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ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY – JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

YEAR VOLUME NUMBER

: 2009 :9 :2

(1083-1087)

VOLTAGE MODE UNIVERSAL BIQUADRATIC FILTER USING FTFN AND OTA
k KUMAR1 k PAL2 Department of Applied Science, IMS Engineering College, Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh India. 2 Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, India. Email: {kushalkumar75@gmail.com, kiratfeq@iitr.ernet.in} ABSTRACT
A single input and five outputs voltage mode universal biquadratic filter using two four terminal floating nullor (FTFNs), two operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), four resistors and two grounded capacitors is presented. The circuit is capable of realizing the entire standard filters viz-low pass, high pass, band pass notch and all pass simultaneously. The circuit offers the advantageous feature of having high input impedance and the use of grounded capacitors makes the circuit suitable for cascading of higher order filter. The filter performance parameter resonance frequency ω0 and quality factor Q can be control orthogonally.
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Keyword: Voltage mode Circuits, OTA, FTFN, Analog filter, High input impedance.

1. INTRODUCTION
The design of filters circuits employing active devices such as Four Terminal Floating Nullor (FTFNs) and operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) have been reported in the literature [1-4]. The FTFN is a versatile active circuit-building block, as it offers some potential advantages over conventional operational amplifiers (OA) and second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs). Also OTA is a differential voltage controlled current source. It offers highly linear electronic tenability and a wide tunable range of its transconductance gain gm. The transconductance gain is adjustable over several decades through its bias current. A review of the literature reveals that not much attention has been paid towards the development of such circuits, which realize the entire standard filter Received Date: 28.05.2009 Accepted Date: 05.11.2009

simultaneously, and offers the advantage of high input impedance based on FTFNs and OTAs. Also the filters with high input imedance make the circuit suitable for cascading some cells to implements higher order filter circuits. Thus there has been growing interest to develop such analog filter circuits which offers high input impedance and realize all the standard filters simultaneously i.e. low pass, high pass, band pass, notch and all pass. Based on FTFNS and OTAs. As a sequel, a number of voltage mode filter circuits using FTFNs and OTAs have been reported in the literature [110]. One of the reported circuit [6] based on two FTFNs and five passive components has the limited scope of applicability as it can be configured to implement only one filtering function depending on the selection of passive components. Further the proposed circuit [7] of voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with single input and

two OTAs for which one is dual outputs OTA with additional passive components as four resistors and two grounded capacitors. The positive FTFN can be characterized by the port relations with vx = vy. one OTA two resistors and two capacitors and realize three filtering functions simultaneously. The characteristics of OTA are described as Figure 1.1084 Voltage Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using Ftfn And Ota five outputs employing five OTAs for which one is triple outputs and one dual outputs and two capacitors realize all the standard filters simultaneously. three resistors and two capacitors. I 0 = g m (V − V ) + − where gm is the transconductance gain of the OTA. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The symbolic representation of FTFN and OTA are shown in fig. In this contribution we present a voltage mode universal biquadratic filter circuit with single input and five outputs employing two FTFNs. + V01 C1 + V02 g11 + _ g12 + g1 V05 R4 R3 z (+) w R1 V04 w (-) z x y V03 C2 x Vin y R2 2. 2 & 4 respectively. the circuit can be made to realize high pass and band pass filtering functions simultaneously as well by changing one admittance. ix = iy = 0 and iw = iz.PAL . A routine analysis of the circuit yields the voltage transfer function g1 V01 R1 R 2 = 2 Vi s C1C 2 sC1 g1 g + + 1 R1 R2 R1 R 2 (1) s 2 C1C 2 g1 R3 V02 R1 = 2 Vi s C1C 2 sC1 g1 g + + 1 R1 R2 R1 R 2 sC1 g1 V03 R1 = 2 Vi s C1C 2 sC1 g1 g + + 1 R1 R2 R1 R 2 s 2 C1C 2 g + 1 V04 R1 R1 R2 = 2 Vi s C1C 2 sC1 g1 g + + 1 R1 R2 R1 R 2 If R1=R2 (2) (3) (4) K. K. In the contribution reported by Shah et al [8] realize band pass and low pass filtering functions by employing two FTFNs . The proposed circuit of the voltage mode universal biquadratic filter is shown in fig. The proposed circuit of voltage mode universal biquadratic filter. In the recent work Shah et al [9] describe high input impedance multifunction filters with single input and three outputs employing two PFTFNs . KUMAR. The circuit realizes all the generic filter functions simultaneously from the same configuration. one inverter. 1.

2. The proposed circuit was tested for the following components values C1=C2= 4. Vx Vy Ix Iy V+ + gm V0 V- Figure 4. In the experiment the positive and negative FTFN can be implemented by using two AD844 [13-14] from analog devices and is as shown in fig. Y X x (AD844) z y y (AD844) z x Z W Figure 3(b).1085 Voltage Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using Ftfn And Ota ⎛ s 2 C1C 2 sC1 g1 g ⎞ − + 1 ⎟ g 2 R4 ⎜ ⎜ R R2 R1 R2 ⎟ V05 1 ⎝ ⎠ (5) = 2 Vi s C1C 2 sC1 g1 g + + 1 R1 R2 R1 R 2 The gain for BP filter is given by BBP = R2/R1 The gain for HP filter is given by BHP =g1R3 The gain for AP filter is given by BAP=g2R4 The symbolic representation of the negative FTFN is shown in fig. Y x AD844 z y It is obvious from equation (6) and (7) that filter performance parameters ωo and Q can be controlled independently by the resistor R1 involved in Q. ω SR10. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS To verify the functionality of the proposed circuit the experimental result were performed. Symbol of the OTA.5nF. The sensitivity performance are given by ω Sg10 = 1 / 2.C = −1 / 2 2 Z S Q R1 = −1. S Q C2 . KUMAR.C1. Both the parameters can be controlled electronically through the transconductance gain g1 of the OTA. Implementation of positive FTFN.. W 3.54x104Hz and Q=1. Implementation of negative FTFN. SC1. Figure 3(a). Symbol of the n FTFN.5 & 6. R1=R2 =1KΩ and g1=g2=1mS(the values of gm.PAL . The filter performance parameter ωo and Q can expressed as ω0 = Q= 1 R1 g1 R1C1C 2 C 2 R2 C1 g1 (6) x (-) y w z Iw Iz (7) Figure 2. K.g1 = −1 / 2 X x AD844 z y Which reveals that the active and passive sensitivity performances are low. the experimental responses are shown in fig. K. He commercially available OTA IC CA3080 was used in the experiment and the dual output OTA was implemented by connecting two CA3080 in parallel.R2 Q = 1 / 2. 3 (a&b) respectively.s were taking by keeping the values of bias current Ib1=Ib2=53μA with center frequency f0 =3.

J.4 0.” Electronics Lett.8 0. 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Frequency Hz Figure 6. [3] Nawrocki.1086 Voltage Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using Ftfn And Ota 1. J Electron 1999 Vol 86.“Novel OTA-C realization of biquadratic transfer functions”.22.333-340. offer high input impedance and the use of grounded capacitors makes the circuit suitable for IC fabrication. Kuntman H.J...4 1.Y. 80981`7. Al-Zaher HA. K. vol. “Universal two input two output current mode active biquad using FTFNs..2 0 100 LP HP BP NH 1000 10000 Frequency Hz 100000 1000000 Figure 5. HP. pp. [5] Cam U..6 0. Int. 400 350 300 250 AP Phase (Degree) has been presented. Electronics. 1986.“A new CMOS realization ofa four terminal floating nuller (FTFN)” Int J Electron 2000 Vol 87. Frequencies responses of the AP filter 4. KUMAR. and Fidler.2 1 Gain V0/Vi 0. 75. Frequencies responses of the LP. “Current mode biquad with minimum number of passive elements. pp. independent control of the filter performance parameter ω0 and Q.. CONCLUSION A new circuit of voltage mode universal biquadratic filter with single input and five outputs K.” Int. The new circuit offers the several advantages.U. 49. 1993. Vol. vol. no 8.” IEE Trans Circuits System II Analog Desital Signal Process 2002. BP and NH filters. pp 783. 181. [4] Sun.PAL . “New OTAcapacitor realization of a universal biquad.pp.50-51.K.R. [2] Cicekoglu O. The circuit can not requires matching conditions except all pass realization and have low active and passive sensitivity figures.. such as realize all the standard filters functions simultaneously. pp. and Klein. 200 150 100 50 0 100 References [1] Abulma atti MT..

1087 Voltage Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using Ftfn And Ota Liu. 177-179. [14] Cam U. 41. SI. “ Insesitive multifunction filter implemented with current conveyors and only grounded passive elements” Frequenz 1999.Sc degree from CCS University Meerut. Dec 2003. from HNB University Gharwal Shrinagar Uttarkhand. Cicekoglu O. Lee JL. “High input impedance voltage and current mode multifunction filters” Int J Electron.” Frequenz 2000 Vol 54.. “ Current mode single input three output SITO universal filter employing FTFNs and reduced number of passive components. pp. K Kumar received B. He has authored or co-authored 27 research papers in various International. J Electron 1997 Vol 82. Communication K.. Dr.729-737.Sc degree from CCS University Meerut. [11] Cam U.Electronics. pp. M.vol. “High input imedance filters usung FTFNs” Int J Electron 1998 Vol 84. India. 1079-1080. pp 94-106.D.M. “High input impedance HP.A.PAL ... K. 2002. vol.. Malik. [8] Shah. 158-160. 1996. Kuntman H. vol 59.. [7] Horng.” Int.vol.J. pp 967-969. 53. Kuntman H. [13] Liu SI. Kumar’s teaching and research interests are in the areas of CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems.A.. No. pp. [9] Shah.A. pp.” Int. O. “Voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with one input and five outputs five using OTAs.BP. Dr. 2005. Kuntman H. 54. Yang CY.M.. Cicekoglu o. pp. Ph. N. [12] Cicekoglu. vol. He joined the Applied Science and Humanities Department (Physics) of IMS Engineering College Ghazaibal in October 2008 as a lecturer. “Realization of current mode filters using single FTFN.A.. pp.J. vol.89. Commu.595-608. [10] Liu SI. Ozcan s. and LP filters using FTFNs” Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. “ New voltage and current mode first order all pass filters using single FTFN” Frequenz 2000. Dr.(AEU). Malik. [6] Systems and Electronic Instrumentation. 32. Gulsoy M. 499-502. pp 262-266...9. K Kumar held the positions of Project fellow in IIT Roorkee (April 2006–August 2008).N. “Insensitive current/voltage mode filters using FTFNs” Ellectron Lett. National journals and International and national conferences. K. KUMAR.W. Hwang C-SII.