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BORAL MASONRY

Build something great™

Masonry Design Guide
STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1

www.boral.com.au/masonry

Updated February 2008

Queensland Book 1 A

PAGE

A B

Introduction

Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2 Fast Find Product and Application Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3

Products @ a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6

Structural Design
Movement (Control Joints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6 Energy Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B7 Reinforced Masonry Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B10 Design of Core Filled and Steel Reinforced Masonry Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B11 Structural Design Guidelines for Core Filled and Steel Reinforced Masonry Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B13

Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry . . . . . . . . B2
Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B2

Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B5 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B5 Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6 Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B6

C

Fire Design
Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 How to Select Boral Masonry Units for Fire Rated Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C5 Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs and Tables . . . . . . . . C8

Masonry Design for Fire Resistance (FRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Masonry Design for Integrity FRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3 Masonry Design for Insulation FRL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4

Index to Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs . . . . . . . . . . C8

D

Acoustic Design
Guidelines for Optimum Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D4 Acoustic Performance On-site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D5 Home Cinema Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D6

Acoustic Performance Ratings (STC and Rw) . . . . . . . . . . . . D2 Designing Masonry Walls for Acoustic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D3

E

Fire and Acoustic Systems

Finding Acoustic Systems and Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E2 FireLight (FL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E4 Standard Grey Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6 Concrete-Basalt Bricks (B): Rippa and Speed-E Brick . . . . . . E8

The information presented herein is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of preparation. No responsibility can be accepted by Boral or its staff for any errors or omissions. Users are advised to make their own determination as to the suitability of this information in relation to their particular purpose and specific circumstances. Since the information contained in this document may be applied under conditions beyond our control, no responsibility can be accepted by us for any loss or damage caused by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of this information.

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February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

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Queensland Book 1 A

The quickest way to find a Boral Masonry Structural, Fire or Acoustic Wall Solution. Simply follow the FAST FIND GUIDE on the right hand side of the table.

Re ta in

Re nd

W A

Fa ce

NLB = Non-loadbearing LB = Loadbearing

NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB NLB LB – – – – E4 E6 E6 – – E4 E6 E6 – – – –

FireLight (FL) Standard Grey Block Core Filled Block Designer Block Concrete-Basalt Brick (B) (Rippa and Speed-E Brick)

N o

Pl

BORAL MASONRY BLOCK & BRICK PRODUCTS

ar e g (B in Li n in

W al l) FI N IS as on oa rd er ed as te rb LL M g

1 Select your application
– E6 – E6 E6 E6 – E6 E6 – E6 E6 – E6 E6 – – E6 – – – E6 – –
criteria from the top of the table

2 Go straight to the

E8

E8

E8

E8

E8

E8

For technical support and sales office details please refer to the outside back cover

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

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February 2008

W al l

H

ry

Fast Find a Boral Solution

section letter and page number indicated at the intersection of product rows and application columns (e.g. Section E, Page E6 in this example)
Please refer to MDG Book 2, Boral Masonry Block and Brick Guide

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Queensl Queensland Book Queensland Book 1 A ue o

Boral Engineered Blocks
for Structural, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems

• Standard Grey Blocks
Made as hollow, reduced core and solid units for 60, 90 and 120-minute Insulation FRLs. Used for loadbearing and non-loadbearing masonry. 140 and 190mm thick units can be partially reinforced for walls of portal frame buildings and houses in cyclonic areas.

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February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Q Queensland Book Queens and B ok Queensland Book 1 A sland Bo

Boral Engineered Bricks
for Structural, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems

• Core Fill Block
Made with recessed webs to accommodate horizontal steel. Used for cantilever-design retaining walls, basement walls and for large, loadbearing walls requiring 120 or 240-minute Insulation FRLs.

rendered walls (mass law). Acoustic performance with plasterboard is better than clay because resonances are dampened by its higher porosity.

• FireLight Bricks (FL)
FireLight is a lightweight material that has been developed and tested for high fire and acoustic ratings. It is ideal for plasterboard-lined and non-loadbearing walls in high-rise home units and wherever weight minimisation is critical. Acoustic tests have proven the requirements of BCA:2007 can be met with plasterboard-lined walls that are thinner than some “deemed-to-satisfy” options.

• Concrete-Basalt Bricks (B): Speed-E Brick and Rippa Block
Concrete-Basalt is a denseweight, load-bearing material. The 45% basalt content of these bricks allows the use of the higher Slenderness ratios in AS3700, Table 6.1. Its Insulation FRLs are slightly higher than clay units. The material is slightly more dense than clay so acoustic performance is slightly higher for

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

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provides a summary of important design information for structural. Section D — Acoustic Design Section D provides a brief overview of acoustic rating methods. based on appropriate wall design criteria. A6 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . fire and acoustic detailing should be checked and approved by appropriately qualified engineers before construction. Segmental Block Retaining Walls and Segmental Paving Products. Fire and Acoustic guide (this book). Masonry Bricks. fire or acoustic applications. What’s in this Guide The Boral Masonry Structural. fire and acoustic masonry applications and an extensive range of fire and/or acoustic systems to cater for many design scenarios. In addition. It does not attempt to cover all the requirements of the Codes and Standards which apply to masonry construction for structural. relevant considerations for acoustic design and guidelines for good acoustic design and detailing methods. • Colour and Texture Variation: The supply of raw materials can vary over time. Section B — Structural Design Section B discusses design issues relevant to the selection of Boral Masonry products for structural adequacy. This section includes a step-by-step selection guide and a series of selection graphs which can greatly speed up the preliminary selection and comparison of suitable designs and products. Section C — Fire Design Section C discusses the relevant design processes for the selection of Boral Masonry Products for fire rated applications. Different products and specifications may apply to Boral products sourced from other regions. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive Boral Product Reference Guide. • Terms and Conditions of Sale: For a full set of Terms and Conditions of Sale please contact your nearest Boral Masonry sales office. All structural. Additional Assistance and Information • Contact Details: Please refer to the outside back cover of this publication for Boral Masonry contact details. variation can occur between product types and production batches. Boral reserves the right to change the contents of this guide without notice. always ask to see a sample of your colour/texture choice before specifying or ordering. Also please recognise the printed colours in this brochure are only a guide. Please note that this guide is based on products available at the time of publication from the Boral Masonry Queensland sales region. Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems. Please.Queensland Book 1 A Boral Masonry Commercial Construction Solutions Boral Masonry Queensland offers a comprehensive range of proven products and systems including Masonry Blocks. Section E — Fire and Acoustic Systems Section E of this guide provides an extensive range of fire and acoustic wall system solutions supported by test results and acoustic performance estimates.

FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 B STRUCTURAL DESIGN 1 B .BORAL MASONRY Build something great™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL.

Wind. there are height. All masonry should be designed by a suitably qualified structural engineer. This information is provided as a guide only to the processes involved in designing masonry.Queensland Book 1 B Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry The following design information is based on Australian Standard AS3700:2001 Masonry structures’. kt or two thirds the sum or thicknesses of the two leaves. Should the initial product/design chosen not provide a suitable solution. the length to that unsupported end or control joint or edge of opening.1 requires walls to have an adequate degree of ‘Robustness’. values as given in AS3700 Table 4. length. Reference to ‘Clauses’ and ‘Formulae’ are those used in AS3700. Earthquake. bottom and vertical sides (either separately or in combination) the clear length of the wall between vertical lateral supports. In robustness calculations. By reworking the standard formulae provided and inserting known data. in metres. Robustness is a minimum design requirement. the overall thickness of the wall. in metres. it is possible to determine whether a chosen design and Boral masonry product will provide adequate robustness. then a thicker Boral masonry product more suited to the application should be evaluated. Live and Dead Load requirements. and may be overridden by Fire. or for a wall without a vertical support at one end or at a control joint or for walls containing openings. Snow. or alternatively. add extra restraints or reinforcement.2 (see end of this section) for edge restraints at top.6. in metres the minimum thickness of the member. in metres in cavity-wall construction. while worked examples can be found in the adjacent right hand column. The following section is laid out with AS3700 formulae and explanation in the left hand column. and panel action formulae. in metres = a thickness coefficient. whichever is greater.Ch = Lr = = B2 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . Cv. in metres or in diaphragm wall construction. the overall height from the bottom lateral support. for a member without top horizontal support.2 (see the end of this section) robustness coefficient. Legend to Symbols used in Robustness Calculations: H = the clear height of a member between horizontal lateral supports. the minimum thickness of the thicker leaf = tr = = Robustness AS3700. in metres. values as given in AS3700 Table 7. Clause 4.

tr = 110mm kt = 1 (wall without piers) By re-working formula (2).e.5 H H 0. Masonry with a length less than one fifth of its height and ‘free’ ends. then Cv=27 H 1.23 x 13. tr = 140mm A single leaf structure.6.5 3. is considered to be an ‘isolated pier’. Formula (2) is: H kt x tr Cv Aim: Criteria: To determine the Maximum Height of a Wall with Free Ends Minimum wall thickness. the maximum wall height is: H kt x tr x Cv. then Cv = 30 H H 0. then Cv = 13.2 (Refer to Page B5).11 x 6 H 0.Queensland Book 1 B Formulae and Explanation Isolated Piers Formula 4.2 (2) is used for walls spanning vertically (i.11 x 27 H 2. Formula (1) is: H tr Cv Worked Examples Aim: To determine the Maximum Wall Height of an Isolated Pier Example 1: Minimum wall thickness tr = 230mm A single leaf structure. Example 1: If wall is freestanding. Formulae and Explanation Worked Examples Wall with Free Ends Formula 4. reinforced.0 x 0. the minimum wall thickness is: kt x tr H Cv BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B3 .2 (1) is used for isolated piers. unreinforced. then Cv=36 H 1.) H 1.105m (maximum wall height) By re-working formula (1).0 x 0.960m Where kt is obtained from AS3700 Table 7.14 x 30 4.970m Example 3: If wall is laterally restrained along its top and supports a slab.2 (Refer to Page B5) or By re-working formula (2). then Cv=6 (must be checked by an engineer for wind loads etc.6. the maximum height for an isolated pier can be determined: H tr x Cv Example 2: Minimum wall thickness. wall with free ends).660m Example 2: If wall is laterally restrained along its top.0 x 0.200m (maximum wall height) Where Cv is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.11 x 36 H 3.

11 5. with restraint along the top and one or two ends) and length L tr x Ch.11 x 36 L 3.2.2 (3) is for walls spanning horizontally [i. (See below).9m By reworking formula (4). then Ch = 12 L L 0. then a thicker wall is required or formula 4. (Refer to Page B5) H tr = no limit Example 2: If wall is restrained along both ends. the wall length is limited.2. Stair wells and chimneys work to this formula.6. and if restrained along one end. then Ch = 12 H H 12 ( 36 + 2 — 12 x 0. then Ch = 36 L 0.6.2 (4) is for walls spanning vertically and horizontally (i.960m NOTE: If the wall exceeds the permitted length.11 ) 0. then Cv = 36. L tr x Ch Worked Examples Aim: To determine the Maximum Length of a Wall with Restraint at End or Ends Wall thickness tr = 110mm Criteria: Example 1: If wall is restrained along one end. NOTE: This means that although the wall height is not limited by its thickness.e. Walls that have one or both ends laterally restrained and L Ch tr i.e. the maximum wall height is: H (C + L CC t )t — v h r hr r NOTE: Control joints. Formulae and Explanation Wall with Restraint at Top and End or Ends Formula 4. Where Ch is obtained from AS3700 Table 4. restrained end(s)].11 x 12 1. and openings greater than one fifth of wall height are treated as free ends unless specific measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support.320m Where Ch is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.Queensland Book 1 B Formulae and Explanation Wall with Restraint at End or Ends Formula 4. B4 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .2 (4) governs and H will be limited.e. (Refer to Page B5) Formula (4) is: H tr Cv + Ch Lr — Chtr Worked Examples Aim: To determine the Maximum Height of a Wall with Restraint at Top and End or Ends Wall thickness tr = 110mm Wall length = 2m Criteria: Example 1: If wall supports a slab.6.

5 (Table 3. the aspect ratio will convert both tests to the same unconfined compressive strength. Ka (see AS4456.5 30 Edge restraints on vertical sides of wall panels SUPPORT Ch Horizontally unreinforced Horizontally reinforced or prestressed 24 with reinforcement continuous past support. multiplied by an aspect ratio. as normally laid.4. Characteristic Unconfined Compressive Strength of masonry UNITS is ƒ ’ uc.65.4 for M3 mortar on solid and cored units and is 1. In theory. measured by the amount of pressure to crush a masonry unit. A 90mm hollow and 90mm solid block are both 10MPa. The strength of hollow blocks is calculated by dividing the force by the face shells only. minus the standard deviation x 1. Pier spacing is taken as the distance between centrelines of piers. Characteristic Compressive Strength of a masonry WALL is ƒ ’ m.2 1.0 NOTES: 1. is the force in kilonewtons (kN) x 1000. For the richer M4 mortar it is 1.2MPa for loads from wind.0 1. Table 1). earthquake etc. 2.2.4 1.7 1. ƒ ’ uc is the average of crushing forces divided by loaded areas. The unit height divided by its thickness is used to determine the aspect ratio. The pressure. Otherwise 6.4 2. Vertically unreinforced Vertically reinforced or prestressed 12 with reinforcement continuous into support.0 1. The Kh factor is 1 for 76mm high units with 10mm mortar beds and is 1. usually measured in megapascals (MPa). the hollow will only carry half the load of the solid. ƒ’m is the square root of ƒ’uc. Masonry is good in compression but poor in tension.0 1.2) Thickness Coefficient (kt) for Walls Stiffened by Monolithically Engaged Piers Pier Spacing/Pier Width (Refer to Note 1) 6 8 10 15 20 or more Thickness Coefficient (kt) Pier Thickness Ratio (twp/t) 1 2 3 1.3.0 1.2) Cv Top and bottom edge restraints to wall panels Free Strength Compressive strength is resistance to load.6 for the face shells of hollow units.0 1. Pier Width Pier Spacing BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B5 . 3. 6 SUPPORT Load other than concrete slab or no load Lateral Support SUPPORT 27 36 Concrete Slab Lateral Support SUPPORT 36 48 ISOLATED PIERS Lateral Support SUPPORT 13.Queensland Book 1 B Table B1 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 4. a wall of 190mm high units is 30% stronger than a wall of 76mm high units of the same ƒ’uc. Mortar joint strength is generally zero or 0. but since the area of the face shells on the hollow block is about half the area of the solid block.0 1. Linear interpolation may be used. The Km factor is 1. multiplied by the aspect ratio.1 1. divided by the loaded area in square mm. A solid brick will give a lower compressive strength if crushed on its end rather than on its flat.0 1. twp t Wall Leaf Bending Characteristic Flexural Tensile Strength is ƒ’mt. Otherwise 16 12 SUPPORT SUPPORT 36 48 Table B2 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 7. multiplied by Km (a mortar strength factor).3 for 190mm units with 10mm mortar beds.1).2 1. Higher bending forces may require masonry to be partially reinforced. multiplied by Kh (a factor for the amount of mortar joints) as per AS3700. Unconfined compressive strength is compressive strength.3 1. In other words.

concealed behind a down pipe. It can be absorbed into masonry or at least. AS/NZS4456. As with tension. which details what areas require Exposure. Elements above the damp-proof course in other exterior environments. mortar joints have ƒ’ms values of between 0. A typical result is 0.15 and 0. Ideally. the control joint is located near the corner. Walls below damp course also require greater durability. Assessment of these grades is defined in AS/NZS4456. sometimes more than the texture of the masonry will allow. It can no longer hold all the salt in solution and salt crystals begin to form. moisture in the ground is absorbed into the masonry. Mortar joints must be ironed. Clause 4. B6 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . they may be subjected to acidic or alkaline soils. Curing Movement in Concrete Units AS/NZS4456.8 requires control joint spacing to limit panel movement to: • 10mm maximum for opening of control joints.12 gives methods for determining coefficients of curing contraction and coefficients of drying contraction for concrete units.Queensland Book 1 B Shear Characteristic Shear Strength is ƒ’ms. The Concrete Masonry Association of Australia Design Manual permits 16m spacing for bond beams and for panels with horizontal and vertical reinforcement.e. The salt in salt water is in solution. which feeds lichens and algae which can eventually be detrimental. General Purpose and Protected grades. with a waterproof coating. In any case. in an 8m panel of masonry. An alternative to testing is a history of survival in a marine environment. environment ideal for bacteria. At damp course. External Control Joints AS3700. They both expand as they take up water and contract as they dry. Durability Masonry designed for ‘Durability’ is deemed to satisfy when it meets the requirements of AS3700 Section 5.10 Resistance to Salt Attack. up to 1km from a surf coast or up to 100m from a non surf coast.10 gives methods of testing and definitions for durability (salt tests). They both expand as they get hot and contract as they cool. The Australian Masonry Manual recommends control joints at 8m centres for concrete units.5mm/m. External control joints should be finished with a flexible sealant. Spacing should be measured around corners. Elsewhere. AS3700 defines the usage of each of these grades as: Protected Grade (PRO) Elements above the damp-proof course in non-marine exterior environments. it is zero unless tested. and • 5mm minimum when closed. Drying Contraction The drying contraction test on masonry units is an indication of their maximum amount of movement from totally saturated to ambient dry. Concrete masonry has been used for Surf Club construction around Australia for decades.35MPa. The distances are specified from mean high water mark. Mortar mix requirements for durability are detailed in AS3700 Table 10. When the water evaporates. Exposure Grade (EXP) Suitable for use in external walls exposed to severe marine environments. it migrates towards the outside face taking the salt with it until the amount of water left is saturated. For example. • 15mm maximum for closing of control joints. The salt crystals then take up space. has the potential to shrink 4mm from saturated condition to dry. high shear loads may require partially reinforced masonry. Even if they are well away from the coast. General Purpose Grade (GP) Suitable for use in an external wall excluding severe marine environment. a drying contraction of 0. Salt attack is the most common durability problem. 6m centres for lightweight (<1600kg/m3) units and at potential points of cracking such as at openings and at steps in the masonry. properly flashed junctions with other building elements and a top covering (roof or coping) protecting the masonry. creating an Movement In general. The crystal then ‘pops’ a piece of the outer surface off to make room and salt attack begins.5mm/m but can be as high as 1mm/m for lightweight units that are more absorptive. concrete units contract as they cure while clay units will expand. not from corners. i. its mortar joints.1.

Adding extra cement to mortar or render causes more shrinkage.5 requires the walls of Class 2.5 “Wall Construction”. gives R-values for wall types (A) (B) and (C) without insulation.K/W) of wall components including air spaces and associated surface resistances. so are susceptible to cracking if laid in rich mortar or rendered with a cementrich mix. eaves or similar: Each storey needs to have a minimum horizontal projection from the outside face equal to 0. Clause J1.5 stars in Zone 1.15 = 0. 4 and 9c buildings in Queensland to have a “Total R-Value” of 1. 3 and 5 1.. Lightweight units are only 5MPa. they must be sleeved to allow movement. 3. it can be taken as 2 leaves of 10..8 or. a wall mass 220kg/m2 and various other conditions described in Table J1. otherwise.5.. The mason and renderer must keep the control joint clean. R-value of Insulation to be Added to Wall Types for Required Total R-value Class 2. 4 and 9c Wall Type A B C Zones 1. 3 and 4 buildings south of latitude 20°. verification can be achieved by calculating energy consumption to meet values as per Clause JV2 or by comparison with a reference building as per Clause JV3..4 1. a wall mass 2 2 0 k g / m 2 in Climate Zone 5 (Great Dividing Range.9 Class 5 to 9b Zones 1. so their positioning is critical to the overall design of the structure.8m maximum spacing.. Walls of Class 5 and 6 buildings and Class 7 to 9b buildings with conditioned spaces require a “Total R-Value” of 1. using calculations defined in Clause JV1.3 Masonry R-values without air films added (BCA:2007. Details are on the following page. from a balcony. Specification J1.. Vol 1. For Class 3 and 5 to 9 buildings.1 1. Specification J1. 2 or 3. Table 2a. Two leaves of 90mm concrete masonry or. 2 and 3 (the rest of Queensland).12 = 0. bridging mortar or render will induce cracks from those points as the masonry moves.Queensland The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2007.Queensland Book 1 B Control joints create a ‘free end’ in terms of ‘robustness’ and FRLs for structural adequacy.02 A wall mass 220kg/m2 is defined in BCA Volume 2 as: = 0.20 Internal Control Joints The Australian Masonry Manual specifies the spacing of internal control joints for concrete units at 12m maximum.27 times the wall height measured from floor level to the underside of the projection.0 0.01) 190mm hollow (20. 140mm concrete blocks with a reinforced bond beam and reinforced cores at 1m maximum spacing and 10mm plasterboard or render or. Energy Efficiency for Class 2 to 9 Buildings .01) 10mm render adds 0.8” is mentioned in Table J1.09 = 0. 2. 3 and 5 1. Shading. “Shading” in Climate Zones 1. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B7 . If ties are used over control joints. the 220kg/m2 and Shading options do not apply to south-facing walls (south-south-east to south-southwest) of Class 2.. the control joint is positioned at a column so that both ends can be tied to the column flanges.. 190mm concrete blocks with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1.7 0.2.01) 110mm bricks 140mm hollow (15. Notes) are: 90mm hollow (10.4 or. Alternative verification for Class 2 and 4 buildings can be achieved through a minimum 3 star assessment for each sole-occupancy unit and an average of 3.01 masonry [see BCA:2007. Figure 2. 3.. The “Total R-value”. or. Volume 1. Specification J1. west of Brisbane). Vol 1.5b.5b. “Total R-Value” means the sum of thermal resistances (m2. and 4 stars in Zone 5. Where 220kg/m2 and “thermal conductivity of less than 0.. In portal frame construction. Item 3 (e)(iii)]. 2.

15 0. 5.17 0. Outdoor air film (7m/s) Denseweight 140mm hollow concrete block Cavity air space (20mm to 35mm non-reflective) Plasterboard. 880kg/m ) 3 0. gypsum (10mm.09 110mm bricks = 0.17 0.Queensland Book 1 B R-Values for Typical Wall Construction External wall construction description Item 1.09 (A) Masonry veneer — 25mm to 50mm cavity space.01) = 0.01) = 0.06 0. 3. made up of 90mm stud + 25mm to 50mm air space non-reflective) Plasterboard.12 0. 6. 2. 4. 2. Indoor air film (still air) Total R-Value 3 4 5 Concrete masonry R-values without air films added (BCA:2007. Figure 2.03 0. 3 5. Notes) are: 90mm hollow (10. non-reflective) Masonry 90mm denseweight block Cavity air space (20mm to 35mm. gypsum (10mm. 880kg/m ) 3 0.12 0. Specification J1.12 140mm hollow (15. 3.06 0.17 0. 10mm internal plaster on 90mm stud frame 1 0.06 0.01) = 0. 10mm internal plaster on battens or furring channels 1 2 3 1. Outdoor air film (7m/s) Masonry 90mm denseweight block Brick cavity air space (20mm to 50mm.5. gypsum (10mm.09 0. Indoor air film (still air) Total R-Value 4 5 (B) Cavity masonry — 20mm to 50mm cavity space. non-reflective) Plasterboard. 2.17 0. 4.03 0.47 4. 3.09 0.12 0.20 10mm render adds 0.15 190mm hollow (20.73 4 5 6 7 7.03 0. Indoor air film (still air) Total R-Value (C) Denseweight hollow concrete block with internal plaster on battens or furring channels 1 1. 880kg/m ) 3 R-Value 0.53 2 5. 2 Item Description Outdoor air film (7m/s) Masonry 90mm thick denseweight block Cavity air space (115 to 140mm.02 B8 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .

Explanation of Fig. “Total R-Value” means the sum of thermal resistances (m2. South-facing walls (between south-east and south-west) below Latitude 20° are not required to satisfy the Total Rvalue or Shading option. Block veneer in Zone 1. Single-Leaf Walls: For Zones 1. 190mm concrete block with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1. 2 and 3.5). Shading (Zone 1. and the internal face is rendered or lined with daub-fixed plasterboard.01 masonry.01 masonry with plasterboard on battens and insulation having an R-value 0.. Without the 220kg/m2 wall mass. 140mm concrete block with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1m maximum spacing and 10mm plasterboard or render or.4. Single-leaf walls are deemed to be satisfied by 15. 2 and 3.53 to reach the Total R-value of 1. Where insulation is on the external face of the masonry. balcony.25 times the dimension measured from floor level to the underside of the projection. for walls are: “Total R-Values” or. Volume 2. a Mass 220kg/m2 (details below) or.Queensland Book 1 B Energy Efficiency Queensland Houses In the Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2007.12. in Zones 1. In Zone 5.8m maximum spacing.K/W) of wall components including air spaces and associated surface resistances. For 2 storey dwellings in Zone 1. Shading of walls. 2 and 3. 3.52 in Zones 1. the required Total R-Value is 1. Volume 2. 2 and 3 and R 0.. behind cladding.01 or 20. they must both satisfy the Total R-Value or the Shading requirement. If both storeys have walls of lightweight construction.5 between battens. Specification J1. 2 and 3 require insulation with an R-value 0.4. 2 and 3 (the rest of Qld). the wall above. Queensland has retained the BCA:2005 requirements which..... Part 3. Cavity Walls in Zone 1. Block Veneer Walls: The R-values of 90mm block veneer and cavity block walls without insulation added are on Page B8 (from BCA:2007.01 or 20. insulation with an R-value 0. 2 Storey Dwellings: Shading is not required for the lower storey walls where they are 15. In Zone 5.1.9 is required to reach a Total R-Value of 1. 2 and 3 only): The eaves.. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B9 . Wall mass 220kg/m2 is defined (in BCA. west of Brisbane).92 for Zone 5. in Zone 5 (Great Dividing Range.3) as: Two leaves of 90mm concrete masonry or. carport or similar is required to project 0. the R-value of the insulation is 0. requires insulation with an R-value 0.12. 90mm cavity walls satisfy the wall mass 220kg/m2 requirement..01 masonry. insulation is not required for the lower storey walls where they are 15.27 to reach the Total R-value of 1. with bond beam and some corefilling achieves the 220kg/m2 requirement (see below). In Zone 5 it is R 0.01 or 20.93 for the Total R-value of 1. Volume 1.

5 16.9 3.0 Vc = Shear capacity (kN) Mc = Moment capacity (kNm) Mortar type.1 6.20 or 20.5 13.6 Horizontal 100 Bars N12 N16 N20 129 (N12 bars) 127 (N16 bars) 125 (N20 bars) Vc 8.9 300 Cut on-site Horizontal Bars N12 N16 Vc 10.7 Grout compressive strength.6 2.1 6.9 B10 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .2 12.7 9.6 9.1 Mc 2.0 Mc 9.6 Mc 4.1 Mc 3.12 70 15.12 95 300 20.2 13.5 9.2 20.9 10.12 129 (Y12 bars) 127 (Y16 bars) 125 (Y20 bars) Horizontal Vc 16.6 3.3 Mc 2.2 Bars N12 N16 N20 Vertical Vc 16.2 32.9 5.4 20.6 Bars N12 N16 N20 Vertical Vc 6.9 15. ƒ’ uc = 15MPa Horizontal Bars 100 15.0 6.3 16.6 3.6 24.1 Mc 18.4 17.3 Mc 2.9 20.12 70 N12 N16 Vc 5.12 20.3 Mc 8.0 13.01 cut on-site Horizontal Bars N12 N16 N20 Vc 12.1 Mc 5.6 21.9 9.6 3. M3 Block characteristic compressive strength.20 or 20.6 Mc 4.6 9.2 23.Queensland Book 1 B Reinforced Masonry Lintels Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 150 Blocks (140mm leaf) NOTES Vertical Bars N12 N16 Vc 5.4 7.0 4.12 95 Vertical Bars N12 N16 N20 Vc 17.01 cut on-site 300 Bars N12 N16 N20 20.0 6.2 18.7 Mc 9.6 Bars N12 N16 Vertical Vc 12.6 19.3 10.2 9.0 2.0 30.4 17.9 Bars 100 N12 N16 N20 Horizontal Vc 6.4 18. (Grout) = 300kg/m3 Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 200 Blocks (190mm leaf) Vertical Bars N12 N16 N20 Vc 7.4 7.5 20. ƒ’ c = 20MPa Cement content min.1 Mc 2.

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 Construction Recommendations General Recommendations specifically applicable to reinforced masonry retaining walls include: • The provision of clean-out openings in the bottom course to permit removal of mortar droppings and other debris and to allow vertical reinforcement to be positioned and tied. determining the soil characteristics and other design parameters of the particular site. • Reinforcement — AS1302 : 1982 Steel Reinforcing Bars for Concrete. design tables and typical details for a range of reinforced concrete masonry retaining walls and their associated reinforced concrete bases. However. Boundary Backfill Ground level Base Type 1 Foundation Fig B1 — Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 1 Boundary Backfill Ground level Base Type 2 • Concrete Blocks — AS4455 : 1997 Concrete Masonry Units. • Reinforced Concrete Base — AS3600 : 1988 Concrete Structures. must accept the responsibility for carrying out a comprehensive site investigation. Any such information will supersede the information presented in this guide. additional or modified data may be released by the CMAA.4 metres high and for two base types: Fig B2 — Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 2 Loading Conditions These tables cover: • Sloping backfill (up to 1 in 4) without any surcharge or • Level backfill with a 5kPa surcharge Since typical cases only are presented. Foundation Wall Types Design tables in this section are given for walls up to 3. from time to time. who for any particular proposed retaining wall.Queensland Book 1 B Design of Core Filled and Steel Reinforced Masonry Retaining Walls Introduction The information presented here is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of preparation. B11 . This section provides specifications. these tables may not provide an ideal solution for a particular application. It is intended as a general guide for suitably qualified and experienced professional engineers. It is important for the professional engineer to determine the strength and stability of the foundation material and the drainage system required to ensure there will not be a build up of hydrostatic pressure behind the wall. All designs are based on: • Reinforced Concrete Masonry Structures — AS3700 : 2001 SA Masonry Code. and for designing and detailing the structures. These openings should be closed (generally done with formwork) before grouting.

These blocks are easier to fill with grout which provides the required continuous protection to the reinforcement. • The removal of mortar dags protruding into cores before grouting. Site-mixed grout. Where H blocks are used. Vertical layer of granular material Continuous agricultural pipe drain surrounded by free-draining gravel or crushed stone To prevent clay or silt infiltrating the drainage system a geofabric material may be wrapped around the gravel and/or the pipe Backfill Drainage It is essential that steps be taken to prevent the backfill behind the wall from becoming saturated. flush-ended blocks may be placed on either side of the required weephole location so a mortar-free joint may be formed. whether reinforced or not. they should be laid with alternate courses inverted to provide grout cover to horizontal reinforcement. used carefully. For higher walls. and weepholes are required. • The thorough compaction of the grout so voids are not left. • The filling of all cores with grout. or in cases where excessive groundwater exists. (The main vertical reinforcing bars should not be used to compact the grout). B12 . Alternatively. The surface should be sloped towards an open drain. These steps should include: Sealing Backfill Surface To prevent saturation of backfill by surface run-off. should be mixed thoroughly in a tilting-drum mixer to the same specification as ready-mixed grout. Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill This can be achieved by placing free-draining gravel or crushed stone to a width of approximately 300mm immediately behind the wall with a continuous agricultural pipe located February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE Fig B4 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 1 Care must be taken to ensure that clay and silt do not infiltrate the drainage material or agricultural pipe. If rebated flushended blocks are used in lieu of H blocks. Control joints should be built into the masonry at all points of potential cracking. it may be necessary to provide another agricultural pipe drain at mid-height of the wall. the surface of the backfill should be sealed by covering it with a compacted layer of low permeability material. Impermeable layer sloping to drain Drain Backfill Fig B3 — Sealing Backfill Surface at the base of the wall. The use of a geofabric envelope around the gravel and/or a geofabric sock over the pipe will assist. Compaction may be achieved with a highfrequency pencil vibrator.Queensland Book 1 B • The use of H blocks above the first course. if used. whenever available. of ready-mixed grout to workability specifications given in AS3700 should be used. This is essential to bond and protect horizontal reinforcement. to provide a full barrier against water penetration and to give maximum weight for stability. which should be supported 20mm clear of the webs of flush-ended blocks. they may be provided by placing 25mm diameter PVC pipes through the vertical joint at the required locations. • The forming of weepholes by leaving out mortar in the vertical joints at the required locations. The outlets of the pipe must be beyond the ends of the wall unless the pipe is connected to a proper stormwater drainage system. • The use. • The accurate positioning of reinforcement to give a minimum of 55mm of cover to the face of the bar and its secure tying before placing concrete or grout.

the retained material must be a free draining material with a friction angle of 27° or greater. weephole spacing may be increased to an extent depending on the quantity of water expected. If the layers of draining material are continuous for the full length of the wall. or by tanking with bituminous materials. 55mm cover to wall reinforcement 30mm Clean-out course 50mm cover to all base reinforcement Fig B8 — Typical Set-out Detail BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B13 . method is to place one or two buckets of free-draining gravel or crushed stone around the intake end of each hole. eg Type A soil — clean sand or gravel. Note: For walls higher than 2200mm. The simplest. eg Type A soil — clean sand or gravel. staining of the wall could result. for aesthetic or other reasons such as aggressive groundwater. the retained material must be similar and with a friction angle of 38° or greater. the earth face of the wall should be treated with an appropriate sealer such as waterresistant render or water-resistant paint. Type B soil — coarse grained with silt or some clay.5 metres. Fig B6 — Continuous Drainage for High Walls and/or Excessive Groundwater Weepholes Weepholes should be provided above the finished ground level. In this case. The horizontal spacing of the weepholes depends on the provisions made for directing water towards the holes. a second row of weepholes may be required. but most effective. • For retaining walls founded on other soils. However. the horizontal spacing should not exceed 1. A drain should be provided in front of the wall to prevent saturation of the ground.Queensland Book 1 B Backfill Free draining granular material Locate the continuous drain at the bottom of the base Free-draining gravel or stone Weepholes between blocks Drain Fig B5 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 2 Fig B7 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 1 Water Penetration If it is considered necessary to reduce the passage of moisture through the wall. Extra agricultural pipe drain Structural Design Guidelines Acceptable Soil Combinations • For retaining walls founded on sand (Type A soil).

Omit on top of clean-out block N12 @400 cts H = 1400 to 2000 Vertical reinforcement: N12 @400 cts 190 H = 2200 to 3400 450 min lap Optional capping H = 800 to 1200 N12 @400 cts K Bars 290 Height of 290mm blocks 450 min lap V Bars X Bars 600 min lap V Bars V Bars X Bars X Bars 200 350 N12 @400 B 230 B 400 250 550 300 180 N16 @400 330 B N16 @400 Fig B9 — Construction Guidelines for Reinforced and Core Filled Retaining Walls with Base Type 1 Table B3 — Design Guidelines for Reinforced and Core Filled Retaining Walls with Base Type 1 Wall Height Total Height (mm) H 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 Height of Blockwork 200 Series — — — 1400 1600 1800 2000 1400 1600 1600 1800 2000 2000 2000 Reinforcement X-Bars and V-Bars N12 at 400 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N20 at 400 N20 at 400 N16 at 200 N20 at 200 N20 at 200 Base Dimensions Width. B (mm) with following backfill conditions Level Max 1 in 4 Slope 800 1000 1000 1200 1100 1500 1300 1700 1400 2000 1600 2200 1700 2500 1900 2800 2000 3100 2200 3300 2400 3600 2600 3900 2800 4200 2900 4500 150 Series 800 1000 1200 — — — — — — — — — — — 300 Series — — — — — — — 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1200 1400 K-Bars — — — — — — — N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N20 at 400 N20 at 400 N16 at 200 N16 at 200 N16 at 200 B14 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .Queensland Book 1 B Optional capping Sloping backfill or surcharge 190 Optional capping Longitudinal reinforcement: N12 in alternate courses commencing from top course. Omit on top of clean-out block Sloping backfill or surcharge Sloping backfill or surcharge Height of 190mm blocks Longitudinal reinforcement: N12 in alternate courses commencing from top course. Omit on top of clean-out block 140 Longitudinal reinforcement: N12 in alternate courses commencing from top course.

) 140 Optional capping Longitudinal reinforcement N12@400 cts. lap Longitudinal reinforcement 2 x N12@400cts. Omit on top of clean-out course N12@400 cts H = 1400 to 2000 H = 2200 to 3400 600 min. 1 in 4 Level Backfill Sloping Backfill Heel Width Base Width Heel Depth Base Width Heel Depth (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) W B D B D 450 600 500 800 500 450 800 500 1000 500 450 1000 500 1200 600 450 1200 500 1400 600 450 1400 600 1600 700 450 1600 700 1800 800 600 1800 700 2000 800 600 2000 800 2200 900 600 2200 900 2400 1000 900 2400 900 2600 1000 900 2600 900 2800 1100 900 2800 1000 3000 1200 900 3000 1100 3200 1300 900 3200 1200 3400 1500 Height of Blockwork 150 200 300 Series Series Series 800 — — 1000 — — 1200 — — — 1400 — — 1600 — 1800 — 2000 — 1400 800 — 1600 800 — 1600 1000 — 1800 1000 — 2000 1000 — 2000 1200 — 2000 1400 V-Bars N12 at 400 N12 at 400 N12 at 400 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N16 at 200 N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N20 at 400 N20 at 400 N16 at 200 N20 at 200 N20 at 200 K-Bars — — — — — — N16 at 400 N16 at 400 N20 at 400 N20 at 400 N16 at 200 N16 at 200 N16 at 200 BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B15 . commencing from top course. Omit on top of clean-out course 290 K Bars Height of 290mm blocks H = 800 to 1200 N12@400 cts V Bars 600 min.) Optional capping 190 Optional capping Longitudinal reinforcement N12@400cts. Omit on top of clean-out course Height of 190mm blocks N16 in top course only N12@400 cts Longitudinal reinforcement: N12@400 190 N16 in top course only Surcharge or sloping backfill (1 in 4 max.) Surcharge or sloping backfill (1 in 4 max. lap SL72 Fabric 250 D N16@400 D N16@400 N12@400 250 D N16@400 N12@400 W B B 300 W B W Fig B10 — Construction Guidelines for Reinforced and Core Filled Walls with Base Type 2 Table B4 — Design Guidelines for Reinforced and Core Filled Walls with Base Type 2 Wall Height Total Height (mm) H 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 Reinforcement Base Dimensions Max.Queensland Book 1 B Surcharge or sloping backfill (1 in 4 max. lap SL72 Fabric SL72 Fabric V Bars V Bars 450 min.

N12 at 400 cts Note: Wall blocks and reinforcement as for 'Typical Details' Tanking to back face of wall e. drain Ag. drain Fig B11 — Typical Details — Fully Propped Wall Fig B12 — Alternative Details — Fully Propped Wall B16 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . Horizontal reinforcement.g. central Floor slab reinforcement False wall Drained cavity 200 200 55mm cover N12 @400 cts 1000 N16 @400 cts or N12 at 200 cts Ag. Bituminous coating Vertical reinforcement: N16 @400 cts.Queensland Book 1 B 190 Floor slab reinforcement N12 at 200 cts Starter bar to match wall reinforcement above One-course bond beam with N12 bar 20.20 knock-out block saw-cut at floor soffit level Series 200 blocks 2700 max.

central Pole plate fixed to bond beam 2700 max. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 B17 . N12 at 400 cts Tanking to back face of wall 290 1200 Series 300 blocks 65mm cover to back face False wall Clean-out course Floor slab reinforcement Drained cavity Natural soil 300 300 N12 at 400 cts 55mm cover 1500 N16 at 200 cts or N20 at 400 cts Ag.Queensland Book 1 B 290 190 140 Timber floor Timber floor 190 One-course bond beam using 20. drain Fig B13 — Typical Details — Unpropped or Partially Propped Wall Fig B14 — Alternative Details — Unpropped or Partially Propped Wall NOTE: Backfill must be completed prior to construction of timber floor.20 knock-out block with 1xN12 bar 65mm cover to back face Vertical reinforcement N16 at 400 cts. Natural soil Series 200 blocks Note: Reinforcement as for ‘Typical Details’ Horizontal reinforcement. drain Ag.

Note: Footing size and reinforcement to suit site conditions Fig B15 — Typical Details — Subfloor Retaining Walls Vertical Reinforcement Spacing Height H(mm) 1500 1500 2200 Spacing S(mm) 600 400 B18 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . centrally placed Ag. centrally placed 450 min. drain 65mØ fall at 1:100 to outlet 'H' (2200 max. 600 min.Quee sland Book Queensland Boo Queensland Book 1 B een ok 190 Note: Retaining wall shall be propped prior to backfilling and remain in place for a minimum of 7 days after placing floor slab Floor slab reinforcement to suit site conditions 450 lap Vapour barrier and sand bedding under slab Knock-out block saw-cut at floor soffit level N12 at same spacing as vertical reinforcement N12 at same spacing as vertical reinforcement (spacing 'S') lapped 450 in wall and floor Horizontal reinforcement. N12 at 400 cts Free-draining gravel Vertical reinforcement: N12 at spacing 'S'.) Natural soil Use H blocks for sub-floor wall section Bars 450 lap Clean-out course Starter bars. N12 @ spacing 'S'.

FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 C FIRE DESIGN 1 C .BORAL MASONRY Build something great™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL.

0 if the member is laterally supported along both its vertical edges. Structural Adequacy This governs the wall height. Integrity This is the resistance to the passage of flame or gas. Masonry unit suppliers do not control the wall height. Structural Adequacy may be overridden by design for robustness.75 if the member is laterally supported along its top edge. masonry must always provide ‘Insulation’ to an equal or better level than is required for ‘Integrity’. eg: FRL 60/120/120 meaning Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes / Integrity for 120 minutes / Insulation for 120 minutes. or = for a member without top horizontal support.Queensland Book 1 C Masonry Design for Fire Resistance Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) FRL come from the Building Code of Australia’s (BCA) tables for Type A. or = for a wall without vertical support at one end or at a control joint or for walls containing openings. Clause 6. See table C2 on page C7 for maximum Srf. information that is useful in the design of masonry walls is the maximum Slenderness ratio (Srf). for members of cavity wall construction. they cannot control ‘integrity’ either. When the lean or bow reaches half the thickness of the original wall. = 2.1(a) and (b). or an edge to an opening in a wall. the length to that unsupported end or control joint or edge of opening. ah = 1. the overall height from the bottom lateral support. shall be regarded as an unsupported edge to the wall unless specific measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support at the edge. Since the masonry unit supplier does not control Structural Adequacy. However. L = The clear length of a wall between vertical lateral supports. the wall becomes structurally inadequate. Insulation This is resistance to the passage of heat. B or C construction.2.3. live or earthquake loads. There are 3 figures in the Fire Resistance Level. The Type of construction depends on the Class of building and the number of stories or floors.0 if the member is not laterally supported along its top edge. masonry walls must be structurally adequate because cracks that form when it bows can allow flame through the wall.2. In relation to FRL. t = the overall thickness of the member cross-section perpendicular to the principal axis under consideration. Insulation is governed by the type and thickness of the material used to produce the masonry unit. length or restraints. wind. A fire on one side of a wall will heat that side. making it expand and lean towards the fire. H = the clear height of a member between horizontal lateral supports.5 if the member is laterally supported along one vertical edge. The formulae in AS3700.3. This is controlled by the masonry unit manufacturer.2 limits masonry panel size. Boral Masonry provides Srf information for all of its masonry units. and its use is discussed in more detail later. To provide ‘integrity’. therefore do not control Structural Adequacy. thickness and restraints. C2 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . avf = 0. depending on its restraints and thickness. NOTE: A control joint in a wall. = 2. the wall thickness assessed is in accordance with Clause 6. length. Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL Legend for the following formulae Srf = the slenderness ratio in design for fire resistance for structural adequacy.

For cavity walls. and therefore ‘Integrity’ must be proved in some other way. the internal leaf must provide the Structural Adequacy FRL on its own.2. This method is also the best way to prove ‘integrity’ even when a wall may not be required to comply with a ‘structural adequacy’ FRL value.2 (3) is the PANEL ACTION formula. FORMULA 4 is: S = a rf h L t The actual Srf is the lesser of the resulting figures.2 (4) is the LENGTH formula.3(b)(ii)].3.2. (Logically. reinforcement can be spaced up to 2m apart. eg: if the BCA requires an FRL of -/90/90. If the Srf of the wall is greater than the maximum permissible. Formula (4) governs the wall length.2.3.2. With masonry wall design. For reinforced masonry. t = Avf x H Srf where ‘t’ is the OVERALL thickness. the wall has no actual ‘structural adequacy’ requirement.2. Formula (1) and (2) always govern where there is no end restraint. the Srf of 36. such as is the case with non loadbearing walls. This reinforcement stiffens the masonry and resists bowing. whether the units are solid or hollow. relative to their height (eg: a lift well or vent shaft). as bond beams when spanning between columns. it is helpful to be able to calculate the maximum height* for a given thickness (masonry unit).1 may be used. two thirds of the total thickness can be used for t.1 [or the Srf calculated from Fire Tests and Clause 6. FORMULA 3 is: Srf = 0. depending on span. 6. then the wall complies. In either case. from Table 6. often where there is no top restraint (eg: portal frame factories) and where walls are short. and calculate the thickness from a given wall size. as filled cores when spanning between slabs.2 (1) and (2) are the HEIGHT formulae.3.Queensland Book 1 C The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of the proposed wall is calculated as per Clause 6. the most practical way to prove ‘Integrity’ is to prove ‘Structural Adequacy’ and ‘Insulation’ equal to or better than the ‘Integrity’ requirement.3. Reinforcement can be vertical. Projects with multiple wall lengths (eg: home units) can use this formula as a ‘one size fits all’ method of calculating the masonry thickness. If this value is less than the maximum Srf in Table 6. provided that BOTH leaves are restrained in the same positions (eg: external leaf stops at slab also). If the external leaf is a veneer to the slab edge. All calculations should be checked by an engineer. Other loads may supersede Structural Adequacy requirements. FORMULA 1 and 2 is: Srf = avf H t NOTE:* Refer to the Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs on pages C9 to C15 for maximum height values. It is impractical to provide test results for all possible masonry wall designs. the wall must be structurally adequate for 90 minutes.3. but to prove integrity of 90 minutes. Formula (3) allows a wall to exceed the height given by formula (1) and (2) provided at least one end is restrained as well as the top.7 t avf H ah L 6. relative to their height. it is recalculated for an increased thickness and/or extra restraints. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C3 . and often govern where walls are long. Reinforced walls with Srf < 36 have a 240 minute FRL for Structural Adequacy. if the wall is designed to minimise ‘bowing’ it will not crack and therefore resist the passage of flame and gas for the specified time). Reinforcement can be horizontal. From a suppliers perspective. There are 4 formulae for calculating Srf: 6. eg: H = Srf x t Avf Masonry Design for Integrity FRL (The resistance to the passage of flame or gas).

Boral ‘FireStop’ plasterboard on furring channels can increase the Insulation FRL from either side. designed as 2 walls with unsupported ends at the chase. Horizontal chases should be kept to a bare minimum. Integrity FRLs are increased by increasing the other two FRL values to the required Integrity FRL. (not two thirds as for the Structural Adequacy FRL). the direction in which the wall spans must be taken into account. the material thickness is the net volume divided by the face area. Clause 6. by increasing the overall thickness. do not have an effect on fire ratings. The horizontal chase is limited to 4 times the wall thickness. in the case of vertical chases. Walls spanning vertically may be chased vertically. Options for Increasing FRLs The Structural Adequacy FRL can be increased by adding wall stiffeners. For cavity walls. ‘Material thickness’ is defined in AS3700. the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the recess. the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the recess. Walls spanning vertically and horizontally may be chased horizontally up to half the wall length. Recesses for Services Recesses that are less than half of the masonry thickness and are less than 10. If these limits are exceeded.000mm2. the masonry design thickness must be reduced by the depth of the recess or. If these limits are exceeded. fixed to furring channels (on both sides of the wall if a fire rating is required from both sides). by adding another leaf of masonry.000mm2 for both sides within any 5m2 of the masonry. by rendering both sides of the wall if the fire can come from either side. For hollow units (cores > 30%).2 as the overall thickness for solid and grouted units and units with cores not more than 30% of the unit’s overall volume. Insulation FRLs can be increased by core filling. It is governed by the ‘type of material’ and the ‘material thickness’. NOTE: Only ONE thickness of render is added to the material thickness and that must be on the ‘cold’ side because the render on the exposed face will drop off early in a fire). Walls spanning vertically and horizontally may be chased vertically up to half the wall height. C4 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .000mm2 If these limits are exceeded.Queensland Book 1 C Masonry Design for Insulation FRL Insulation is the one FRL component that a masonry unit manufacturer does control. the mechanical fixing of the board to furring and the furring to the wall. Total maximum area on both sides of any 5m2 of wall is 100.5. the Boral FireStop and furring system does not drop off the hot side so quickly due to the board’s fire resistance. Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry Structural Adequacy FRL To assess the effect of chases on Structural Adequacy FRLs. Maximum area is 1. by adding reinforcement or by protecting the wall with Boral Plasterboard ‘FireStop’ board. Integrity and Insulation FRLs Maximum depth of recess is 30mm. t = the sum of material thicknesses in both leaves. Unlike render.

the FRL for any given wall must comply with: Structural Adequacy Integrity Insulation eg. • For this example. Step 1 Determine required wall FRL from the Building Code of Australia (BCA). • BCA Specification C1. freestanding walls. All fire rated walls should be designed by a suitably qualified engineer. See adjacent example. If the BCA required FRL is: —/120/60 Then the chosen wall design must have an actual FRL of: 120/120/120 or better. BCA specifies Class 5.6m high.3 for Structural Adequacy Fire Resistance Levels (FRL) and Part 4. The Building Code of Australia (BCA). 6m long fire wall in 3 storey offices. the wall is laterally restrained along the top and both ends and is non-loadbearing. Refer to the section ‘Design for Integrity’ on page C3 for additional explanation. Part 6. cavity walls. Piers. Worked Example • A 4. Type b Construction. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C5 . table data and graphs in this guide are derived from formulae in AS3700 : 2001 Masonry Structures. Example eg: 120/60/60 Insulation Integrity Structural Adequacy NOTE: For masonry wall design. Tables and graphs assume all walls are built on concrete slabs or broad footings and have adequate restraints.6 for Robustness. wind and other loads are not addressed in this guide.1. Table 4 specifies an FRL 120/120/120. earthquake.Queensland Book 1 C How to Select Boral Masonry Units for Fire Rated Walls All design information. Section C defines the CLASS and TYPE of building and designates the required Fire Resistant Level (FRL) in terms of three criteria.

48 20. Material Attributes (Queensland) FireLight (FL) ƒ’uc=3MPa FireLight is a lightweight material that has been developed and tested for high fire and acoustic ratings. d. Acoustic tests have proven the requirements of BCA:2005 can be met with plasterboard-lined walls that are thinner than some “deemedto-satisfy” options. 140 and 190mm thick units can be partially reinforced for walls of portal frame buildings and houses in cyclonic areas.s.709 FL and Rippa FL.42. Worked Example From Table C1.01 + 10. d. • 15.t.t. It is ideal for plasterboard-lined non-loadbearing walls in high-rise home units and wherever weight minimisation is critical. Used for loadbearing and nonloadbearing masonry. reduced core and solid units for 60.t. Suitable for LOADBEARING applications.31. Check the ‘Materials Attributes’ (see notes below the table) to ensure the selection is fit for its purpose. Core Fill Block ƒ’uc=15MPa Made with recessed webs to accommodate horizontal steel. The 45% basalt content of these bricks allows the use of the higher Slenderness ratios AS3700. d.t. d.t.t.01 (SQLD) 12.t. Table C1 — FRL Insulation Values for Boral Masonry Units (Queensland) Fire Test Yes Yes d. d.s. The material is slightly more dense than clay so acoustic performance is slightly higher for rendered walls (mass law).s.t.s. Acoustic performance with plasterboard is better than clay because resonances are dampened by its higher porosity. Its Insulation FRLs are slightly higher than clay units.s. load-bearing material. 10.Queensland Book 1 C Step 2 Select an appropriate Boral Masonry Unit based on the FRL ‘Insulation Requirement’. d.31 - ‘deemed-to-satisfy’ Indicates extra insulation with 10mm render on both faces Note that 20. d. Designer Block ƒ’uc=10MPa Blocks provide a 60 or 90 minute Insulation FRL. 20.01 + 10.48 Grout-filled (however the use of Firelight (FL) may be more cost effective if the wall is nonloadbearing). C6 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . Used for cantilever-design retaining walls.01 (NQLD) 20.1.s.48 15.s. 30 60 INSULATION FRL (minutes) 90 120 180 240 Material FireLight (FL) FireLight (FL) Basalt (B) Grey and Designer Block Grey and Designer Block Grey and Designer Block Grey and Designer Block Grey and Designer Block Grouted 140mm Grouted 190mm Cavity wall Cavity wall Styly Nos.01 10. 20.s. 15.709 FL Speed-E Brick and Rippa Block 15. d.01 10. Table C1 provides the ‘Insulation’ values for the various Boral units.t.t. Table 6. 90 and 120-minute Insulation FRLs.01 blocks sold in North Queensland are rated at 60 minutes for insulation. The third figure in an FRL rating is the ‘Insulation’.709 15. d.s.42. Standard Grey Block ƒ’uc=15MPa Made as hollow. loadbearing walls requiring 120 or 240-minute Insulation FRLs.709 15.01. the following units all achieve 120 minutes FRL for ‘Insulation’:— • 15.s. d.t. basement walls and for large.s. Rippa FL 15. Concrete-Basalt Brick (B) ƒ’uc=10MPa (Speed-E and Rippa) Concrete-Basalt is a denseweight.

t. In this example. The Slenderness ratio (Srf) of a fire rated wall is calculated as per AS3700 : 2001. 19.t.t. however unless the wall is loadbearing.9 22.s. Clause 6. Material FireLight (FL) Concrete-Basalt (B) Standard dense concrete Reinforced masonry Condition of use Non loadbearing ONLY Any Any Any BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C7 .3 d. FireLight will be more economical. Formula 6.2.s.3. the Srf for a 140mm thick wall.9 24.t.7 as per AS3700. FireLight — required to provide Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes has an Srf = 24.6m high. 36 36 36 36 36 36 d. therefore passes. with lateral restraint along the top is 24.5 21 20 18 17 d.2. This is less than the maximum Srf for FireLight at a 120 minute Structural Adequacy FRL. See following page for an explanation on using the Boral Srf graphs to assist preliminary selection. Also refer to the previous explanation and AS3700 for Srf calculation methods. Table 6.1. Reinforced masonry also passes.Queensland Book 1 C Step 3 Check the ‘Structural Adequacy’ of the selected units.2. Table C2 — Maximum Srf Values for Boral Masonry Units Maximum Srf Values Fire FRL (minutes) for Structural Adequacy Test 30 60 90 120 180 240 Yes 29 29 26. and must not exceed the Srf values given in AS3700 or calculated from Fire Tests.3. ‘deemed-to-satisfy’.s. Worked Example The calculated Srf value for your wall design MUST NOT EXCEED the value from the accompanying table. Table C2 provides the maximum Srf values for Boral masonry units. eg.5 15 d. 25 22. as per AS3700:2001.9.5 18 17 16 15.s. 4.2 (2) See page C3.2 20.

(120 minutes for this example). 4. SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 120 minutes FRL Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT 2. 190mm 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) Index to Structural Adequacy FRL Graphs and Tables Product Group FRL Minutes (Structural Adequacy) Page FireLight Block (FL) FireLight Block (FL) FireLight Block (FL) Concrete-Basalt Bricks Concrete-Basalt Bricks Standard Grey Standard Grey Designer Block Designer Block Walls Restrained at Top (Unrestrained Ends) Reinforced and Grout-Filled Masonry Walls 60 90 120 60 90 60 90 60 90 60 — 240 60 — 240 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C14 C15 C16 C16 C8 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . 5. In this example.6m height x 6m length). Additional tables are provided for walls with no end restraint and for reinforced/grout filled masonry. IMPORTANT The following selection graphs are based on Specific Products manufactured at Queensland Boral Plants. (110mm units would not be suitable for this example). How to Use the Boral Structural Adequacy FRL Graphs FireLight Block — (FL) Worked Example 1. following these graphs. Therefore 140mm units would be suitable. Select the appropriate graph for the chosen wall restraint (support) criteria. Should these units be sourced from other plants. (For this example 4. top and bottom for this example). (Support on both sides. The following pages provide graphs and tables for a selection of Boral masonry units where at least one end of the wall has lateral restraint.Queensland Book 1 C Boral Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs and Tables To assist with the preliminary selection of Boral masonry units for fire rated walls. The result MUST FALL BELOW the coloured line indicated for the chosen masonry unit thickness. Select the appropriate masonry unit material. the specification should be checked with the respective supply plant. the result is above the line for 110mm units but below the line for 140mm units. a graphical selection method based on Srf values has been developed. Select the appropriate page with Structural Adequacy for the required minutes. Plot the intersection of the Wall Height and the Wall Length on the graph. Leaf Thickness SUPPORT 3.

Queensland Book 1 C Boral FireLight™ Bricks and Blocks (FL) — Srf = 29 Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends. top free Leaf Thickness 190mm 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 190mm 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90/100mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C9 .

top free Leaf Thickness 190mm 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end.9 Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends.Queensland Book 1 C Boral FireLight™ Bricks and Blocks (FL) — Srf = 26. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 190mm 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90/100mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) C10 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .

Queensland Book 1 C Boral FireLight™ Bricks and Blocks (FL) — Srf = 24.9 Structural Adequacy for 120 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 120 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 120 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 190mm 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 120 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 120 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 190mm 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 100mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90/100mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C11 .

top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 90mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 90mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) C12 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .5 Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends.Queensland Book 1 C Concrete-Basalt (B): Rippa and Speed-E Brick — Srf = 22.

Queensland Book 1 C Concrete-Basalt (B): Rippa and Speed-E Brick — Srf = 21. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 90mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end.0 Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 140mm 110mm 90mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C13 .

Queensland Book 1 C Standard Grey and Designer Block™ — Srf = 18.0 Structural Adequacy for 60 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 190mm 4 140mm 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 110mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 60 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 5 190mm 4 140mm 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 110mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) C14 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE .

0 Structural Adequacy for 90 minutes Fire Resistant Level (FRL) SUPPORT SUPPORT SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported both ends.Queensland Book 1 C Standard Grey and Designer Block™ — Srf = 17. top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 C15 . top free Leaf Thickness 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 SUPPORT SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL SUPPORT Structural Adequacy 90 minutes FRL Leaf Thickness 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 190mm 140mm 110mm 90mm 6 7 8 9 Length of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end and top 9 8 7 Height of wall between supports (m) SUPPORT Laterally supported one end.

130 2.130 2.560 5.920 2.780 5.400 6.840 *Governed by Robustness. Material Thickness 60 90mm 100mm FireLight (FL) 110mm 140mm 190mm Concrete-Basalt 110mm 90mm Standard Grey and Designer Block 110mm 140mm 190mm Reinforced and Grout Filled* 140mm 190mm 2.970 3.040 6.130 2.927 5.700 2.000 5.700 2.430 2.053 5.173 4.800 2.933 1.040 6.840 SUPPORT SUPPORT 240 2. These heights can be exceeded when one or both ends are restrained as well as the top. (Most doorways and windows create free ends).430 2.640 3.970 3.800 3.860 2.700 2.493 1.25 H kN/m where H is in metres.840 2. Can be higher if supporting a slab.970 2.840 Steel N12 N16 N12 N16 N16 Bond Beam Spacing (metres) Every 10th course — (2m) Every 10th course — (2m) Every 10th course — (2m) Every 10th course — (2m) Every 8th course — (1.000 5. Reinforced Masonry Walls Reinforced cores spanning vertically.040 4.400 6.130 2.987 4.840 2.430 2.307 5.430 2.893 3.040 4.970 3.840 Steel N12 N16 N12 N16 N16 Maximum Wall Length (metres) 4.493 3. ie.970 3.780 5.6m) Leaf Thickness (mm) 140 140 190 190 190 Maximum vertical load on wall = 11.970 3.040 6.130 2.840 Maximum Wall Height (metres) Structural Adequacy (FRL minutes) 90 120 180 2.640 1.040 6.040 2.273 2.800 6.800 6.347 2.160 2. restraint bottom and both ends Structural Adequacy 60 – 240 minutes FRL SUPPORT Lateral support at both ends SUPPORT Single Steel reinforced and fully grouted bond beams Bond beam spacing Slab or broad footing SUPPORT Core Fill Spacing (metres) Every 10th core — (2m) Every 10th core — (2m) Every 10th core — (2m) Every 10th core — (2m) Every 8th core — (1.360 4.700 2.040 6. but with lateral restraint along their top have maximum heights irrespective of their length as detailed in the following table.Queensland Book 1 C Walls Restrained at Top (Unrestrained Ends) Walls without restraint to the ends.6m) Leaf Thickness (mm) 140 140 190 190 190 Slab or broad footing SUPPORT Maximum Wall Height (metres) 4. restraint top and bottom Structural Adequacy 60 – 240 minutes FRL Lateral support along top Single Steel reinforced and fully grouted cores Core fill spacing Reinforced bond beams spanning horizontally.780 5.970 2.780 5. C16 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE SUPPORT . ie.200 2.780 5.430 2.800 5.700 2.

FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 D ACOUSTIC DESIGN 1 D .BORAL MASONRY Build something great™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL.

there are two numbers after Rw. avoiding the need to “chase” recesses into the masonry. which pulled the STC contour down. Impact Sound Resistance From May 2004. (STC finished at 4000 Hz). a 230mm wall of the same brick may give Rw57. or home cinema speakers). The noise energy that gets through the wall and ‘bounces’ off the plasterboard is re-absorbed into the concrete. Rw is then read off where the contour crosses the 500Hz line. as a tiny amount of heat. used to fix plasterboard to masonry. The highest frequency measured in Rw is 3150Hz. the amount of improvement decreases as the concrete units begin to behave similarly to clay. The relationship is logarithmic: If a 110mm wall gives Rw45. More mass gives better performance. and a 450mm wall may give Rw63. Sound waves can resonate in cavities. using self tapping screws. bass guitar. Insulation in the cavity helps absorb resonating sound. is not used for Rw. The use of STC was changed to Rw in BCA Amendment 6. Plumbing and electrical services can be fitted into this gap. fixed with grab screws to the first layer. Although Queensland has not adopted the new acoustic requirements. Instead. Masonry with Plasterboard on Furring Channels Furring channels are rollformed galvanised metal battens to which plasterboard can be fixed. (and no gaps). Tests on linings with extra daubs (spacing was halved) gave lower performances. Higher density concrete units improve the Rw of the bare wall. STC (Sound Transmission Class) and Rw (Weighted Sound Reduction Index) are similar in that they are a single number evaluation of STL (Sound Transmission Loss) measurements over 16 frequencies. Concrete masonry has a coarser texture and is more porous than clay. The second figure indicates deterioration due to low frequency noise (eg. issued in January 2000. The acoustic performance of these walls depends on their mass. create a small cavity in which resonances can occur. a higher density board. An impact rating is required for walls where a wet area (including a kitchen) is opposite a habitable room in an adjoining apartment. where it dissipates. When lined. Masonry with Render Acoustic performance with single leaf rendered masonry follows the ‘Mass Law’. The lowest frequency measured in Rw is 100Hz. Furring channels increase the gap between masonry and plasterboard. Popular products include Rondo rollformed steel furring channel (N°129 which is 28mm deep) or (N°308 which is 16mm deep). the more resonance occurs. AS1276 gives a set contour that is positioned over the STL results so that the total of points above the results and below the contour (deficiencies) does not exceed 32. D2 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . The more dense. A further increase of 3 or 4dB can be achieved with Tontine TSB3 polyester (or equivalent) insulation in the cavity between the plasterboard and masonry. Cavity walls behave differently. presumably due to extra ‘bridges’ through the daubs. making it harder for resonating energy to build up pressure on the board. smooth and impervious the masonry is the more it will ‘bounce’ or resonate the sound. a blender). Narrow cavities should have bond breaker board to prevent mortar from providing a bridge for sound to travel between leaves. but when plasterboard is daub fixed. low speed trucks. Masonry with Plasterboard Systems Daub-fixed Plasterboard The cornice cement daubs. the BCA requires impact rated walls to be of ‘discontinuous construction’. The maximum 8dB deficiency. (STC started at 125Hz). The first figure in the brackets is an indication of deterioration due to high frequency noise (eg. Another increase of 3 to 5dB can be achieved with a second layer of plasterboard. The narrower the cavity becomes. Lightweight concrete masonry performs relatively poorly when bare. they are often specified for quality home units.Queensland Book 1 D Acoustic Performance Ratings STC and Rw. allowing the plasterboard to re-radiate the sound. eg: Rw45 (-1. it gives a vast improvement. Boral Plasterboard now make ‘SoundStop’. -5).

How loud is noise? Designing Masonry Walls for Acoustic Performance Building acoustics is the science of controlling noise in buildings. some partitions are better than others at isolating airborne noise. and one has an Rw which is 10 rating points higher. usually called the BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 D3 . Noise has been defined as sound which is undesired by the recipient. If we compare two partitions. a noisy neighbour can be one of the main problems experienced in attached dwellings. In order to simply compare the isolating performance of partitions Rw rating was developed. In the domestic situation. under controlled conditions. or that separates one room from another. The other side of the masonry can be lined with daub fixed plasterboard or rendered. such as voices. This is known as airborne noise. An extra 6dB can be gained by placing Tontine TSB5 insulation between the studs. which is positioned 20mm from one face of the masonry. and this noise passes through the partition and into the room on the other side. airborne transfer. The Rw ratings are obtained from tests carried out in certified laboratories. The two functions are quite distinct and should not be confused. When identical partitions are part of buildings and tested in-situ. The term ‘building acoustics’ embraces sound insulation and sound absorption. vibrations are isolated by the gap between the masonry and the stud frame. Remedial measures. can be expensive and inconvenient. the sound insulation requirements for a building should take into account both internal and external sound transmission. This means that the correct acoustic climate must be provided in each space and that noise transmission levels are compatible with the usage. then the noise passing through the wall with the higher Rw will be about half the loudness when compared with the noise passing through the wall with the lower Rw. There are two types of noise transfer through partitions. Sound Insulation Any wall system that separates one dwelling from another. A partition with a high Rw rating isolates sound better than a partition with a low Rw rating. As we know. after occupation. Plasterboard is screw fixed to the outside of a stud wall. and structure-borne transfer. Noise sources. when a noise is troublesome it can reduce comfort and efficiency and.Queensland Book 1 D Masonry with Plasterboard on Stud Framing In this system. Ideally. televisions and musical instruments. but it is very subjective and it depends on the reactions of the individual. generate noise in the air in one room. including the minimisation of noise transmission from one space to another and the control of noise levels and characteristics within a space. Both may need to be considered in order to achieve the desired result. The best defence against noise must be to ensure that proper precautions are taken at the design stage and during construction of a building. 13mm render can add an extra 1dB more than daub fixed board. However. if a person is subjected to it for long enough periods. This system complies with the BCA requirement of ‘discontinuous construction’ for impact rated walls. should be selected to provide a sufficient level of insulation against noise. it can result in physical discomfort or mental distress. it is often found that the actual Rw rating obtained.

w. The generally accepted test for impact is Weighted Normalised Impact Sound Pressure Level or L’n. Sound Isolation Criteria From May 2004. Structure-borne Noise and Weighted Normalised Impact Sound Pressure Level (L’n. it is neither necessary. being closed • Kitchen appliances being used on benches touching walls • Plumbing fittings. Any variations from the systems detailed in this guide should be approved by the project acoustic consultant as it can increase or decrease the acoustical isolation of wall systems. clothes dryers etc. music rooms and power transformer enclosures etc may often choose materials which have an efficient sound absorption value and incorporate them within the building design. Boral Acousticell blocks have extremely high absorption rates (90%) at low frequency. to provide very high perimeter acoustic sealing February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE D4 . The level of sound absorption for material is stated as the NRC (Noise Reduction Coefficient). However. using a single number description for impact insulation or the Opinion of a suitably qualified acoustic engineer. touching walls Walls satisfy ‘impact’ or structure-borne noise isolation either by conforming to the ‘deemed to satisfy’ provisions of the Building Code of Australia ‘Impact Sound’ or ‘Test of Equivalence’. Unfortunately. being connected to walls • Light switches being turned on and off. fixed to party walls. This reduction in performance can be due to flanking paths (that is to say that noise also passes through other parts of the building) or may be due to poor detailing such as incorrect installation of pipes. For walls. the Building Code of Australia (BCA) specifications for minimum levels of sound isolation have been increased. then the control of flanking paths becomes more critical. This value is derived as a result of acoustic testing on Perimeter Acoustical Sealing It should be noted that as the sound isolation performance of a partition increases. such as Rw60. Refer to the ‘Lightweight’ product page in the Fire Rated Walls section of this guide. and determined by calculation from the average amount of sound energy absorbed over a range of frequencies between 250Hz and 2000Hz. The larger the value of the WIIC the better the impact insulation. such as Rw30.Queensland Book 1 D Weighted Standardised Level Difference (Dnt. Although the new levels have not been adopted by Queensland at the time of printing.w) When a building element is directly. When used for walls it may be called WIIC for laboratory testing or WFIIC for field testing. they are often specified for quality home units. These increased specifications are: • Unit to corridor or stairs • Unit to unit Rw 50 50 Rw + Ctr • Where a wet area of one unit adjoins a habitable room in another unit. are much less than for a high sound rating wall. and • Dishwashers. Installation Unless careful attention to installation detail is followed. The following need to be taken into account. This is called structure-borne noise or impact noise. Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC) Designers of theatres.w). the exact construction as specified including perimeter sealing must be adopted. impacted or vibrated then some of the energy passes through the partition and is re-radiated as noise to the room on the other side. washing machines. the wall construction must ‘be of a discontinuous type. lower values represent better impact insulation. particularly with high performance walls. as there are different test methods used to obtain the impact rating for walls. results cannot always be directly compared. The porous surface and lightweight aggregates in lightweight masonry give it high sound absorption values (> 50%) across all frequencies. Consequently. the material. the perimeter sealing requirements for a low sound rating wall. power points etc. In this method of interpreting impact sound resistance. is lower than the laboratory Rw. the most common sources of structure-borne noise are: • Cupboard doors. significant reductions in sound isolation can occur. nor is it cost effective. or indirectly. particularly taps. Another single number description used for impact is the Impact Insulation Class or IIC.’ Guidelines for Optimum Performance To achieve the optimum performance for a wall system. Refer to Acousticell product page in this guide and the Boral Masonry Block Guide.

greater than 20 years. that for high performance walls. experience and computer simulation programs. or GPO's. located in the wall. plaster and galvanised steel • Minimal shrinkage (less than 5%) • Moderate density (greater than 800kg/m3). Even the most basic principles. floor joists. if ignored. Through windows. usually to concrete.Queensland Book 1 D for a low rating Rw wall. continuous plasterboard ceilings. attention to detail in the design and construction of the partition and its adjoining floor/ ceiling and associated structure is of prime importance. Acoustic Performance On-Site Laboratory Test results are achieved under ideal controlled conditions. Noise Flanking It is beyond the scope of this manual to provide full details for control of all flanking paths. poor sealing at penetrations Through floors and the below floor crawl space Through shared building elements such as floor boards. it must have the following properties. Examples of a suitable sealant include: • Bostik Findley — Fireban One • Boral Plasterboard Fyreflex • Boral Plasterboard WR Sealant • Tremco synthetic rubber acoustical sealant • Some silicone sealants and • Some acrylic latex sealants Through ventilation and service ducts Through ceilings and the above ceiling cavity IMPORTANT: The use of expanding foam sealants is not acceptable. For a sealant to be effective at controlling noise passing through gaps. Reference should be made to the manufacturer to ensure the particular type or grade of sealant is suitable for the purpose. can seriously downgrade the sound insulation performance of a building element. and estimates are calculated from known performance. or the wall and ceiling (or underside of the floor slab) or wall junctions Through back to back cupboards Through light switches. and even continuous concrete walls and floors Fig D1 — Flanking Paths BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 D5 . • Good flexibility. It cannot be over emphasised. However. timber. elastic set • Low hardness • Excellent adhesion. continuous plasterboard walls. To repeat the performance in the field. that is. gaps and air leaks Through perimeter joints between the wall and floor. The perimeter isolation for each leaf must be commensurate with the acoustic isolation of the leaf. however. flanking can significantly reduce the perceived isolation of a wall system and should therefore be given careful consideration. Typical flanking paths are shown in the Fig D1. and • Fire rated where required (All walls required by the BCA to be sound rated also have fire ratings) All of the above properties must be maintained over the useful life of the building. doors. the sealing of each leaf must be virtually airtight.

the worse is the effect of doors. sluices. however. with careful attention during erection of the wall. Cracks or Holes Gaps. Where sound insulation is important. If power outlets are installed back-to-back. Electrical Outlets and Service Pipes Electrical outlets. such as a flexible connection within or on the line of a partition.boral. Penetrations should be avoided where sound insulation is important. However. Noise paths through vents or lightweight decorative panels Noise paths through lightweight panel doors Noise paths through vents Noise paths through gaps Fig D2 — Flanking Paths Fig D3 — Acoustic Performance Overview D6 February 2008 | BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE . Appliances In cases where sound insulation is important. Plumbing connections between fittings or appliances on opposite sides of a partition offer a path for transmission of sound and should be sealed. however small. the following items can also affect the acoustic performance on site. This includes recessed fittings or ducts such as skirting heating. water storage tanks. Where fittings are duplicated on opposite sides of partitions. com. light fittings.Queensland Book 1 D Boral Masonry cannot guarantee that field performance ratings will match laboratory or estimated opinions. medical and laboratory gas outlets. they will create a flanking path or sound leak. If possible introduce discontinuity in the pipework between fittings. Home Cinema Rooms Boral Masonry and Plasterboard divisions have a number of high performance wall systems which have been specifically developed for home cinema applications. correct installation to specification and proper caulking/sealing. two doors separated by an absorbent lined airspace or lobby should be used. Doors can also provide direct air leaks between rooms thus having a bad effect on the overall sound insulation of the partition in which they are inserted. switch boxes and similar penetrations should not be placed back to back. workmanship and caulking. electrical or telephone wiring trunking. noise producing fixtures or appliances such as water closets. cracks or openings. Please contact Boral Masonry for additional assistance and information on the available solutions. Air Paths Through Gaps. The higher the insulation of the partition. specialised heavyweight doors or. Lightweight Panels Above Doors These are often incorporated for aesthetic reasons. they should be offset. preferably. washing machines and pumps should be repositioned or isolated from the structure with resilient mountings and flexible service leads and connections. dishwashers. Seal backs and sides of boxes and the perimeter of all penetrations with acoustic sealant. Apart from installation procedures. the performance of a partition with good sound insulation can be considerably degraded by lightweight panels. or visit the website: www. cored and even solid doors generally provide unsatisfactory sound insulation between rooms. Doors Hollow. the assembly should produce a field performance close to and comparable with tested or estimated values. readily conduct airborne sounds and can considerably reduce the sound insulation of a construction. inter-communication systems and alarms. cisterns.au/cinemazone for solutions using Boral masonry products.

FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 E FIRE AND ACOUSTIC SYSTEMS 1 E .BORAL MASONRY Build something great™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL.

01 FL FireLight is manufactured in 110 and 140mm thicknesses and in a range of size formats to suit fire and/or acoustic wall construction in brick and block coursing.9 24.9 120 26. Vic.9 22.709 FL 140x190x390 26. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50. The 1st diagram.01 FL 110x390x162 15. Finding Acoustic Systems and Technical Specifications Product Name Product Icons with dimensions for products available in your region/state Product Introduction and Application Information Product Specific Acoustic Test Results and Wall Lining System Information Product Identification Fire and Acoustic Systems Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK PAGE BOOK 1 E4 1 PAGE E5 FireLight Brick (FL) 76 230 Acoustic Systems . • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed over 16mm • 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres • Boral Impact Clips^ 197mm • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. 162 WALL LINING 110mm RIPPA FIRELIGHT BLOCK (FL) WALL LINING 50 (-2. -7) 02154-T014 • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres.9 120 12. * ^ 20mm clearspace required for impact rating outside Queensland Impact rated in Queensland (2007) Impact rated in NSW. 169mm • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed • 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres • Standard Clips • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity.6 Nº per m2 48.5 Nº per Pallet 400 150 150 Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf) Rw (Estimate or *Tested) Rw+Ctr With Lining System Insulation (minutes) FRL (minutes) for 60 90 120 180 240 IMPACT 29. ACOUSTIC RATING Rw (c. • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed • 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres • Boral Impact Clips^ • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. 194mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard • 51mm studs 10mm* clear of masonry • Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity .0 29. for unit-to-unit walls between wet areas or dry-to-dry (no impact required). 52 (-2.5 14.162. Specifications Product Code ƒ ’ uc MPa 3 3 3 Unit Wt kg 2. The standard clips are much more economical than impact clips.6 12.709 FL (made to order) FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FireLight is a fire tested lightweight concrete block which is unique to Boral.2 22.3 47 52 58 56 62 50 180 Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. giving Rw50 is an opinion based on the 2nd test and similar tests where impact clips and standard clips were compared on the same wall. This system. • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard • 51mm studs 10mm* clear of masonry • Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity . 200mm 57 (-2. Framing and Insulation Description for each side of the wall .110mm Rippa FireLight Block ACOUSTIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The first 2 tests on the following page E5 comply with the BCA:2005 requirements for unit-to-corridor or stair walls which is Rw50 in Part F5 and at the time of printing. The 3rd test complies with BCA. -8) Opinion • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. Please refer to the fire performance characteristics in the specification table. Please refer to the appropriate product pages in Book 2 for additional information regarding past sizes etc.715 FL 110x230x76 24. Wall Cross section Icon and Overall System Thickness 190 Availability information for your region/state 140 390 15. is Rw45 in the BCA Queensland Appendix.2 20. Fire Performance Data Product Specifications Acoustic Performance Data Acoustic Test Result (Rw) and Impact Isolation Information (IIC) Lining. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50.0 26. ctr) Boral Test Nº 110 120.3 20. with the impact clip. • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E2 The following illustration details typical page layouts and the type and location of information you may need to complete your product selection and wall design. for unit-to-unit walls requiring an impact rating (a wall separating a wet area of one unit from a dry area in another unit).9 22. SA and Qld Availability • Lead time 0-2 weeks.3 47 52 58 56 62 47 52 58 56 62 50 50 Impact = Complies with BCA requirement for Impact Sound Resistance. Boral Fire and Acoustic Masonry Wall Systems This section of the Boral Masonry Design Guide contains detailed information on the fire and acoustic performance of Boral masonry products. 181mm 59 (-2. and provides excellent fire rating characteristics. -8) 02154-T013 390 110 12. TxLxH (mm) 120.715 FL INTRODUCTION Boral FireLight bricks are manufactured from a low-density material which provides high fire rated performance and minimum weight for nonloadbearing applications. -7) 02154-T009 • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. 56 (-1.6 7. -6) 02154-T010 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres.0 29. The 4th and 5th tests comply with BCA.162. and provides System Solutions for fire and acoustic wall designs. Boral FireLight is ideal for concrete framed office buildings and high-rise home units. This system easily complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for all unit-to-unit walls (Rw 45 and 50).9 24. also complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for wet-to-dry walls.2 20.1 11.

Specifications Product Code ƒ’ uc MPa 3 3 3 Unit Wt kg 2.9 24.0 26. Alternatively. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50. This system easily complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for all unit-to-unit walls (Rw 45 and 50). Please refer to the fire performance characteristics in the specification table.715 FL 110x230x76 24.162.3 20.3 20.9 120 26.2 22.709 FL (made to order) FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FireLight is a fire tested lightweight concrete block which is unique to Boral. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50.2 2. and provides thickness information to assist wall thickness calculation. giving Rw50 is an opinion based on the 2nd test and similar tests where impact clips and standard clips were compared on the same wall.0 29. under the System Headings of .709 FL 140x190x390 26.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E3 Acoustic Systems Data Acoustic performance information for six of the most popular wall lining systems may be provided within the Product Specification Tables on the following product pages. The standard clips are much more economical than impact clips. Boral FireLight is ideal for concrete framed office buildings and high-rise home units. This system. . Availability • Lead time 0-2 weeks. .2 20. The 3rd test complies with BCA. The 1st diagram.6 Nº per m2 48. Please refer to the appropriate product pages in Book 2 for additional information regarding past sizes etc. 162 ACOUSTIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The first 2 tests on the following page E5 comply with the BCA:2005 requirements for unit-to-corridor or stair walls which is Rw50 in Part F5 and at the time of printing. you may be referred to more detailed test information and alternative lining systems. Read off Acoustic Performance (Rw) from intersection of product row and lining system column TxLxH (mm) 120. is Rw45 in the BCA Queensland Appendix. LINING SYSTEM Refer to product pages When information is provided in the table.2 390 110 12. and provides excellent fire rating characteristics. The following Table details the wall lining and insulation information for these six systems. . Acoustic performance estimates have been calculated by Wilkinson Murray (Acoustic Consultants).01 FL 110x390x162 15.6 12. WALL LINING BORAL MASONRY BRICK OR BLOCK As per product pages WALL LINING       BOOK • 13mm Render Masonry Thickness +26mm • 13mm Render • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed Masonry Thickness +32mm • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed Masonry Thickness +59mm Masonry Thickness +84mm or +77mm • • • • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channel at 600mm centres Standard Clips at 1200mm centres Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed or 1 x 6mm Villaboard™ screw fixed over • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed • 28mm furring channel at 600mm centres • Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity • • • • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channel at 600mm centres Boral Impact Clips at 1200mm centres Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 64mm steel studs at 600mm centres 20mm gap required for impact rating Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity • • • • • • • • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channel at 600mm centres Standard Clips at 1200mm centres Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channel at 600mm centres Standard Clips at 1200mm centres Tontine TSB2 insulation in cavity Acousti c Estim ate Masonry Thickness +98mm • • Masonry • Thickness • +140mm s with these L ining System utes) s Fire and Acoustic Systems 1 E4 FireLight Brick (FL) 76 230 Ratio (Srf) Rw (Estimate or *Tested) Rw+Ctr With Lining System ) for 80 240 IMPACT 20.2 2.2 20.9 24.0 29. The 4th and 5th tests comply with BCA.3 47 52 58 56 62 50 180 Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. also complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for wet-to-dry walls.9 22.  and .3 47 52 58 56 62 47 52 58 56 62 47 52 58 56 62 50 50 50 PAGE 110 120.5 14.3 47 52 58 56 62 47 52 58 56 62 50 50 Impact = Complies with BCA requirement for Impact Sound Resistance. for unit-to-unit walls requiring an impact rating (a wall separating a wet area of one unit from a dry area in another unit). with the impact clip.9 22.3 20.1 11. . 2. 190 140 390 15.715 FL INTRODUCTION Boral FireLight bricks are manufactured from a low-density material which provides high fire rated performance and minimum weight for nonloadbearing applications.5 Nº per Pallet 400 150 150 Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf) Rw (Estimate or *Tested) Rw+Ctr With Lining System Insulation (minutes) FRL (minutes) for 60 90 120 180 240 IMPACT 29.01 FL FireLight is manufactured in 110 and 140mm thicknesses and in a range of size formats to suit fire and/or acoustic wall construction in brick and block coursing.162. for unit-to-unit walls between wet areas or dry-to-dry (no impact required).6 7. it is tabulated.9 120 12.

Please refer to the appropriate product pages in Book 2 for additional information regarding past sizes etc. Boral FireLight is ideal for concrete framed office buildings and high-rise home units.6 Nº per m2 48.162. The 3rd test complies with BCA. Availability • Lead time 0-2 weeks.0 29.709 FL (made to order) FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FireLight is a fire tested lightweight concrete block which is unique to Boral. for unit-to-unit walls between wet areas or dry-to-dry (no impact required). for unit-to-unit walls requiring an impact rating (a wall separating a wet area of one unit from a dry area in another unit). .Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E4 FireLight Brick (FL) 76 230 110 120.709 FL 140x190x390 26.0 26. is Rw45 in the BCA Queensland Appendix. The standard clips are much more economical than impact clips. The 1st diagram.2 20.9 24. 390 110 12.6 7.2 20.9 22.9 120 12.3 47 52 58 56 62 50 TxLxH (mm) 120. This system. and provides excellent fire rating characteristics.01 FL110x390x162 15.9 120 26. with the impact clip.01 FL FireLight is manufactured in 110 and 140mm thicknesses and in a range of size formats to suit fire and/or acoustic wall construction in brick and block coursing. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50. also complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for wet-to-dry walls.9 22. Impact = Complies with BCA requirement for Impact Sound Resistance. 190 140 390 15.6 12.715 FL INTRODUCTION Boral FireLight bricks are manufactured from a low-density material which provides high fire rated performance and minimum weight for nonloadbearing applications.5 Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf) Rw (Estimate or *Tested) Rw+Ctr With Lining System Insulation (minutes) Nº FRL (minutes) per for        Pallet 60 90 120 180 240 IMPACT  400 150 150 29. 162 ACOUSTIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The first 2 tests on the following page E5 comply with the BCA:2005 requirements for unit-to-corridor or stair walls which is Rw50 in Part F5 and at the time of printing.162.715 FL 110x230x76       Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. Please refer to the fire performance characteristics in the specification table. This system easily complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for all unit-to-unit walls (Rw 45 and 50).0 29. giving Rw50 is an opinion based on the 2nd test and similar tests where impact clips and standard clips were compared on the same wall.5 14.3 47 52 58 56 62 50 24.3 47 52 58 56 62 50 180 24. The 4th and 5th tests comply with BCA.9 22. Specifications Product Code ƒ ’ uc MPa 3 3 3 Unit Wt kg 2.1 11.2 20. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr > 50.

1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres Boral Impact Clips^ Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity.110mm Rippa FireLight Block ACOUSTIC RATING Rw (c. 169mm 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres Standard Clips Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. -8) Opinion • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. -6) 02154-T010 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. ctr) Boral Test Nº WALL LINING 110mm RIPPA FIRELIGHT BLOCK (FL) • • • • • • • • WALL LINING 50 (-2. Vic. -7) 02154-T009 • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed over 16mm • 28mm furring channels at 600mm centres • Boral Impact Clips^ 197mm • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. SA and Qld .Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E5 Acoustic Systems . -7) 02154-T014 • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard • 51mm studs 10mm* clear of masonry • Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity∞. 52 (-2. -8) 02154-T013 • 1 x 13mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed at 500mm centres. 194mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard • 51mm studs 10mm* clear of masonry • Tontine TSB5 insulation in cavity∞. * ^ ∞ 20mm clearspace required for impact rating outside Queensland Impact rated in Queensland (2007) Impact rated in NSW. 181mm 59 (-2. 56 (-1. 200mm 57 (-2.

190. Where higher performance is required.0 60 18.48 30.0 46 47 46 47 50 48 53 56 59 46 47 46 47 50 51 50 51 57 58 57 58 Rw (Estimate or *Tested) With Lining System Rw+Ctr for         Impact  55 56 55 56 60 61 60 61 Type Hollow Solid Hollow Hollow (no grout fill) Reduced Core Hollow  17. These products can provide adequate fire performance for many common fire rated wall applications.709 20. Standard Grey blocks are manufactured in 90.48 ƒ ’ uc MPa 15 15 15 15 15 15 Unit Mass kg 11. 110. All Standard Grey blocks have inherent fire and acoustic performance properties which automatically allocates them ‘deemed-to-satisfy’ values for fire Availability • Please refer to the Boral Masonry Blocks and Bricks Guide (MDG Book 2) for detailed availability information on these products. Please also refer to fire performance graphs and design information in Sections A and B of this guide for additional selection information.5 36.0 16.5 15.0 16. and continue to provide cost effective.0  16.0 18.  Additional Insulation with  Lining System (10mm render both sides).0 Rw + Ctr = 50 240 36. This performance may be sufficient for many applications without enhancement. All ‘Standard Grey Block’ and ‘Core Fill Block’ products are manufactured to AS/ NZS4455 ‘Masonry units and segmental pavers 1997’ using modern high pressure moulding techniques and controlled dense-weight concrete materials.0 36.0 36.0 36. FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The fire resistance performance of Boral concrete blocks is determined as per AS3700 : 2001 Section 6.0 90 17.01^ 15.0 120 36.0 18.0  15.0 16.5 240 15.48 20. and known acoustic performance values which will satisfy many common BCA requirements.31 12.01 10. Impact = Complies with BCA requirement for Impact Sound Resistance nationally. FRACTIONAL SIZE BLOCKS Boral Masonry Queensland manufactures an extensive range of special purpose blocks and fractional size blocks to complement the products detailed on this page.0 36.5 13.0 36. the addition of render is effective while board-lining systems using furring systems and Boral Impact Clips or plasterboard on lightweight studs and polyester insulation materials can provide high acoustic insulation.5 15.0 48* 54 48 51 55 59 52 56 60 64 61* 61* 64 59 63 67 71 57 61 65 69 62 66 69 72 51 50 52 54 56 120 17.1 14.0 15.01 block sold in Northern Queensland are rated at 60 minutes for insulation and achieve 90 minutes with render on both faces.0 17.0 18.0 FRL (minutes) 90 120 180 17.0 17.0 36.0 36.01 15.0 15.0 15. Please refer to acoustic test/ estimate data for appropriate systems.8 16. ACOUSTIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Standard Grey being of a relatively dense material provides inherent sound resistance. 140. and 290mm thicknesses to suit most wall construction applications.709 15.0 16.0 Reinforced 15 and Grout Filled Reinforced 15 and Grout Filled Reinforced 15 and Grout Filled 90^ 36.0 240      and  comply in Queensland. performance.0 12.0 16.0 17.0 36.5 15.5 15. ^ Note that 20.0 15.5 14.0 36. .0 60 18.0 15.0 18.3 13.1 Insulation (minutes) 60 18. Specifications Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf) Product Code 10. Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. practical and engineered solutions for the full spectrum of construction applications.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E6 Grey Block Standard and Core Fill INTRODUCTION Boral Grey blocks have been an integral part of Australia’s construction industry for more than 3 decades.0  36.0 36.0 15.

50 (opinion) • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard on cornice cement daub fixed at 500mm centres. • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed at 500mm centres • 28mm furring channels • Boral Impact Clips* • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. 205mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed at 500mm centres • 28mm furring channels • Beta-Fix Clips with 42mm clear of Masonry. 48 (-1. -7) 271 • Bare wall. 153mm • Bare wall. * Impact rated in Queensland (2007) See Lining System  for NSW 56 (-3. -6) 274 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard on cornice cement daub fixed at 500mm centres. reduced cores. -12) Bassett 4998-01 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed at 500mm centres • 28mm furring channel • Standard Clips • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. 232mm . 166mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard on cornice cement daubs fixed at 500mm centres. 205mm 61 (-5. ctr) Boral Test Nº WALL LINING 140mm GREY BLOCK REDUCED CORE WALL LINING 48 (-2. 140mm • Bare wall.140mm Grey Block Reduced Core ACOUSTIC RATING Rw (c. • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed at 500mm centres • 28mm furring channels • Boral Impact Clips* • Tontine TSB3 insulation in cavity. -9) 275 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard on cornice cement daub fixed at 500mm centres.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E7 Acoustic Systems . 140mm thick. -7) 272 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard on cornice cement daub fixed at 500mm centres. 49 (-2.

48 ‘H’ Block .01 Full 15.48 ‘H’ Block 15.01 Full 20.01 Full 10.31 Full Solid 12.709 Reduced Core Series 200 Full Height Core Fill Block 190 190 190 390 190 390 20.48 ‘H’ Block Series 300 Core Fill Block 190 290 390 30.709 Full Series 150 Full Height Core Fill Block 190 190 190 140 390 140 390 140 390 15.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E8 Grey Block Standard and Core Fill Series 100 Full Height Full Height Solid Series 120 Full Height 190 190 190 390 90 90 390 110 390 10.

0  20. CONCRETE BASALT (B): RIPPA BRICK The first test on the following page E10 complies with the BCA:2005 Queensland Appendix requirements for unit-to-corridor.0 17.796 B 110x230x162 Speed-E Cored 120. They provide good fire performance and acoustic performance characteristics where minimising weight is not a primary consideration. particularly when daub-fixed.715 B 110x230x76 Standard Solid 120.0 21. but is much higher in the BCA.0 18.  Additional Insulation with  Lining System (10mm render both sides).5 90 22.4 Nº per m2 48. BORAL CONCRETE-BASALT BRICKS The Boral Speed-E Brick is 230mm long by 162mm high. Specifications Maximum Slenderness Ratio (Srf) Product Code Unit ƒ ’ uc mass TxLxH (mm) MPa kg 10 10 10 4. .5 24. making them excellent for loadbearing or non-loadbearing applications. ACOUSTIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The mass of the Concrete-Basalt material is 7% heavier than Clay therefore walls from Concrete-Basalt products perform slightly better. Concrete-Basalt Bricks are a popular choice for walls in domestic applications and high-rise units where they are commonly used with a rendered finish. The 4th test complies with the more stringent BCA. with the impact clip. The 3rd test shows a 3dB improvement over the 2nd test though the addition of insulation between the furring channels. equal to 2 courses of standard brick with mortar.0 17.0 18. This is Rw45 at the time of printing. This is worth the small extra cost as it can compensate for noise leaks through power points etc.162. Part F5 requirements of Rw + ctr ≥ 50.0 21. Availability • No minimum order quantities apply. Please refer to acoustic test/estimate data in this guide for appropriate systems. making them a highly efficient and costeffective construction component. This system.6 Insulation (minutes) FRL (minutes) 60 90 120 180 240 22.0 20. FIRE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS These products are manufactured from Concrete-Basalt which provides good fire performance characteristics in loadbearing conditions. the impact clips and furring channels would be replaced with an independent stud system or a cavity wall without ties. • Lead time 0-2 weeks. giving Rw50. complies with the Queensland Appendix minimum requirement for inter-tenancy walls that separate a wet area from a habitable room.0 Rw (Estimate or *Tested) With Lining System Rw+Ctr for  50  48 46 45   46 46 45*   51 51 51     56 55 55* Impact  55 54 54 62 61 61 120.Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E9 Concrete-Basalt (B): Rippa and Speed-E Brick INTRODUCTION Boral Masonry Queensland ConcreteBasalt (B): Rippa and Speed-E Bricks have an ƒ’uc of 15MPa. Outside Queensland.1 10.5 90 22.0 90        Refer to Lining Systems on Page E3. The 2nd diagram. Impact = Complies with BCA requirement for Impact Sound Resistance. Please refer to the fire performance characteristics in the specifications table.3 14. Part F5 which applies outside Queensland. Its texture is coarser and its porosity is higher than Clay.0 7. Part F5 which applies outside Queensland and the impact rating is to be “of discontinuous construction” such as an independent stud or cavity wall without ties.0 17. also complies with the current BCA Queensland Appendix requirement for wet-to-dry walls. for unit-to-unit walls between wet areas or between dry areas (no impact required). The requirement is much higher in the BCA.0 18. They are also commonly used for loadbearing walls in 3-storey unit construction with plasterboard or render finish.5 21. so it performs better with plasterboard.01 B Rippa Block 110x390x162  20. unit-to-stair walls and inter-tenancy walls that separate two wet areas or two dry areas.

Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E10 Concrete-Basalt (B): Rippa and Speed-E Brick 162 76 230 230 162 390 110 110 110 Brick (1 in every 7 bricks supplied is solid for corner applications) 120. ctr) Boral Test Nº WALL LINING RIPPA and SPEED-E BRICK WALL LINING 45 (-2.162.01 Rippa Brick Acoustic Systems .796 Speed-E Brick (B) Cored 12. -7) RMIT 01-066 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed.2. * Impact rated in Queensland (2007) See Lining System  for NSW . 53 (-2. 185mm 45 (per BCA) D. Specification F5. 136mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed.T.2). 50 (-2.S.2). • • • • • • • • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channel Boral Impact Clips* 60mm insulation in cavity. 2 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed 28mm furring channels Boral Impact Clips* 60mm insulation in cavity. -6) RMIT 01-062 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed. • 1 x 13mm Render (deemed to comply: BCA. Specification F5. 175mm 55 (-1. 136mm • 1 x 13mm Render (deemed to comply: BCA. -5) RMIT 01-070 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed.Rippa and Speed-E Brick ACOUSTIC RATING Rw (c. -5) RMIT 01-065 • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard daub fixed. 175mm • 1 x 10mm Boral Plasterboard screw fixed • 28mm furring channels • Boral Impact Clips*.2.

Fire and Acoustic Systems BOOK 1 PAGE E11 NOTES .

QLD 4740 Tel (07) 4955 1155 Fax (07) 4955 4130 VIC Level 1 17-47 Turner Street. QLD 4870 Tel (07) 4035 1888 Fax (07) 4035 1208 Townsville 360 Bayswater Road. SA 5095 Tel (08) 8262 3529 Fax (08) 8260 3011 NSW Clunies Ross Street. Prospect. Not all colours displayed in this brochure are available in all states. 2. (Contact your nearest Boral Masonry office for your area’s stock colours.) A surcharge applies to orders less than the set minimum quantity. QLD 4814 Tel (07) 4725 6285 Fax (07) 4725 6043 Mackay David Muir Street. Portsmith. Port Melbourne. Colour and texture variation The supply of raw materials can vary over time.com. 3. In addition.Customer support Queensland 1. NSW 2148 Tel (02) 9840 2333 Fax (02) 9840 2344 For technical assistance: Call Specifier Line on 1300 360 Visit www. Orders. ACT 2609 Tel (02) 6239 1029 Fax (02) 6280 6262 SA Main North Road. VIC 3207 Tel (03) 9681 9722 Fax (03) 9681 9766 ACT 16 Whyalla Street.all rights reserved 2007. Fyshwick. 4. © Boral Masonry . 5. Stock colours Colours other than stock colours are made ‘to’ order. Pooraka. product samples and sales enquiries Other regional sales offices QLD 62 Industrial Ave. We reserve the right to change the details in this publication without notice.boral. Brochure colours The printed colours in this Masonry Design Guide are only a guide. QLD 4076 Tel (07) 3271 9292 Fax (07) 3271 1581 NQ Cairns 8 Palmer Street. Garbutt.au/mdg 255 Revised 150208 eBC 03218 Feb08 . Slade Point. Wacol. variation can occur between product types and production batches. For a full set of Terms and Conditions of Sale please contact your nearest Boral Masonry sales office. Please ask to see a sample of your colour/texture before specifying or ordering.