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Open Pit Design - Non-Stratigraphic

Copyright © ~005 MapteklKRJA

Systems, Inc.

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Trademarks
Due to the: nature of the material, many hardware and software products are mentioned by name. The companies that manufacture the products claim many of these-product names as trademarks. It is not the intention of Maptek to claim these names or trademarks as their own.

Revision History
1.0 - November 2005 .:... enver, Colorado, D

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Conventions used in this manual
The following conventions are used throughout this manual: Examples are written in bold italics. Important points or references are written in bold. Tip! Hints, tips and warnings are written between horizontal lines.

Chapter 1: Pit Design Principles Introduction Objectives Designing a Pit Using the 'Top Down' Approach Direction of the Pit String Flag Toe/Crest String Assigning Batter Angles and Berm Widths Conditioning Strings Projecting Strings Tolerances Continuing Your Pit Design 'Bottom Up' Design Method Slicing the block model Creating the pit Pit Topography General Reserves The Advanced Reserves Editor Automated Pit Design with Auto Pit. Inc. Interpolating Missing Strings Modifying Pit Designs Creating an Inclined Pit String Grading Multiple Pit Strings Moving a Pit Wall Chapter 2: Ramp Design Introduction The Ramps Menu Conventions Strings Roads The Design Pit/Dump Option Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 9 11 18 19 20 21 23 26 28 29 34 38 40 40 41 42 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 .

Exercise 3: Adjusting the Access Distance .. . Chapter 5: Manual Hoad Building and Editing Tools The Build Road Option How. -. ~.'Edit parameters . i'" ._ -" '. Choose parameters insert road Continue road Start road End road Insert flat Insert Switchback Project string Chapter 3: Ramp Design Exercises Exercise 1: Inserting a Road Using a Limiting String : Exercise 2: Inserting a Road U~ing Immediate Projection . .• ~ . . .. . Inc. Problem: Road skews away from highwall Problem: Error message "*Warning* Premature completion Case 1" Problem: Error message "Bench height is near zero" .{ . ~ . . . ..... lristructions: " . t.: : Generating aHaul Road Using the Insert road to Pit/Dump Option Produce a Road Guide Using the Road Line Option How to use the Road Line option: Chapter 6: ' Chronos Heserver Chronos Heserver Introduction lmportinq Dump Files .' .. .to use the Build Road option: . k . . .. " . . " Exercise 4: Adjusting 'Bench Access Exercise 5: Inserting a Flat Section Exercise 7: Adding a Road to Existing Design : Exercise B: Designing Multiple Roads ::: 48 48 51 51 52 52 52 52 54 56 61 61 64 64 65 66 67 69 71 71 73 73 75 75 75 76 77 77 79 79 79 . Chapter 4: Trouble Shooting Guide .>. Cepyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. .".

Inc.Opening a Workbook Import Dump File Reserve Sheets Basic Functions Expressions and Functions Additional Columns General Sheets Display and Query Query Block Display Attributes Reporting Templates Options Breakdowns Selection Excel Charts and Exporting Charts Conclusion '" 79 80 81 81 83 85 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 90 90 93 Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. .

ore/waste ratio contours. An understanding of block models is necessary for reserving during the course. i.e. Open Pit of mine Incorporated in the Open Pit menu. This course will also cover reserving your design using a block model.This menu has the tools available for the creation and modification of open cut mine. Ramps . Rapid visualisations of the design results give feedback to the designer by providing the opportunity to communicate the development to other technical and non-technical people. dump or stockpile designs. After reserving. geo-technical constraints and urban planning requirements. waste dumps and stockpiles. The flexibility of the tools allows the engineer to build the mine plan according to the constraints determined by inputs such as optimised blocks. where they can be further manipulated in a spreadsheet and reports can then be generated. .This menu has the tools available for the creation and modification of open cut mine. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. without ramps. Inc. The specialist tools in the Open Pit design menu include: Open Cut Design . the reseves will be imported into Chronos. you will find tools for creation and modification of open-cut pit designs. Both the planning and operational requirements engineering are provided for by the options. dump or stockpile designs that incorporate ramps/haul-roads in the design. The tools are for straight projections only.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Summary of Manual A wide range of applications are supported by the VULCAN menu.

2) The 'Bottom Up' method be used for high value ratio. This is known as the Top Down design method . in plan. Digitise a polygon using the Polygon option found under the Design> Create menu . starting from the topography surface and projecting down to the lowest economic pit depth. is the most popular approach and would typically deposits having a relatively high waste-stripping method may be employed for massive. This will probably be constrained by land ownership. for example. When the best site and shape have been decided upon. These tools are found in the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu: Flag Toe/Crest string TQlerance Alisign Berm/Batter values . So when you are initially assessing the site for basic pit outline or position. To view the polygon in plan view.elimit MaKeMask Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. shallow iron ore or low grade nickel ores. The 'Top Down' deposits. dump or stockpile designs. The Open Pit> Ramps module handles mine designs with ramps or haul-roads.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 1: Pit Design Principles Introduction This unit describes the tools available for the creation and modification of open cut mine. you can make some fairly crude pit designs.defining the pit limit you want at the surface. for example of Designing a Pit Using the 'Top Down' Approach The first thing to do is to decide where the boundary of the pit is wanted. . Inc. on a grade interpretation of block model slices. digitise it at a Z-Ievel that is wholly above the highest level of the topography triangulation: a quick way to find the maximum RL of a triangulation is to use the Model> Triangle Edit> Analyse Vertices option (this is available from the right-click context Define Angles £lanes Moye Pit/Dump wall B. You can design a pit outline very quickly using these tools. Objectives To learn the tools and methods of the two main pit design methods: 1) Design a simple pit outline. planning constraints. The Z level of the points in this string does not really matter at this stage. without roadways. Begin our design from a polygon string digitised at the lowest level of the planned pit. This is known as the Bottom Up design method and may be based. on optimum pit shell from VULCAN's Pit Optimizer or on an optimum Whittle © shell. etc. existing structures.condition string Project string Herm string Allto Pit Incline Multi Incline Geology Pgirs Ioes And Crests Update Toe Blocks Pro9rfss Maps Qump Design Pit Topography Long Section Prestrjp These tools are for straight projections of walls only. that is. the pit can then be refined to include more detail. at the surface.

and interpolate points into the string. use the Sequence option in the Analyse> Label menu.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) menu for triangulations). while an anti-clockwise pit string is always projected up and in (or down and out). . 2 Use the Register option found under the Design> Object Edit menu. Clockwise pit strings are always projected as pits. Inc. whereas anti-clockwise strings are always treated as dump design strings. to register the limit string onto the topography surface. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. this is why the initial Z values were not i . This creates a string with the plan shape that you decided upon. but in which the shape of the surface is represented. set the default Z-Ievel to be 400 and digitise a polygon as per the diagrams below: If the direction of digitising is unknown. This shows the max Z of the topography to be 376. Thus a clockwise pit string is always projected up and out (or down and in). Direction of the Pit String A convention that must be observed when using any of the pit projection or berming options is the direction of the pit string. Therefore.

~ - Crests: Toes: ~ . • You are then required to identify this string as a toe or crest string Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . For this first exercise. --- Haul road: . The colour and line-type of toe and crests strings is set by the Open Pit> Ramps> Graphics Toe/Crest/Road option. In the following steps... As all crest and toe strings are automatically assigned to separate group codes. we will keep the pit relatively simple. allows you to apply standard Envisage naming conventions to pit or dump strings. . under the Open Pit > Open Cut Design menu. ~ Apply to currently loaded data '---_o_K_--'1 [ Cancel • Select 'Cancel' or simply right-click with the mouse to return to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu.. by projecting several lifts. Inc.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) You should now be in a position to begin designing a pit. The most common application of this option is when the starting string of a pit or dump has been digitised manually or created through the Register option because this does not apply the open pit naming conventions.. Notice that the selected pit string has changed colour. Defining the Pit String: • Select the Flag Toe/Crest String option • You are prompted to "select the lowest string" design. This option requires you to identify individual pit or dump strings as a toe or crest. we will continue to design our pit using tools found under the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. Naming conventions are then assigned to each string as follows: • PRU<value> • BRU<value> (for crests) (for toes) Since this string represents our final crest string (top of the pit). PIT$CREST group and PIT$TOE group respectively.. click on Crest from the selection box. there is the added benefit that editing may be carried out 'By group' category rather than individually 'By object'. In essence you will be creating a series of 3 dimensional polygons that will define the crests and toes of the batter slopes. These naming conventions are required by other options in the Open Pit > Open Cut Design menu and by options in the Ramps menu. Flag Toe/Crest String The Flag Toe/Crest String option. Select your pit limit string in this case in the pit or dump Open pit graph . installing safety benches (berms) as we do so.

each point in the perimeter will inherit batter and berm values from variables held at each position in the block model./ .is used by the Ramps options to track which part of the road design sequence should be performed on the string. This can be done with the manual method of nominating different berms to individual sections (line segments) of the pit perimeter.crest or toe . The batter angle is the inclination from horizontal of the pit wall between berms. With the block model method.. The width of these berms may need to be varied around the pit perimeter due to different geological conditions or other factors. Variable batter angles and berm widths are stored in the W tag of the points in a perimeter string. found under the Open Cut Design menu.. Distance 'W' 'is the The batter angles and berm widths can be assigned manually to selected line segments in the pit outline or they can be applied from variables in an indexed block model.. .. The object value is also used to store bench level information. also known as "catch benches". Berms. the following panel appears: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. are narrow (typically 2 to 10 metres (6 to 33 feet) wide) flat benches that must be incorporated into the sloping walls of any pit exceeding a specified depth . 11'-- . This information is used at a logical level. Inc. even if the string in question is not a constant elevation..er tlerm angle width Assigning Batter Angles and Berm Widths The Assign Berm/Batter Values option allows you to apply batter angles and berm widths to a pit or dump outline before projecting it (using the Project String or Auto Pit options). When the option is selected. How to use the Assign Berm/Batter Values option: • Select the Assign Berm/Batter Values option. and how the road must behave. The Group label is used to assign colour and line type to the strings. The values apply to the segments following the point.generally every 10 to 20 metres (33 to 66 feet) of pit depth. Batter angles may be varied around the pit perimeter and from one lift to the next.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Cross-sectional view of pit wall Why Define the String Type? The string type . This information is held in the Group and Object Name fields of the pit string. horizontal plane berm or bench. not the overall slope angle of the pit. Angle 'A' is Lb:e ba i t.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic)

Assign Batters and Berms

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Assign batters by picking Assign berms by picking batters and berms from model

If the 'Override named points' box is checked, all points in the perimeter are assigned values from the block model. If unchecked and batter angles and berm widths have been applied previously, the values will be preserved. Checking the 'Use these parameters for ALL projections and berms' box will re-assign batter angles and berm widths for each lift from the block model. If unchecked, the batters and berms are transferred from string to string as per the manual method. • For this exercise we will first assign batters. Check the 'Assign batters by picking' box and select OK to accept the panel. • At the prompt select the pit limit string. Once selected, the string will be highlighted.

@Assign

Block model
Transfer batter angles

Batter variable ~ Transfer berm wid;_:th_:.:s Berm variable Z offset for string
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There are three assignment methods to choose from: 1)

Cancel

Assign batters by picking - applies nominated batter angles to nominated line segments. Any face not assigned a batter angle will have the default angle applied (see Project String option). Assign berms by picking - applies nominated berm widths to nominated line segments. Any face not assigned a berm width will have the default berm width applied (see Berm String option). Assign batters and berms from model - uses batter angles and berm widths stored in the currently open block model. You will need to select the block model variables that hold the required batter angle and berm width from a drop-down list. Each point in the string is assigned the values from the block model cell into which the point falls.

• Next we select the start face (Le. line segment) to have a batter applied followed by the end face. If the same batter is required for the entire pit, select the face preceding (in digitising sequence) the start face. If the direction of digitising is not known, use the Sequence option in the Analyse> Label menu. To apply different batter angles to separate sections of the outline, simply select the required end face for the first section as shown below. To apply a batter to just one face, select the same face as the start and end face.
4_.. __ ~ ~, 1

2)

3)

Nominated start Face (start face does not havetoconespondto Jim line segment in digitising sequence)

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Batter ./ applied to ./ 3 faces

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Nominated End Face

If choosing to Assign batters and berms from model the following is also required:

3 Pit or Dum Outline

2

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems, Inc.

Open Pit Mine Desiqn (Non-Stratigraphic)

The following panel is displayed when the end face has been selected:

450000000 450000000 .0 450000000

The projection program (see the Project String option) projects the line segments of the wall outline rather than the individual points. Thus there are no "transition" zones from one batter angle to another unless these are manually defined. Where two adjacent segments of wall outline have different batter (projection) angles, each segment is projected at its nominated angle and the point of intersection is located. The two projected lines are then relimited to this point.

Enter batter angle

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100 RL

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• Any face that is not assigned a batter angle through this panel will have the default angle applied (set in the Project String option). Type in a batter angle of 45 degrees and select OK to accept the panel. • You can then select another start and end face. The batter angle is saved as part of the W-tag value assigned to each point in the pit outline. Labelling the toe/crest string with the W-tag value as above is a way to check this. • Press Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. The pit/dump outline is then ready for projecting at the nominated batter angles.

Projecting Up from Toe to Crest (Plan View) Next we will assign berm widths for our pit design: • Again, select the Assign Berm/Batter Open Cut Design menu. Value option, found under the

• When the Assign Batters and Berms Assign berms by picking option. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems, Inc.

panel appears,

select the

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic)

• At the prompt, select the pit shape outline. When selected, the string is highlighted. • Select the start face (i.e. line segment) to have a berm applied followed by the end face. If the same berm is required for the entire pit, select the face preceding (in digitising sequence) the start face. If the direction of digitising is not known, use the Sequence option in the Analyse> Label menu. • To apply different berms to separate sections of the outline, simply select the required end face for the first section as shown below. To apply a berm to just one face, select the same face as the start and end face.
1

".45000001:::

Enter the following - ~

.':50000012 x. 450000012 .. 450000012 . . 450000012 •. 4S0000(l12

4

Nominated start face (start face does not have to cORespondto fim line segment in digitising sequence)

Benn ~apPlledto 3 faces

/ _ Nominated End face

• Any face that is not assigned a berm width through this panel will have the default width assigned (set in the Berm String option). Type in a value of 12 (metres) and select OK to accept the panel.
3 Pit or Dum Outline 2

The following panel is displayed when the end face has been selected.

• You can then select another start and end face. The berm width is saved as part of the W-tag value assigned to each point in the pit outline. Labeling the toe/crest string with the W tag value as above can check this. • Press Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. The pit/dump outline is then ready for projecting at the nominated berm width.

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems, Inc.

.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Using a Block Model to Assign Batter Angles and Berm Widths To use batter angles and berm widths from a block model.. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. The berm widths and batter angles are then applied and stored as part of the W value assigned to each point in the pit outline. This check is performed automatically on each string projection and does not need to be carried explicitly with each projection. points are added or deleted from the object. the point at the apex of the angle is deleted. Press Cancel once you have finished selecting objects/categories. Care should be taken when assigning a batter/berm code to inserted points. When the angle conditions are not met. Cancel Indicate the category by which to select the strings. You are prompted to select a category from the Select By panel: The conditions checked are: • minimum point spacing • maximum point spacing • minimum angle (at any point) • maximum angle (at any point) When the point spacing does not satisfy the conditions specified. How to use the Condition option: • Select the Condition String option. Then select an object within that category. When selecting by group. the following panel is displayed: Conditioning Strings The Condition String option allows you to perform checks on the nominated toe or crest strings to determine if points must be added or deleted to satisfy specified conditions. Qbie~t Group and Layer Feature and Layer I~ Group Feature Name.. No highlighting or confirmation occurs when selecting by object. This can be checked by labelling the toe/crest string with the W tag value. found under the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. the object will become highlighted and you are prompted to confirm that the correct category has been selected. The weighted-average option on the String conditioning panel should not be used in most circumstances. Curves can also be used to replace angles in the toe/crest string. feature or layer. It does not have to be displayed. Curves may also be fitted manually using the Apply Curve option in the Open Pit > Ramps menu). When the option is selected. Inc. The option will then add or delete the required points. the model must be open and must have been indexed.

• Check the 'Use distance tolerance check' box.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) String conditioning ~ Use angle tolerance check Minimum angle between pts «'80) Maximum angle between pts ( >'80) ~ Use distance tolerance check Minimum distance between pts Maximum distance between pts ~ The Radius of curvature method forms the curve such that the distance of the tangent points from the apex of the line segments is variable to accommodate a curve of fixed (nominated) radius of curvature. The number of points used to represent the curve needs also be specified (minimum number of points is 3).-'0_---.0 1 1 Tangent offset from point to intersection Offset o o @ Number of points in curve 1. Use the default values as entered. Cancel Generate curve in plane of line segments Angle tolerance LI'_35_00 Apply curve to points on a zero width berm Get wfrom left point if insertion Get w from right point if insertion Weighted average for w if inserted o o L-_o_K_-. Use the default values as entered. if the curve is to be specified by a tangent offset from the point of intersection. This option will replace sharp angles in the pit outline with curves. --' Use the Tangent offset from point to intersection method.0 110. The distance "d" will be maintained constant and the radius of curvature will be varied to accommodate different angles of line segments. This option will assign a minimum and maximum angle against which strings are to be checked. There are two methods of applying curves: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.11 • Check the 'Use angle tolerance check' box. ~ Use curves on corners Radius of curvature @ o Radius 110. . This option will assign a minimum and maximum segment length against which strings are to be checked. Inc. Changing the angle between the line segments will change the distance from the apex to the tangent points. For this exercise choose either of these options. • Check the 'Use CUNes on corners' box.

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . to apply curve in 3d space. as points in the pit outline where the ramp intersects the pit outline. you are returned to the Selection Category box. They should remain as approx. should not have curves fitted to them. Feature and Layer Layer Group Feature Name . the right point or the weighted-average can be used.. curves will be applied to these points. you are prompted to confirm the selection. How to use the Project option: • Select the Project Design menu String option. If this box is ticked. the following panel is displayed. • Upon confirmation. • Select OK to accept the panel. You can now choose another object or group of objects to condition. This is usually unchecked. This is the angle tolerance at which corners are to be replaced by curves. The weighted-average should. • Use an 'Angle tolerance' of 135 degrees. or until it intersects a grid mesh or triangulation model.. When the category is selected. • You are then prompted to select a category. • Select Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Select twice if you were selecting by object. These points have a W tag value of 0 (zero) and can therefore be excluded from the application of curves. be used with care. • The W value can be obtained from either the left point. Open Cut Design menu. however. Checking this box will apply the curve in plan. Select 'Get w from left point if insertion' for now. 90 degree angles. When selected. Projecting Strings The Project String option allows you to create a projection of a pit/dump outline at a nominated angle to a nominated or relative level. • Uncheck the 'Apply curve to points on a zero width berm' box.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Uncheck the 'Generate curve in plane of line segments' box. Angles that are greater than the tolerance will not be affected. from the Open Pit > Open Cut • Select the pit limit string to project. while angles that are sharper than the tolerance will be replaced by curves. Inc. Cancel • Choose the Select by Object mode and click on the pit limit string.

One or more of these methods may be selected to achieve the desired effect. _. regardless of batter angles that may have been previously assigned to the outline.ce .: 1..::0:-::--."... The default batter angle will only be used when a face has not been previously assigned a batter angle. . The box is not ticked by default. • The next three options allow you to limit the projection. ._o __ ---' " o Override Projectto Default batter angle In current I. • Uncheck the Override set batters with default box. (D)own or relative to (M)inimum (e. :.M20) Nominal bench height r-11-0..00-..e.1 The Project to a level option will project the outline in one of five ways: Projection Methods • Enter a Default Batter Angle of 60 degrees. If unchecked. Override with the box unchecked will use the sign of the overriding batter angle entered on the panel to set the direction of the projection. Specifying a default batter angle will affect all faces in the outline that have not had batter angles previously assigned using the Assign Berm/Batter Value option. R-l0. nu -_ .. v ":\G-. _.-16_o.[-:-. only the batter angle will be overridden.-0-----. '. if you want to generate graded Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. which is encrypted in the W tag of each line segment. Inc..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Bench Projection !fij ..' .': ":'1rBrows.. _____ e.__----. D Condition Check string for cross overs ...- D Projectto ~ rolutedsu level if no limiting surface found p~?je~cted strings • The Maintain current batter sign option allows you to set the preference for maintaining the sense of an overriding batter... i. If the box is ticked.-. Check this option if you want to replace all existing batter angles with the above angle. o Limit projection to surface model 9 surfe. all angles that have been previously assigned. The bench can be projected downwards by entering a negative value.:~ ".. Prefix no prefix r u d m prefix creates a horizontal Prefixing the level with the letter "r" creates a bench at a height relative to the Z values of the outline.g. In the above figure. _O_K -u~[ Cancel . (U)p.. Level projection method absolute relative project up to an absolute level project down to an absolute level project up from the minimum level An absolute value without any alphabetical bench at that level.. J. all faces will be projected at 60 degrees.. .' ~~~ . Use either (R)elative.:~)Triangulation L -_ . any batter angle that has previously been assigned will be used in the projection..U130.. the direction being based on the sign of the batter.. set batters with default 1':-0_. '" level ---' Assigned batter angles used in the projection are retained in the projected string 'W-tag" so that the same angle can be used for the next projection. J I Browse! ) IC h! __ ._ _. For example..--" "-.

.s..240._s te _sh_oun_bY_th_e_r""_-<I_o_tt_""_s_tr_in_9. L . start with a graded toe line and project relatively upwards using the "r" prefix..--:....L 21D_L ?OO I Resultant outline.L __ t80_L_ ~ --.e..240 L Cross-section view J9D. 27_0_L______________ _ 260_L 250... __ .-r-/---------I __ -_------I ~ Or191nal strlng (soh... (red dolted string) after projecting with u180..' _ e_w •._. - --=._.-t: J_50~L JAD.ti. .LQU. The "d" prefix will project (at the nominated angle) any part of the string that is above the specified Z value down to this Z value... 220..L __ .19U ~~~_~--- 160 L 150 L . ...L R_es_ul_ _nt_o_ut_li_ne_...14D_L J30L _ _120_L 110 L rnn 1 _---_L' ~ "-. =r: / .o.n_v _ . . The image below illustrates how a bench can be created at a known absolute maximum level using this method...C r..L J20_L _ HD..... Inc.c_.o.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) (along their length) benches.13D.c__1 _ The "u" prefix will project any part of the outline that is below the specified Z value up to this Z value....d blue) before projectlng 1 1 Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems..-I. 250 L .s-_s. The rest of the outline is left as is. Points that are sitting at or above the specified RL are not projected (see images below) ._.L 230_L __ _ _ _ _ ----= -.-:-_--..

Try this using the "WASTE_DUMP" toe string. when the panel is re-displayed the numeric value in the Project to Level field is ready for the projection of the next bench. • Use the Project to level when no limiting surface found when projecting to a grid or triangulation surface but part of the projection does not intersect with that surface. Inc. You will need to enter the limiting surface name.e. Pit design strings should therefore be clockwise strings. A list of grid mesh models is available using the Directory option in the Model> Grid Mesh Surfaces menu. In this particular case. This way. the part of the Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. This is the triangulation or grid file identifier part of the name «tfi> or <gfi». .329m RL • Outline projected 'up and out' where Z < 180m RL Minimum level of original string is 191 .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • ~• I I I • I I Plan View " _' ' " " " " Outline not projected where Z>= 180m RL hsomelric View Resultant projected string has minimum level of 211. the first "lift" of the dump would be no higher than 20 metres above the existing topography. <mv>g for grids and -emvst for triangulations. The sense of projection. i. A list of triangulation models is available using the List option in the Model> Triangle Utility menu. Projecting from a minimum level is useful for generating dumps where the initial toe string is lying on the topography and you want to create level benches. If left unchecked. Where you have a triangulation and a grid mesh by the same name. • The Nominal bench height is used to automatically increment the value in the Project to Level field once the Bench Projection panel has been completed. VULCAN will always project a clockwise string 'up and out' and 'down and in'. The mage below illustrates how to project a string from a minimum level using a relative value when the absolute level is unknown. the full file extension needs to be included. Anti-clockwise strings are projected 'up and in' and 'down and out' and are therefore suitable for dump design. that is "out" or "in" is governed by the point sequencing. • The Limit projection to surface model option will limit the projection to an existing (not necessarily loaded) triangulation or grid.329 RL Note that points that are projected are projected at the batter angle that has been specified.

o Limit projection to surface model . use a 'Nominal bench height' of 20 metres and uncheck the 'Limit projection to surface model' and' Project to level when no limiting surface found' boxes. (D)own or relative to {M}inimum (e. • Press OK to accept the panel.i.-_o_K _ __j11 Cancel Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.16_0. .U130.r. determine the uppermost elevation of your pit string. Inc. • 'Condition projected strings' box is an optional check on the nominated toe or crest strings to determine if points must be added or deleted to satisfy specified conditions.e. R-10. (U)p.-0-----------. ~ Override set batters with default Maintain current batter sign Projectto level I'D-"2~84-. this may be found to be 304. Enter "0" plus this value minus 20 metres in the 'Project to Level' box.0. The projected outline is displayed as a highlighted string. This can be done by labeling the z-value and then examining each of the points (alternatively. the default batter angle is set to 0. Bench Projection Default batter angle L.2-1-. 'butterflies' or 'bowties' can form at some corners.~---------' Use either (R)elalive. by using the Analyse> Details> Layer Range option..g. • Check the 'Check string for crossovers' option to remove crossovers which occur when an object grow or shrink during projection i. . May cause problems for the novice user so leave this option un-checked for now. ulaon v II r o o Project to level if no limiting surface found ~ Check string for cross overs Condition projected strings L.216).n I For this exercise.e.M20) Nominal bench height '2-0.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) bench that does not intersect will retain the same Z values as the original outline. and perhaps more efficiently._0 --' __ ~ o You must specify a grid or triangulation surface for outlines with zero batter angles .

Assigned berm widths used in the projection are retained in the W-tag of the points in the projected string so that it can be used for subsequent berms. Inc. If berms of varying widths are required.. If the direction of digitising is unknown.:.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • You are prompted whether or not you wish to keep the first projection represents the toe of our first bench cut point of the topography ..~ --' ~ • Upon confirmation you are prompted to select another outline to project. DCondition D Use lI. The default berm width will only be used when a berm width has not been previously assigned to a face. Once selected. Reject this projection Safety Berms and Benches Default berm width ~ 1L.a common scenario development.1_0 •. regardless of berm widths that may have been previously assigned to the outline. projection. Press Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. you will need to assign berm values to each face using the Assign Berm/Batter Values option in the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu before using this option..0 metres (33 feet). Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.. all faces will be projected out 10. found in the Open Pit> Design menu Open Cut • Select pit limit string to berm (in this case our newly projected string). If the option is unchecked. The wall angle from the pit crest to this degrees. the following panel is displayed. • Uncheck the 'Override berm widths with default' box.. .. A clockwise string projects outward (for a positive berm width) and an anti-clockwise string projects inwards. Override berm widths with default Override berm direction (as implied by batters) with this default Horizontal berm [only points not on the limiting surface] Follow surface [only points on the limiting surface] berm [ignoring the limiting surface] Check string for cross overs projection plane berm strings o o ~ ~ @ Horizontal Tip! Try labeling the point names for this resultant string: points sitting on the surface will be automatically assigned a point name of "UN_MOVED". Also note that the direction of digitising determines the sense of the projection. use the Sequence option in the Analyse> Label menu.e. Specifying a default berm width will affect the entire outline when individual faces have not had berm widths assigned previously (Assign Berm/Batter Values option under the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu). • Select a 'Default berm width' of 10 metres. This from the highest in initial mine bench toe is 60 How to use the Berm option: • Select the Berm String option. Checking this box will replace all existing berm widths with the default berm width i._o_K_~i[ Cancel Creating Benches or Berms The Berm String option allows you to project a berm or bench sideways from a nominated pit or dump outline. any berm widths that have previously been assigned will be used in the projection..

e. UN-KOVED When a projected string is limited to a surface.li. This works by projecting the points sideways by the nominated distance and then projecting the points vertically to register on to the surface. we will use the first method . • Select OK to accept the panel. If checked. using the Project option in the same sub menu). See the previous section for details of this function. a horizontal berm is projected around the entire outline. The projected outline is displayed as a highlighted string. Orlglnal crest strlng (reglstered to tapa surface) • For this exercise. the berm will not necessarily be horizontal.epp.g. . """ Toe strlng (from t ar-st pxojec t i. 3) The 'Follow surface [only points on the limiting surface]' option will follow the surface when projecting the berm i. The first two methods refer to where the nominated outline has been projected onto a triangulation or grid mesh surface (e.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Uncheck the 'Override berm direction (as implied by batters) with this default' box. then the points are automatically named "UN-MOVED". See the following diagram. the surface name becomes stored as both the point name and object description of the object at all points that register to the surface. the berm will not be made. Inc. The third method refers to outlines not projected onto a triangulated or gridded surface.Horizontal berm [only points not on the limiting surface]. individual points on the resultant string are not displaced.cn) Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. 1) The 'Horizontal berm [only points not on the limiting surface]' method will create a horizontal berm around that part of an outline that is not registered to the nominated triangulation or grid mesh surface when it was projected. • There are three methods to project the berm. 4) Berll'l. In the situation where a string is projected or bermed and due to the criteria. (Often used in the coal mining sector).ed to Poant e that have strlng only on un-named pOlnts the poant naae "UN-MOVED" do not get berll'led. Where the string has intersected the surface. regardless of whether the outline had been projected onto a triangulation or grid mesh surface or not i. • It is not necessary to check the 'Use projection plane' box to berm our toe string: a projection plane would need to be defined only when working in a plane other than plan view. • Check the 'Check string for cross-overs' box. this option will change the existing berm direction to the sign of the default berm width.e. The 'Horizontal berm [ignoring the limiting surface]' method will project a horizontal berm.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) PLAN VIEW As strings are projected and bermed. This eliminates 'butterflies' (shrink/grow crossovers) being formed at corners of less than the specified tolerances when projecting objects. When the option is selected. Upon confirmation prompted to select another pit or dump outline to berm. following panel is displayed. the • Select Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. Instructions for applying tolerances: The result of berming a toe string creates the crest string for the next projection. they are not saved. . The tolerances apply to the current VULCAN session only .i.e.0 174. • Select 'Retain' to keep the projection. • Select the Tolerance option.ng 101 gleaned from the Report Window) ) Flrst bench PIT_STRING (for open pit mine design PRD175. "PIT$TOE".0 (projection down to level 175. you are • Select the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. Berm String and Auto Pit options by checking the 'Check string for crossovers' box in the appropriate panel of those options.968 PIT$TOE Not defi ned PIT$PROJ Tolerances The Tolerance option allows pre-defined distances and angle tolerances to be set. Refer to the following Information Layer pb]ect rvalue r. Inc. Copyright © 2005 Maptek/KRJA Systems. The tolerances can be applied when projecting batters or berms in the Project String. certain information is automatically stored in the layer: the level projected to is stored in the Object Description and projected strings are assigned a group code.roufJ primitive Feature Ina t ae I crest strl.

the level at which the whole crest string goes below to po is at the 184.. can produce a significant reduction in the number of points. can produce a mass of points extremely close together. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Subsequently. Inc. it is easier to remove them as they appear using the Design> Point Edit> Delete function.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Projection and berming toler. The toe string on each level may be adjusted before berming by moving individual points. Pits that are being constructed from the "top down". for example. The process of projecting to a new toe and following with a horizontal berm can be repeated for each level in the mine until the design pit bottom is reached. particularly those representing level benches. the projected crest string will be wholly below to po at which point the method of projecting can be altered: now the 'Project to level'field may be populated with the entry R-20.0 This has the effect of projecting all points in the string down (because of the -ve sign) by the bench height (20. The default angle of 40. Notice that the 'Project' panel will automatically update the 'Project to level' field with the incremental level but you will be obliged to prefix the level with the "D" qualifier. Angles much less or much more than 40. Acute corners and abrupt bench terminations can often be produced when projecting complex pit outlines. It is advisable to filter a pit outline. Continuing Your Pit Design Your pit should now consist of three polygons representing the outlines of the first batter and bench. which are not necessary to define the pit shape. as with this example. L--_o_K_ _J11 Cancel Any lines shorter than the specified Minimum distance tolerance removed. • Select OK to accept the panel. Minimum distance tolerance Minimum angle tolerance ~ . As these are probably unrealistic bench outlines in the first place. The tolerances are kept in the buffer memory as defaults for the above-mentioned options until you exit Envisage. even with quite small tolerances such as 1metre. The unit of measurement is that set in the . and their effect will often be compounded as you continue projection.. which is not registered to a surface. will be Any angles less than the specified Minimum angle tolerance will be removed.0 degrees is suitable for most polygons. ~ ~degrees Just continue to project and berm the strings.0 metres) relative to their current position. to "drop-off" a large area of waste on a bench.2 m RL. Eventually.dg1. all points on the projected strings will be at the same RL and the berm will be continuous around the perimeter of the pit: see Figure 33. Filtering. This may be necessary. In our example.0 degrees tend to produce unacceptable polygons. Completed Pit Design .

- • Selecting the indicated icon from the drop-down will display the 'Open' (triangulation) panel: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.:b_m_f ~ Display block model extent OK ~ ~v II Browse . This may be accomplished by clicking on the 'List Block Models' icon.1 '==ll- .S1911 lilt.':'....sel" file./.lfup I Ceneel " I. Then click on the 'Open' button. .:::::: ~ 1:::::: ~ :i§: g r~J~.. I Open Block Model Block model file name . i!~ I' :I~ . Inc.' surface_fadlities.: Open look In: ~~ I '0' Open_pit .. '.' ~ :ilo..OOt triangulation and the associated surface facilities. Then click on the OK button ..bmf" and ensure that you have selected to Display block model extent. 1 !ii File Design View Analyse Model 01 ::~J D :: r3 ~liWindow: I:: ARY ee-:~~ g 6. :/ .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) .bmf". / <: . ~ I~: • Select "shawpercy.x IC) .. Note that the topography surface has been made translucent to allow viewing of the block model extents underneath. we will need to load the topography..... This will display the following panel: 'Bottom Up' Design Method For this next exercise.: '''''-' .. • Next we will open the block model file called "shawpercy.ngula~ofl ennbutes OK i0PO:lf: d.1:" Layer: f ~ l[ Cancel . This Block Model is of a gold resource just below the surface.. ..dl!)' 11II:. This can be done in one step via the 'List Triangulations' icon: EmI ~ .sel Flilename: Files oftypa- o Save Selection • I M". A plan view of the data will look something like the following image.. '. Model of Completed Pit Design Using the 'Top Down' Approach • Change the file type from "Triangulations" to "Selection Files" as indicated and then select the "surface_facilities. / '1""7.. ls_ha_w_pe_l_cY .

.-----.0 ~ Follow section line OK II Cancel I The strategy that we are going to employ for this design is to digitize our base polygon on a block model slice at a depth of 250m below the surface.00m RL and incrementing by 20metres. Use the Block> Viewing > Slice option to do this using the parameters as per the following panels: Block Model Slice Variable name au_ivd ~ ~ Show block edges Block edge colour Show blocks filled ~ v Block model: C:\Anna\Work\Data\ Training\Re_write_info\re_write_data\Shaw\shawpercy. We will then build our mine from the bottom up from this base until we pierce the topography triangulation. how to slice a Dynamic Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems... ~Saveslice SUce name "'ID-e-mo----------. . the highwall crest string will be found where the two models intersect.:.brnf I I d D Enable datatips D Display block text To make a triangulation translucent.. Inc. Block selection Multiple slices @ Fixed IMake Triangulations Translucent I slice increment Numberofslrces Clg. Slicing the block model • Generate nine block model slices on incremental levels starting at the 40.rling Illllnbel . The pit solid may be used as a basis for reporting ore reserves from the block model. In the process. We will use this polygon string to relimit our design strings to give us the final design.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) We will model the design strings and use the Pit Topography option of the Open Cut Design menu to Boolean this model against the original topography to produce a new topography and a pit solid.. click on the appropriate icon from the Visibility tool bar and then click on the triangulation. your instructor will demonstrate Block Model or create an Image Slice.._---------. Alternatively. o Sequence ~ ~ @ Coordinate identifier identifier Sle. Slice step L_ o 20.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic)

• Next you will be prompted to select the color scheme by which to color the blocks in the slice.

• Finally, select a method by which to define where you want to create your first slice. In this case, create the slice at RL -40 (this will be an horizontal slice)

Slice Sections
DOlLAR PAOF_PER_T I!.I11HO

~

RUN VEL
MEMBER ASSAY1 Cancel

o o

Dip

190.0 1
Select section by line Select by points

@ Select by grid coordinate OByEasting

o o

By Northing

@ByRL Coordinate

LI-4_~'--

_J

Select by 3 points

OK

I[

Cancel

• Now enter the condition by which to select the blocks to include in the slice.

• To view the slices that have been created, go into section view using View> Create Section at -40 RL

Block Selection

~

o

Model: C:\Anna\Work\Data\Training\Re_write_info\re_wme_data\Shaw\shawpercy.bmf Select all blocks

@ Select specific blocks by:

o Variable

o o o o o o

Bounding triangulation Bounding box Section thickness

~Condition Bounding surfaces Cut and filtsurfaces Reverse matching Use block centres

I

au_ivd gt 0.8

L--_o_K _

_;1 [

Cancel

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems, Inc.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic)

Create Section
Section Type @ Create or replace the windows primary section Create a section through all objects Create a section through a single object

lfi]
BLOCK. AU' -99991lXJ (. (o.em OIlXl (0.250 0250(-0<0.500 0500< •• (110)

o o
o

0 c.O

Primary Section Shadows Draw shadows

11lX1<·1I<1.500 1500(·D<2JlXl 20'Xl< •• <11lXl 10'Xlc·O<5.1XIO 5.llXIc.1I< 1.D 7.500 999911lX1

ca.(

Clipping Planes CliPIBywidth

vi

Step size

po.o

@ Symmetrical clipping Width either side .-'-1'-0.-"'0 ------.,

o

Display grid spacing '00.0 Display colour _

Asymmetrical clipping

Ej
02 points
,
1

o 03 o o o

Select Plane By Line segment points Guide centre line Northing

L~._.l.~~,"-"_)(I1;-==m,' ..• ~....,....._ l1""'=.
7S4231.62.......

111 .....

~~

_

,_'dod

-l§llieCll~S1"

Easting

Digitise ...

@Level 1-40 Facing 'Id-o-w-n-----''---"",v'l'''1Ir----'

OK

~! Cancel

Note that the z-Ievel of the slice is reported on the status line at the bottom of the screen, as the third co-ordinate. This string will serve as the basis for our "bottom-up" design. • Nominate the string as a toe string using the Open Pit> Open Cut Design> Flag Toe/Crest String option. • Project the string to the next level by using the Open Cut Design > Project String option. Now slice step up to the next section to view the -20.00 RL section using the Slice tool bar.

The colour legend for the BLOCK schema may be displayed adjacent to the slice as an aid to interpreting the slice (Analyse> Display Legend)

Creating the pit
• Create a new layer called 'BOTTOM_UP' and digitize a clockwise polygon on the section plane that encompasses the ore on the section:

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA

Systems, Inc.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic)

Slice Clip:

1:3
y

1 By width Back: 110
Display
I" "

l[iglii ~
", ,

1 Step: 120

1 Front L11.::....0 _
~l>

___J

Current

IPrimary

[]iI

EJiI EJil
;.;

I

• At several points, it is evident that the projected outline has "missed" some of the orebody on the next level. We can use the Design> Point Edit functions such as Move to edit the crest string on this level before berming it. Note that to maintain a maximum batter angle, the crest string can always be moved outward but not inward!

Points have been moved outward

When slicing a block model and digitizing on sections, avoid slicing along the parent block boundaries as it is then very difficult to predict whether the displayed slice is of the block on one side of the boundary or the other.

Use Berm String option to project crest string horizontally (creating the toe string for the next lift)

• The Project String and Berm String options are then used iteratively to build the design. Use the following parameters seen below: Projected toe from last level becomes crest string on this level

Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA

Systems, Inc.

11 Cancel Safety Berms and Benches ~ --' o o o ~ Default berm width LI'_o_. the toe points can be moved.. Inc.._o__ --' --... R-10.:..g.U130. Typically projected strings may require points deleted using the Design> Point Edit> Delete and/or the Design > Object Edit> Filter options.M20) Nominal bench height 2-0-..~ o o Project to level if no limiting surface found ~ Check siring for cross overs Condition projected strings L. rI to surface model . In the example shown..n . individual (redundant) points are being deleted to "clean up" a crest string - D Limit projection Projectto level R2--:::0::-:-----' Use either (R)elative. (D)own or relative to (M)inimum (e.outward but not inward! Care should also be taken when inserting new points into a string that they inherit the correct 'W-tag" for projecting/berming. .Relain - 1_"·: ~ _.-16_o. o Default batter angle Override set batters with default Maintain current batterrs_"ig!.0---=---------.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Bench Projection -- ~ .__o_K _ - .. (U)p.:-1 A visual check should be undertaken at each level and string editing carried out where it is warranted. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. o Use projection D Check string for cross overs plane Condition berm strings OK J[ Cancel Note that to maintain a minimum safety berm width.o Override berm widths with default ~ Override berm direction {as implied by bailers) with this default Horizontal berm [only points not on the limiting surface] Follow surface [only points on the limiting surface] @ Horizontal berm [ignoring the limiting surface] Toe strings may need to be moved out to follow an irregular orebody by using Design> Point Edit> Move on individual points or by Design> Point Insert> Insert or Replace String.

Pit Topography • Select the Pit Topography option: choose to save the intersection string into a layer called INTERSECT and check the option to create the new pit photo triangulation. Name the new pit surface "NEWTOPO. Inc. Intersect and Merge.OOt" and name the enclosed solid triangulation "SOLlD_PIT.01 OK Minimum separation distance I[ Cancel I • Follow the prompts to pick the new and previous triangulations.-10._00_1 _-----' 10. Models before Boolean by Pit Topography option Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . A convenient option to use here is Open Pit> Open Cut Design> Pit Topography as this option combines the Triangle Utility functions of Boolean. the toe string has been edited to pick up a lateral shift in the orebody - Pit Topography ~ Description ~ where bottom-up design intersects topo Use Hard Tolerance Tolerance . • Keep on projecting and berming until the pit design strings are wholly above the existing topography.OOt".Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) In the example shown. Then create a surface model of the design strings to Boolean against the topography model. Note that it is imperative that the pit design model fully pierces the original topography.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Clipping the design strings by the intersection polygon Resultant pit solid model The resultant pit strings and new topography model are displayed below: Resultant intersection polygon string We can use the intersection polygon string as a "relimit" string to relimit our design pit strings to the highwall crest. . Resultant new pit topography The resultant pit solid may be used to calculate the waste stripping ratio and the ore reserves. Select the intersection polygon as the clipping polygon and the pit strings 'By layer' as the string to clip: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Inc. • Select option Design > Object Edit> Clip by Polygon.

cut-offs and block selection: Reserve calculation Grade variable 1 au_ivd Reserve Cut-offs ~ Use cut-off grades ~ 0...S Number of cuts Cut-off 1 Cut-off2 [8J Block modal C:\Anna\Work\Dala\Training\Ra wril8 info\ra wrile_dala\Shaw\shawpan:y.bmf Select all blocks specific blocks by: DVariable ~ Bounding triangulation D Bounding box D Section thickness DCondition D Bounding surfaces fill surfaces D Reverse matching D Use block centres @ Select . @Usedonsilyvariablo Densilyvariablo DSavereportlofilo _ 3 -"""" [J) I OK II Cancel I ~ OK II Canoel I Block Selection o Model: C:\Anna\Work\Data\ Training\Re_write_info\re_write_data\Shaw\shawpercy.. Inc. Use the parameters as per the following images for reserving variables.Ii I Cancel Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems....bml __ _ [g) b L'" Cut-off 3 Cut-off4 Cut-off 5 Cut-off 6 Cut-off 7 Cut-offS Cut-off 9 Cut-off 10 Cut-off11 Cut-off 12 Cut-off 13 Grade vanable 2 Grade variable 3 Grade variable 4 Grade variable 5 ~y' tv " . ...__o_K_.Is~ L.0 O.:::.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) General Reserves • Select the option Block> Reserves> General option. o o Grade variable 6 Use zone breakdown Use densily value .

The editor contains an Explorer style tree-structure which allows the user to navigate through the different tabs in the Editor.36 bmf ~r ades lau_1vd/below ~u_1vd/0.. particularly as the orebody extends below our pit design.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The resulting window: ESERVE R. : H:ll:52 22-Jan-2002 Tonnage 0.poIt Open Aepolt Template Page Setup Cok.. 810ck Selection Save SpecllCalion Calculate A. T_ Save Report Tempiate Generate Once the 100efye. There is also a Report section that allows you to generate further reports from the reserve data.00 743473.res.56073. The other drop-down list is to select the block model from which the reserves will be run. END 0. that is: (18. Enter the name train as the name of the specification. .l.EPORT reserves report will be posted to the Envisage report Auvenced -- Reserves Editor - ~ IiIIIII Speciication Open !=l Variables d\underground. • Go to the option Block> Editor. - AVg/D 2. :=! Region. are calcUated ~odel pate : c :\charola1 Ld\datase1:s.8276968. are cabiated CIooeI The Advanced Reserves Editor The Model> Triangle Solid> Shells option can be used to break the pit solid into multiple bench solids.493. which contains all the reserve parameters.3l. these triangulations can then be reserved using Block> Advanced Reserves. Inc.800 0.23 20l.02 vohrne .76l.57 m3) / 1. 000 ~~::1~~/0' ~nkno .ing informatio" fie.l. After shelling.57 l.35 l.74 20763555. Q8$dication variable names Material vanable names and types Den~ vatiable name o Product codeo and condiIiom Grade variable names.473. DESIGN His . This creates a file with the extension .706 - Avg/G 0. reserves can be calculated. for example: pitname_bench or for more complex designs pitname_pushback_bench or pitname_pushback_bench_block.l. range and mia:llng Yalue Ireatrneri Grade cutoff Yarlo!bie name and cutoff yaIue&: Regiona: and Blocf"efoction group Mrnef information the lea:ub are .968.2 2592966. o o o o o o o the folloY. which may be calculated as being the "unknown" volume plus the low-grade volume divided by the ore-grade volume.000 - Max 0.n ft1Ht 800 OF' 51175 5l.757 gfT.4756. however..mn. Open Specification This section allows the user to either pick an existing specification file from the drop-down list or create a new file by entering a new name.706 49.849. To the right is where the options under each tab are displayed.8gfT are 5. The end result will be a dump file that can be imported into Chronos Reserver for further manipulation.276.900 2. Polygons CentreIinM Triangulation.2 - The indicated reserves above a cut-off grade of 0.ent 10 lhe dJmp fae that ia:used in lhe leporting .000 0.. Bhck. By working down the tree under the Design heading. GradeVariabies Grade Cutoff. It is important to name the triangulations according to a convention.0. This looks promising.02 m3 + 743.4270. Breakdown Fieldl: Product Code.ection aBowI: you to open or cteate a relet'. types.283 3.757 2.ection. Advanced Reserves> Advanced Reserves Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems..849493.00 2l.!a: specification accorcing to lhe parameter.900 Total Grade 486..6l.. reserve.69 l..77 l.0877. 46 INFORMATION m~~~Ui *"'.52678. when we look at the waste-stripping ratio..36 million tonnes @ 3.97 un1ts Min 0.e! In this file The lpecil'rcalion fie contain.12 m3 or 10:1 This is a lot of waste to move to uncover the ore-body and this is without a pit haul-road! A feasibility study may well find that an underground operation gave a better NPV.900 2.J111 ne\shawpercy..800 49.

reserves can be broken down into these units.1 I Current Block Model.15 Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.cbons 1..3_ Page Setup Columns Table. Ore and Waste codes can be assigned based on grade. I Open ReportTemplat.bmf 31 Browse .15 ozJt are considered to be waste The condition structure: <VARIABLE><CONDITION><VALUE> Au_ivd ge 0.. Inc. r~ \Work\Dala\Trammg\lnlernal_ Training\lgantLualn\demoug. rock types or orezones. we will be creating two codes: • Ore _ blocks with a gold grade greater than or equal to 0. For example.-avallable) Record as fraction of block (O. The Mined out (or fillpc) field is where you can select a variable in the block model that stores whether a region has been mined or not.tra='n~ ~':Jo!JIIBrowse.O-mined) Mined portions assumed inside regions I . . Common variables here are geology.~ ® Decrement Mined cutter fillpcj field [ • "~I o o percentage values (O%·mined. 1. This is used in conjunction with the option Block> Manipulation> Mine. I Grade Vanables Grade Cutoffs 'i' Regions Polygons Centreline. In this exercise.15 ozJt are considered to be are • Waste _ blocks with a grade less than 0.O-avallable. Triangulations Block Seleclion Save Specification Calculate Report Open Report T emplat Page Setup Columns Table. 100~.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Advanced Reserves Editor [8J F1[e Advanced Reserves Editor Oesign Open Speclficallon E Vanables Product Codes l8J Variables ! DeSlgn Open Specification (3 Variables Breakdown Fields Product Codes Grade Variables Grade Culoftil . • J) Variables Breakdown Fields Breakdown fields provide a means of reporting reserves in more detail. Material Type by Fractions can be used to report how much are or waste is contained in each block. Product Codes Product Codes allow user-defined codes to be assigned based on entered conditions.~ Regions Polygons Centrelines Triangulations Block Selection Save Calculate Report Specification Open Reserves Specification BreakdO¥m Frelds C!asslficatlon fields Reserves specification file" ~L:. Classification fields are those variables in the block model that the reserves can be broken down into... Save Report Templatl Generate Malenallype by F". By using variables in the block model that contain this information. Save Report T emplat( Generate I 3 l- ...

15 I I I I I I numeric numeric less than greater than or equal to numeric less than or equal to numeric equal to String equal to. Pro6.. At the top of the tab is the option to use a density variable that the user may have in their block model or alternatively a default density can be applied.select the required variables from the block model • Type . In the grid section of the panel. Inc. . with the average value of all other blocks in the region • Default for Missing .. weight by mass or weight by volume • Use Average . specify the following: • Variable .this is used to populate a block that has not been estimated.eakdown Field. Defaults must always be You must Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Product Codet ~ Generate Product CodM. Grade Variables This section allows the user to select the grade variables to reserve on. Generate Wwade au_ivd I 0.rct Code Description ~I ====~~=·==IA=ND========~I .whether the variable is a sum.~D oqrca I au_1Vd ge I Operator lOR IXOR NOT GT LT GE LE EQ EQS NE I I I 1 lore Condihon 0 15 I logical OR logical exclusive OR logical negation numeric greater than G. A. numeric not equal to The table below shows the operators that can be used to enter conditions.entering a default for missing values prevents any un-estimated negative default values (from the model creation) from being used in the reserve calculation.adeCutoff. please refer to the Core Appendices in the VULCAN Help. you can select your variables. P. Up to 50 variables can be listed.q. Open Specilicabon 8: V~riables: B.oduct Code< Grade Variable.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) D. Centreines Triangulations Block Selection Save Specification CaicUote Report Open Report Template Pogo Setup Cokmm Tables Save Report T ~t. For more information on entering conditions. 13 Regions PoIygo".

0 . drives and stopes of the sample data that we will be using in iGantt. The easiest way to do this (due to the number of triangulations) is to click the Browse button (rather than pick off the screen). Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. select the density and au_ivd variables and enter a Default for missing of o. iabIe. ign Open Specification 8 v. For this exercise.oduct Cod.mn. In this exercise.. G. we will not be using any grade cutoffs.Regions Polygons Centrellnes Tnangulauons Block Selection Save Specification Calculate o Use grade . with care and 0 is usually entered as a "worst-case" Grade Cutoffs This panel allows the user to select any grade cutoffs to be used in the reserving procedure.. This takes you to a panel where by using the » button. Tobie.ode Cutoff. Breakdown field: P. These triangulations represent the development. Regions Regions allow reserves to be run on specific parts of the block model. These areas can be defined by using polygons... Inc. Save Report Template Generate Close a. 9 Regions Polygons Centreine$ Grade VaTiable: Denoity den~ty I I Design OpEin SpecificatIOn IS Vanables Breakdown Frelds Product Codes Grade Variables Grade Cutolls . triangulations or center lines.. cutoffs 0 .odeV .. In this exercise. all triangulations available can be selected. Advanced Reserves Editor Grade Cutoffs \110 • Report Range _ this option includes the range of grades within the reserve run (minimum and maximum) and is very useful to check for anomalies • Specify Decimals _ enter the required number of decimal places ~ D ."c'l· I Cutoff ::r Repon Triangulation. Block Selection Save Specilicabon Calculate Report Open Report TempIote Poge Setup Open Report T emplat. ioblea G.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) considered scenario. . we will be using all the triangulations in our current directory.. Page Setup Columns Tables Save Report T emplatr Generate I I 2 4 5 _2_ CoII.

' Save Specdicalion Calculate Report Open Report Page Setup Columns Tables Ge~:r:~ Report T emplal. Change block serecbon method? ~ T emplatr Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.oion 13 Vanablc..ii..OOt d65351v _ew050_Olw.. triangulations or condition. you can click the Change button and the Block Selection panel will appear.OOt d65351v_cd350_Olw. Inc.. Breakdown Proportional cell evaluation. Report p.ou. I I Sa_.".. This then creates your reserves specification file called train.OOt d65351v _cd125_Olw. GroI. Here you can use various options to limit the blocks used in the reserve run. S""'" Colunm IIIlIIII!II Cenlrelneo ~ ~ If you need to select specific blocks._O_K _.Vanables Breakdown Fields Product Codes Grade Variables ..OOt d65351v_cd15O_Olw.OOt d65351v _cd600_Olw..OOt d65351v _cd650_Olw..OOt d65351v_cd<lOO_Olw..ow.res.Spocification c...bmf I II SetG..OOt d65351v_cdDJ_Olw.. F.OOt d65351v_cdSOO_Olw.k:.00t d65351v _cd200_Olw. Advanced Reserves Editor Selectfon Methods Select all blocks Proportional cell evaluation D Bounding surfaces D Cutand fill surfaces D Reverse matching D Use block centres u.. you can now select Save Specification and click the Save button..". PoIjogcnt BIockSoioction S.4> f'<oduct coo..eIcb ~I GladeVariabiM Grade Cutoffs B.' Grade Cutoffs RegIons .OOt EdlG....e . leave the selection as Select all blocks and OpenSpecfoc.. such as by variable..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) nuvenceo Rt:~erIJC~ Editor Design (8) T~ionAeoonf Triangulations d65351v _cd025_OlW. . iI&.OOt d65351v_cd450_Olw.. - Block Selection - _- ri:l Open Report Template T_ S. Polygons Centrelines Cancel Save Specification Once you have completed the required options in the Editor..OOt d65351v _ewo:xJ_Olw. R_ Gcnelole Tempiate ~'!-' o Model: C:\Anna\Work\Data\Training\lnternal_ Training\igantt_train\demoug.Jl~ [ ~ Design Open Speclficabon 5. In this exercise. I Select all blocks @Selectspecific blocks by: DVariable D Bounding triangulation D Bounding box D Section thickness DCondition Block Selection Block Selection allows the user to determine which blocks of the model to use during the reserve calculation. Pick I SR.OOt d65351v _cdl75_Olw.OOt d65351v _cd250_Olw...OOt d65351v_cd550_Olw.

the Autopit option is quite useful for this work. Save Report T emplen Generate o o Output CGV fit.csv file for this exercise. Open this file with a text editor such as Word Pad and look at the created information. Thus. It should be recognised. • The pit limit string should be declared as correct string the type . a file called train. that as an automatic process.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Calculate The Calculate section is where you run your . There is f8] m!II!!l!!II Design Open Specificabon [3 Vanables Breakdown Fields Product Codes Grade Variables Grade Cutoffs ~ Regions Polygons Centrelines Triangulations Block Selection Save Specification Report Open Report T emplef Page Setup Columns Table.dmp and click the Calculate button. Note the structure of the VULCAN .dmp).crest or toe . Name your .dmp has been created.csv file if desired. Advanced Reserves Editor OMP Ftle Name !train_dmp Automated Pit Design with Auto Pit The Auto Pit option automates the project/berm iteration that we carried out in the previous exercise. Inc.using the Flag Toe/Crest String option found under the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. How to use the Auto Pit option for pit design: • Create a clockwise pit base polygon at an elevation representing the floor of the pit. Nominate the layer name to be AUTO PIT. no need to create the .res file in order to create a file containing your reserves. There is also an option to create a . . This will be our pit limit string.dmp file train. ~ Spawn reserves calculations in Window Use region names I Calculate I This option may be used for making an "auto-dump" by simply using an anti-clockwise base string. there is not the ability to do bench by bench string-editing to follow an orebody. In your current directory. which can then be imported to Chronos or used in conjunction with the Report tools in the Advanced Reserves Editor. As dump designs tend to have regular shapes.dmp file and also note the columns and rows that have been created. the option is probably best used as a "first-pass" for a preliminary design. The pit can be limited to a nominated depth or limited by approximate volume or to a nominated triangulation surface. The option creates a dump file (. however. This option will take a starting string and project and berm it until one of the termination conditions is met. • Select the Auto Pit option found under the Open Pit> Design menu Open Cut Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

For example.0 metres. The default berm width will only be used when a berm width has not been previously assigned to a face. Uncheck the 'Project to level benches from the minimum' option box.. The Project from top option is used to project the outline downwards. Use a clockwise string for a pit projection and an anti-clockwise string for a dump projection.. the maximum depth/height should be specified as 350.00. Batter angles used in the projection are retained in each projected batter face and will be used in subsequent batter projections. if the outline is at Z = 40.00 and we want to project the pit up to Z = 310. This default batter angle will affect all faces in the outline that have not had batter angles previously assigned using the Assign option. 9) 1) Use Project from floor to project the outline upwards. for dumps) 1350 Ilfrom current leveij Maximum depthlheight of pit/dump D Interactive mode (double and triple benches) D Condition strings after berming D Condition strings after projecting Next > ~[ Cancel 7) 8) The projection may either be from the floor of the outline upwards or from the top of the outline downwards.. These two methods refer to limiting the projection by volume or to a surface model. (Check this option to create horizontal benches from variable Z outlines: similar to using the "m" prefix in the Project option to project up from a minimum level). The bench height is the vertical distance that each outline is projected. Use a clockwise string for pit projection and an anticlockwise string for a dump projection. ~ Override set berm with default Height of bench '12. Inc. Uncheck the Override berm widths with default box to ensure any berm widths that have previously been assigned will be used in the projection. When the pit outline is selected. Enter a Maximum depth/height of pit/dump of 350. Select a Default batter angle of 60 degrees. This allows you to limit the projection to a maximum depth/height relative to the Z value of the outline. 11) Two other projection-limiting options are available on the next panel.--=-0__:_::__------------. the following panel is displayed.:0. Only one projection method can be selected at a time.""':0 --------. Use a Height of bench of 20.00. Select the parameters as indicated- 4) Automatic Projection 1 ! ~ 5) 1 degrees @ Project o from floor of pit/dump upwards Project from top of pit/dump downwards Projection defaults Default batter angle 160. Specifying a default berm width will affect the entire outline when individual faces have not had berm widths assigned previously (Assign Berm/Batter Values option).00 metres.0 Uncheck the Override set batters with default box to insure that batter angles previously assigned are honoured. You can select one or more of these limiting options to 3) Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. 2) 10) Check options to condition the strings. (This will result in an additional panel displaying for setting the conditioning parameters). Use a Default berm width of 10 metres (33 feet). 6) D Projectto ! level benches from the minimum (eg. ~ Override set batters with default Default berm width 1-11:_:0.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Select the pit limit string. . Berm widths used in the projection are also retained so that they can be used in subsequent berm projections.. The default batter angle will only be used when a face has not been previously assigned a batter angle.

. I[ Finish I[ Cancel 18) Check the 'Check string for cross overs' box to automatically points that cause string "bow-ties". Generation continues until the resulting pit/dump first exceeds the nominated volume.. Volumes are approximated by multiplying the plan area of each bench by the bench height). i. (If left unticked. 19) Check the 'Filter out points' box. 14) Check the 'Limit projection to surface model' option to limit the projection to an existing (not necessarily loaded) triangulation or grid. Now the 'String Conditioning' parameters panel will display: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. (To limit the pit. . [ Browse . the entire pit will be created without the opportunity to confirm each projection.. volume 'of pit/dump . There is an existing deficiency with this option in the case where the triangulation or grid surface is undulating: this will be explained later.e.1 o ~ Projectto level when no limiting surface found Verify continuation as each object appears Check string for cross overs Filter out points from projected lines ~ Maximum deviation line to filter Lll_. 15) Where you have a triangulation and a grid mesh by the same name. The pit generation will proceed one bench at a time and ask for verification of each one before continuing. 17) Check the 'Verify continuation as each object appears' option if you want to verify each projection. t . the projection will continue to be generated until there is no more space available.. If no limitation is set at all. remove 13) Uncheck the 'Limit pit/dump by approximate volume' option to avoid limiting the pit/dump by volume. This is the triangulation or grid file identifier part of the name «tfi> or <gfi». the full file extension needs to be included. 12) Press OK to accept the first panel.=v=1 . You'll need to specify the maximum deviation from the line to filter. MflXirnurT.~ volume . the part of the bench that does not intersect will retain the same Z values as the original outline). I Ixl 000 ~ Limit projection to surface model Limiting surface name lto-p-og-r-ap-h-y-. and continue to the second panel: 16) Check the 'Project to level when no limiting surface found' box..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) achieve the desired effect.. Automatic Projection 2 ~ ~ o . <mv>g for grids and -ernvst for triangulations. Use this option if projecting to a grid or triangulation surface but part of the projection does not intersect with that surface.OOt----------. Use this option to filter out points from the projected berms/projections to minimise the number of points in the new strings.~ Limit pit/dump by approximate. Enter the limiting surface name (in capital letters).. you'll need to specify the maximum volume of the pit/dump..0 < Back _J If you don't tick the Verify option.. Inc..

. not the string itself. it was not necessary to use the 'Clip by Poly' option on the design strings: most of the top crest string is automatically clipped to the nominated triangulation. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.J Offset 1100 1 o o o Number of pomts In curve Generate curve in plane of line segments Angle tolerance 0Apply LI1_35_oO _j Resultant' Autopit' strings (topography has been made transluscent) Note that in this case.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) - String conditioning ~ Use angle tolerance check Minimum angle between pts ( <180) Maximum angle between pts (>180) ~ Use distance tolerance check ~ -- Minimum distance between pts Maximum distance between pts D Use Radius I curves on corners 1 1_0. This is evident in the following graphic.jilll Judicious use of conditions can prevent problems occurring with the automatic projections._0 L __ • Radius of curvature _. Cancel curve.to points on a zero width berm @Getwfromleftpointifinsertion Get w from right point if insertion Weighted average for w if inserted . The resultant pit design strings may not need any further editing (see image below). Inc.J •T angenl offseHrom pomt to mtersecnon LI1_0 _ ___. . The fact is it is only actual points of the string that are re-limited.--_o_K_..

Inc. This is useful for completing the creation of the pit by interpolating missing design information. crest or mid bench strings. (A similar result could have been achieved by not limiting the projection to a triangulation surface in the first place. • Use the Model> design layer. Interpolating Missing Strings The Pairs option (Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu) allows you to create toe and crest strings by projecting from either toe. the Pairs option may be used to project multiple strings. A 'dummy' projection of the upper-most toe string (say by R1 00) would have to be made before modelling to achieve a valid Boolean operation.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Finally. Whereas the Open Pit> Open Cut Design > Project String option projects only single strings. where a "valley" is crossed with one of these strings. Triangle Surface> Create option to model the pit Resultant pit topography of 'Autopit' The intersection polygon generated by the Pit Topography option can now be used as a clipping polygon to Clip by Polygon the design strings. The result should look something similar to the image below: Note the part of the pit model that is well above the original topo: this is due to there being no intervening points along the string between the endpoints of these line segments. The problem is therefore resolved. . It should also be noted that it is not possible to Boolean this pit design against the topography by the very fact that the perimeter string does not fully pierce the surface. use the Open Pit > Open Cut Design > Pit Topography option to obtain the pit topography and intersection string. see figure 61. the string is not clipped to the topography triangulation. Thus. but instead carrying the Autopit projection to a height that was above topo). • Try doing this toe projection. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

• Set the Default Batter Angle to 45 (degrees).Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Exercise in how to use the Pairs option: • Load up option from the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. There are three methods for creating toe and crest strings. the batters assigned to the strings are used). from toe. this will effectively make the berms narrower. This allows you to select more objects if necessary. Inc. (This will override the nominal bench height field).e. the previous panel is re-displayed. then the berms will not be flat benches. • Select the From toe strings option to create crest strings from the toe strings. The following box is displayed @ From o o ~ toe strings From crest strings From mid bench strings Bench Parameters Default batter angle Override Nominal ~ ~ bench height calculate 1'-45_. The following Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. i. The overall pit slope remains the same though the batter angle of individual benches is different (45 degrees instead of 60 degrees). Each method depends on the position of the reference strings for the projections. Cancel Choose a Projection Method. When Toes and Crests Projection Method ~ • Check the Automatically calculate bench heights box to calculate the bench height from the distance between the elevations of successive pit strings. objects/categories. the following panel is displayed. (If unchecked.. • Select Cancel to finish selecting confirmation box is displayed. • Leave the Nominal Bench Height at 10 (metres). bench heights set batters with default Automatically Feature andlLayer Layer Group Check string for cross overs OK II Cancel Feature Name . • Once the group and layer has been selected (and confirmed). • Check the Override set batters with default box to use the default batter angle. Note that if this is value differs from the actual difference in RL between successive crests of toes.. . the option is selected. In our case. • Select the Check string for crossovers option to check and remove crossings which may have been produced by the projected strings. • Indicate that you wish to select strings by Group and Layer category. that is. crest or mid-bench strings. they will be inclined berms. then select one of the toe strings (from the PIT$TOE group of the AUTOPIT layer).0_--' 1"0-.0--------. • Select OK to accept the panel.

it can be ascertained that in this particular example. Any line segment on the screen may be selected to define the location of the reference plane in space. Inc. . Reference plane defined by line for dip direction and rotation of dip angle around point 1 of dip direction line. The plane will then be inclined in the direction of point 2 of the line segment. the wall angle has changed while keeping the toe strings in their original position. A. The bench outline string is then registered onto this plane. The plane is defined by a dip direction and dip angle (down is a positive dip). which has been rotated from the horizontal. Poly gon is then registered onto reference plane. The dip direction is defined by selecting a line segment from the screen. Applying an Inclination (cross-section) How to use the Incline option: • Select the Incline option from the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. The option registers the nominated bench outline onto a plane. Since the option registers the outline onto a plane.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Project Strings will continue and interpolate string lines according to the information inserted in the first panel. Modifying Pit Designs Creating an Inclined Pit String The Incline option allows you to apply an inclination to a single bench (or berm) polygon. any existing variations in levels (Z values) of the original outline are lost. Thus the X and Y co-ordinates of the outline points will not change but the level (Z value or RL) of each point will correspond to the level of the reference plane at that location. By analysis of the distance and strike/dip between crests and toes. Y and Z. The first point of the line segment will anchor the plane at that location in X. • You will be prompted to "Select the bench level outline" to be inclined. Don't Project will exit from the option. B. the following panel is displayed: Enter the following value Enter bench slope in degrees (eg 2) I2f1 Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. It is used to apply a drainage gradient to an existing bench string in a pit design. • Once the line for dip direction has been selected. The first point of the line segment fixes the level of the plane at that location and the plane is then inclined by the specified dip angle in the direction of the line segment. • Select a line for dip direction. This is because the resultant berm width is wider than previously. View the resultant strings.

Multiple-Bench Inclination Easting Control Point • .0 I degrees ~ I " ___J 7642351. • Enter the Bench Grade. How to use the Multi Incline option: • Select the Multi Incline option from the Open Pit/Open Cut Design menu. @ Bench o Level defined in Name Bench Level . The option uses the same principles as described for the single Incline option.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Enter the Bench slope in degrees as an angle of dip .J'" OK I[ Cancel I • Upon confirmation you are prompted to select another bench outline and another line for dip direction.65 r-------r-----~ 26. The difference is that multiple bench outlines may be processed using a single reference plane (Le. a positive angle is inclination down from the horizontal in the direction of the line selected. This is the bearing in decimal degrees of the dip direction of the slope that will be applied to the reference plane(s). When the option is selected the following panel is displayed: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. • Choose the method for defining the bench RL: Select the Bench RL defined in Name option to incline multiple benches at various levels (Z value or RL).n%. The angle must be in decimal degrees and not exceed 10 degrees. • Northing Control Point Bench Grade Direction Bench Grade ~ metres metres ~~~--------~ lI 742179. • Select OK to 0 accept the panel. A family of planes with the same dip and dip direction are generated. Grading Multiple Pit Strings The Multi Incline option allows you to apply an inclination to a number of perimeter strings at once. . The bench grade is defined in decimal degrees and a positive angle is down from the horizontal in the specified direction.L.e. Each plane is located at the pivot point X and Y with a Z value taken from the value stored in the Name field of each object (bench outline). r '. These points establish the XN location of the pivot point around which the reference plane(s) will be rotated. Inc. • Enter the Easting/Northing Control Points. . You are prompted to confirm whether or not you wish to keep this inclination.l. Project String and Berm String options (see also the description of the Assign Berm/Batter Values option).46 Grade can be entered as nnn. all polygons become co-planar) or a number of such planes of the same orientation but maintaining the relative differences in level (Z value) of the original bench outlines. This is useful for open pit mine designs where the "flat" benches need to be inclined a few degrees for drainage of surface water. The inclination is then applied. • Select CANCEL To return to the Open Cut Design menu.n.. The bench level is stored in the object name during the Auto Pit. This is the dip angle of the plane(s) in the above-specified direction.. l:nnnn. • Enter the Bench Grade Direction. nnn.

Yer (x . Bench RL defined in Name (cross-section) Select the Bench RL defined by user option to apply the same slope onto a number of bench outlines at the same level. Moving a Pit Wall The Move Pit/Dump Wall option allows you to translate (change the position) of pit strings. sloping down in the direction of the stated bearing. The following box is then displayed: Object Group and La.0 ) ) • Select OK to accept the panel.er Group Feature Name .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) pb]ect Iv'alue prouj3 primitive Feature arer AUTOPIT BRU120. • Upon confirmation the panel is re displayed. . Select CANCEL to return (x . that is. for example.z) of pivot point is fixed The net result is that all of the pit strings will have a 2 degree gradient applied to them. Once the layer has been selected and confirmed. the inclination will be applied and you'll be prompted to confirm whether or not you wish to keep the sloped benches. ..y) pivot points . . Feature and Lay. ..0 120. For example where a pit has split into two pits but the benches are still co-planar. • Select the BOTTOM_UP layer. a "push-back" design.y . by moving one wall of a pit outwards to access more ore reserves. to the Open Pit/Open Cut Design menu. Bench RL Defined by User (cross-section) Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Inc. Cancel family of reference planes • Indicate that you wish to select by Layer.000 PIT$TOE PIT$BERM ( ( Berm up to level 120. . .

Select the pit string that represents the bottom or the top of pit wall(s) to move. followed by the end point to move. 1 icon when prompted to "indicate the point to move to". you are prompted to indicate a reference point and a point to move to. This allows you to specify the exact distance and angle of the translation: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. You are then prompted to confirm the selection. Once this is done. This would typically be a toe string. use the I.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • You are then prompted to confirm moving points above or below the selected string.&. You are then prompted to select the start point to move. Hint: For pit strings. Inc. Cross Section of a Push Back How to use the Move option: • Select Move Pit/Dump Design menu. Wan option from the Open Pit > Open Cut • When the option is selected you are prompted to select a wall to move. these should be in a clockwise sequence. . • To be more precise. 'Indicate' digitising mode may be used to indicate from the approximate middle of where the string is now to where you want the wall to move to. • The points in the selected string will then display...

• Select a line segment from off the toe string that you wanted to translate perpendicular to.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) In the above example. Then click on the 'Create Point' button. Inc. A negative distance is specified because of the translation convention used is that a translated string will go to the right of the existing string when facing the direction of increasing point sequence when a positive distance is specified and to the left when a negative distance is specified. • You are then prompted to confirm. you are returned Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Upon confirmation to the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. you would type in the distance and then click on the 'Get line' button. .

that is. in particular. Due to the fact that all string segments are translated in the same direction. . Some strings may need "tidying up" by deleting points. not necessarily perpendicular to all segments.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The resultant strings should be examined closely to check that pit parameters have been obeyed. that berm widths have been honored. Check. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. some points will need adjusting to maintain the desired berm width. Inc.

A second approach is to again perform a quick bottom-up design with no ramp. The Ramps Menu The Open Pit> Ramps menu contains tools for the creation of open cut mine designs that incorporate ramps or haul-roads. The Ramps menu is shown below: Qesign Pit/Dump Assign Berm/Batter values ~raphics Toe/Crest/Road Y:isibility Toe/Crest/Road ~ondition string AQply Curve ~uild Road Insert road to Pit/Dump MKRD Road . and usually situated close to the waste dump. The first is to use Auto Pit to perform a quick bottom-up pit design and then generate a ramp string using the Build Road option starting on the lowest toe string. by starting with an expanded crest string) to allow for the ramp volume inside the pit. by starting from a smaller toe string). In both top-down and bottom-up pit design. . completion near the surface. It must be remembered that in bottom-up design. carrying the ramp down with it. We will carry out an exercise based on this last method.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 2: Ramp Design Introduction So far. pre-assign these using the Open Cut Design > Assign Berm/Batter Values option as described in the previous unit. dump or stockpile designs with ramps and haul-roads. the ramp is placed outside the pit strings. to allow for the extra excavation required for the ramp. Thus the preliminary design should be placed conservatively (e. where the haul road is connected to the surface road network. In this instance it should be understood that the ramp is placed inside the pit strings. insets a road string and then automatically projects pit strings at the default batter angle and then follows with a berm of the default berm width. Trial and error would need to be used to place the beginning of the ramp so that it exited the pit at the required position. and carry the ramp up with the pit. As the design nears Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. so they should be made more ample than optimum during the bottom-up design stage (e. Design Pit/Dump. and allows placement of the ramp in the most desirable path. we have created basic pit and dump designs that have no access ramp or haul-roads. This is a trivial procedure in top-down design. The Design Pit/Dump option commences with a base string.Line Ialpac Export Talpac Start The creation of a mine design with ramps is performed by one single option. This will produce a string tracing the location of the ramp on the pit wall.g. experiment with various combinations of switchbacks and all-cut ramps to guide the ramp out at the required location. This is the most flexible method. Inc.g. it is usual for the ramp exit point to be fixed at the surface. however how can this be achieved where the pit must be designed form the bottom-up? There are several alternatives. To apply different batter angles and berm widths to different line segments in a string. Top-down design can then be used on this crest string. and use this to establish a final crest string at the topographic surface. The final method is to start the design at the base (in the most suitable location). This unit describes the tools available for the creation and modification of open cut mine.

pit_spec Multiple sets of parameters may exist in this file. filtering points etc. Conventions The Ramps module follows certain conventions. The Design Pit/Dump Option The Design/Pit Dump option combines the basic pit design functions of projection. Roads A road going up will always push back outside the original toe line (see image below). A road going down will always push in from the original crest line (see Figure 88). applying grades. expanding centre lines to the required road widths. These are listed below. The file is stored in your working directory. required for the pit and ramp design are stored in a file Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. These options include fitting of curves to haul-road centrelines. Strings For a conventional pit the closed string must be clockwise. benches or berms and ramp placement into one integrated option. In this case a positive batter angle expands the string as it projects upwards and contracts as it projects downwards. Inc. . The parameters named: <proj>.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The remainder of the options in the Ramps menu allows the user to further enhance the design.

the Road Parameters panel is displayed.0 Grade of road 10% Grade is applied to .0 IIo.nn% Grade increment (for adjustments) 10.0 Allow bench access Fractional access ratio '----.spltspec file.------------.0 1-------------1 Default flat length 40. The Create Pit menu box contains all options related to the actual creation and modification of pits and ramps.nn% Width of road 140.0 1 ~ outside/slot cut right 11.---~----~~--~ Default batter angle 60..o. ~ mSlde/slot cut left 11. Road Parameters Parameter setis: DEFAULT ~ Road goes @ up the wall 0 down the wall 1 n. This panel defines the parameters for the ramp design process.% ~ Adjust initial string for ramp access @Access distance equal to road length o Define access distance . This includes an option to edit the current road parameters (Road Parameters panel). .. Inc.this informs you which set of parameters is currently being used.:::::.n. Default berm width . Parameter sets are read from the -cproj.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Instructions: • Select Ramps> Design Pit/Dump option The first time you select this option in the current Envisage session. @ Highwall Edit parameters Choose parameters Insert road Continue road Start road End single road End all roads Insert slot cut Insertflat Insert switchback Project string Berm string Auto Pit Assign Berm/Batter Create Triangulation Edit/Label string Undo Redo Cancel 0 Centre 0 Opposite 0 Shortest 1n. This can be changed through the Choose parameters option.------"'-------.--------' D Overwrite berm at pit entrance D Promptforzero berm .1:nn. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Edit parameters The Edit parameters option allows you to define new ramp design parameters or change existing ramp design parameters.nnn.1:nn.0 1-------------1 Default bench height 10.1 ~ I Cancel • Parameter set . Subsequent selection of the Design Pit/Dump option produces the Create Pit menu box..nnn.n._O_K __ .

the road width is the true width of the road. • Grade increment . • Width of road .the grade of the road is specified as a decimal. • Default bench height . The Opposite side is the side opposite the highwall side and the Centre is the midway between the two. then you will need to tick the Force all terms to use default box.these options determine on which side the road is graded. but go through different distances to achieve it.the road can either go up or down from the selected string. The grade can be increased or decreased (the grade can be entered as a decimal. a ratio or percentage). • Default batter angle . the Ramps/Design software may be used for both "bottom up" and "top down" designs. The direction of the grade is determined by the Up the wall/Down the wall buttons. • Grade of road . your new value of 1Om will be ignored. For a straight road this has no effect. maintain continuous • Default berm width . These boxes must be ticked before the road is created. • Highwall/Centre/Opposite/Shortest . It is overridden by any previously defined batter angles on the string. • Allow access to next . going away in the opposite direction of the road. or push in the crest points in the case of a road going down. • Default flat length . then the default berm width will be used. you will need to insert the road again. If you need to change the berm width for later berms. this option can be used to either push back the toe points in the case of a road going up. If you want to change the access to the bench. For example. It allows Copyright © 200S MapteklKRJA Systems. The Assign option can be used to change the batter angle values. The Shortest option will apply the specified grade to whichever side is shortest.the flat length is the length of the flat section created using the Insert Flat option. ratio or percentage.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) " • Up the wall/down the wall . you to specify how far the push back is to be done or specify that the push back is to be equal to the length of the side on which the grade is applied.this defines the default bench height for the projections and berms used in the road creation.when inserting a road into a string for the first time. • Access distance equal to road length/Define access distance applicable only if adjusting the initial string for ramp access. each side of the road will have a different grade. it will always be accurate. you will need to tick the "Force all berms to use default" box. If a road is inserted and a projection to the bench has been done. The section of the string pushed back should tangents with the remainder of the string. The points are pushed back from the start point.1 % by default. This is because both sides of the road have the same change in elevation. Any previously defined berm widths on the string are overridden only if the check-box "Force all berms to use defaults" is checked. Because the Highwall grading is applied directly to the wall. Any other gradings use an iterative algorithm and will be accurate to a nominated tolerance (0. • Adjust initial string for ramp access .this defines the default batter angle for the projections and berms used in the road creation.if the original string has no berms defined (by the Assign Berm/Batter values option). Inc. .the inside bench and outside bench boxes can be ticked to allow or disallow access to the benches on either side of the road. and the current Sm berm will be used. The Highwall side is the side of the road on the original wall. and after several levels. any subsequent berm will be created according to what was ticked here. that is.the grade increment is used when inserting a road and subsequently adjusting the grade. For a road that turns in any direction.see Advanced options). want to change the berm to 10m. if you start your pit with a berm of Sm. If you don't. The options select where the grade will be applied.

5 for half width access.tick this box to specify a limiting surface.OOt).g) or triangulation (<tfi>. doing the bench level and optionally placing a berm. the directly into any string. . The parameters are then stored in a file named -eproj-.in the road can be inserted bench. inserting the road. string conditioning .applicable only if access has been allowed. It allows you to specify what proportion of the bench is accessible. It allows you to save them into a separate layer.t" . • Retain original toe/crest string . Road Parameters Parameter set is : DEFAULT General DApply D ~ I Advanced I~----------------------------------. 0. You can delete this string after the road has been created. When the road is inserted. '.applicable only if retaining the road polygon and grade line.. • Retain separate road polygon and grade line .is used to remove points close to the edge of the road. A fraction of 0.1-----. starting from projection to the next case of inserting the road and projecting now. Select OK to accept the panel.0 is equivalent to no bench access.g.\ [Browse t: Follow with a berm Retain original toe/crest string Retain separate Layer Descnpuon I road polygon and grade line ~----------------------------------~ 1'0-.I I ~ Lock start edge to existing road edge for centre and inside grades Tolerance ~ Apply proximity filter to points near road edge L. The maximum size of the layer description is 40 alphanumeric characters (spaces are allowed).mit string now . you'll be asked to indicate the limit string.__O_K _ _J] [ Cancel • Use limiting surface .check this box if you want to keep the original string into which the road is inserted. • Project now . • Tolerance for centre and inside grades .plt spec in your current working directory and will be used in subsequent editing sessions. • Use limit string .<mv>.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) • Fractional bench access .tick this box if you want to keep the road polygon and the grade line in a separate layer to that of the pit strings . • Proximity filter . Use limiting surface S~rlace name ~ li._. These tend to be a major source of problems in placing the road.the road can be inserted in one of two ways: "Use a limit string" or "Project now".refers to the accuracy to which these grades can be obtained via the iterative method that is used. Inc. the original string is replaced by the road and string combination. If unchecked.1% ~-----------------------------------. . This builds the complete the base string. You can also have any fraction in between._-===-~J . The surface can either be a grid «proj><gfi>. ' . e. In the case of a limit string. A fraction bench access number of 1._.0 Use ~ D @)" Proje~tl 0 Delete ~ after road creation . a previously projected string must exist. The maximum size of the layer name is 10 alphanumeric characters (spaces are not allowed).0 will allow full access to the bench with a berm width as defined above. • Layer/Description . Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

The string will be highlighted and you will be asked to select a starting point. Select current parameters Ii) elete parameters Cancel • Select current parameters . named DEFAULT. • Depending on which insertion mode was selected. The default direction will be clockwise the first time selected and the last selected direction otherwise. select and delete a set of design Insert road • Select the string into which the road is inserted. you to save.select this option to delete any set of saved parameters. a direction will be highlighted with an arrow. or modify the grade. A flag will be put into the -cprojs. Select current parameters Choose parameters for current set ~ I DEFAULT OK i[ Cancel I Aetairdnsert InaeMegracie Decreese grade Reject • Save current parameters as . .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Choose parameters This option allows parameters. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. This will then become the current set of parameters for subsequent designs. cannot be deleted. All parameters are stored in the -eprojs. Select either the indicated direction or the opposite direction.select this option to save the current parameters with a new name. Save current parameters as Enter new parameter name ~ v OK II Cancel I • Delete parameters . the direction will be determined by the previous road.ptt epec file under the assigned name. The default set of parameters.pit spec file to indicate which set of parameters is currently in use. For a string formed from a previous road inserted. • Upon selection of a starting point. a highlighted road will be displayed and you will be asked to retain or reject this.select this option to select a set of parameters you have previously saved. Inc.

Select the string.00% ) c.00% ) start el evati on -40. One way of inserting a turn into a road is to build then continue the road design from the second flat. Also highlighted will be a thick dashed line that indicates where the grading is applied.00 10. instead of a graded road. .00 e 10.01% ) Highwall Edge: 100. The inserted road is given a group name of PIT$HAUL to distinguish it from the other toe and crest lines. Start road This option is used in the special case where you wish to insert a road into a pit string that has a road defined. • Select the string to start the continuation. Point of insertion of first flat Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . Following this you will be asked to either Continue the road or finish. Inc.00 e e Insert flat • If you retain the insert. End elevation: -30. This is useful if you need the road to end at an exact location or to get around tight inside corners. Roaa parameters Road plan lengths on existing walle Average Grade) ::lppositeEdge : 124. is contained in the point names of the string.85 8. the first 'flat' go in the same direction as the current direction of the second 'flat. For example. the road will be retained and depending on the insertion mode. The road lengths and grades will be displayed in the report window. The option then changes the point names on the string so that you can use the Continue Road option to place the road correctly. This option is similar to Insert road. See the images below option. The length of this section is determined by the "Default flat length" parameter in the Road Setup Parameters panel. Upon finishing you will be returned to the Create Pit menu. Information regarding the location of the road. End road This option is used to stop a road on an existing string from developing any further. It is therefore important not to interfere with the point names of any of the strings created in the Create Pit menu options.00.raded Line : 100. You select the point on the string that you wish to stop. and The "trick" is to make ramp and reverse the for more detail on this Continue road Select this option when you want to continue a previously created road (or roads) after some other operation. • Choosing Increase grade or Decrease grade allows you to modify the created road. in a "double-fiat". This option removes the point names for that part of the string so it is not taken into account for further projections.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) . road start point and direction as you would for Insert road. but was not generated using the Ramps module. the string will be projected to the next bench and then optionally bermed. this could be used to add roads to strings imported from outside VULCAN. it generates a flat section of road. See below for an example. However.

Confirm insertion of second flat Then just select the 'Continue Road' option from the 'Create Pit' main menu: when prompted for the string to insert road into.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) ~ F:et~ln In~E'rt Reiect Confirm insertion of first flat When inserting the second 'flat'. Inc. . select the second 'flat': Reverse direction of insertion Increase grade Decrease grade Reject Cancel Continuing the road Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. make sure the direction arrow is in the reverse direction of the current ramp direction or in the "out" direction as opposed to the "in direction" shown below.

it is recommended that a rotated 'Overview' Window is displayed so that the designer can keep track of the process. the last you the The arrow-head should point in the direction of the ongoing ramp. Inc. It is also a good idea to keep an eye on the Envisage report window to make sure the design parameters are being adhered to (see below). This is typically inside vertex at the top of the current ramp (see below).e.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Insert Switchback When inserting a switchback. Finished bend in road During the design process. the toe string created (from following a crest string with a berm). The 'Switchback parameters' panel will then display: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. you will initially be prompted to select string to insert into: this would typically be the outermost string i. Then will be prompted to 'Select point to start road section'. .

0 15% I n.. If the grade is selected as the unconstrained parameter. n. Extend end of switchback OK II Cancel • Flat switchback .. outside or centre). The parameter value for the selected field is shadowed.. Inc..Select this to perform a switchback on a sloping surface according to following parameters: • Radius to grade . A = turning angle.J H @ Graded = A R tan (G) Radius to grade . outside o o 0 where H = bench height.a switchback curve is constrained o Flat switchback ength to widtluatia switchback 1'---__ --' @ centre @ centre L. you cannot select where to apply the grade. .this allows you to nominate which radius to apply a grade to (outside.11O . you cannot then choose where to apply the radius. 0 inside Number of points on curve o o @ o o Check unconstrained parameter . you can specify three of the above parameters and the software will calculate the fourth. You select which parameter you want the software to calculate. inside or centre). • Define radius on . G = ramp grade.. If the radius is selected as the unconstrained parameter.this specifies how many points to draw on the curve..this allows you to specify where the defined radius is to be applied to (inside. Therefore when designing the switchback curve. Switchback inserted in toe string Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.nno/.0 180.Select this to perform a switchback on a flat surface according to a given length to width ratio • Graded switchback .r Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Switchback parameters ~ • Check unconstrained by the relationship: parameter .. 1:nn. outside inside Define radius on . Radius of tum Turning angle Bench height Grade 35.nnn. The more points. R = radius of turn. the smoother the curve will be. • Number of points on curve ..

18%) cr aded : 109.96.96.79. 55.50 Height urninQ AnQle 180. 15. then we can check the option in the 'Switchback parameters' panel to 'Extend end of switchback'. In the example below: this tells us that the end elevation of the switch-back is 135.00 ( 11.12.12.18% ) Graded : 109. radius ( Average Grade) Inside : 47. The disadvantage of this is that the extension would have the same gradient applied to it as at the corner.50 Choose parameters Insert road Continue road If we want the ramp to push on up to the next level (140. rad'i s ( Average Grade) u Inside : 47. End elevation 135. 55.00. End elevation: 140.00 ( 5.0 deQrees The road string has been created: it is then necessary to manually project the old toe string to the 140. The Project string option is similar but not identical to the Project String option in the Open Cut Design menu.00 ( 3. the gradient of the ramp would be flattened off going around the corners to assist trucks working against centrifugal forces and then increase to around 10% after the turn: Start road End single road End all roads Insert slot cut Insert flat Insert switchback Projecttring s Berm string Auto Pit Assign Berm/Batter Create Triangulation Edit/Label Undo Redo Cancel string Project string Ramp extended after switchback SWltcn!?aCK paramecers unc9nstralnea nelgm Road plan : length. SWltcn!?aCK parameters Unconstralnea nelgnt Road plan : length.0m RL).5m RL.00 ( 5. 35. Inc.00 urninQ AnQle 180. We do this by selecting the 'Project String' option from the 'Create Pit main menu: J Edit parameters 5. 15.00%) Start elevation: 130. 35. In a typical scenario.79.67% ) outside : 172.00% ) Start elevation: 130. Height 10.00 .00m RL.00.00 ( 3.0 deQrees Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) When the switchback is created the parameters are displayed in the report window.00 ( 11.67% ) Outside : 172.

. o Projectto level ':-11_40=:Use either (R)elative.-0------------. When generating a road down the pit. Inc. use the Assign Berm/Batter Values option. __. you must however enter the same batter angle as defined in the Road parameters panel. R-10. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. 0 match the projection with an inserted road. Toe string projected to next level The Design Pit/Dump option applies the above batter angle to entire strings. Also note.0 '-----' ~ The project to level field must be set with the desired absolute bench height or with the relative bench height using the "M" prefix (the bench height from the Road parameters panel is not automatically put into the Bench Projection panel). if you use the Project String option from the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu instead of this option.UnO. The Nominal bench height field on this panel has no effect on this option. Limit projection to surface model --' D Project to level if no limiting surface found ~ Check string for cross overs Condition projected strings '--_O_K _ D o Convolute \ Grid e. To apply different batter angles to different line segments. you may hamper the development of the road.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Bench Projection D Override set batters with default Default batter angle 160. (U)p.g. (D)own or relative to (M)inimum(e.II Cancel The batter angle from the Road parameters panel is not automatically put into this panel. the project to level value must be negative.M20) Nominal bench height r-11-0.

0 and uncheck the Override berm widths with default box. It also adjusts the bermed string as to whether or not bench access is required. These points need to be removed for the ramp placement to progress properly. use the Assign Berm/Batter Values option. The road insertion operations will set the berm widths on the W tags of the string to the default value.lo_.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) We then manually berm this crest string with the 'Berm String' option from the 'Create Pit 'menu: The Berm String option is similar to the Berm String option in the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu. use the Replace String option in the correct sequence to delete the points all at once. .o __J ~ Edit pafilrnelEH$ piuamelers Choose berm widths with default Insert load Conllnueroad Start road End Single road End aU roads Insert slot cut Innrtflat Insert 5Wltchback Project string Berm string @ Horizontal ~ i o o >. The string editing functions provided by Edit/Label String option are identical to the options in the Object Edit and Point Edit menus under the 'Design' main menu: they are available from a convenient menu accessible while in the Ramps> Design Pit/Dump operation. Inc. The Design Pit/Dump option applies the above berm width to entire strings./ Override berm directio.. To apply different berm widths to different line segments.!) (as implied by batters) with this default Horizontal berm (only points not on the limiting surface) Follow surface (only points on the limiting surface) berm (ignoring the limiting surface] Check string for cross overs D Use projection plane D Condition berm strings Auto Pit AssIgn Berm/Balter Create Tnangulation '----_O_K_ __JII Cancel Undo Redo Cancel The berm width from the Road parameters panel is not automatically put into this panel. To perform the correct berm. Alternatively. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. We need to "clean up" the new toe string by using the 'Delete Point' option from the Edit/Label String function of the Create Pit main menu to delete points that are on the inside of the curve of the switchback. unless there is already a berm width specified.. determined in the Road parameters option. you must enter a Default berm width of 0. Safety Berms and Benches D Override Default berm width l. In addition it knows about road insertions and will correctly design the bermed string for further road development.

. Inc.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Then simply Continue Road to continue on with projecting/berming operation of the current toe string: Insert point at intersection Move point Delete point Replace string Delete string Grade ObjectZValue PointZEdit Point Interpolate Apply Curve Relimit by Distance Close Polygon Condibon string Label Point Name Label PointZ Value Label PointW Label Remove Cancel Edit parameters Choose parameters Insert road Continue road Start road End single road End all roads Insert slot cut Insert flat Insert switchback Project string Berm string Auto Pit Assign BermfBatter Create Triangulation EdiVLabel string Undo Redo Cancel the automatic Delete the toe points inside the "hook" of the curve as shown below: Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

000 in the 'Default berm width' input field. The final string created is always a toe string: to finish the pit design with a crest.85 in the 'Project to level' input field. Inc. Delete all of the construction strings. Repeat the steps 3 and 4 to manually project and berm the new road string. then enter 2. . the open pit would typically have an extended bench forming a "peninsular" at the switchback corner as shown above. if the bench height was nominally 10.15 in the input field to bring the ramp up to the 210. Use 'Edit/label String > Replace String' to delete the "hook" in the outside toe strin .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) of the top of the ramp was 207. Note that the crest and toe strings constructed so far are only interim strings.00 11) 'Continue Road' 2) Adjust the Design parameters so that the 'Default bench height' field Systems.85. is the incremental height required to reach the next level. use the Edit Parameters option to turn off the check-box to automatically "Follow with a berm". 5) 6) 7) 8) Ramp Design with one switchback turn and one "flat" turn 9) In practice. this may be accomplished by the following steps: 1) label the Z-value of the end of the switchback. 3) 4) Manually project the outside toe string using the 'Project string' option and enter 207.00 and the current Rl Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA r Using 'Replace String' to delete points 10) Go back to the 'Edit Parameters' panel to edit the 'Default bench height' back to 10. Remember to use 'Point snapping' mode. including the 'old' road string.00 level. Manually berm the projected string using the 'Berm string' option and enter 0. Use the 'Edit/label String> Insert Point' option to insert the new ramp endpoints into the road string. For example. Use the 'Continue Road' option to continue the road to the next bench level. In the case where the ramp needs to be manually extended to the next bench level.

:a::_::d._O·I.'.0 20.1:nn. Inc. Set the road parameters (Ramps > Design Pit/Dump option) as shown.:. Highwall 0 Centre 0 Opposite Grade increment (for adjustments) 10.1 % I n.0) and the project to level value (M20) in the Project string panel. Overwrite berm at phntrance Prompt for zero berm .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 3: Ramp Design Exercises Road Parameters Parameter set is: EX1 General] Advanced ~ IL- --.0 40. In this case we select the Use Limit String options and delete the string after use.nnn.:le:::ngthl!:. This will be our pit string. at an elevation of 150 metres.1 1% I Road Parameters -- !'iJ ~ Lock start edge to existing road edge ~_~ Parameter selis : EXl General o Tolerance for centre and inside grades Apply proximity finer to points near road edge I Advanced] @uptl1ewall Road goes Width of road Grade of road ~''.nn% @Shortest OK II Cancel o Grade is applied to . I Default batter angle Default bench height Defaunflatiength Allow bench access 88.0 [']Force I all berms to use default Project the string with the Ramps> Project String option to create the limit string: define the batter angle (68.0 I OK II Cancel Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. 130.0..nn'lo 3) ~ Adjust initial string for ramp access @Accessdistanceequaltoro-.0 o down the wall 1 1:nn. .0 ~ inside/slot cut Ileft Fractional access ratio ItO I ~ outside/slot cut right 11.. o o Apply string conditioning limiting surface D Use @ Use Surial-€ limit stnng ~ Delete after road creation IIIIh a Project now berm 2) ~ Retain original toe/crest string o Retain separate road polygon and grade line Descripu I 10.n. Exercise 1: Inserting a Road Using a Limiting String 1) Use the Arc option in the Design> Create menu to create a circle of 200 metres radius and a step size of 50 metres. Defaultbermwidth o o 19. __ o Define access distance 10._o -----In.n.nnn.:_---.- --.0 15..

toe Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . The inserted road will be shown highlighted as well as the graded edge (with a dashed line). You are then prompted to retain it. End elevation: 170. selecting the original string and the projected string to limit the road.00. Average Grade) engt t 223. because the road was graded on the highwall edge. the lengths of each side of the road are shown and the average grade.59 ( 8. Choose the 'Other Way' direction to go anti-clockwise. In the report window. ns on ex t s'tnq wal~~.00 ( 10.00% ) ".00 ( 10.raded Line : 200. the Highwal/ Edge and the Graded Line are the same lengths.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Incr_e Reject Cancel gra!l_e Decrease grade 4) Insert the road.00 5) Now use the Project string option again to project the adjusted string up to the next level. Roaa p Ian I. In this case.00% ) Start elevation: 150.94% ) 0fJPosite Edge : Highwall Edge: 200. Inc.

add a berm using the Ramps> Berm string option.-------" -+ '. Safety Berm~ and Benches 10. ~ Check string for cross overs D Use projection plane D Condition berm strings OK II Cancel I 6) As a final step. Inc. This gives the completed bench design..c Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) .0 _ _ ~ D Override berm widths wilh'Ld:-efa:-u-:clt------' Reject this projectiOn DefauHberm width f"l Override berm direction (as implied by batters) wilh this default o o Horizontal berm [only points not on the limiting surface] Follow surface [only points on the limiting surface] @Horizontal berm [ignoring the limiting surface] .. .. Remember to set the default berm width to 0.0 and uncheck the "Override berm widths with default" box. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

0 down the wall 1 l:nn.nnn.nn. Select Insert road. Note that the default direction is the same as was last set.0 1--------1 Default flat length 40. In our example we can use the Road Parameters panel to change the access distance to 70 metres.nn% Grade increment (for adjustments) Prompt for zero berm Default batter angle '60-.. 2) Road Parameters ~ 3) Choose the Insert road option and select the same starting point as before. Compare the shorter access length with the pit in Exercise 2. the distance across the entrance to the ramp) is defined as whatever the road length is between benches (200m in this case). check the Follow with a berm box. n. Select the Edit parameters option and select Additionally.0 10-0/.0------. This can be changed if. for example. This can be repeated as often as necessary. the access distance on the initial string (i. An alternative to using a limit string is to project immediately.nnn. Selecting Continue road will continue on the next bench level.0 OK 1 II Cance'l 1) Undo all the created pit strings and return to the original created circle.e.. @Highwall 0 Centre 0. 1) Use the Edit/Label string option to delete the previously generated strings and just leave the original circular string.1'>'0 o Shortest n. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. there was insufficient room at the base of the pit. You are also asked whether to continue the road or finish. Inc. This then produces the same road design as in Exercise 1 but with less work.0 1 11. Road goes Width of road Grade ofroad @ up the wall 1-.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Exercise 2: Inserting Projection a Road Using Immediate Exercise 3: Adjusting the Access Distance Using the current parameters.-0-----in.nn'Yo 140. Project now. Default bench height 10. 1. L_ . 4) Grade is applied to . n.0 Allow bench access '----=-----' o o Overwrite berm at pit entrance ~ InsTde!slot cut left ~ outside/slot cut light Fractional access ratio 11.

Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Road Parameters Parameter General Road Width Ret sm It ~ set is : EX1 IAdvanced I goes ofroad ofroad is applied @upthewall 140_0 10% o down the wall I'~'ert Grade Grade I n.0 batter angle heighl Exercise 4: Adjusting Bench Access The current parameters allow access from the ramp to the benches.nn'Yo Adjust @Access initial string for ramp access distance access equal distance 9.grade Decrease grade Reiect Cancel @Highwall Grade ~ increment o to __ Centre o Opposite 10. the bench access can be disabled using the Road Parameters panel. ~access ccess ratio o inside/slot I cut left 0 I DOulside/slotc I I 0 [JJ I OK II Cancel I With Bench Access Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Un-checking the boxes will disallow access.0 10.0 ] Force all berms 1 Define berm Defauft D width to use defauft EJ Promptforzero Short Access Length Defauft Defauft Defauft bench flat length Overwrite berm at pit entrance berm 60. n.nnn. . Inc.0 o to road length 170. n. is equal to the length of the road.0 40. on both sides. 1:nn.nnn. Compare the road with bench access to the road without bench access: the distance over which the berm changes from full width to zero width. If this is not required.nn% Increase.1% o Shortest (for adjustments) I n. 1 1:nn.0 15.

Default berm width 1033 cut left 1 ~ outside/slot 1033 cut right 1 o o 9.e.0 150.oj 2) Select the top string and a start point (as indicated illustration): in the next Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.0 1 ] Force aU berms to use default Overwrite berm at pit entrance Prompt for zero berm 5.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Without Bench Access Berm set out with fractional bench access You can also experiment with various fractional bench accesses. 3 metres (or 0. . Change the parameters to a flat length of 150 metres. Inc.33 of our berm width).0 I Default batter angle Default bench height Default flat length 60.0 10. the bench access width would be just sufficient for a lightvehicle i. Keeping this to a minimum can have a significant impact on the ultimate pit size and therefore waste movement! Allow bench access Fractional access ratio ~ inside/slot Exercise 5: Inserting a Flat Section 1) A flat section of road can be added to the top bench. Typically.

1) To start a new road on an existing road string. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. VULCAN automatically names the leading points in the road string. This then creates a flat section as shown: If an attempt is made to insert a road into a string that does not have these named points. try the following: label the point names of the "flat" produced in the last exercise.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Exercise 7: Adding a Road to Existing Design When the Ramps > Design Pit/Dump method of pit design is used. . and whether the leading edge point is an "inside edge" or "outside edge" point. an error message will report "No roads on this string": Envisage . use the Insert Road option. These point names then guide the software when inserting new strings into the design. /!\ 2) No roads on this string OK To test this. Inc.. The point names identify whether the string is a clockwise or anti-clockwise string for example.

r Set Coiour • 'A'''''fil..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) " Deleteobiecl Move _I' l.. Start road will correctly name the points in the road string and a Continue road will correctly set out the following design: "".. We will use this string... 3) Now clear the point names of this object using the Design> Edit> Point Name option: Object Clear or Set PO ••• ~ ~ Clear al! point names Setnerneto '1------. pretending it is a string imported from outside VULCAN.. [ Cancel 6) In this case...-_O_K_~·~ 4) If you then do a Continue road on this string you should get a "No roads on this string" error message... Object . we should use the Start road option instead of the Insert road option... Objecty . Object... Objecl . we obtain an incorrect result: see next illustration - 5) Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. .... .. If we try to do an Insert road. Inc..... followed by Continue road. M •• Cancel Coniinue'load P!o""'I....

.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Inserting a second ramp 2) Now continue using the Continue Road option Exercise 8: Designing Multiple Roads 1) It is possible to produce two or more ramps in a pit design. Let us. for example. Inc. insert a new road from a "double fiat": select the Start road option and apply it to the end of the first "flat" as follows: Extending the second ramp Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

Inc. first one ramp and then the other is extended and you will be prompted each time to retain the insert. Extending multiple ramps You can have any number of roads in a bench.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) < Each time the road is continued. This may be done conveniently from within the Ramps > Design Pit/Dump menu by selecting the End road option and then selecting the line segment at the end of the terminated road. you can clear the point names where that road is located. . In order to stop a road continuing automatically. The point names and each string control the road placement. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

especially applying curvature to corners and straightening long walls. Cause: Trying to insert or continue road with another point close to the insertion point as shown below. Inc. Narrow corners should be manually edited to match the capabilities of the mining equipment. The use of global angle and distance tolerances set in the Open Pit> Open Cut Design module will alleviate most of these problems. The point to be deleted will lie on the berm adjacent to the point of continuation of the road. Problems can occur if points are too close together or angles are too acute. However. Problem: Road skews away from highwall Solution 1: Delete the problem point as indicated. it would be unwise to blindly continue inserting roads without considering factors that will affect the actual realisation of the pit. In most cases these can be fixed by using some minor paint manipulation.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 4: Trouble Shooting Guide The Design Pit/Dump option is based on manipulation of points with design strings. String conditioning can also be used to aid in smoothing pit shapes. . Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The corresponding point on the previous projected string should be relimited back to the end of the road so that any future triangulation models are created correctly. The proximity filter relies on the minimum distance set in the Open Cut Design > Tolerances panel.... Road string after Move point option has been used on end-points Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. This will automatically remove these problem points that are closer than the plan bench distance formed by the projection. Inc... Edit parameters Choose parameters Insert road Continue road Start road End single load End all roads Insert slot cut Insert flat Insert switchback Project string Berm string Auto Pit Assign Berm/Batter Create Triangulation Edit/Label Siring Undo Redo Cancel Corrected Ramp Solution 2: Check the 'Proximity filter' box on the parameters panel. the end-points of the current road string may be moved sideways so that the minimum berm width is maintained: . Alternatively.

However. Solution 2: If the road has appeared to veer off to nowhere land. . it may be necessary to edit the current toe string to make the corner more accessible. Inc. This can be adjusted by using the "Increase/decrease grade" option presented when asking to accept the inserted road- Retain insert Decrease grade Reiect Cancel Problem: Error message IIBench height is near zero ll Premature completion This may occur if the projection from the toe string has difficulty turning around a sharp corner.if the road looks okay. an iterative technique is used. and the grade indicated in the report window is accessible. Solution 3: If the road has ended at or near a sharp corner. The use of the "Proximity filter" should remove these problem points. The minimum angle allowed for the road string to turn a corner is set in the Open Cut Design > Tolerances panel. The solution is to use the Edit/Label string > Insert point option to smooth the transition around the corner. See next problem for technique to use in inserting extra points. if it has not. When a grade is applied to a line other than the highwall. which may not be at the nominated grade. then manually delete the points using the Edit/Label String option to Delete point. There are some cases where it is not possible to find a solution. make sure there are no points on the original string close to the insert point. so an attempt is made to place the road in the correct position.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Problem: Error messaae completion Case 111 II*Warning* Premature Solution 1: Increase the grade incrementally. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. then "Accept" the road.

Inc. .Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Inserting points into a line segment of the current toe string Successfully continuing the road on the adjusted toe string Adjusted toe string Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

nominated centre line. you are prompted to select a centreline for the road. not the points. The total length of the centre line is used to calculate the required gradient. . The outline strings are projected horizontally and no cross fall is allowed for (cross-falls and detailed road designs are catered for by the Iroad module). The Width of road is used to define the horizontal projection distance of the centre line. which is then applied to the centre line. Only one option can be selected at a time: 1) The nominated gradient is applied to the centre line in the direction of the point sequence. the crossover is eliminated in simple cases. confirmation. using the Apply a gradient to centre line option. • When the option is selected. The Leave gradient of centre existing centre line in any way. If ticked. • Select OK to accept the panel. Thus the ends of the centreline remain in their original position and the intervening points are moved up or down to suit. this may need to be done manually to achieve the desired result. Horizontal projection is performed on the line segments of the centre line. using the Smooth gradient between end points of centre line option. The road outline is created as two strings (one on each side of the centre line) that are offset from the centre line by a nominated distance. Upon o o Width of road Gradient. line as set option will not modify the 2) 3) How to use the Build Road option: • Select Build Road option found under the Open Pit> Ramps menu. Point one remains at its original location and the remainder of the string is re-graded as specified. the following panel is then displayed: Checking the Check string for crossovers option will check the projected road lines for any butterfly crossovers generated during the centre line projection. • Select CANCEL to return to the Ramps menu. The following three options allow you to control the gradient of the centre line. Where the road strings are complex. Inc. 4 The road is then applied around the Haul-road parameters ~ You will be prompted whether or not to keep this road. LI _j Apply a gradientto centre line I' 10 I[ Smooth gradient between end points of centre line gradient of centre line as set @ Leave ~ Check string for cross overs OK iI Cancel Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. This is identical to the berming process used in the Berm string option in the Open Pit> Open Cut Design menu.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 5: Manual Road Building and Editing Tools The Build Road Option The Build Road option allows you to create a road outline around a centre line. you are returned to the 'Select centre line' prompt. After sleeting the road centreline. The option also allows you to apply gradients to the centre line before the creation of the road outline strings.

'0% Push back extension a'-t -a-s-e-o-f b r-oa-d--' Push back extension at top of road n. This distance must be at least as wide as the road. n. If unchecked. • The Push back extension at top of road is the distance along the end string to merge the ramp into the wall.1 -----. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. modifies the pit walls to accommodate the new haul road.. The point will be highlighted and one of the line segments will be highlighted in white. • You are then prompted to confirm the selection. • Once confirmed you are prompted to select a point to start the road. 12%). This is the suggested direction of the road. save the road only or don't save. The option generates the haul road strings and. This can be changed through the selecting the Other way option from the Confirmation box. • The Push back extension at base of road is the distance along the start string to merge the ramp into the wall string. a pit design generated by the Open Cut Design> Autopit option. • The Grade of road is the gradient of the road.: ·1 L.lnn. the road will go to the top or bottom string in the pit. Enter this as a percentage (e. option..-0 1. Upon confirmation.g. • The Road goes up/down the wall option determines projected down or if it is projected up. . if the road is • Check the Limit extent option if you want to halt the road at any berm or crest..g. 1 Grade of road .nnn.0----.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) / Generating a Haul Road Using the Insert road to Pit/Dump Option The Insert road to Pit/Dump option allows you to generate a haul road up or down the wall of an existing pit e.. Inc.g. • Select OK to accept the panel. if required. You are then prompted whether you want to save the road and push back the wall. 10). from the Open Pit > Haul road @ Road ~ o Road goes down the wall Width of road goes up the wall D Limit extent of road up wall r'13'---0._ __ OK --J II Cancel I • When the option is selected you are prompted to select a wall string from which to start the road. a ratio (1: -9) or as a decimal degree (e.nn% 1'9-0. How to use the Insert road to Pit/Dump option: • Select the Insert road to Pit/Dump Ramps menu. the following panel is displayed.1 _JI O_'~:"'__ __ .

along a pit triangulation. Using the Design Pit/Dump option and designing the ramps as you design the pit. is often a much better option. the following panel is displayed. Produce a Road Guide Using the Road Line Option • Upon confirmation. you will first be prompted to specify the layer name into which the guide string will be placed. Inc. from the Open Pit> Ramps menu. How to use the Road Line option: • Select the Road Line option. . Road inserted in pit design • Select Cancel to return to the Open Pit> Ramps menu. the pit strings are pushed out and modified to accommodate the ramp and you are returned to the Select Wall prompt. This guide can then be used in the Build Road option to generate the road. However. When the option is selected. If no layer is open. it has been known to produce some unpredictable results. The Road Line option allows you to generate a haul road guide string.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) This option is useful for designing ramps when a pit outline has been defined. within a specified gradient range. The option uses a trial and error technique for the placement of the guide string. Caution is advised when using this option. which may require some editing. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.

.91 l.91 8.Try again OK II Cancel OK • Select OK to accept the panel. Envisaqe '.58 347. l:nnnn.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Haul Road Parameters - Preferred Grade .~ Haul Line Completion Total Length of Haul Total Vertical Haul 42. Arc lncrement as nnn. and select OK to accept the • Select pit triangulation at the prompt.X Gradient at this position is too flat .0 '-- B -- ~ -- 6 Once the points are selected following panel is displayed. does not meet the specified criteria).229 % Lasl lenglh of Haul 86. the road will be lost.84 last Honzontal Haul 86.. Use Snap mode to snap the Haul Line Construction • Select OK to accept the panel. Information Panel You are then prompted to indicate to finish selecting points.n. • Fill in the appropriate design parameters panel. the -' '-- __ OK __J II Cancel last Gradient of Haul 10._0 ------I 10.". Again.. In this case.st Verbcal Haul 8. use Snap mode.84 Total Honzontal Haul 86. • Select CANCEL displayed.e. point onto the triangulation (surface).) • Indicate first point for the guide string. another point. The guide string is then saved in the currently open layer and you are returned to the Ramps menu. that are within the gradient range. Minimum allowable grade Maximum allowable grade Grade can be entered .06 ~ & . nnn. Inc. The following panel is • Indicate next point.. Arc Width Search -_. try selecting a different point.46 Total Horizontal Haul 350. If the selected second point is a bad "guess" then an error message will report that the gradient between the two points is either too flat or too steep (i. .n'" ~1_0. If you press Cancel at the Haul Line Completion panel.. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.46 Total Length of Haul 86. (This prompt is only displayed if more than one triangulation is loaded.46 This panel allows you to specify the preferred gradient and the gradient range.

Chronos Reserver Introduction Chronos Reserver is accessed from the Chronos Menu in VULCAN. This will launch the Chronos screen and open a panel called Open Workbook. We will look at some of the spreadsheet functionality in Reserver and then create new columns of data and perform calculations. you must first create a new Workbook.workbook A backup is also automatically created: <NAME>. Opening a Workbook To open a Chronos Workbook go to Chronos > Files > Open Workbook.1 • The Reserve Sheet Reserve Sheets contain all the reserve data that is imported from a dump file. Importing Dump Files We will now import the dump file created in the previous chapter into Chronos Reserver ready for some manipulation. These are similar to sheets in Excel but have some pre-defined columns and rows. that although the workbook is opened. Then click the Save button. The workbook filename is: <NAME>. it is where extra columns and derived data will be stored as a spreadsheet for exporting. This is where all of the calculations are carried out in Chronos. Select the folder icon on the panel and it will bring up the Open File panel where you can enter the name training for your workbook. Within this file are the Reserve Sheets and General Sheets. it will not automatically display on screen as there have been no Reserve or General Sheets assigned to it yet.workbook. Before you can import. Please note however.xls file created in Excel. This is similar to an . the workbook will be opened. These are also similar to sheets in Excel. . After you select OK. Inc. Furthermore. There are three principle components to Chronos Reserver: • The Workbook The Chronos Workbook is a file that contains all the data and calculations carried out in Chronos Reserver.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Chapter 6: Chronos Reserver In this chapter we shall take the dump file that was created in Advanced Reserves and import it into Chronos Reserver.bak. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. • General Sheets General Sheets are sheets that can be used to hold information and dump reserve reports into from the Reserves Sheet.

--- ill I II Save canc~1 I The next allows you to enter a specification name for the file which will store the information of the import._p ~ -"'v~11Browse .ids. This file has an extension .__ ~ --:.. This will bring up the panel below where you can enter the name of a new reserve sheet or select an existing one (if any exist in the workbook)... specify a new sheet ._d_m. you will be prompted to close the one that is currently open. Dump file name Enter dump file name ILtr_ai_n.e ~l(r. Inc.-::-~~ There are no reserve sheets. If you choose to open another workbook. . Specification file ~ Only one Chronos workbook can be open at one time.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) .~ Open File Lookjn Name "'" j\Training\lnternal_ Training\igantt_train E1IIIDlIiii!IiI r:l[QJ~ 'I!A~rib~' 16:41:27 Read-l 10:09:43 Read-l 12:56:52 Read-l 10:56:22 Read-l Import Dump File To import a dump file.workbook test2. you will select the dump file that you created earlier in Advanced Reserves from the drop-down list. go to the option Chronos > Workbook> Import Dump File.JI [ Cancel File name Itrainin~ filetyp~ !"'.1 OK ~[ Cancel Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.workbook TTm?.. In the next panel..l~tel Directory 05/10/05 Directory 04/04/05 6447104 File 04/04/05 4349952 File 07/21/05 Select a reserve sheet Reserve tJ Displaysheet sheet IRESERVES1! L-'-_:.workbook - . 3general.--_O_K_. ]lSize 01. Enter the name RESERVES1 for the reserve sheet.chronos.tri test. Enter the name train.

..nlage olthe block remaining... AG.. Import Dump File -- [R1 • Key ... Reserves I load all II Load none I 0 0 0 0 0 Field i 2 3 I Load I Key 0 JD 0 0 0 0 0 I Example I 4 5 6 I Reserve Sheets Basic Functions Go to Chronos > Workbook> and view the data.~ iDllnu -. Inc.rc. OXIDE AU. _~-r. AV411eblo 1 Steto Block AccqaUl. In this case names COf'Tl)rise I Currenlolltt 01the block Displays the last process applied to the J a blocklyp. and SUlF AG. AU.. • Fold .:!: ~-.sheels Inthe workbook..1(. Here..sg..val.! DRF_830~ JlLG... The workbook and current sheet name 1I I A. and SUlF.nl B.. "..t - J "":I!' Ponod ~ ] __tt"_ _-.In this exercise to address our PRODUCT codes. OXIDE. material ~e or product codes.-~~:-~ JILG_. It can also be seen that the Product field is not selected either. . field AU becomes field AG becomes illlft~II. !:~ IO~~~ :~o~: ArI . ins only to the cunen! process II Porc.rvt Shill 00111111. the triangulation name) has been elected as the key field. ltablo: p. code and the I. pert. block. .""' I - RII..tlO111 (1) I OK II Cancel I Vo~Fl·ld You must complete the following on this panel: • Load _ select the columns that you wish to import from the file. OXIDE AU. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. because if it was selected.. we will fold the reserves around the PRODUCT field. and SUlF WASTE WASTE Block Hlml: A unique name ool1'1'rising the reserve ob)ect name and horizon. cumutaUon Iyp.d.ld are specffiedlorr. ordering number for the block. Two other considerations have to be made in this panel: the key and fold fields.siLu and . IIWIMS . What this option does is assigns each remaining field to ORE and WASTE. In this exercise the SOURCE is not selected as it is not necessary to bring in the name of the block model. based on the blocks thai must be removed prior to the current block. ending up with an ore_au_ivd column and a waste_au_ivd column etc.. After clicking OK. AU. Block proc..... 1. In this case REGION (i.the key field is a field that contains unique identifiers that all the other data can be imported under.J -1' R. IS J1RI'~ TRI'lI TRI'-H TRI'H TRI~ earned to other sheets and reporting utilities...._600_1 } PDrcoat Snr. Displaysan J ! . Reserve Sheet to open the reserve sheet I I @Update o o exisbng dala Clear data before updaijng Clear data and expressions before updaijng Fold fields 1 PRODUCT 1-..Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Field Selection Next a panel will appear which reflects the headers of the dump file which is being imported.:1 I 2 3 6 6 as an example. I~ "' ____ ~~~fMs.nl: lhe percenlage 01the blockIhalwas last sent to the currentprocess.nc.dod:: the lasl period that I " . J the blotll was scheduled P. the Region would no longer act a key field because duplication would occur (each triangulation name would appear twice if there was an ORE and WASTE product associated with it).. the option is given to select these columns of data to be imported.. "... . inlormallon.. fields.::-t~ ~: REGl. the dump file is imported into the designated Sheet in Chronos Reserver. This Information lr.=~~ 11($( I 1 Using a field named 'PRODUCT' willi values WASTE. lghlfl. II':!.e.. PRODUCT is also not selected due to the key option.

column or cell. values. or save it to a text file so it can be imported into other packages. cell or column.# -r iii t:. Allows you to edit the format and attributes of a selected cell. Allows you to search for values or strings. there are columns to be added and data to be derived in order to construct a final product. In the top nght hand corner are the Reserve Sheet icons (see image below).Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) It is in the Reserve sheet that the work is carried out on the reserves data in order for it to contain the necessary information to import into iGantt.g. Allows you to make a copy of the contents of a selected row.atn~ ~i if Jm~!l:.. formatting) into a row. This icon allows the users to create new Reserve Sheet. Allows you to sort the contents of a selected row or column in ascending or descending order. Allows the calculation of multiple scenarios without the need for rescheduling e. Inc. calculating ore exposure dynamically for all schedule periods. row or column and place it into Clipboard. ~ o~ Active sheet name ~U Sort ~ Print Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.g. . Reserve sheets contain some mandatory fields (shaded in blue) which ~re automatically generated when creating a Reserve Sheet.. This icon is used to re-name the Reserve Sheet This icon deletes a Reserve Sheet This icon opens up the Toolbox tool bar (image below) criJ t-fi I. column or cell and place it onto the Clipboard. row or column. Allows you to define and apply named references on selected cells within a general sheet. Allows you to 'freeze' the position of a selected column.J01 ~ Paste From Paste Special Insert Delete Attributes Freeze Find Notes Named Range What-if Table The first five icons are to not used in this training course and refer to scheduling in Chronos. Allows you to view. Allows you to insert a row or column. Allows you to take the contents of Clipboard and paste specific attribute (e. db ~ I. Allows you to paste the contents held in Clipboard into a specific row. The most common tools used in a Reserve Sheet are the final four icons on the right-hand side of the menu bar. depending on variables chosen. Allows you to print out a user defined worksheet or range. Icon Tooltip Cut Copy Description Allows you to remove the contents of a selected cell. leave or edit description notes/summaries for a workbook or a particular cell. Therefore. #. Allows you to delete a row or column..

Paste cell or range. You will note that many of the functions in Chronos are similar to those in other spreadsheet programs. Move view to bottom of current column. they do actually display in the cell until after selecting Enter. bottom. Move view to bottom right of sheet. Move view and cell focus. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Expressions and Functions Later it will be important for scheduling to have a block naming convention that is consistent and easy to understand. each of these items of information will be extracted into a separate column in the Reserves sheet. Move view to upper left of sheet. Move view to left of current row. Move view to top of current column. Deletes cell or range contents. This will be done using the various expressions or functions. • There is no right-click functionality • When entering values in a cell. Move view and cell focus. The triangulations names contain all the necessary information to locate a specific mining block in several ways For example: pit1_1_1250_2 Pit1 : 1: 1250: PIT_NAME PUSH BACK BENCH BLOCK 2: In Reserver.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The four arrow icons on the top left-hand side (see image above) allow the user to move to the top. Only when you release the mouse button are those cells that were covered highlighted Navigation Keys Keyboard Keys [Arrow] [Home] [End] [Alt] + [Home] [Alt] + [End] [Ctrl]+[Home] [Ctrl] + [End] [Tab] [Page Up] [Page Down] Editing Keys Keyboard Keys [Ctrl]+[C] [Ctrl]+[X] [Ctrl]+[V] [Delete] Action Copy cell or range. Action Enter contents and move focus. left and right extremes of the data in the Reserve Sheet. such as Microsoft Excel. The naming convention is decided during the mine design process and given to the triangulations on which the reserves are run. Inc. . Doing this will save time and enable easy updating of reserves as mining continues. However there are some differences: • When highlighting. cells do not highlight as the cursor is dragged over them. Cut cell or range. • Left clicking on one cell and right clicking on another a few cells away will highlight all cells in between. Enter contents and follow last arrow key. Move view to right of current row.

For a detailed list of all the functions available for use in Chronos. Pit Name =LEFT«cell no. INDEX and SPLIT.s. Inc. jVLOOKUPf Level =SUBSTRING«cell For example: no. The SPLIT function splits the cell containing comes across an underscore. We will actually reference the first column Block Name in order to extract the required information.>.<cell no. LEFT. RIGHT. We will now look at the following functions: SUBSTRING. SUBSTRING Function SUBSTRING is used to extract a portion of information that may lie in the middle of a string of information. what has been split) to utilize.REPORi!"INGIA$3:B$12. enter the new value into the field box and select the icon to confirm the edit. =SPLlT("_".2) ~ The pit name from the triangulation name is very simple to extract to the PIT_NAME column using the LEFT functions. please refer to the Appendices under Chronos in the VULCAN Help.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) To begin. Select the [!] icon to cancel the current edit before it is confirmed. To edit a value within a cell. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. INDEX and SPLIT Functions These two functions can be used in conjunction (along with the LEFT and RIGHT functions) to extract the information from a cell that has data separated by certain characters.» the information where it 0 The INDEX function defines which part of the array (i. of characters) For example: =LEFT(A4. L . create the required three new columns~ter the Region column) for the above information using the icon and enter the headings for these.8. We will use the SUBSTRING function to extract the Level information. The RIGHT function can be used in the same manner. character finish) 11) =SUBSTRING(A4. character start. LEFT and RIGHT Functions Expression Panel t:~ Expression ~eIlTRIAUH4 =VUOOKUP[K4.00t extension. We will now use various functions and enter these functions in the command bar at the bottom or in the Expression Panel by clicking the icon Command bar l!J I!It I in the bottom right-hand corner. Values from cells can also be copied from one cell to another either through keyboard key combinations (mentioned above) or the Toolbox icons. such as underscores.e.no. as it does not have the .4) will return the first four letters from the left of an entry in cell A4.

_~r. we can look at product of the average gold grade and total tons to calculate grams of gold grams are only recovered if a block has an average gold grade greater than 2.i~r.~~:::::l o Prelerences file solids and polygons? =IF(V4 GT 2.value) .no> -cconditions. some of the display and querying tools in Chronos.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) =INDEX(array. extract any remaining information in your triangulation name into the appropriate column. =(INDEX(SPLlT("_". Block portion) General Sheets General sheets can be used to hold general reference information required for calculations in a reserve sheet and also to create reports based on data in the reserve sheets using the Report option (looked at later in the course).~M'll:p. no. LEFT and RIGHT. after the WASTE MASS column.». mining methods.W4.A4).4) Using INDEX. give a different value. Inc. You can then copy these formulas to other cells in the columns. Display and Query Now that we have completed our reserves manipulation.value. then give a certain value and if it is not true. Perform the necessary general calculations for these columns. Workbook preferences -- t8J IF statements allow you to say that if a condition is true. This is done through Chronos > Workbook> Preferences.D Load scheduling o!D.<cell =(INDEX(SPLlT("_". they can hold information on equipment.portion) Additional Columns Create five more new columns in your Reserve Sheet to the far right.~i~~9. Use the INDEX and SPLIT functions to extract the Block number.0) Select the Default Preferences.0 g/t. Next we need to establish the link between the Chronos reserves and the Envisage triangulations.0. For example. fill in the Preferences OK iI Cancel I panel as you see . costing and dimensions. below and click OK. =IF«cell. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. These columns are: Column TOTAL_VOLUME TOTAL_TONS AVG_AU AU_GRAMS REC_GRAMS Description sum of the ORE and WASTE volumes sum of the ORE and WASTE mass weighted grades average of the ORE and WASTE gold General sheets contain the same icons and basic functionality as Reserve sheets. SPLIT. You will need to use an IF statement for this calculations Load all your triangulations onto the screen. We will look more at General Sheets when we create some reports in the Report section following.

.~052 RE AU_MASS: 3696.. allows the user to select a triangulation or polygon in the Envisage Primary Window and get a full report of all reserve information from Chronos displayed in the Report Window. etc. Select Display Attributes and after selecting the Default the following panel will be displayed: Preferences.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Preferences default..e: HLG_650. Alternative key field '-- -----' OK .ooo o X HLG_65 0.chronos_resources ~ o Polygon keys < layer>_ < obiecb o Polygon keys < obiecb o UG panel design conventions < layer>. ~~ 0!E:~~9...2544 ASTE TOTAL_VOLUME: 8380. Display Attributes The triangulations and polygons in Envisage can be displayed and colored based on the data in the Reserves Sheet. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.g.. < obiecb When using solid triangulations .00T ASTE AU: 2.....7843 ASTE AU_VOLUME: ~392..6787 RE AU_VOLUME: ~369.~052 RE TOTAL_MASS: 3696. XY1 S. Create the block name using.<group>.Gii~!:9.__ ~ .I [ Cancel Query Block The option Chronos > Display & Query> Query Block...) Id:chiinctel • __ D \ .1 o Replace unsuitable characters with underscores '_' o Strip R~~_ from tri names Look up a block using..1.MASS: 3760..6868 ASTE AU.1 ~ vailable: ~oo.8948 ASTE TOTAL. Inc..TRI\HLG_650..5840 . i .4~60 RE AU: 5.616g::::::l ApI _ "'1 o Name as a prefi~ (e.i~~ka~.5840 RE TOTAL_VOLUME: ~369. This can be done using the option Chronos > Display & Query> Display Attributes. .i I i tate: ins1tu er cent sent: er1od: precedences: EGION: CHRONOS....MASS: 22628... XY finds XY1.

To construct a report.g STATE ne "insrtu" 1 Visibility . A done statement is used when you do not wish to evaluate any further conditions based on the previous condition...check this box to apply a different color to blocks based on the condition [g[Q]r8J • Color _select the color to change to from the palette • Change Pattern .. it can be used to create any kind of reserve report required.15 ElVlsible I "lnochangEJO EJ~ I Change Colour I Colour _0 ~O I hange Patte~ Pattern I Reporting Chronos Reserver is a very powerful tool. These reports are generated in General Sheets. ®Tnangulations QPolygons . ~ (7) I OK II Cancel I • Conditions box _ conditions can be set based on the Reserve sheet headings (which are selected from the drop list) • Visibility _ here the visibility of the block can be determined based on the condition. This is the equivalent to an AND function. An else statement is used to provide an alternative condition when one is not passed. Cancel I Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.check to apply a pattern based on the condition • Pattern _select the pattern to be applied • Action . _- done E E I!!jApply ~----.. Not only does it have unlimited number of rows and columns. Acton . e.REPORT1 • Change Color . The blocks can be made visible. Begin by creating a new general sheet named REPORT1.select this option to define how the evaluation of conditions is to continue.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) At tributes def aul t. . Inc. using the columns present in the Reserve Sheet. click on the Report button in the top left-hand corner of the general sheet. Try coloring your triangulations by different conditions. Templates ~~Report . invisible or shadowed. ell ronos_resources - IE] Conditions. 1 @VrAvg_AlJ")gI0.

These columns on the left Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. Remember. Scan reserve tables t: Scan destinations Generate '"I' IT Generate The Breakdowns tab allows the user to breakdown the report by any of the variables available from the Reserve Sheet. are read directly from the Reserve Sheet that is currently active and the required columns can be moved to the right-hand side. the reserves are being broken down by Level.REPORTS GJ[Q]~ AU_GRAMS AVG_AU TOTAL_TONS TOTAL_VOLUME *Date* ""Period'" *Process" AU_GRAMS AVG_AU Available Block Name GROUP HIGH_GRADE AU HIGH_GRADETOTAL_MA: HIGH_GRADETOTAL_VOl LOW_GRADEAU LOW GRADE TOTAL MA~ I OW_r. In this case. The overall total will also be calculated. Note that the report is due to be placed in the general sheet REPORT1 starting at cell A 1.~ Report . total tons and total volume for each level. These templates can be saved for future use and are stored in files with eth extension . the resulting report should give the gold ounces. Inc. Report . Once a template has been named the remaining tabs need to be completed. this is a template so they can refer to any Reserve Sheet. recovered ounces. Select the Load report template button to load the parameters of the template.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) The Templates tab allows the user to name a template for a report. The Options tab allows the user to select the columns from the Reserve Sheet that they wish to include in the report. Scan reserve tables Reportfull r r Scan destinations block details r Landscape orientation W Values only EOIjEI ICE :I r.RAnF TOTAl _VOl ~ HIGH_GRADE AU HIGH_ GRADE TOTAL_MA: HIGH_GRADE TOTAL_ VOl LEVEL LOW_GRADEAU LOW_GRADE TOTAL_MA~ LOW_GRADE TOTAL_VOL MINE_AREA MINING_ TYPE Percent Sent Period Precedences REC_GRAMS REGION I '~l I !EI r Descending Start cell ~op/l~ft) REPORTS!B4 r.. In this example AU_GRAMS. . In the case above there is an existing template for reporting reserves per level. Therefore. Total_tons and Total_volume Breakdowns -f. Rec_GRAMS.ReportTemplate. Note that each level will be reported in ascending order. are to be reported.REPORTS _ G][Q]rEl Options -f.

some other report templates and reports for other tab using the Remember to save your template under the Templates Save report template button and see it added to the list. you have forgotten to change the location and overwrite a previous report. you can select the Undo button on the Report panel. It is important to select the correct location in the General sheet for your report to be created. If however. Now click the Generate button to create the report and view the created report. It is recommended that you create your reports horizontally across your General Sheet. We will look at block selection further in the next example. Inc. . new rows will be added to the report without overwriting other reports. The Selection panel allows certain blocks to be selected based on name or by constraints based on the variables. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. This is so that as you add more data to your Reserve Sheet and update reports.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Selection Constraint list Now try creating columns.

.. Name ~ IRESERVESl 5 tandard Charts ..='. II Cancel O_K_. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.K. Chronos Charts ~ Next you must select the required language: MS Applications I ~ M S Excel information Language List separator: =11. Select the chart type and data that you wish to see charted and click OK.. ~ Build standard charts from reserves . Inc.-... Standard Charts Go to Chronos > Display & Query > Charts option and select the current workbook.O.. . D l~:~M]J:~r..u~ [ Cancel The data is sent to Excel and the following graph is produced. Select to Build standard charts from reserves and click OK..if...___O_K --. D Import Excel D Export E)(cel DlmportCSV DE)(poltCSV Chart type Classlly by PnmaryYaxls ILEVEL Secondary Y aXIs Chart type I m& v~ [~f y~ I : II Gl Chart type Gl OK "...Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Excel Charts and Exporting Charts You can export information from Chronos using the Charts option under the Chronos > Display & Query menu...f:~6:~:iC::::J D Update from Gantt chart Impolt-E xport...~~ [ Cancel Click OK and select the Reserve sheet: Reserve sheet Build standard charts from Reserve sheet. This option gives a number of options for exporting reserve and schedule information to a text file or to Excel..."'""iI --""""""'y 1 ii.===.u~[ Cancel I D Build standard charts from destinations Gantt Charts .....

339 412040. For instance..<0 6655 LEVEL .016 10157573.011 211875.438 513694. If they are not.. These files can then be opened with a text editor such as WordPad or Excel.018 1687269.' L_ev_e-=I_:. 61.I o Export from Reserve Name RenrJe !A v IRESERVE-Sl-- rr==J.551 652623.n 0 n.071 892452.14 4110498.071 51421..:re=p0r-rt:__ "I --. I 953309. > I" J <.874 25367.475 4110498. ...496 513694. Range data from General sheet IREPORTl _A " 11 sheet I.. ------ LIE_~v==..~ 6670 'no 6685 ..816 652623.874 164339. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems.. """ o 1834459168 Import-Export You can also import and export data to and from a general or reserve sheet to a .339 2822901..859 211875.716 892452.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Export CSV Export data to CSVfilename Data separator ~ ~ . data columns given a CALC field will not be in the pull down list for the axes. Inc. Export from Destination I'-' I LJ LJ I OK II Cancel rr~ '-----.__.- ~ ..J_====:::::::::=::....026 52360.026 469338.~t~V Check that all the data fields are represented in the pull down lists on the Charts panel.904 319849._ ~ r- .23 469338. '"".709 10157573.246 164339.904 0 319849. sheef ODSlfic_LEVEL o .csv file or Excel file using the same option."<.777 2822901.~ ..14 . it is probably due to the wrong accumulation field being entered in the Reserve Sheets.859 29530.rr==J IA ._----.496 81917.--ll_1 ------------- _-. ® Export Name ..551 81322.

I~I '41 Print ~ EA.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Print Another way to get the contents of a sheet in Chronos to a text file is to use the Print icon from the Toolbox toolbar panel. Inc.._ . t GK I Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. L . This will produce a text file in the working directory which is tab delimited.

you will be able design your pits both with and without ramps and utilize many tools for editing these designs. Now that you have completed this course. Here you should now be very comfortable manipulating data including adding and deriving columns using a variety of functions. including reporting. You should also be able to create triangulations of your design and be able to run reserves on your block model and import that information to Chronos Reserver. Copyright © 2005 MapteklKRJA Systems. . you should take the Chronos scheduling course in order to learn how to schedule your mine in Chronos. You should now have a firm comprehension of the tools available to for open mine design and reserving. Inc.Open Pit Mine Design (Non-Stratigraphic) Conclusion Now that you have completed this course.

.~ t__] . L_] .\_j L .- t__] t__] -.