You are on page 1of 3

Some Important Functional Groups

 Functional group: A characteristically bonded group of atoms that determines molecular properties (reactivity, physical properties, etc.) regardless of what molecule it is in. C-H and C-C bonds are not considered to be functional groups by themselves. The carbonyl group (C=O) is not a considered functional group by itself. R = Unspecified carbon group: Alkyl, benzene ring, alkene, etc. R ≠ H Functional Group Alkene
C C

  

Example Ethylene Tomato – ripening hormone

Structure
H C H C H H

Alkyne
C C

Acetylene Welding gas Toluene Solvent
C

H

C

C

H

Benzene ring
C C C C C

CH3

Alkyl halide (haloalkane) X = F, Cl, Br, I
C X

Dichlorodifluoromethane Freon-12; a CFC
Cl

F C Cl F

Alcohol
C OH

Ethanol Yeast fermentation product

H CH3 C H OH

Phenol
C C C C C C OH

Vanillin Natural flavoring agent
H

OCH3 OH O

Ether
C O C

Ethyl ether Solvent, anesthetic

CH3CH2

O

CH2CH3

Lecture Supplement: Some Important Functional Groups

5

Epoxide
O C C

Epichlorohydrin Epoxy resin component

O CH2Cl

Thiol
C SH

3-Methyl-1-butanethiol Present in skunk musk
SH

Sulfide
C S C

Bis (2-chloroethyl)sulfide WWI poison gas
ClCH2 CH2 SCH2 CH2 Cl

Disulfide
S S

Protein structural unit
peptide

S

Amine
C N

Putrescine Present in rotting meat
H2N

Ketone
O C C C

Acetone Solvent

O

Aldehyde
O C C H

Benzaldehye Artificial flavor

Carboxylic acid (carboxyl group; CO2H)
O C C OH

Acetic acid Present in vinegar

O OH

Ester
O C C O C

Methyl methacrylate Polymerized to form plexiglass

O OCH3

6

Lecture Supplement: Some Important Functional Groups

peptide

S

NH2

O H

Amide
O C C N

Peptide linkage Joins amino acids in proteins
R

O N H

R

H N O R

Acid chloride
O C C Cl

Adipoyl chloride Used in nylon synthesis
Cl

O Cl O

Acid anhydride
O C C O O C C

Acetic anhydride Used in aspirin synthesis

O O

O

Imine
C N

Rhodopsin Essential for vision

retinal N H opsin

Nitrile
C N

Acetonitrile Solvent 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Explosive
O2N

CH3

C

N
NO2 CH3 NO2

Nitro
O N O

Lecture Supplement: Some Important Functional Groups

7