil.8sin120πt is passing through a 200 turn coil. Stoke's Theorem can be applied ∫ E ⋅ dl = ∫ (∇ × E) ⋅ d S S Thus. If the path is also along such a wire. As with magnetic intensity and current density in Ampere's Law. A uniform flux density B = 0.

The voltage induced in 200 turns is merely the voltage induced in a single turn multiplied by 200. The flux at t = 0 is zero. The flux is obtained by integrating the integral form of Faraday's Law.Solution to Example 4. V = NA dB dt 1 V V0 ∫Vdt = N0 ∫ sin ωtdt = − ωN cos ωt + C1 N C1 = V0 ωN . Find an expression for the flux in the coil. A sinusoidal voltage V(t) =V0sinωt is applied to the coil terminals at t = 0.2ωcos102ωt V Example 5. Thus V = NA dB dt = (200)(0. Assume that the coil resistance is negligible.8)(120ω)cos120ωt = 19. Φ N V Solution to Example 5. V0 (1 − cosωt ) ωN Wb 12 .001)(0. Φ(t ) = Thus Φ (t ) = Thus Since the flux is zero at time zero. An N-turn coil is wound around a magnetic toroid made of a high permeability material such that the flux is confined within the toroid.

the divergence of the magnetic flux density is zero ∇⋅ B = 0 The divergence theorem states that ∫ B ⋅ dS = ∫ (∇ ⋅ B) dv Thus. The wire is traveling at 10 m/s. The field is 15 cm wide (in the direction of the wire). The total flux is Φ = BA and the change in flux is dΦ dA dx =B = Bl = Blv dt dt dt Note that only the length of wire within the field is active.75 . Gauss' Law in integral form is 13 . Gauss' Law For magnetic devices. So the flux change within this loop must calculated. dt Volts.5 T. C. Find the induced voltage in the wire. Gauss' Law states that at a point.Example 6. Faraday's Law in integral form applies only to closed surfaces. A straight wire 20 cm long is passing over an area where the magnetic field flux density is 0. B=0. therefore the wire loop must be closed (as with a voltmeter). Thus V = dΦ = Blv = (0.5 T 20 cm l=15 cm v=10 m/s Solution to Example 6.5)( 015)(10 ) = 0.

The core is made of a high permeability material. rather than outside of it. thus the flux generated by the coil has a tendency to flow within the core. For example. consider the magnetic circuit below. flux must always be conserved. The total flux entering an enclosed volume must be equal to the flux leaving that volume. Gauss' Law merely states that flux must be conserved.∫ B ⋅ dS = 0 In simpler terms. Φ1 Φ1 = Φ2 + Φ 3 Φ2 Φ1 Φ1 Φ3 14 . With any loop cutting the core.

Magnetic Motive Force I. Some examples of useful fields already: the field in the center of a solenoid is concentrated (but also inefficient). even the field around a single straight wire can be used. uniform field steel i N air small gap Low leakage. if only part of the field (i. N S The most common way to engineer a field is to use high permeability materials in which a flux density can be generated when a magnetic intensity is applied. ferrite. These materials can also be used to form the field density into a desired shape and level. the manipulation of reluctance in the fields. high intensity. the field in a loop of wire can be used. Generating Magnetic Flux The design of many electromechanical devices is basically the creation of a useful magnetic flux density fields. the rest is wasted. the manipulation of the fields.EM Devices Lecture #3 Permeability.e. Permeance. Also. A magnetic field is easily created. These same materials can be used as flux "conductors" (i. near the pole) is used. Typically a "closed" field is desired. through which magnetic flux has an easier time passing than air) to guide the flux to where it is needed. and/or the manipulation of the current in a length of wire which carries an electrical current in the field. Reluctance. Small gap. however creation of a useful field which is stable and makes efficient use of material requires some thought. A simple bar magnet creates a field. Easier to predict and control its shape. Useful! 15 . All rather inefficient. however moving a file cabinet across the room will change its characteristics.e. any magnetic material: iron. steel nickel.

etc. reluctance (small) In magnetic systems. MMF Flow current velocity vol. which can be transmitted to perform work. flux Resistance R damper flow res. Lumped Circuit Definitions Magnetic Motive Force (MMF) All physical systems have the concept of potential. Φ is always conserved. which has yet to be defined. Φ Since Φ = ∫ B ⋅ d A . flow.Now can put a wire (with current) inside. II. flow Φ. A. Φ is dependent also on some reluctance R. resistance. then B= A steel i N air Φ As with all flow. System Electrical Mechanical Fluid Magnetic Potential voltage force head F. we recall that in an electric field. area Inductance L mass flow inertia (small) R. A force is imposed on the wire. the voltage drop in a closed loop (in space or in a circuit) is defined by V = ∫ E ⋅ dl 16 . one approach is to imagine that i creates a potential and Φ is the resultant flow. Capacitance C spring surf. To find a definition for magnetic motive force.

uniform section. 17 . the differential potential drop over the air is much greater than that for the steel. and therefore F has the units of A (Amperes). due to its greater reluctance to flux flow. has a uniform magnetic potential drop per unit of length. Uniform steel.The magnetic motive force can thus be defined by Ampere's Law. Recall that Ampere's Law claims the following: ∫ H ⋅ dl = i dl enclosed =F H has the units A/m. and therefore flux flow. in a closed circuit. the magnetic intensity creates a high flux density. i H Example. Thus. F = Ni = ∫ H ⋅ d l Ni = HslT Hs = Ni lT steel i N air T otal path length lT Φ Uniform intensity H When an airgap is included. in the steel but not in the surrounding air. It also has a very high permeability compared to that of air. It is the closed line integral of the magnetic intensity over a path in space. The magnetic intensity is therefore the differential drop in magnetic potential over a path in space.

Permeability and Permeance The vector quantities B and H are in the same direction (at least in most practical engineering situations) and are related by the equation B = µH where µ = permeability of the material (h/m) Henries/meter. Thus in most cases. Thus. The magnetic intensity in the gap is thus simply Hg = Ni lg Why are we interested in calculating H? Because from H we can calculate B from the material properties. the magnetic intensity in the steel is much less than that in air. the greater the ease with which magnetic flux passes through it. Hsls can usually be ignored. since the permeability of steel is much higher than that of air (B=µH). H ~ 0. The higher the permeability of the material. B is the "useful" field most designers are trying to create.steel ls lg i N air Hg Hs F = Ni = ∫ H ⋅ d l Ni = H s ls + H g l g Note that even though the path lengths and the magnetic intensities in the steel and the air are different. i. for air µ = 4 π × 10−7 h/m ≡ µ o 18 . and the flux densities are the same in both materials. IV. the flux (and usually the flux density) carried by each material is the same. In fact for a perfect iron. unless ls is really large.e.

In other words. . The material begins to behave very much like air in permeability. ferromagnetic materials seem to have a maximum level of flux density that can be easily carried. 19 .0 1.2 1.6 0. . it is extremely difficult to increase B without large increases in H.8 1. This level is called the saturation level.4 1.indication of how much flux density can flow with a given magnetic intensity. B B real ideal µ 1 H 1 H µ Example. a permeance and a reluctance can be defined. µ is defined as the slope of a line drawn from the origin to the point of interest on the B-H curve for a material. the relationship between B and H is linear.8 | µr 2000 2300 1700 1500 1100 470 180 Note the existence of SATURATION.6 1. e. Actually it is not. For a given volume.similar to material resistivity (to current for a given voltage) in electrical systems.a point quantity. Physical interpretation of µ: . Beyond a certain value of flux density.for steel µ = 1000µ o Most of the time. relative permeability is used for materials.g. A 1010 plain carbon steel has the following characteristics B 0. µr = µ µo Ideally.

so that B and H can be considered uniform in the volume. field. 20 . A magnetic device can be modeled with circuit analogy. or the magnetic field is uniform enough... material is relatively uniform (and this is not bad assumption for airgaps in many devices) then by using Ampere's Law: Fab = Lab ∫ H ⋅ d l = Hl B =  lab µ  ΦA  =  lab µ l  =  ab  Φ  µA  ab H= since B µ We can define a reluctance as We can also define a permeance The result is  l  R =   A/Wb  µA  1  µA  P = =   Wb/A or Henries (h) R  l  Which is "Ohm's Law" for magnetic "circuits." F = RΦ How is this used? For a closed path device. If we assume that the magnetic intensity.b a l B H area A The volume is small enough.

. which the same total flux must travel through. 21 . there are two reluctances in series..steel i N air T otal path length ls Uniform area As The analogous circuit model is. One due to the steel and one due to the airgap. F Φ  l  Ni = Φ  s   µs As  R F = RΦ Thus Φ= The flux field density is therefore B= Φ µs Ni = As ls Ni  ls     µs As  In a circuit with an airgap.

so in most cases lg Niµo Ag Ni ≈ Φ Φ≈ when µs >> µo and thus µo Ag lg Thus the useful field in the gap is Bg = Φ µo Ni = Ag lg Definitions Here are a few terms which you should know and will find extremely valuable for this class. We will use all SI units in this class.. Rs F Φ  l lg  Ni = Φ s + µ A µ A    s s o g R F = Φ(Rs + Rg) However. Some units are strange and take some getting used to.steel ls lg i N air cross section Ag cross section As The analogous circuit for this is.. 22 . the permeability of steel is much greater than that of air.

Symbol F µ P R Φ B H Definition magnetic motive force permeability permeance reluctance flux flux density magnetic intensity Type scalar (region) scalar (point) scalar (region) scalar (region scalar (region) vector (point) vector (point) Units Amperes (A) Henries/meter (h/m) Henries (h) or Wb/A A/Wb Webers (Wb) Teslas (T) or Wb/m2 A/m 23 .

we can use network analysis. simply Φ1 . The reluctance of the steel can usually be neglected (except in certain cases). Inductance. For the nodes. A1 B2 = Φ2 . Reluctance Circuits Multiple Airgaps Multiple airgap devices can be treated in the same way as a circuit with a single airgap. For branches. Simply solve to get R3 Ni (R1 + R3 )Ni Φ1 = Φ2 = R1R2 + R1R3 + R2 R3 R1R2 + R1R3 + R2 R3 R1 Ni Φ3 = R1R2 + R1R 3 + R2 R3 where R1 = l1 . Speedance I.EM Devices Lecture #4: Reluctance Circuits. µ o A1 R2 = l2 . The reluctance of each airgap is treated as a resistor in the magnetic circuit with the coil providing the MMF potential. l1 i A1 l2 N A2 l3 R1 Φ1 + - R2 F= Ni Φ2 R3 Φ3 A3 For the electrical analogy. The location of MMF can be changed. A. µ o A2 R3 = l3 µ o A3 B1 = To get the gap flux in each gap. 24 . Φ 2 = Φ1 + Φ 3 Ni = Φ 2 R2 + Φ 1R1 Ni = Φ 2 R2 + Φ 3 R3 These equations represent 3 linear equations and 3 unknowns. A2 B3 = Φ3 A3 We can also rearrange the circuit for convenience (in case you have forgotten network analysis).

Φ2 = R1R2 + R1R3 + R2 R3 RT = R2 + The single equivalent resistance is now Since Ni = RT Φ 2 . R1 + R3 R2 R F + - Φ2 R1R3 R R + R1 R3 + R2 R3 = 1 2 R1 + R3 R1 + R3 (R1 + R3 )Ni we get the same result as before. in this case R = R1 R3 for resistors in parallel. We also have the option of using permeances. as with P= and P= 1 3 R1 R3 Φ 2P Φ 2P 1 3 The flux flow through each air gap is simply Φ 1 = and Φ3 = P+P P+P 1 3 1 3 Remember that for flux density. 1. Remember that for permeance. permeances in parallel are added. 1 1 For two permeances in parallel. Permeances in series have their inverses added. 1.000.000 A/m is considered high for common devices 25 . instead of reluctances. in the circuit.R2 R1 R3 F + Φ2 Φ1 Φ3 Two resistors can be combined. For magnetic intensity.0 Tesla is considered high for common devices.

or multiple coils. Electrical Modeling For a simple device now we can calculate the flux density in the airgap(s) if we know the electrical current input to the circuit. Z = R. However. Ve j ωt = V cos(ωt + φ) + jV sin(ωt + φ) 26 . we typically have control of the input voltage to the device.i V(s). Z= Ls. For a capacitor. with voltage as the input and B as the output. Thus. device control is dynamic. The general form of Ohm's law is V = IZ Where Z is the circuit impedance. i N Φ + V i R L - A coil has significant resistance R and inductance L. I(s) G(s) B = flux density Voltage and current The fundamental assumption we must make here is that B is set up instantaneously by i. but we will not be using capacitance. dt For a pure sinusoidal input Recall that V=ejωt . For a resistor. s is replaced with jω in Z. The heart of most devices is usually a coil of wire.II. For an inductor. Thus we need only calculate i to find B. "s" in this case is the Laplace d differential operator s = . In a typical device. Z = 1/(Cs). most circuits are not static or even quasi static. but very little capacitance C. V. rather than the current.

R= ρ wl w Aw Where ρw is the resistivity of the wire material. we can now calculate the inductance of the coil. we only need worry about self inductance.In the general case. we must be concerned with mutual inductance. and Aw is the cross-sectional area of the wire. lw is the total length of wire. We can use Ohm's Law with Faraday's Law: i N Φ V = iR + Ve Since Φ = PF = P(Ni ) then where Ve = N dΦ dt ("Ohm's Law for magnetic circuits) (Faraday's Law) V=N dΦ d di = N (PNi ) = N 2 P dt dt dt By definition of (linear) inductance. B. This is important in multiphase circuits and devices such as motors. II. 27 . A. or the effect of one coil on the other(s). Inductance Self Inductance If only a single coil of wire is involved. V = L Thus L = N2P di dt So if we can find the magnetic permeance in the circuit for a coil of wire. Getting the inductance is a little more difficult. Mutual Inductance For circuits which have more than one coil of wire. if the capacitance is ignored V(s) = (R + Ls)I(s) The resistance R is pretty easy to get if we know the wire we are using.

i2 V1. The two-phase circuit below has an airgap. but not realistic. i1 N1 N2 V2 . Smaller fields are easier to produce and control because of the smaller electrical currents required. In a transformer. at which useful flux is produced. or particularly useful for a motion device. V2 N 2 i1 N 2 = . One coil can provide a large main flux field. no inductance V1 . i2 N 1 V1i1 = V2i2 e1 f1 1/r e2 f2  e2   r  f  = 0  2  0   e1  1  f  r  1 i2 = N1 i1 N2 For example. i1 N1 N2 Classically. but not realistically: no resistance.Ex. ideally. The transformer Φ V2. i2 main field (big) control field (small) 28 . i2 V1 N 1 = . useful flux V1. in a motor. The above is simple. T = kT i . i1 N1 N2 V2. Another coil can be used to produce a smaller control field.

and the fact that flux is always conserved. are the mutual inductance terms. Φ1 V1 . Φ 1 = Φ 2 = N 1i1P + N 2 i2 P Therefore. d In matrix form. d (N1i1P + N 2i 2 P) dt d V 2 = i1 R2 + N 2 (N1i1P + N 2 i2 P) dt V1 = i1 R1 + N1 This can be rewritten as di di V1 = i1 R1 + L11 1 + L12 2 dt dt di1 di V2 = i2 R2 + L21 + L22 2 dt dt The terms The terms L11 = N 12 P and L22 = N 22 P are the self inductance terms.The 3-phase circuit below is the basic building block for a 3-phase motor. dt L12 s  i1  V1   R1 + L11s V  =  L s R2 + L22 s i2  21  2    L12 = L21 = N 1 N 2 P 29 . the flux through each coil creates a "back" electromotive force (BEMF) against the driving voltage potential dΦ 1 dt dΦ 2 V2 = i2 R2 + N 2 dt V1 = i1 R1 + N1 By Ampere's Law. By Faraday's Law. i1 N V2 . using the Laplace operator s= . i2 N Φ2 V3 . i3 N Φ3 Consider first the analysis of the 2-phase circuit.

III. From the earlier solenoid example. Find the inductance of an ideal solenoid with a length of 0. steel ls lg i N air Hg Hs Once again. However. beginning with Ohm's Law V = iR + V e = iR + N The term for back emf can be rewritten dΦ dt N dΦ dΦ di di =N =L dt dI dt dt L= N dΦ di Thus another definition of inductance is Example. The radius of the coil is 0. and the number of turns length and type of wire in the coils. Flux Linkage and Speedance We now revisit the single phase circuit to develop the concept of flux linkage and speedance. The single phase circuit is again drawn below. the magnetic intensity and flux density are fairly uniform in the center of the coil and are given by H z = in Thus and B = µH = µin for a turn density of n turns/meter B= 300 iµ = 600iµ 0.50 m and 300 turns of wire. If we were to try and calculate the permeance of the coil by what we know at this point.The terms in the 2x2 matrix are entirely defined by the permeance (or reluctance) of the magnetic circuit.5 30 . it would be tough to do. the flux generated by the coil is easily determined.02 m Solution to Example.

Note that if the system is linear. using flux linkage. dΦ dλ V=N = dt dt If the flux linkage is also a function of some position variable. and thereby also the flux in a circuit. For the 2 phase system. say x. the flux linkages are λ1 = N 1 Φ = N 1P[N 1i1 + N 2 i2 ] λ 2 = N 2 Φ = N 2 P[N 1i1 + N 2 i2 ] Speedance is something that needs to be considered if the magnetic circuit has moving parts. which affect the reluctance. the inductance of the solenoid is 284 micro-henries. that N dΦ Φ =N di i Flux linkage is defined as the common flux that passes through a coil and "links" it to the remainder of the magnetic system. Thus the inductance for the single phase system can also be expressed as dλ L= where λ is defined as the flux linkage. This has been ignored so far. di and λ = N Φ = N (PNi ) = N 2 Pi in a linear system. and this is not a bad approximation for most magnetic systems operating well away from saturation. The back emf of a circuit can be written from Faraday's Law.02) 2 µ 600 di di = 568 micro-henries/meter For a coil length of 0. For a coil with N turns.50 meters. the flux linkage is simply NΦ. then the differential becomes V= dλ di dλ dx + di dt dx dt or V=L di dx + Kg dt dt 31 .The inductance per meter length of coil is L=n dΦ AdB =n = 600π ( 0.

32 .where Kg = dλ dx is defined as the speedance.

or "permanent magnets. Permanent Magnet Materials Magnetic Behavior For any material (no such thing as a magnetic insulator) and applied magnetic intensity H creates a resultant flux density B. There are other materials which retain a residual B field even after H is removed. B-H curves for many materials are published in handbooks. A. or wood.EM Devices Lecture #5: Behavior of Permanent Magnet Materials I. we described this relationship as being B = µH. the relationship is true for "soft" magnetic materials. Earlier. These are known as "hard" magnetic material. i. B saturation µ 1 H When H is applied and then removed. leather. pure iron (high µ). i material N Being more specific. B rebounds along the B-H curve." 33 . plastic (low µ).e.

Certain grades of steel (high µ) Alnico. B = µH + µM The last term must be added. then the B-H curve is 34 . NeFeBr (low µ) These material curves can also be found in handbooks H B. B µ 1 H B µM H B H If the magnetization is in the reverse direction. Ferro-Magnetism For hard magnetic materials. This term is usually a constant. SmCo. the B-H curve (and equation) must be modified to include the effects of the residual magnetism. and is caused by the alignment of the electron spins in the material.e. ferrite.B µ Br 1 µ 1 i. The new B-H curve for a hard magnetic material is the sum of the original B-H curve and the constant magnetization. unaffected by the application of an H field (until the intensity becomes sufficient to case the spins to flip).

the domains flip. all at once. Note the presence of saturation. The domains "flip" and spin in the other direction of a sufficient H is applied. 35 . However once aligned. The Level of H is known as "Hci". which is a real effect. or the "intrinsic coercivity. it is difficult to switch them back.B µ 1 H B B H µΜ H We can combine the curves. switching of the magnetic domains is easy. and the B-H curve jumps for one to the other. virgin mat'l Hci "jump" saturation What we get is the well known B-H curve for hard magnetic materials. Note also that for a virgin (unmagnetized) material. saturation B Hci "jump" H start." When this level of H is applied.

Note that in reality. or greater than the magnetic intensity at saturation. Also. Again. Hci may occur at a value that is less that.B Br Hc Hci H Br = residual magnetism (crossing of B axis) Hc = coercive force (crossing of H axis) Hci = intrinsic coercive force ("knee" of the curve) Where can µ be found on the curve? It is the slope of the rebound line. or greater than Hc. it depends on the material. 36 . Hci may have a value that is either less than. It depends on the material. This curve is the sum of the permeability curve of the material and the intrinsic magnetic material property curve for that specific material.

1 T Hci = 1300 kA/m B ferrites Neodymium 28 B rare earths H B H B alnicos bonded ferrites H H The permeability of most commercial hard magnetic materials is approximately the same as that for air. 37 .B µ 1 H B µΜ Hci H Hc Hci Br B 1 µ µ 1 H permeability curve intrinsic material curve total B-H curve Typical values: Alnico 8: Br = 0.42 T Hci = 210 kA/m Br = 1.85 T Hci = 100 kA/m Ferrite 8: Br = 0.

Magnetizing a Magnet A hard magnetic material is magnetized by passing a H field through it. How much H is necessary to get maximum residual magnetism? At least past Hci. after magnetizing.C. usually in the same direction as the particle orientation in the material. Isotropic materials. applied H magnetization pattern isotropic material anisotropic material In magnetizing an anisotropic material. therefore. retain a magnetization pattern nearly identical to the H field pattern used to magnetize them. need to ensure that the grain orientation is the same as the direction of H. 38 . usually all the way to saturation to ensure all the domains have switched. H S N There exist isotropic materials (material magnetic properties same in every direction) and anisotropic materials (material magnetic properties different in each direction). Anisotropic materials usually exhibit a stronger residual magnetism. otherwise the result will be low magnetization levels.

125 T B = 0. as a rule of thumb.A more realistic B-H curve. Hci > 1300 kA/m ----> B > 1. we can estimate the magnitude of the flux density field required to achieve the necessary H to begin the process. typically twice this value is needed. Assume that µ for the magnet material is approximately the same as that for air.625 T which is beyond the saturation level of the steel yolk used to hold the magnet! This means that we can no longer use iron or steel as the guide! 39 . µ = 4π x 10-7 h/m. B Br Hc Hci start demag done switching at 2Hci start switching at Hci H By using B = µH.264 T A simple circuit can be built to produce such a field. To get to full magnetization. i material N For Neodymiums. For Alnicos For Ferrites Hci = 100 kA/m Hci = 210 kA/m ----> ----> B = 0.

300. Wires jump. sometimes explode. The material has an intrinsic coercivity of 1300 kA/m. And even higher magnet grades exist. Voltage from a large bank of capacitors (which sometime explode). to reduce inductance. In practice. Enclosed room. H z = 2r 2i H r Thus for 4 turns of wire Hz = or i min = ci r 2 (1. For ferrite. Magnets fired. How to design a charger in this case? One solution is to use exotic materials (expensive) The most common method is just to forget about the iron. It is to be magnetized at the center of a coil of wire 12 mm in diameter with 4 turns. large amps (sometimes several thousand for exotic magnets).000)(0. chargers only have a few turns of wire. Big wires. A piece of grade 28 neodymium is 5 mm thick and 10 mm in diameter. H = in coils Can also modify the environment.g. steel and iron now behaves like air (for the excess flux). monopole generator.e. N S N S solenoid coil. just use air.006) so the current required to acheive Hci is i min = = 3900 Amps 2 40 . Magnetically shielded (or computer users complain). Estimate the current needed. For neodymiums raising its temperature reduces Hci. i Solution to example. Example. Water cooled. reducing its temperature reduces Hci. maximize throughput. From the example in Lecture #1 for a single coil of wire.

Typically. or even the wire itself will melt. otherwise the insulation. 41 . so use around 7800 Amps. Thus need big wires to handle the current. will cause the magnet to demagnetize. twice as much current is needed to ensure full magnetization. Why so few turns? Because the current source is usually a bank of capacitors. The energy dissipated in the coil can be calculated by E = CV2/2. Any inductance in the circuit may cause a recirculating current that. The voltage needed can be calculated by V = iR.000 microfarads) Most of this energy is dissipated in the coil. on the back swing. Some large capacitance is needed to overcome whatever inductance exists (usually around 20.

g. If the material was fully saturated upon initial magnetization. the coil field in a motor. and the applied H is less than Hci. rebound occurs according to the material property curve. The rebound may occur on a smaller hysteresis curve. max operating line B Br done switching at 2Hci actual operating line Hc rebound past Hci original charging line H Such an event may occur during the operation of a device when an externally applied field is present. If the material was not fully saturated upon initial magnetization. If a sufficiently large H is applied (i. This is not efficient use of the material as a permanent magnet. or even uncharged. Part or all of the magnetic domains will switch. Result is usually partial or full demagnetization of the material. The curve near Hci is typically very steep and not well defined at certain places. If the material was fully saturated upon initial magnetization. 2. due to a negative recirculating current caused by the capacitance of the charger (magnetizer) and the inductance of the charging coil (magnetizing fixture). resulting in a magnet that is less than fully charged. and a small change in H may result in a large change in B. as this depends on the precise nature of the BH curve. the rebound curves occur on a reduced hysteresis version of the magnetic property curve.e. past 2Hci). it is hard to predict what is going to happen.EM Devices Lecture #6: Charging Permanent Magnets I. Magnet Charging Predicting B Using the Magnetic Property Curve. the material may become fully magnetized in the other direction. It may even occur during the charging operation itself. 3. and the applied H is greater than Hci in the opposite direction of the original charging. e. A. 42 . 1.

Please keep in mind that the following circuits are to be considered very dangerous. Such recirculation during the charging operation is very undesirable. with resistance and inductance properties only. the system may be designed such that the rebounding current never exceeds Hci (except at the initial peak at 2Hci). The magnetizing fixture itself is usually a coil of wire. during the charging operation. With additional care. R C L As with any LRC circuit. with large currents. More sophisticated magnetizers use special suppression circuits which act as diodes to prevent any negative current rebounds. and energies that are released over very short periods of time. This loop can spiral inward. the system is a big LRC circuit. B. it is necessary that the current recirculation be overdamped. Thus. With the simplest magnet charging systems. especially if the material has no distinct Hci (as with many plastic bonded magnets. 43 . Avoiding Recirculating Currents To get the high current necessary for charging a magnet. the current in the system can reverse and recirculate (vibrate). until the material is completely magnetized This is how a demagnetizer works for low coercivity materials (steel tools. magnetic recording media). since it might partially or wholly demagnetize the magnet. voltages.i H > 2H ci t H > Hci Sometimes. in which case the BH behavior is along a minor hysteresis loop. a bank of capacitors is usually used. the positive rebound also exceeds Hci. always check the BH curves).

then the response is overdamped and the solution becomes i = a1e s1t + a 2 e s2 t If the roots are complex. For resistance For capacitance V = iR q = CV λ = Li or or i= dq dV =C dt dt or V= 1 idt C∫ For inductance V= dλ di =L dt dt Looking at the voltage drop across each component L di 1 + Ri + ∫ idt = 0 dt C or L d 2i di 1 +R + i=0 2 dt dt C The roots of this second order equation are simply R 1  R =− ±   −  2L  2L LC 2 s1. A. 2 We can define α= R 2L ω0 = 1 LC and ωd = ω2 − α2 0 If the roots to the differential equation are real. then the response is a damped oscillation i = a3 e −αt cosω d t + a4 e −αt sin ω d t Since current recirculation is undesirable. overdamped current for a simple magnetizer. A Simple (Common) Charger Getting an Overdamped Current The basic circuit can now be examined for the conditions required to produce a large. the roots should be real and thus require the condition R ≥ 2L 1 LC or R2 C ≥L 4 44 .II.

and the inductance. the current is zero.10 Ω (a very typical number) and is to be attached to a capacitance discharge magnetizer with a capacitance of 1000 µF. In order to achieve the required inductance. 4 ≥L is required. B. the differential equation must be solved. a single loop of wire has an inductance of about 0. Even a straight length of wire has an internal inductance of about 0. for the first initial condition assume that the current is zero at time zero. Find the allowable coil inductance in order to suppress recirculating current. Even in with an air core. The numbers from the example are typical. i = a1e s1t + a 2 e s2 t or i = a3 e −αt cos ω d t + a 4 e −αt sin ω d t Looking at the overdamped case first. to avoid the recirculating current problem. i (0 ) = 0 = a1 + a2 or a 2 = −a1 The second initial condition comes from the fact that at the moment the current is switched on. it is generally desired that the inductance be kept low. R2 C ≥L 4 Thus L < 2. from the initial conditions. calculating the voltage required to get the desired current is easy: V = iR With the presence of a capacitance and an inductance in the circuit. only a few turns of wire on the magnetizing fixture are permitted.5 µH/m (independent of wire diameter). A magnetizing fixture has a coil resistance of 0. Example 1. To get high currents from a limited (or reasonable) voltage level. Ignore the internal resistance and inductance of the magnetizer. dramatically. Thus the entire voltage drop is across the inductance.5 µH ( 01) 2 (1000 × 10 −6 ) . and the capacitance be kept high. Getting Sufficient Voltage for Charging Without the effect of inductance.5 µH (for a typical coil diameter of 20 mm). the resistance must also be kept low. L di(0) = V0 dt or di(0) V0 = = a1s1 + a 2 s2 dt L 45 . Solution to Example 1. so the voltage drop across the resistor is zero.Thus. Using a steel core increases the permeance.

Solution to Example 2.6µ sec The constants in the solution are a1 = − a2 = V0 = 12. Energy Dissipation 46 .Solving the initial conditions simultaneously gives a1 = − a2 = V0 where. A magnetizing fixture has a coil resistance of 0. again L (s1 − s2 ) s1. 270 sec −1. Note that a capacitor built to handle that level of voltage is pretty hefty. s2 = −88.10Ω and an inductance of 1 µH.9V 0 L (s1 − s2 ) The maximum current would appear as i max = 8. 2 With the numbers above. the maximum current occurs at time ( ) t= or ln ( s 2 s1 ) s1 − s2 s1e s1t = s2e s2t Example 2. find the point at which the rate of current change is zero.35V0 Thus to attain 8000 amps. Integrate the differential equation L d 2i di 1 +R + i=0 2 dt dt C R 1  R =− ±   −  2L  2L LC 2 Solution is i = a1e + a 2 e s1t s2 t The roots are s1. the roots are s1 = −11. Ignore the internal resistance and inductance of the magnetizer. 730 sec−1 The time at which the maximum current occurs is given by t= ln( s2 s1 ) s1 − s2 = 26. di = 0 = a1s1e s1t + a 2 s 2 e s2t = a1 s1e s1t − s2 e s2 t dt Thus. the required voltage would be V = 960 volts. Determine the voltage charge necessary to produce a peak current of 8000 amps. It is attached to a capacitance discharge magnetizer with a capacity of 1000 µF. C. 2 = − R 1  R ±   −  2L  2L LC 2 To find the maximum current.

and ∆T is the temperature rise of the copper. Most good quality magnets have very linear behavior between the Hci points. For these materials. The copper in the magnetizing fixture must be able to accept this level of energy (almost) instantaneously without an increase in temperature sufficient to melt the insulation of the copper. To see how to design a system. for many materials. III.0921 kcal/kg-°C). capacitance banks of 90.000 Joules. it is only necessary to ensure (with a safety factor) that any rebounding negative current does not produce magnetic intensities greater that Hci. the energy stored would be 461 Joules. and unnecessarily high capacitances and voltages from the magnetizer. the underdamped solution is considered.The total energy initially stored in the capacitor will eventually be dissipated as heat through the wires in the fixture. More Sophisticated Processes The requirement to eliminate all recirculating current may. Use E c = mc p ∆T Where E is the energy absorbed. Copper melts at 1083°C. be unnecessarily strict. R C L L d 2i di 1 +R + i=0 2 dt dt C 47 . the LCR circuit and its second order linear differential equation is once again considered. This results in unnecessarily strict limits on the inductance of the magnetizing fixture. cp is the heat capacity of copper (0. Some of the larger commercially available chargers have energies of 45. m is the mass of the copper in the coils.000 amps. The energy stored in a capacitor is E c = 1 CV 2 2 For the example above ( C = 1000 µF and V = 960 V).000 µF. This time. voltages of 1500 V (difficult to get capacitors which can handle larger voltages) to produce currents of 30.

Thus the entire voltage drop is across the inductance. π π The first positive current peak occurs at ωd t ≈ or t≈ 2 2ω d 48 . the initial conditions are that same as before. the current is zero. For the purpose of expediency in this lecture. i H > 2H ci t H < Hci Note that for the solution. and the first negative current peak can be found by an exact formula. L di(0) = V0 dt di(0) V0 = = −a 4αe −α (0 ) sin ω d (0) + a 4 e −α (0 )ω d cos ω d (0) dt L = a 4ω d or Thus a4 = V0 . an approximation is used. so the voltage drop across the resistor is zero.i = a3 e −αt cosω d t + a4 e −αt sin ω d t where α= R 2L ω0 = 1 LC and ωd = ω2 − α2 0 It must be ensured that the first negative current peak (and thus all other negative peaks) does not produce a magnetic intensity in excess of Hci. One of the initial conditions is that the current at time zero is zero. thus a3 = 0 The second initial condition comes from the fact that at the moment the current is switched on. ωd L and finally i (t ) = V 0 −αt e sinω d t ωd L The time and amplitude of the first positive current peak.

This is great for saving wear and tear on the fixture. and the first negative peak does not create greater than Hci. It is rather difficult to create a "diode" for large currents (of several thousand amps).with an amplitude i1 ≈ V0 − 2απd e ω ωd L ωd t ≈ The first negative current peak occurs at with an amplitude i2 ≈ V0 − 23απd e ω ωd L 3π 2 or t≈ 3π 2ω d For example. all energies associated with the negative current are dissipated by the magnetizer instead of the fixture. Bear in mind that the total energy dissipated in the fixture is still E c = 1 CV 2 2 Even more sophisticated chargers have suppression circuit that act as diodes. Note that for such chargers with suppression circuits. and suppress any negative currents. 49 . but is not such a good deal for the magnetizer (suppression circuit). if a fixture has been designed and has a given inductance. The design of a fixture for such a magnetizer depends on the current handling capacity of the suppression circuit. then the voltage and capacitance must be adjusted until the first positive peak creates greater than 2Hci.

This can be written as Bm = ηLL ( − Hm ) Am (− H m ) 50 . in the gap. thus. the device is pretty much useless. Eliminating this term and some rearranging gives l H g = m (− H m ) lg By conservation of flux. Magnetic Operating Point. so finally. To calculate the gap flux due to the permanent magnet. But also. Fg Φ g = Pg F g . The total flux flowing is then simply Φ = BrAm. the flux density in the circuit is merely B = Br. without a gap. lm lg ls Ampere's Law states Ni = ∫ H ⋅ d l There is no current (no coils). thus Bm = Am = H g lg . The Magnetic Operating Point For a simple magnetic circuit. Am Bm = P g lm We now use the relationship between Hg and Hm above. Therefore we cut a gap in the circuit to create an area where useful flux is available. However. thus.EM Devices Lecture #7: Permanent Magnet Circuits. we start with Ampere's Law. Φm = Φ g . unless the path is long. Pg H g lg Bm = Φm Φ g = Am Am Bm = Pg F g And by the definition of permeance. so evaluating the integral assuming uniform gaps and areas gives 0 = H m l m + H sl s + H g l g We will assume that the magnetic intensity drop in the steel is negligible. if there is no gap. Load-Line I.

Multiplying Bm by the area of the magnet thus gives the total flux output of the magnet. not including that magnet itself. B. In Am more general circuits. PM Modeling in a Magnetic Circuit Beginning with the magnet property curve for a permanent magnet material. Φ m = Bm Am To find Bm and Hm the material property curve must be used. Hm ηLL 1 Hc B Br H Hci Consequently. More on the load line later. only the 2nd quadrant of the magnetic hysteresis curve. The operating point is the intersection of the material property curve and the load line. or Hm = H + M m 51 . Bm = µm H + µm M m or Bm = µm Hm In this case. Bm is the flux density output of the magnet. i. where ηLL ≡ P g lm Bm.e. the magnetic intensity within the magnet is the external applied intensity plus the intrinsic intensity. the permeance that should be used in the calculation for the load line of a magnet is the total permeance of the magnetic circuit. Bm and Hm define the operating point of the magnet.is defined as the slope of the load-line of the magnet. also called the design curve. is used (for device design). A very common error is to use the intrinsic curve instead of the design curve for the material.

Φm Φ0 P m 1 F F o m 52 . multiply and divide the right side by lm. The result is A  Am Bm = µm  m (H + M m )lm l   m  Am Bm = Pm Hl m + µm Am M m Am Bm = Φ m Hl m = F m We can substitute and define µm Am Mm = Br Am Br Am = Φ 0 to get the equation Φ m = PmF m + Φ 0 On the BH material curve. the ordinate can be multiplied by Am. Multiply both sides by Am and. and the abscissa can be multiplied by lm. The resultant plot of Φ m versus Fm has exactly the same shape as the magnetic property curve for the magnet.B Br µ Hci 1 H Ho Hc We can manipulate the equation above. except that the slope of the design line is Pm.

We can define Fo = H o lm and Φ m = Φ o + PmF m Φ o = Am Br From the modified design curve. and the flux densities in the two airgaps. This is the equation which describes the current source below: Φ F m Φo P m Φ + Also from the modified design curve. 53 . Example of usage Find the operating point of the magnet in the circuit below. Fm = Fo + Φm Pm This is the equation which describes the voltage source below: Φm R m F - F o m + Φm + C.

thus Φm = Φo Φ1 = Φ o Φ2 = Φo III. using the current source analogy: Φm Φo P m P 1 P 2 Φ1 Φ2 The current source is Φ o = Br Am The permeances in the circuit are Pm = µm Am . lm P1 = µo A1 . A. l1 P2 = µo A2 l2 Permeances in parallel are merely added.Am lm A1 l1 A2 l2 The electrical analogy to the magnetic circuit is drawn below. + P2 P1 + P 2 + P m P1 P1 P1 P1 and and B1 = and Bm = Φ1 A1 B2 = Φm Am + P2 + Pm P2 + P2 + Pm Φ2 A2 The Load Line Recall the Definition 54 .

then Bg = B m = − µo lm Hm lg This is a very good approximation for "small airgap" machine because the magnetic leakage is rather low. is the operating point of the magnet. Am l g If the area of the magnet is the same as the area of the gap. This is true for most common machines. uniform gap machine. It gives the flux density output and the magnetic intensity in the magnet. We will assume. where the magnet geometry is has uniform length (the length of a magnet is always measured in its direction of magnetization). Bm = − or Bm = − ηLL Hm where P g lm Am (H m ) ηLL = P g lm Am Bg = Am B Ag m and then the calculate the field density in the gap. B ηLL operating point 1 Bm Hci Ho Hc Hm H Am Br Ag lm lg As you recall from last time. or design curve (in the second quadrant). there is usually only a single gap. because this example can be used to build some intuitive feel about magnetic circuit behavior.The intersection of the load line and the magnetic property curve. µAl B = − o g m Hm For a single. "Small" airgap: lm ≥5 lg "Large" airgap: lm ≤1 lg 55 . and the area of the gap is the same as the area of the magnet. that this is the case. In most common machines. for the following example.

even the magnetizing circuit. or it has become demagnetized. This means the magnet has permanently lost some or all of its residual magnetism.Note the B does not change very much for changes in gap length for small airgap machines. Effects of an Applied Coil Current In many devices. 1 B 2 ∆B H Hc ∆H For this reason. are usually magnetized in place. there is also a coil or some sort of other device which also creates a field. and one magnetized. low coercivity materials. the circuit is never opened. such as Alnicos. in addition to a permanent magnet. whereas the change may be quite large for large airgap machines. 56 . If the drop causes Hm ≥ Hci then the lg material rebounds along a minor hysteresis loop. C. Caution for Low Coercivity Materials If the magnet is separated from the circuit. B. the slope of the load line ηLL = − µo lm drops.

F ext = Ni = H g l g + H m l m ext ext Since air and permanent magnet have roughly the same permeability. can be calculated from Ampere's Law. This is an important fact to remember in motor operation. BT = B m + (R m Ni + R g )Am The last term is the change in B caused by the external current The change in H. and neglecting the magnetic intensity drop in the steel. Ni Ni Thus and H ext = HT = H m + lm + l g lm + lg H g ≈ Hm By applying too much current to the coil.1 2 3 B ∆B H Hc ∆H This applied external current shifts (translates) the load line either upward or downward. Looking only at the external potential source. 57 . or short the coils for braking. the intrinsic coercive force may be exceeded. causing the magnet to become demagnetized. and F ext = Ni . therefore. Apply too much current. BmT = B m + F ext R Am The permeance of the circuit must include the permeance of the magnet as well as that of the gap. the resulting current may be sufficient to demagnetize the magnets.

i3 N Nd. Can demag during shipping if low temperatures are encountered. maximum operating conditions. Possible demag at low temperatures. With neodymiums. Careful with Alnicos. heat up results in Hci drop.V1. D. cool down results in Hci drop. or just sitting in a warehouse. i1 N V2. Low Hci Must be careful to design well away from Hci to prevent irreversible demagnetization during start-up. Possible demag at higher temperature. Can demag during normal operation due to heating. B FERRITE 0 degC B RARE EARTH 20 degC load line 20 degC load line 80 degC H H 58 . or shutdown and braking. Other Nasty Demagnetization Potentials With ferrites. i2 N V3. SmCo good for active fields. or can demag all by itself during shipping and storage if the temperature go high enough.

. flux flows not only through the airgap. flux flows wherever there is a magnetic potential difference.ME 229 Lecture #8: Experimental and Analytical Formulation of Magnetic Leakage First. Leakage in Magnetic Circuits Up to this point. "Small" devices: 5V 10 V 12 V < 1/4 HP. e. However the gap cannot be reduced too much. drive motors for cars. gadgets <60 V (no UL required) < 1 Amp Usually pretty safe. >100 A generators. not even in a vacuum. lawn mowers Can be dangerous.#30 AWG MediumLarge#20 AWG #10 AWG # turns (common devices): <100 turns/coil is reasonable >200 turns/coil is a lot The power can be reduced by reducing the size of the gap. major appliances. a discussion about reasonable designs. Also the assumption that the reluctance of the steel is negligible no longer applies. unless careless or negligent. or the useful flux cannot be accessed. I. possibly deadly. 5A 10 A 15 A small appliances. In reality. but also all around the airgap. Wire (handled by hand): Tiny. 59 . 10 mA 50 mA 100 mA computer peripherals. There is no such thing as a magnetic field insulator. "Medium" devices 60 V 110 V 220 V 1-5 HP .. deadly unless proper care is taken. flux flow through the designated airgap only. rail-guns Dangerous energy and power levels. unless proper care is taken "Large" devices >400 V 50 HP and higher.g.#40 AWG Small. because of the magnetic potential difference that exits there. This in a magnetic circuit. we have been studying idealized flux flow.

and may cause the steel to saturate in places. Φm = Φg = Φ o = Br Am P g + PL Pm + Pg + PL Pg Φo Φo which is greater than without leakage which is less than without leakage Pm + P g + PL Thus for EM design. II. Φ T = (Ni )(P g + PL ) which is the same as without leakage. Φ g = (Ni )P g . Because the leakage increases the total flux through the system (to higher than expected levels). Permeance Formulation for Leakage 60 . leakage has little effect on the gap flux. leakage can greatly reduce the expected gap flux. which is greater than without leakage. Some caution is needed in EM designs.i N + Ni - P g P L Φg ΦT ΦL For a coil as the MMF source. lm Φo P P m g P L Φg Φm ΦL For a PM circuit. But for PM designs.

Calculate the gap flux. the path becomes longer. Pn gets smaller. about the same. A. Example 1. of the model below. N P P P P N P 1 1 1 P 2 P 3 S 3 2 S > P2 > P3 > . 1 Gauss = 0. and the leakage flux across the right face (face 1). The flux leaving a face is the same a the flux going into the other faces from that face. In a 3 dimensional object. Close to gap. Use a gaussmeter to measure the flux densities at various locations. It uses a semiconductor device of known area that produces a voltage ∝ flux through the area.. P1 As we move further from the gap. The amount of flux depends on the permeance of each path. 61 . Especially concentrated around the gap because that is where the permeance of the path is lowest.. Experimental Calculation Can use a gaussmeter (a device that measures gauss). there is leakage from one face to another all around the object due to the difference in potential.0001 Tesla So make measurements across a face of the circuit. flux and flux density drop (and the flux lines get further apart).Flux will flow wherever there is a magnetic potential.

001 0.025 m Φ L1 = ∑ B w∆h j use ∆h = 0.18 × 10 −7 Wb/A (or h.4 mWb Φ L1 = ∑ B w∆h = 0.0005 Then Φ g = Bg Ag = 0. henries) Ni 3000 62 .005 m ∆h = 5 mm hj Then Location gap ∆h1 ∆h2 ∆h3 ∆h4 ∆h5 | B (measured) 0.5 0.0005 m2 Solution to Example 1.050 m lg = 0.005 m Ni = 3000 A-t Ag = 0.1 0.155 mWb j =1 j 5 and PL1 = Φ L1 F = Φ L1 1.02 0.8 0. h = 0.55 × 10 −3 = = 5.+ h i N lg - w w = 0.

We want to see how close we are to the knee in the magnetic material properties curve. ηLL B Hci P P m P g Bm Φ0 L Φg Φm ΦL Hc Hm H 63 .04 m 0. P L1 Φ L1 P L1 = Φg Pg . and due to leakage from the (circular) pole ends. Experimentally with a cylindrical object steel steel 0. Determine the operating point of the magnet. Say the magnetic material is an Alnico. Thus = Φ L1 P g Φg = Φ l µo Ag Φl g Now. this must be done for all the faces of the circuit.01 m Example 2. The analogous electric circuit is shown below. we can use Since Finally F L1 Pg = µo Ag lg P L1 = Fg .If Ni is not known. due to the flux in the gap. B. as in a PM type circuit. Solution to Example 2.

We need to find Φm. Φ m = Φ g + Φ L .

Then

Bm =

Φm Am

First, find the gap flux. With a gaussmeter, 6400 gauss, or 0.64 Tesla, is measured. Φ g = ∫ B ⋅ d A = Bave Ag
airgap

= (0.64 T)(0.01 m)π(0.04) = 0.8 mWb Next, find the leakage flux (from one source, the center pole, for this example): Φ L1 =
0.2

∫ 2πBrdr = 2π∑ B r ∆r
j j 0

r | 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.185 Thus Finally

B(T) (measured from model) 0.0414 0.0732 0.0892 0.144 0.412 from this source. (What other sources are there?)

Φ L1 = 0.167 mWb

Φ m = Φ g + Φ L1 + Φ L 2 + ...

C.

Analytical Permeance Calculations

If the direction of the field is known, the calculation is straightforward. For any given volume,
R

=

l µA

or

dR =

dl µA

Let's say the magnetic circuit is that for the VCM shown below:

64

r2 steel r1

h For a differential change in length along the airgap, dl = dr and Thus, dR = dr 2πµo hr
2

and

R

A = 2πhr r ln 2 r dr r1 =∫ = 2πµo h r 2πµo hr
1

If the direction is not known (exactly), we can often assume a reasonable shape. Example 4. Determine an analytical formulation for the leakage between the two faces shown below. Each face is a a different magnetic potential.
r2

r1

w

Solution to Example 4. circular shaped field lines.

For the face near the gap shown below, assume a semi-

r1

r r2

dr

65

Since

P

=

µA , l
r2

then

dP =

µwdr πr

where dA = wdr

and

l = πr

Thus

P

=

r1

µo wdr µo w r2 = ln πr π r1

D.

Other formulas:

see "Electro-magnetic Devices," by Roters (a classic)

66

B2 wm = 1 HB = 1 µH 2 = 2 2 2µ By integrating over a volume. by the way the energy in a magnetic field is defined. Lecture #9: Creation of Magnetic Energy and Force I. This is the area underneath the B-H curve. This is because the force generated by a motion device in a magnetic field in a x-direction can be calculated by F=− ∂Wm ∂x λconst B. especially in finite-element analysis. For coupled electromagnetic-mechanical type systems. In ferromagnetic materials. If. This method of calculation of the stored magnetic energy is very important in magnetic field analysis. saturation causes B to be a non-linear function of H. multiplied by the material volume (assuming that B and H are uniform through that volume). the integral is easily evaluated. the mechanical components. In all the magnetic devices we will examine. the energy stored in the volume is Wm = µ 2 vol ∫H 2 dv = 1 2µ vol ∫ B dv 2 Note that. the device is operated in the linear part of the B-H curve. however. and the magnetic components. Pure Magnetic Systems wm = ∫ H ⋅ d B The energy density contained in a magnetic field is given by where the units are in Joules/cubic-meter.EM Devices. H is parallel to B. Energy in Magnetic Fields The energy that is contained in a magnetic field is of considerable interest in the formulation of force and torque for motion devices. A. and also for the calculation of energy transferred to a magnetic field. and therefore the integral must be evaluated to calculate the energy. the energy loss in a magnetic material due to the hysteresis behavior of the material is merely the area contained within the hysteresis loop during operation. Magnetic energy in an electrical device 71 . energy is transferred between the electrical components.

but for most electromechanical devices the formulation can be made much simpler due to the simplicity of the geometries used. Integrating the third term. The co-energy is defined by Wm ( i) = ∫ λdi ′ The co-energy. which expresses λ as a function of i. fictitious quantity. as shown. The "co-energy".The above formulation of energy is necessary for open field analyses. and the third term is the magnetic energy stored in the device. the second term is the heat dissipated through the resistance of the windings. the energy stored in the magnetic field is Wm ( λ) = ∫ idλ The energy is the area marked on the i vs. is the area on the opposite side of the curve. Consider the electrical circuit below. is usually a much easier term to derive. which is a non-existent. An assumption is made that there are no hysteresis of eddy current losses. 72 . Φ + V i Lg V + - i R L Ag The voltage equation gives Thus the power input to the device is V = iR + dλ dt Power = Vi = Ri 2 + i The electrical input energy in a time dt is dλ dt 2 dWin = Ri dt + idλ where the first term is the energy input. λ plot shown below.

This motion can be linear. The energy stored in the magnetic field is a function of the flux and the position of the armature. if the device is operated away from saturation in the linear part of the curve. The Generation of Force and Torque Now assume that the magnetic field causes something to mechanically move. e. an armature of some sort. the energy and the co-energy become equal. or inductance since λ = NΦ Thus Ni = F = R Φ Φ = P Ni P N2 = L iλ = NiΦ = (R Φ )Φ = Ni (P Ni) = Li 2 The energy or co-energy operating in the linear region of the magnetic materials can be thus expressed in several ways Wm (Φ ) = 1 2 R Φ2 ′ Wm (F ) = 1 PF 2 2 ′ Wm (i) = 1 Li 2 2 II.e. rotary or multidirectional.g. ′ 2 Wm = Wm = 1 iλ Iλ can be expressed in terms of reluctance. permeance. in the x-direction. However. due to saturation effects of the material. The force generated by a change in this energy is given by ∂W F =− m ∂x λconst 73 .λ energy λ energy co-energy co-energy i non-linear linear i The relationship between i and λ is generally non-linear. Assume for the moment that the motion is only linear. i.

Use the formulation of force dR F = − 1 Φ2 2 dx x dR 1 since = Φ = Bg Ag and Rg = . from the previous expressions. For the figure shown at the beginning of the lecture. A useful rule of thumb is that when there exists a 1 Tesla field normal on a 1 in2 area. consider a differential motion of one pole face toward the other (x-direction).We can differentiate the previous expression for magnetic energy (in terms of flux and reluctance) to get dR F = − 1 Φ2 2 dx The force relationship is dependent on the change in the reluctance of the system. calculate the force between the pole faces. Co-energy is equal to the energy when the device is operated in the linear parts of the magnetics curves. Some interesting questions: How does the problem change when a permanent magnet is used as the MMF? How does the problem change when the effects of leakage are included? B= µ0 Ni lg 74 . µ0 Ag dx µAg Thus F= B 2 Ag 2µ0 This formula is very useful in many applications. F = 1 i2 2 dL dx F= 2 1 2F dP dx Example 1. Thus the force generated is also F= ′ ∂Wm ∂x iconst and thus. The co-energy is a function of the position and the current in the device. Solution to Example 1. For the simple C-circuit shown. For now. Applying the virtual work approach. ignore the effects of leakage. the attractive pull is 60 lb. Devices which use this principle of operation are called variable reluctance devices. Assume that the reluctance in the steel is negligible compared to that in the airgap.

µs A (7 − 0. Taking the mean path length in the steel.24 × 10 5 A-t III. and thus the reluctance of the steel cannot be ignored. The beam is 7 m long. and ignore the effects of magnetic leakage (although leakage is very easy to include in this case. It works. The system below is a rudimentary (cheap) speaker or earphone. There is no airgap. The electromagnet must lift 1000 kg. calculate the ampere turns needed to lift a 1000 kg steel beam. Some Simple Reluctance Devices Now take a look at a combined electrical-mechanical-magnetic system. Since the electromagnet has 2 faces.028 Wb Reluctance is R x . the diaphragm mass moves and pushes air. from the sense that if a current is applied to the coil.25 × 0.25) = = 4. BEAM Solution to Example 2.25) + 12 π (7 − 0. The goal is to be able to precisely control the motion of the mass by controlling either the voltage or the current in the coil.Example 2. Assume that the reluctance of both the steels is 500µ0. Both the beam and the electromagnet have a cross-sectional area of 25 x 25 cm.42 × 10 5 h-1 500 µ0 × 0.25 R = Thus the ampere-turn required is Ni = R Φ = 1.25) × 4900 = 0. We can use the derived formula from the previous example. Thus sound is produced or reproduced. 75 . each face must lift 4900 N. or 9800 N. We will consider only the translation of the mass.25 × 0. For the electromagnet shown below. B 2 Ag F= 2µ0 Thus the flux needed is Φ = 2 µ0 AF Φ = 2 µ0 × (0.

some solenoid actuators. velocity. Consequently. i. Might be fine if the motion is small. The non-linearities involved with the control of force. since voice ∝ voltage or voice ∝ current. even with current control. Pass out sample of hammer mechanism for a printer. and position make the fine control of the device very challenging. Examples of such devices are electromagnets for lifting. small speakers or headphones. doorbell and telephone ringers (the type where a hammer strikes a bell). This usually leads to distortion of the output.e. otherwise. distortion will occur.Φ /2 A Φ 2A i A N Φ /2 m ks ks x F =∑ B 2 Ai 2µ0 Notice right away that the force on the moving mass can be calculated as Also recall that B= Φ FP NiP = = A A A Thus F ∝ i2 The control problem is nonlinear. NiP A Also note that B= 1 2 lg B∝P ∝ 1 lg B∝ 1 lg Thus F∝ The device is also difficult to control since force is dependent upon the position of the return steel. simple reluctance devices of this type are used mainly for on/off type applications. hammers for impact printers. 76 . cheap speakers.

Cheap! Good for on-off type applications. and current (and thereby the relationship between voltage and displacement only). The electrical equation gives the relationship between voltage.As an academic exercise. V = iR + L di dx + Kg dt dt where K g = dλ dx and L= dλ di  µ A For the configuration shown. Sum: Very powerful. Kg = d (N Φ ) d [N (NiP = dx dx F =m )] = N 2 i d  µ0 A  N 2iµ0 A  =− dx  x  x2 The mechanical equation of motion is d 2x − 2 k ( x − x0 ) dt 2 The magnetic force on the mass is  B2 A  F = 2  µ    0  B= NiP Ni  µ0 A  µ0 Ni =  = A A x  x where The magnetics equation gives the relationship between current and force. high force device. using the coil voltage as the input. L = N 2 P = N 2  0   x  Also. IV. The electrical equation for the voltage across the coil is V = iR + dλ dt The derivative of the flux linkage can be written in terms of the inductance and the speedance of the device. Generates force and motion control over a very small interval. Works in one direction only. The mechanical equation gives the relationship between force and displacement (and thereby the relationship between current and displacement). displacement. Maxwell's Stress Tensor 77 . Non-linear. hard to control. we will go ahead and develop the governing equations for the control of the position of the mass.

so the last term is negligible. e. We know that Thus σN = 1 µo << 1 µo (B B i j − 1 δij Bk Bk ni n j 2 ) For most magnetic devices. saturation has not occurred. It is the relationship between the tensor for magnetic intensity and the tensor for stress at a point in space. Thus σN exists only where the permeability of two materials are different.e. σN is almost non-existent. B is normal to A. Traction at the interface of two different materials can be calculated from σN = Tija − Tija ni n j Note that within the same material. a magnetic field creates no internal forces within a material. i. The forces only exist at the interface of two material with different permeabilities. We thus get the familiar form of the equation B2 A F =σN A = 2 µo 78 . Maxwell's stress tensor. because H is about the same everywhere within the same material. i. and material "b" is air. from magnetic theory. Tij = µHij Hij − 1 δij H k H k ( µ − ρ ∂µ ∂ρ) 2 We will assume that permeability does not change (much) with changes in material density. at the surface where air meets the steel. steel. then Tij = 1 µ (B B i j − 1 δij Bk Bk 2 ) 1 µiron Now let's say that material "a" is iron. If we assume that we are still on the linear portion of the B-H curve. In other words.Another method of calculating force on an object is to use.e.g.

F = QU × B Now consider a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. the Voice Coil Motor Simple reluctance devices are very good in applications that require an on-off function only. and thus the Maxwell stress tensor. BIL Devices BIL devices use slightly different design approach. Thus F = Bilw sin θ If the field and the conductor are perpendicular to each other. however. takes advantage of the law that a charge moving in a magnetic field experiences a force. Find the forces per unit length on two long. the expression becomes simply F = Bilw This expression is fondly referred to as "Bill's Law". 79 . as it is in most engineering devices. They are however difficult to control if the requirement calls for precise motion or force control. straight. lw is dt d F = dQ (U × B ) = (idt )(U × B ) = i(d l w × B ) If the conductor is straight the field is uniform along its length.02 m.EM Devices. I. or wire. parallel conductors if each carries a current of 10 amps in the same direction and the separation distance is 0. BIL devices. They are inexpensive and can generate a great deal of force over a small distance. then the force on the conductor may be found by integration. Lecture #10: Coreless (BIL) Devices. Current is defined as dQ i= Thus the differential force on an element of the conductor. Ultimately both BIL and reluctance devices derive force (and torque) from the interference of magnetic fields. Example 1.

adjacent wires can come together with forces on the order of hundreds of pounds per inch. The field seen by the second wire that is produced by the first wire is perpendicular to the second wire. Thus. Such forces can easily smash the insulation on the wires and deform the wire itself. The flux density magnitude is µi µ (10) B= 0 = 0 = 10 −5 T 2πr 2π (0.20) F Thus the force produced is = Bi sin θ = (10 −5 )(10) sin( 90 o ) = 10 −4 N/m lw The force is directed toward the other wire. In some applications of magnetizing with a coil on both sides of the magnet. but consider the application of magnetizing a magnet with a coil. the coils can come together with such force that the magnet is damaged or cut. A rectangular wire loop is placed within a constant magnetic field as shown. This force may not seem to significant.10 A 10 A r Solution to Example 1. B i ϕ r r lw 80 . Example 2. wires carrying currents in the same direction have a tendency to pull themselves together. With currents of several thousand amps. Find the forces and torques exerted on the loop when it carries a current i.

The coil is then attached to a carriage of some sort. and a coil of wire within the field.Solution to Example 2. To keep the torque in one direction. Thus the total torque produced (by both wire segments) is T = 2 Bilw r cos ϕ The above example shows a simple representation of a motor. II. It is typically composed of a magnet structure which produces a flux field. the forces are directed outward from the loop. How can the force constant be increased? More turns. The wire is usually positioned such that it is perpendicular to the flux field. to provide useful motion. The torque from each length parallel to the pole faces produce a torque T = Fr cosϕ . Applying a current to the wire causes the coil to move in a direction normal to both the flux field and the orientation of the wire. magnet airgap center pole coil (free) 81 . a slotless motor to be more precise. so that the current direction reverses every 180°. thus maximizing the force constant in a single direction. more ampere turns on the stator field. the current in the loop is commutated. The forces and torques on these sections cancel. A. This is shown below. and thus there is no force imbalance. because of its applications in the past. ferromagnetic core within the loop. The gap is usually uniform to provide a uniform flux field in a linear or radial configuration. the force is just F = Bilw sinθ = Bilw sin 90 o = Bilw . or switched. For the wire lengths that form the radii of the loop. and thus do not affect the loop. The VCM Typical configuration A voice coil motor is also referred to as a a speaker motor or linear actuator. The forces on each of these sections are equal and opposite in direction (normal to the face of the loop). For each of the wire lengths parallel to the pole faces. larger B field (better magnets.

FORCE

Used to produce a useful force F = NBl w i

Under controlled current, Where

Newtons/Ampere

N = number of turns of wire B = (constant) flux density within the airgap lw = effective length of wire in the airgap for each turn of wire i = applied electrical current F = resultant force on the coil

This is sometimes written as F = k f i where k f = NBl w is known as the force constant.

As compared to simple reluctance devices, VCM's have many advantages. Their control is linear, the stroke is long and useful. However, they are more complex to build, need support bearings for the coil, do not provide as high a force. VCM's are found in robots, disk drives, better audio speakers.

F

speaker cone

F

B.

Other Configurations

82

The design concept is extremely flexible in geometry. This advantage makes VCM's easy to custom design into robots and other devices. Other variations also exist.

FORCE

Long coil design. Used in many old disk file linear actuators, e.g. IBM 3380 and copies. Long coil, but only a part of it (that within the field) is active. Has an advantage when magnet material is very expensive. A field is produced only where it is needed. Disadvantage of high moving mass.

FORCE

83

Moving magnet design. Higher moving mass, but no moving wires. Senheiser headphones use this design, with rare earth magnets.

FORCE

Flat coil designs. Saves space. Multiple actuator possibilities.

N S

FORCE

Rotary Actuators. Simple bearing structure. The actual structure depends on the application.

C.

The Voltage Constant

When a current is applied to the coil, a force is produced. To calculate the current from an applied voltage, we must use V = iR + L di dx + Kg = iZ + Ve dt dt

where Ve is the back electro-motive force (BEMF) term, which is entirely due to the speedance of the device. Another way to view this term is as the source due the VCM acting as a generator when the coil is moved. Without the BEMF term, any applied voltage would cause the coil to accelerate forever, and the coil velocity would become infinite. Notice that if the BEMF increases, the effective voltage across the coil decreases, and so does the resultant current. When the BEMF equals the applied voltage, current no longer flows, the velocity becomes constant. To calculate Ve, it is necessary to calculate the speedance Kg = dλ dΦ =N dx dx

84

the force constant and BEMF constant are numerically the same! D. etc. in this case. the coil stops accelerating when the BEMF matches the applied voltage and voltage drop due to coil resistance. and is also commonly written as Ke. The Maximum Speed If the BEMF constant is known. neglecting all friction. x The flux passing through the coil at the center-pole is the same as the flux passing through the area traversed by the coil from the end of the VCM Thus Kg = N d (lw xB ) = Nl w B dx Thus Ve = Nl w B dx dt Kg is also known as the Back EMF Constant.From the figure of the VCM below. Note that when SI units are used. it is a relatively simple matter to calculate the maximum speed of the coil. the total flux enclosed by the coil is Φ = lw xB where x is the travel from the end of the VCM and lw is the effective wire length per turn. dx Vapplied = iR + Ve = iR + K e      dt  max Thus Vapplied − iR  dx    = Ke  dt  max and i=0 85 . First..

Mathematical Model of a VCM General Formulation In many VCM applications. the designer is interested in the motion of the carriage from one location to another. or bearings Ff = constant Coulomb friction in the guideways. Lecture #11: I. Thus the mechanical state equations are dx dx ′ x′ = and kfi = m + k d x ′ + F f + k s x + Fconst dt dt The electrical (including magnetic) state equation is dλ di V0 = Ri + = Ri + L + k e x ′ dt dt In this case. opposes velocity ks = spring coefficient from suspensions or cables which act as springs Fconst = constant load. kd = viscous damping coefficient. Often the desire is to move from one location to another in the shortest time possible. FORCE x The force applied to the carriage due to the current i in the coil is F = kfi. Thus a relationship between the applied voltage and the velocity and location of the carriage must be developed. due to air. Usually also of interest is the average power require to make such a motion. A. the VCM structure below is considered. To develop a set of modeling equations for a typical VCM.EM Devices. as from gravity The above equations can be rearranged as follows 87 .

Note that the Coulomb friction term has a constant amplitude. and represents that portion & of the electrical power being converted to mechanical power.g. this must be taken into account. but a direction which always opposite of the velocity. Pin = Pout The back EMF reduces the effective voltage applied to the coil. To solve the state equation (and thus obtain x as a function of input voltage). In programming the solution. the equation is 0 1 0 0   x    0  0 m 0  d  x ′ =  − F − F  −  k f const   dt      s V0 0 0 L   i    0        or more compactly. Once the expression for current is obtained. it was determined that the force constant and the back EMF constant were numerically equivalent (in SI units).dx = x′ dt dx ′ m = −(F f + Fconst ) − (k s x + k d x ′ − k f i ) dt di L = V0 − (k e x ′ + Ri ) dt In matrix form. the instantaneous power can be calculated from P = Ri 2 t R m 2 and the average power over a move time tm is Pave = i dt tm ∫ 0 Earlier. Vi = Fx Thus (k e x ′)i = (k f i )x ′ and ke = k f 88 . M dX = Y − KX dt −1 kd ke 0  x  − k f   x ′   R  i    The familiar state equation is then dX = M −1 ( Y − KX) dt The only difference between this equation and that learn in your Controls class is that we can now calculate every single element in the matrices from the construction of the device. and the initial conditions. e. since the power input must be equal to the power output.g. it is necessary to specify the input voltage. this makes sense. From a power balance. e.

B.

Example of Current Controlled Input

The most sophisticated servo controllers and amplifiers (and also the most expensive) provide a current controlled input to the device. Consider the following application using current controlled input to a VCM. It is desired to move from a distance x = 0 to a distance x = xm in as short as time t = tm as possible. It is desired to do this in as short a time as possible, and to calculate the average power to make such a move. Clearly the optimal control strategy is to apply the maximum current possible (call it i0) to accelerate the carriage, and then after a certain acceleration time t = ta, apply the maximum negative current possible (call it -i0) to decelerate the carriage to the desired distance. Under current control, the electrical equation can be ignored. For the purpose of demonstration, assume that all external forces on the coil and carriage are negligible for this example. The mechanical equation becomes dx ′ kfi = m = ma dt Thus to get the carriage to move fast, we naturally want a high force constant and low mass. A large current also helps, but this option creates a large power dissipation. It is usually desired in most application to keep the current, and thus the power dissipation, to a minimum. To move to xm, the maximum positive current is turned on for half the time, then the maximum negative current is turned on for the remaining time. The resulting acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles are shown below.
i ta -i tm -a a ta tm

xa ta tm

.

xm ta tm

89

The total displacement is the area under the velocity curve, thus xm = 1 xa t m ′ 2 The maximum velocity occurs at time ta. From the area under the acceleration curve, the maximum velocity is k f i  tm  ′ xa =   m 2 4 xm m tm = Thus the total move time is kfi Note that the move time decreases with increasing force constant. This is because with constant current control, the back EMF plays no role (until the back EMF approaches the maximum bus voltage). The power dissipation required to make the move is P = Ri 2 . The current as a function of a desired move time can be calculated from the equation above.  4x m  1 i= m  2  k f  tm   Thus the power dissipation require to move within a desired time is

 4x m  1 P = Ri = R  m  4  kf  t  
2

2

This means, for example, that in order the drop the move time in half, the device will dissipate 16 time as much power.

C.

Example of Voltage Controlled Input

Current control is ideal, but expensive. By far the most common controllers and amplifiers are voltage controlled. The back EMF must be considered for these type of controllers. Once again, consider the case of moving from a distance x = 0 to a distance x = xm in as short as time t = tm as possible. It is desired to do this in as short a time as possible, and to calculate the average power to make such a move. Clearly the optimal control strategy, once again, is to apply the maximum voltage possible (call it V0) to accelerate the carriage, and then after a certain acceleration time t = ta,

90

apply the maximum negative voltage possible (call it -V0) to decelerate the carriage to the desired distance. The mechanical equations are once again dx dx ′ x′ = and kfi = m = ma dt dt The electrical equation is di V0 = Ri + L + k e x′ dt Differentiate the electrical equation and plug in the mechanical equation to get L kk d 2i 1 di + + ω 02i = 0 τ= and ω2 = e f where 0 2 R dt mL τ dt The solution to this differential equation is very similar to the solution of the basic LCR circuit once again. The general solution is 1 2 i = a1e s1t + a 2 e s2t where s1 , s2 = − 1 ± 1 − 4(τω 0 )   2τ    The roots are real for the overdamped case. In the case of the optimal control strategy, the roots are real in the absence of any capacitance or spring type term. Solving for the constants above, when a voltage is applied at t = 0 the initial current is zero. Thus, at t = 0, 0 = a1 + a 2 or a 2 = −a1 and the general solution becomes i (t ) = a e s1t − e s2 t

(

)
di V = 0 dt t = 0 L

Also, at t = 0 the velocity is zero. Thus the electrical equation yields Differentiating the general solution at t = 0, the constant a is found to be V0 V  1   = a s1 e s1 ⋅0 − s2 e s2 ⋅0 or a= 0 L  s1 − s2  L  

(

)

Thus the current as a function of time can be specified. One the current is specified, the velocity, and displacement, can be found by integrating the mechanical equation. t k t ′(t ) = f ∫ i (t )dt and x x (t ) = ∫ x ′ (t )dt m 0 0

The carriage moves for a time t = ta, then a negative voltage is applied until time t = tm.

91

The general solution to the differential equation for the current is the same, but he initial condition change. After time t = ta,

i = a 3e s1t + a 4 e s2 t
At time t = ta the accelerating and the decelerating currents are the same. Thus V  1  s1t a s 2 ta st s t i (t a ) = 0  = a3e 1 a + a4e 2 a  s −s e −e L 1 2  Solving for the derivative of current in the electrical equation and the general solution, di(t ) V R k di(t) = − 0 − i(t ) − e x ′(t ) = s1 a3 e s1t + s2 a 4 e s2 t dt L L L dt

(

)

The derivative of the current at time t = ta can be calculated because the current and the velocity at that time have been determined already from the analysis on the acceleration phase of operation. We can equate the two equations above at t = ta, and with the previous equation obtain

i (t a ) = a 3e s1t a + a 4 e s2t a di(ta ) = s1 a3 e s1t a + s 2 a 4 e s2 ta dt
These equations represent 2 equations and two unknowns, from which a3 and a4 can be calculated. Once the current is found as a function of time, the velocity and position of the carriage can be found from the integration. t k t x ′(t ) = x ′(ta ) + f ∫ i(t )dt and x (t ) = x (ta ) + ∫ x ′(t )dt m ta ta Some typical plots for the applied voltage, the current (acceleration), the velocity, and the position are shown below.

92

a ta tm xa ta tm . the current is not zero. even when the voltage is switched off. Note that at the end of the move time. 93 .V ta -V tm i. opposes the applied voltage in the acceleration phase. xm ta tm The roll-off in current is due to the back EMF which. causing the carriage to "bounce back" slightly. During the deceleration phase. the back EMF actually helps to slow the carriage down. This means that there will be a negative velocity after the target position has been reached. as the velocity becomes greater.

(Power in) = (Power out) 2 1 i. Ex. layers) C. of unreasonable requirement: 0.5 kg. 94 . number of turns. resistance) Total mass Force constant Volume (size) Efficiency (is cooling available?) Operating conditions (temperature. moving mass 0 to 100 m/s in 1 sec. some Non-Linear Effects I.EM Devices. Design Constraints and Restrictions Energy (power) must be conserved. A. Lecture #12: Design Considerations. Pick dimensions for the magnet and gap. friction) electrical (inductance. caustic environment) Cost More? Design variables: VCM configuration Geometry within the configuration Materials (magnetic properties) Gap length B field Coil (material. VCM's Design Trade-offs Choose an Application (Have the class decide on an application) B. Ignore leakage for now. Configuration. # turns. effective wire length per turn. 2 mv ≠ ∫ Vidt 15 V maximum voltage 1 amp maximum current Must look at: Stroke Maximum speed Voltage available Current available Impedancemechanical (moving mass. The First Cut Guess at the first approximation to get a value of gap flux.e.

ρ = 3 x 10-8 Ω/m Inductance ρ = 1.5 x 10-8 Ω/m   µ A L = N 2 P = N 2 2 o + leakage terms    lm + l g   If not. must iterate the design. D. silver. requires more voltage II.tighter tolerances required (tough for coils) More back EMF. The force constant per coil turn is then Does this match the desired force constant? Does this match the desired BEMF constant at the desired maximum speed? Resistance k f = Bg Nlw Rcoil = ρ wl w Aw copper.Find the load line by using η LL = µo Ag lm Aml g ⇒ Bm ⇒ B g Check for saturation in the circuit. More turns less efficient i2R. Usually changing one variable changes a bunch of stuff. heat is generated more moving mass takes up more space in the gap more inductance Better magnets .more leakage Bigger magnets . Design Tradeoffs To get a larger force (BEMF) constant.more cost . A Non-linear Effect in Some VCM's 95 .cooling more difficult .less room for coils .volume .weight Smaller gap .

The coil flux treats the magnet as air. Any non-linearity may cause control problems for a control which expects a linear device. however the flux path changes because of the steel. This pattern however changes when surrounded by the steel and magnet structure of a VCM. To the left of the wire in the figure below. A. displacement exerted by a VCM at a constant current. F Pull Push x The cause of this type of non-linearity is the effect of the coil turns on themselves. A Qualitative Discussion A single wire with a current in air has a circular flux pattern. The result is that the field generated by the wire is practically non-existent to its left. pull (direction of force). the flux tends to travel through the steel rather than air. There is also a difference in push vs. or compensated in the controller.Sometimes a non linearity is seen in force vs. One common non-linearity occurs even when the coil has no velocity. Either the problem must be recognized and corrected. due to the lower reluctance path in steel. The flux on the right tend to become uniform because the reluctance in the path through the air and steel is rather uniform in the gap. 96 . The flux farther away is less due to the increase reluctance of the path.

In a push situation (force to the right).. This effect will decrease the expected force. In a pull situation (force to the left). A More Quantitative Analysis In a simple situation. the field from the turns on the left subtract from the magnet flux on the turns to the right. This effective will increase the expected force. B. the flux from the turns on the left add to the magnet flux on the turns on the right.Now with multiple turns and the flux from the magnets added to the picture.. consider a coil with N turns in a VCM. lp B 1. N lm+lg 97 .

Thus  Niµ 0  Fcoil = Nlw i  BPM +  2 (lm + l g )     µo  2 Fcoil = NB PM l wi + N 2 lw  i  2(lm + l g )   Rewritten The first term is just the force expected from the coil without the non-linear effect. Assume that the center turn will have an average effect. 98 . e.Consider the center turn. H ~ 0 in steel B = µH Thus Bcoil = Then the force exerted on the coil turn is the force exerted on the center turn multiplied by the total number of turns Fcoil = Nlw i(B PM + Bcoil ) where Bcoil is the average coil effect. The turns to the right of the center turn will have more of the flux adding (subtracting) effect from their more-left turns. The non-linear effect is thus quadratic and is always added to the total force. The turns to the left of the center turn will have less of the flux adding (subtracting) effect from their more-left turns. Using Ampere's Law: Rewritten N   i = H coil (lm + l g ) 2  N  Bcoil (lm + lg )  i = µo 2 Ni µo 2(lm + lg ) e.g. The second term is the force added because of the non-linear effect.g.

fast movements. the more serious the non-linearity. One possible solution that is often used is the dual magnetic path actuator. kf pull kf=NBl w push i Not all VCM's exhibit this effect.g. It puts steel for a magnetic return path at the other side of the actuator.F pull linear term slope=NBl w non-linear term i push When the force is positive (pull). It depends on its magnet and steel configuration. seeks. the coil effect make the total force less positive. the coil effect makes the total force more positive. The effect on the force constant (for control modeling) is to create a force constant that varies linearly with current. 99 . etc. The higher the current. When the force is negative (push). e. This may be especially a problem in devices with high pulsed current.

But there is a solution for this too.The advantage is that the second return path provides an equivalent effect on the more-right coils as the original path does on the more-left coils. Since L = N 2P this means that the coil inductance is increased. since the carriage must reach around the steel to get to the coil. This eliminates the non-linearity. 100 . The disadvantage is that it is a harder device to build. Another disadvantage is that the additional steel decreases the reluctance (by a lot) for the coil flux. Another advantage is that it reduces the magnetic leakage from the end on the magnet structure.

Hmm. So current in one coil induces a voltage and a current in a second coil..EM Devices. So let's try to model the phenomenon with transformer analogy. the center pole is covered by a copper or aluminum sleeve. magnet airgap center pole shorted turn coil (free) This sleeve. with ST i quicker rise slower rise no ST t The principle of operation follows Lenz's Law: a transient current flow i1 in the primary (moving) coil induces a transient current flow i2 in the secondary coil in the opposite direction. usually the thickness of a wire diameter. Lecture #13: Theory of the Shorted Turn I.. The Shorted Turn Sometimes in a VCM. The purpose of a shorted turn is to reduce the effective electrical inductance during the initial response. This effect often (depending on the stroke length) reduces the response time of the coil.. sounds like a transformer. 101 . Eddy current work on the same principle. This is sometimes called a shunted turn. is a shorted turn. or a shunt.

the coil and ST flux patterns appear as below. We begin the analysis by writing the governing equations. 102 .Φ 12 + R1 e1 i1 Φ1 N1 Φ2 i2 e2 N2 R2 icoil ist V1 - Define: V1 = applied voltage source R1 = coil resistance R2 = ST resistance of the active volume e1 = induced (Faraday) voltage in the coil e2 = induced (Faraday) voltage in the ST N1 = # of turns in the coil N2 = # of turns in the ST (N2 = 1) Φ 1 = leakage flux unique to coil 1 only Φ 2 = leakage flux unique to coil 2 only Φ 12 = mutual flux. Φ12 Φ2 Φ1 Φ2 Φ1 Φ12 The purpose of the analysis is to calculate the coil current as a function of the voltage applied to the coil. following Lenz's Law In a (dual path) VCM. linking both coils i1 = current in coil 1 i2 = current in coil 2.

Faraday's Law: e1 = N 1 e2 = N 2 d ( Φ12 + Φ1 ) d ( Φ 12 + Φ 2 ) dt dt (1) (2) (3) (4) Kirchoff's Law: Ohm's Law: Ampere's Law V1 = R1i1 + e1 0 = R2i2 + e2 N 1i1 + N 2 i2 = Φ1 P 1 Φ N 2 i2 = 2 P 2 N 1i1 = Φ 12 P 12 (5) (6) (7) where P12 = permeance seen by Φ 12 P1 = permeance seen by Φ 1 P2 = permeance seen by Φ 2 The object is to find i1 as a function of V1. Now we go through some manipulation. (10) (11)** 103 . Put equations (5) and (6) into equation (1) d [P (N 1i1 + N 2 i2 ) + P N 1i1 ] 12 1 e1 = N 1 dt Put equation (8) into equation (3) V1 = R1i1 + N 12 (P + P ) 12 1 di1 di + N1 N 2 P 2 12 dt dt (8) (9)** Put equation (2) into equation (4) d (Φ 12 + Φ 2 ) 0 = R2i2 + N 2 dt Put equations (5) and (7) into equation (10) d [P (N 1i1 + N 2i 2 ) + P N 2 i2 ] 12 2 0 = R2 i2 + N 2 dt di1 di 0 = R2 i2 + N 1 N 2 P + N 22 (P + P ) 2 12 12 2 dt dt The simultaneous solution of equations (9) and (11) will give i1(t ) and i2(t).

L1 and L2 are on the same order of magnitude. and the circuit becomes 104 . * R2 → ∞ . we can create an analogous circuit. Without the shorted turn. We define the terms L12 = N 12 P 12 L1 = N 12 P 1 L2 = N 12 P 2 2 N i = 2 i2 N1 * 2 N R = 1 N  2 * 2   R2   With these definitions. the ** equations (9) and (11) become * di1 di2 + L12 V1 = R1i1 + (L12 + L1 ) dt dt di di * * * 0 = R2 i2 + L12 1 + (L12 + L2 ) 2 dt dt (12) (13) Equations (12) and (13) describe the Kirchoff Voltage Laws for the following circuit.To get a more intuitive feel of what is happening. as are R1 and R2*. i1 R1 L1 i2* i1 +i2 * L2 V1 + - L12 R2* Since Then P >> P 12 1 L12 >> L1 and and P >> P 12 2 L12 >> L2 Also.

This is shown below. L12 is very large.i1 R1 L1 V1 + - L12 The time constant is τa = L1 + L12 and the asymptotic final value is R1 i Fa = V1 R1 With the shorted turn. so the current rises faster. It can be simulated initially as an open circuit at that point in the analogous circuit. R1 L1 i1 = i2 * V1 + L2 R2* The time constant is τb = L1 + L2 and the asymptotic final value is * R1 + R2 i Fb = V1 * R1 + R2 The time constant is smaller than without the shorted turn. However. the asymptotic final value for this part of the rise is also less than without the shorted turn. Remember the definition of time constant and final value for a first order system? i slope = R/L =1/τ if t 105 .

the initial rise toward the final value iFb with time constant τb is quickly completed. so =0 dt Rewritten We can then set the left side of the equation to zero to get the homogeneous solution * di * 0 = L12 (R1 + R2 ) 1 + R1 R2 i1 dt The time constant for this solution of the form ae L12 τc = * R1 R2 ( R1 + R2* ) t τ is The final reaction with the shorted turn. 106 . The analogous circuit then appears as below. At this stage. compared to without the shorted turn is shown below.With the shorted turn. i1 R1 V1 + - L12 R2 * V1 = i1Z  L R *s  = i1  R1 + 12 2 *   L12 s + R2    * *  R R + R1 L12 s + R2 L12 s   = i1  1 2 *   L12 s + R 2   * * V1 (L12 s + R2 ) = (R1R2* + R1L12 s + R2 L12 s )i1 dV1 Assume that the applied voltage is constant. the inductances L1 and L2 appear as short circuits.

The time constants and final current values are (with N2 = 1) N 12 (P + P ) V 1 12 τa = i Fa = 1 R1 R1 N 12 (P + P ) 1 12 τb = R1 + N 12 R 2 i Fb = V1 R1 + N 12 R2 V1 R1 P R1 + N 12 R2 τ c = 12 R1 R 2 ( ) i Fc = All that is left is the calculation of the permeances. short strokes. Thus. + - For the leakage permeance around the coil only. lengthier strokes. the design is good for getting quick. 107 . is in valuable gap space. More magnet is needed to achieve the same B field and demagnetization level as without the shorted turn. but not in the ST (or else it becomes mutual flux). P1. this is essentially the uniform airspace around the coil. Remember that this permeance is for the coils and ST. For the mutual (linkage) permeance. Any flux that enters the steel is captured and becomes mutual flux. but not good for longer. The price paid. this depends on the configuration of the VCM: airgap and leakage. however.i ifb τb τc t ifa τa The shorted turn improves the initial reaction. but slows the long term reaction. not for the PM's.

V = R1i1 + N 12 (P + P ) 12 1 di1 di & + N 1P 2 + k e x 12 dt dt di di & 0 = R2 i2 + N 1P 1 + (P + P ) 2 + k st x 12 12 2 dt dt & dx F = k f i1 = m dt where N2 has already been set to 1. the force constant and the BEMF constant are numerically the same in SI units . this is essentially the uniform space above the ST.. Once a designer has specified the geometry and material used in a VCM.volume around coil area length For the permeance around the ST. volume above ST area length Putting It All Together. P. We can then add the BEMF term to the governing equations (see Lecture #12) and the dynamics term to model how the VCM behaves mechanically. and kst is the BEMF constant for the active region of the shorted turn. all the values of N.. R. In matrix format 108 . and L can be calculated. but not in the coil or the steel (or else the flux becomes mutual).

− R1   0  kf  0 − R2 0  N 12 (P + P ) − k e  i1  1  12 1      − k st  i2  + 0V =  N 1P 12  &   0   x  0 0   (P + P2 ) 12 0 N 1P 12 0 d 0 dt m  i1  i   2  x  & or  i1   i1  d   D i2  + EV = F i2   dt    x  x  &  & Rewritten  i1   i1  d   i2 = F −1D i2  + F −1EV   dt   &  x  x   & 109 .

N S Consider the extended linear motor configuration shown below. Core-less Motors Core-less motors are characterized by the following attributes: A. magnets curved. perfect for servo operations no reluctance (moving attractive force or torque) problems Similarity to flat coil actuators Linear configuration F F Rotary configuration.EM Devices. Commutation I. Cores and Slots. contain no moving iron or magnets similar to the moving coil in a VCM low moving mass. Lecture #14: 2-Phase Devices. coil pivoted. The steel may be supported on the side or front-back. 110 . Same basic geometry. The supports actually need not be magnetic.

unstable equilibria F x This act of switching the current to maintain force and direction of travel is called commutation. reversing the direction of force must be done by reversing the direction of the applied voltage. 111 . put the coil on a pivot bearing. With electronic commutation. or mechanically with brushes (spring loaded carbon brushes riding on copper rails).As the coil moves from left to right. and we have a rotary motor. reverse the current at the equilibrium points. with a current applied to the coil. With mechanical commutation. Wrap the magnet structure back on itself. The zero crossings are stable equilibrium points. This can be done electronically (with transistors switching. photo-detectors or HES for sensing). The result is the following. reversing the direction of the force can be done electronically with logic. stable points F F x To keep the carriage going. the following force profile is produced.

Field current same as armature current. part in series. the back emf causes the field to drop. field ω + - armature T Series wound: High starting torque. 112 . ω + - field armature T Parallel wound (shunt wound). Limited by back emf. However. If load is light. The two can be wound in series or in parallel with each other. Severe torque drop-off near at higher speeds as the back emf drops the field. thus dropping ke. as the motor speeds up. There also exist compound motors. until limited by internal friction or external load (instead of back emf). the motor speeds up even more. with part of the field wound in parallel. The stationary coils are the field windings.. The moving coils are called the armature windings. As ke drops. there is a possibility of a run-away motor.Can also generate the field electro-magnetically.

the width of the coil. A wide coil provides a higher level of peak force. 113 . A narrow coil provides less peak force but with a more uniform profile. one phase.II. two phases. 2-Phase Operation and Commutation The shape of the force (or torque) depends on the geometry of the motor. Two coils. in this case.. F wide narrow w x Multiple phases can be used to smooth out the force (or torque) profile. with large variations. One coil.

coil 1 coil 2 F1 coil 1 x F2 coil 2 x switch from 1 to 2. forward current switch from 1 to 2. reverse current F final result force ripple x 114 . reverse current x switch from 2 to 1. forward current combined Ft switch from 2 to 1.

assuming that the wire stretches across the stator’s entire length. The magnets and their back-iron receive an equal reaction force in the opposite direction. Effects of Slots (motor core) Core-less motors have many applications. first start with a core-less motor coil. To gain some intuition on how a slotted motor works.III. Note that the coil field seen by the magnets is the same shape as in the previous case. because we have the space to do so. ls F = 4BNl si 115 . The coil and steel receive a force in one direction according to Bill's Law. and cogging torque (often call reluctance torque). as is the magnet field seen by the coil. Slotted motors have the disadvantage of higher moving mass in the armature. we set the coil into slots in the steel. and the stator is entirely beneath the permanent magnet field ls F = 2BNl si Now sink the wires into the surface of the steel. This allows more space for turns without altering the shape of the coil field. ls F = 2BNl si More B! Finally. We bring the steel closer to the magnets to increase B as much as practical. But now attach the coil to the backing steel. Here ls is the length of the stator. We also add a second coil set within slots. Thus the mechanism of force generation is the same. It makes more efficient use of both the stator and armature fields. however B is increased because the magnets are closer to the steel. A slotted motor has many advantages. however they are not as common as the motor types which have windings set in slots of a motor core.

Note that a coil can now be modeled as a single wire a slot with a current of Ni. This position also happens to be a minimum reluctance or cogging point for the motor. or the number of times the pattern is repeated.What we get is a 4 pole. Problem. This does not necessarily mean a larger motor. The torque generated by each phase is shown below. Thus this motor is not self starting Let's try a two-phase winding. 116 . single phase motor. Need to switch 4 time per revolution. a stable point. The current needs to be reversed each time a pole transition crosses a slot. There is a position where there is zero torque generation by the applied current. 4 slot. Depends on whether or not the design is at it magnetic saturation limit. This can be done similar to the core-less motor by doubling the number of slots. increase the number of turns in the slot. The torque pattern is the following. phase 1 phase 2 Each phase consists of coils (in parallel or series) which have the same current. T θ To get more torque (constant). or every 90°.

This will double the torque constant of the machine. 2 phase design. Note that when we wind the motor in this manner. 8 slot. or every 45°. phase 1 phase 2 For a practical motor. This occurs whenever any pole transition crosses the center of any tooth. We can add more wire and fill the other half of the slot. 117 .switch 1 to -2 T switch -2 to -1 switch -1 to 2 switch 2 to 1 phase 1 phase 2 θ Note that the ideal place to commutate is where the torque from each phase overlaps. Using HES for position sensing for electronic commutation. only half the slot is filled (for a practical wire winder) . Commutation occurs 8 times per revolution. place the HES at the center of any 2 adjacent teeth. we can create the following 4 pole.

Tmax = 8BNl s ri kt = 8BNl s r where kt is the torque constant. the torque from each half is 4BNl sri. Volts/radian/sec). The motor above is 1/2 symmetrical. that kt = ke where ke is the back EMF constant. except offset by one tooth pitch.phase 1 phase 2 The first phase is shown as wound. it can be shown that in SI units (Newton-meters/amp. lm lg Also. For the entire motor. 118 . The second phase is exactly the same.

Lecture Module 15 • Demagnetization in a Motor • 3-phase Windings • The Motor Constant Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

in the wrong direction. the magnets may be demagnetized • May occur especially during start-up of motor – low impedance of the coils – no BEMF due to speedance Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.Motor Demagnetization • The coils in a motor can act as coils in any magnetizing device • If too much current is applied. Berkeley .

it may be sufficiently high to cause demagnetization • It is very important to discover the current limit a motor can endure prior to demagnetization Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.Motor Demagnetization • High currents may also occur during shutdown – – – – typical braking procedure is to short the phases BEMF is used to drive the current in the coils i2R loss within the wires dissipates rotor energy unless the current is limited. Berkeley .

Berkeley .phase 1 • Need to calculate the magnetic intensity generated in the magnet as created by the coils • Check under a worst case condition • Check if it (added to the operating point of the magnet) exceeds the intrinsic coercivity of the magnet Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

draw a path through two coils on any phase • The path goes through the airgap and into the steel of both the stator and the rotor • The magnets can be treated approximately as air • Assume that the magnetic intensity in the steel is negligibly small compared to that in air. Berkeley .phase 1 • Using Ampere’s Law. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

phase 1 Ampere’s Law 2 Ni = 2 H coil (lm + lg ) Ni = lm + l g Hm Hcoil B Bm H due to coil H coil Damage occurs H H m + H coil ≥ H ci Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

3-Phase Windings • Extremely popular in engineering applications • For large devices especially (above 10 HP) they can be built with better energy and power density than single or dual phase machines • The controllers are not much more expensive • Pre-built 3-phase controller are prevalent • Partially due to the popularity of 3-phase AC machines. where 3-phase operation produces a very linear torque profile Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

9-slot.3-Phase Windings • Consider a 6-pole. 3-phase motor with salient pole windings • This motor is 1/3 symmetrical • There are 3 common ways to wind this motor (or any 3-phase motor) • Let’s examine how this device operates Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

Center-Tap • • • • • Simplest for control Resistance = R Inductance = L Active coil current = i Inactive coil current = 0 Phase 3 coil 3 R. Berkeley . L Phase 1 Phase 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.L R 2 R. L co il 1 oil c .

Wye (Y or Star) • Higher k than center-tap for switched DC • Resistance = 2R • Inductance = 2L • Active coil current = i • Inactive coil current = 0 s Pha ase 3 coil 3 R. L e2 Ph 1 oil c . L Phase 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.L R co il 2 R. Berkeley .

but less resistive losses than center-tap • Resistance = 2R/3 • Inductance = 2L/3 • Active coil current = 2i/3 • Inactive coil current = i/3 2 ase Ph 3 Ph ase coi co il 3 l2 R. Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley . L coil 1 Phase 1 L R. L R.Delta (or Polygon) • Same k.

Berkeley .CenterPhase 1 on coil 1 common coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to common Phase 2: 2 to common Phase 3: 3 to common 1 2 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Berkeley Department of Mechanical Engineering .CenterPhase 1 on coil 1 common coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to common Phase 2: 2 to common Phase 3: 3 to common T 40 deg 1 2 3 2BNlsri 20 deg θ University of California.

WyePhase 1 on coil 1 coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to 2 Phase 2: 2 to 3 Phase 3: 3 to 1 1 2 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

WyePhase 1 on 20 deg T 4BNlsri 1 2BNlsri 2 3 coil 1 coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to 2 Phase 2: 2 to 3 Phase 3: 3 to 1 θ Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

Berkeley .2/3 2/3 2/3 coil 1 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 DeltaPhase 1 on coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to 2 Phase 2: 2 to 3 Phase 3: 3 to 1 1 2 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Berkeley Department of Mechanical Engineering .2/3 2/3 1/3 1/3 DeltaPhase 1 on coil 1 coil 2 coil 3 Phase 1: 1 to 2 Phase 2: 2 to 3 Phase 3: 3 to 1 T 40 deg 1 2 3 2BNlsri 20 deg θ University of California.

Relative Winding Efficiencies • Although the same torque is produced. the delta winding is more efficient than the center tap design due to its lower phase resistance (the individual coil resistance is the same • To examine the relative efficiencies of winding patterns (and also packing factors). Berkeley . need to examine what is called the motor constant Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

previous space Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. you must decrease the diameter size of the wire to get it to fit into the same. Berkeley .Motor Constant kt km = Rp Rp is the phase resistance • Takes into consideration that if you increase the number of turns to increase the force or torque constant.

. Berkeley . kt km = Rp Rp is the phase resistance • To double the torque constant in a center-tap wound motor. double the number of turns • Doubles the resistance of the phase • Must reduce cross-sectional area per turn by 50% • Doubles the resistance of the phase again • Total 4X increase in resistance Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California..For example.

For example. Berkeley ... kt = k0. as a reference For the Center-tap winding For the Wye winding k0 km = R Low High k0 km = 2 R For the Delta winding km = 3 k0 2 R Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Compare the winding efficiencies. using the torque constant of the center-tapped winding.

End of Lecture Module 15 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

Berkeley .Lecture Module 16 • Electronic Elements • Current Switching H-bridge Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Berkeley . on-off) and current limiters. sparking • Increasingly popular to switch electronically • Direction of rotation reversed electronically • Speed regulated with logic (i.Current Switching in Motors • A method must be used to produce the desired direction of current in a D.e. motor • Can be done mechanically with brushes – dirt. low efficiency. wear.C. • Price of electronics going down Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Transistors • Power transistors are the usual switching element used • Act as control gates for current to motor phases. controllers are available as a complete unit with the drive transistors on a single chip Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. • Larger currents and voltages require larger (more expensive) transistors • For very small motors (sub-fractional hp). Berkeley .

Transistors • Two types of transistors: NPN and PNP • Difference. Ex. from a design viewpoint. TIP30 PNP TIP29 ic < 0 ic < VBE > 0 V <0 VCEBE > 0 VCE > 0 B V+ + Vcc cc E iE R iB i c ic R iE E C C B iB University of California. is the desired polarity of the emitter or collector • The load likes to be on the collector Department of Mechanical Engineering NPN Ex. Berkeley .

e.8 saturation VBE Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.Typical Transistor Behavior iC typically a small current leakage past the gate. ~ 15 to 75 @ ic = 1 amp 0. ic = 200 µA at VBE = 0 DC current gain. i.5 cut-in 0. Berkeley .

H-Bridge V+ pnp R L pnp npn npn V- Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

H-Bridge V+ pnp R L pnp npn npn V- Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

causing their rapid deterioration Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .H Bridge • Common method of getting a current to flow in either direction in a load • Due to coil inductance. current is forced through the transistors even after they are shut down.

005 .01 mA Department of Mechanical Engineering V University of California. Berkeley .7 V is = 0.Diodes • Another (passive) gate for current flow • Typically permit current to flow in a single direction only i + i V Vf ~ 0.0.

Berkeley .Flyback Diodes V+ pnp R L pnp npn npn V- Provide an alternate path to the inductance driven current. to protect the transistors Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Inductance Effects • Actual current pattern is different than the ideal pattern • A first order exponential rise or fall must be included • If the commutation rate is slow. • If the switching rate is high (high rpm). the rise or fall is a significant percentage of the total up or down time Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley . there is usually very little effect from this.

Inductance Effects Desired Realistic Time constant τ = L/R Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

Field Effect Transistors (FET's) • FET's control current by an electric field – JFET .Metal-Oxide Semi-conductor • Characterized by – – – – higher input resistance larger safe operating range less sensitive to temperature more expensive University of California.Insulated Gate – MOSFET .Junction – IGFET . Berkeley Department of Mechanical Engineering .

Berkeley . like NPN iD > 0 VDS > 0 VGS > 0 G iG iS S P-channel.N-channel. like PNP iD < 0 VDS < 0 VGS < 0 G iG iD D D iD iS S Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Berkeley .Typical FET Behaviour iD iD 6V 8 6 4 2 5 VGS turn-on voltage 2 4 6 8 5V 4V VDS Can use VGS to control iD Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

H Bridge with FET’s V+ P R L P N N V- Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

L 2 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 1 Note the use of flyback diodes Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. and has the simplest controller that will work. R. Berkeley . L co il l1 co i L R.Firing Sequence The center-tap winding pattern is the simplest. It can be built with only 3 transistors V+ Phase 3 coil 3 R.

Torque Diagram: Center-tap Winding • 3-phase. except with a phase shift of one tooth pitch (40° for a 9 slot. Berkeley . salient pole stator) T 1 2 3 θ Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. 6 pole. 9 slot motor discussed earlier • Second phase torque is exactly the same as the first.

3}. switching every 40° when pole transition crosses directly over slot • Problem: cannot invert the current. Berkeley .2. can eliminate these problems by using a better controller Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. has torque ripple and dead spots like single phase motor • Unlike a single phase motor.T 1 2 3 θ • Firing sequence is {1.

Enhanced controller (3 more transistors) V+ R L R L R L V- Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California. Berkeley .

-3. -1. -2}. Berkeley . +2. +3.Enhanced controller (3 more transistors) T 1 2 3 θ • The firing sequence is {+1. switching every 20° • Whenever pole transition crosses 10° from a slot Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

Berkeley .End of Lecture Module 16 Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California.

077µ0 g .26 µ0 h g P between corners of steel (Roters) P = 0.Permeance Formulas for Common Configurations h t g t g < 3t : P P = 0.64 µ0h 1 + g   t    P between faces of steel (Roters) µh = 0 ln1 + 2t g  g > 3t :    π  h g P between edges of steel (Roters) P = 0.

25µ0t t g P between vertical edge and plane (Roters) P = 0.t t P between co-linear edges of steel (Roters) P = 0.5µ0t h steel PM t steel P through edge of PM (Wagner) µ0h P = π h steel t P through edge of coil (Wagner) µ0h P = π .

PM t w h P around coil or PM (Roters) µ0h w P = ln t π ( ) area ignored t g r t<r: P = 2 µ0  r + g 2  ln1 + 2t g          P between ends of circular cylinder (Roters) t > r : P = 2 µ0  r + g 2  ln 1 + 2r g          .h 2r w P P around tops of two planes (Wagner) w 2µ0 h 2r + w′ 2 = ln w′ = π −1 2 +π 2r cos 2 ( ) coil.

63µ0  r +  2   h g P between edge and plane (Roters) P = 0.t g r P between circular edges of steel (Roters) g  P = 1.28µ0 h g > 3t : P = 1 + 2 g   t    g P between a corner and a plane (Roters) P = 0.308µ0 g .52 µ0 h h t g g > 3t : P = 2µ0 h  ln1 + t g     π P between a face and a plane (Roters) 1.