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PRACTICAL JOURNAL

OF
Introduction to copmuter and C ++


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ENGR.SANAM NAREJO

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT






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Certified that MR ««««««««««under
ROLL No«««..of class has carried
Out the necessary practical work as per course of studies by
the««««.. «.for the year.
As shown in practical schedule of this journal.


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Practical No.01

Introduction to computer
Computer is a machine that performs tasks or calculations according to a set of
instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the
1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. Compared to
those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands
of times faster, they can fit on your desk, in your lap, or even in your pocket.
Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers
to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and
everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular
chip inside your computer called the central processing unit (CPU),
or microprocessor. It's the "brain" of your computer²the part that translates
instructions and performs calculations
S So of ft tw wa ar re e refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the h ha ar rd dw wa ar re e what to do.
A word processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a
type of software.

Parts of computer ?

CPU:
CPU stands for 'Central Processing Unit' and is the 'brain' of the computer. Most
CPU's today are made by Intel and bear such names as 'Pentium', 'Pentium Pro' and
'Pentium II'. Older Intel CPU's include the 80486 and 80386 families. Other
manufacturers also make CPU's: Motorola for the Macintosh, AMD and Cirrus for
PC's and others. The 'speed' of a CPU's processing is measured inmegahertz. The
CPU is the place that holds info about the operating system (DOS or Windows),
for example).


RAM
RAM is what you know as ³Memory´, as in how much memory does your
computer have? It is not permanent memory - the RAM is erased when the
computer turns off. Permanent memory is stored on the hard drive. Memory is
measured in increments of bits and bytes. Generally the least memory you should
ever have with a Pentium computer is 64 MB (megabytes: look up kilo-, mega-,
and giga, and more is much better. There are places on the motherboard (called
³slots´) for memory modules. The memory modules are small printed circuit
boards with memory chips on them and are usually either SIMM¶s (Single Inline
Memory Modules) or DIMM¶s (Dual Inline Memory Module).
Don't confuse this with ROM.
Processor
This is the chip that does the "thinking" of the computer. These are the "Pentium"
and "AMD" chips you hear about. Processor speed is measured in Mega
Hertz(Mhz) and GigaHertz(Ghz). 1 Ghz = 1000 Mhz

Hard Drive ±
This is the part of your computer where information is stored for later retrieval. All
the information you access on your computer, all your documents, pictures, email
messages, and programs are here. Unlike memory, the hard drive stores
information even after the power is turned off. The image to the right shows the
inside of a hard drive.
Floppy Drive
This is the slot in the front of your computer where you insert a disk to store data
and move it to another computer. If your computer is an iMac, you will not have a
Floppy Drive. Floppy disks are 3¼ inches in size, and hold 1.44Mb of data. The
images below show a floppy drive, and some floppy disks.
What is a Computer Output Device?
Computer output devices are computer hardware equipment, that are used to
communicate the results of data processing carried out by a computer to the user.
There are a number of devices, which produce data in different forms, which
includes audio, video or hard copy. Output device of computer are types of
peripheral hardware connected that is connected to the computer, either using
cables or over a wireless network. Immaterial whether you havedesktop
computers, laptop computers, supercomputers, etc., you will require at least one
computer output device..

Monitor
A monitor is also called as video display terminal (VDT). The visual display of the
processed data, which the users can view is got through the monitor. Computer
monitors come in a variety of screen sizes and not to forget visual resolutions.
There are two types of computer monitors available, namely CRT and flat panel.
All monitors rely in a video card, which is located on the motherboard to display
the information. It is the video card, which processes the data into images, which is
eventually displayed on the monitor.

Printer
The next of the computer output devices is the printer, which is an external
hardware device, which takes processed data from the computer to generate a hard
copy of the data. After the monitors, printers are the most used peripherals on
computers and they are commonly used to print text data, images, etc. There are
three main types of computer printers, namely ink jet, laser printersand dot matrix.
Each of these printer type uses a different technology to print the data.

Speaker
A speaker is a hardware device, that is connected to a computer¶s sound card,
which outputs sound generated by the card. Audio data generated by the computer
is sent to the audio card, that is located in the expansion slot. The card translates
the data into audio signals, which are then sent to either the speakers or
headphones. In the initial phase, computers had on-board speakers, which
generated series of different tones and beeps. When the popularity of multimedia
and computer games grew, higher quality computer speakers came into the market.
These new speakers were known for higher quality sound effects and music.


Projector
It is a hardware device, with which an image like a computer screen is projected
onto a flat screen. Image data is sent to the video card, by the computer which is
then translated into a video image and sent to the projector. A projector is often
used in meetings or to make presentations, because they allow for a large image to
be shown, with which the display is available for a large audience.

Plotter
Plotters, like printers, create a hard copy rendition of a digitally rendered design.
The design is sent to a plotter through a graphics card and the image is created
using a pen. In simple words, plotters basically draw an image using a series of
straight lines. This computer output device is used with engineering applications.


Discs
There are different types of discs, such as CD, DVD and floppy discs, which are
output devices that are also used to store data, hence they are also input devices at
the same time. The data is sent to the disc and the data is embedded on the disc,
which is retrieved, when required.

This is computer output devices information in short. All computers might not
have all the computer output devices, but it certainly does have one of the visual
output device, namely either a monitor or projector.


What are Computer Input Devices?

Computer input devices are hardware components that help you transfer
information, data, etc. to the computer. Without the computer input devices, you
computer will be more or less just like a television set. These devices help you
send data into the computer or even help you retrieve the data into a hard copy. So
an input device is any peripheral device that helps provide data and control signals
of a computer. The input devices can be classified into the following categories:
Computer Input Devices List

Let us now have a look at the various computer input devices list. These input
devices help in manipulating various information on the computer. The following
are some of the most commonly used input devices. You can read more
on computer uses.

Keyboard:
The oldest and most widely used computer input device is the keyboard. It is
available with the desktop computers, laptops, etc. The computer
keyboard contains all the alphabetical and numerical keys for input of data and
commands. The keyboard is generally connected to the computer with a wire but
nowadays wireless keyboards are also very common.

Mouse:
The small hand held computer device that helps make selection and navigation of
the screen easy is the mouse. Thecomputer mouse displays a cursor on the screen
that serves as a guide for opening files and folders, and making selections. The
mouse, like the keyboard, is either connected with the computer through a wire or
has a wireless connection.


Graphics Tablets: The graphic tablet uses a pen-like computer input device
that is called a stylus. This helps one write on tablets or touchscreens like a pen.
Some tablets and stylus have buttons, that help the user use it like a mouse. Many
latest tablet models, allow the user to use their fingers instead of a stylus.


Joysticks: If you are an ardent fan of gaming and love to play many advanced
games, then you may be aware of a joystick. This is a movable stick with a button
or two that helps one control the movements of characters in the game. Many latest
joystick models come with different buttons to help you make complex movements
with just a push with your fingers.


Scanners: Scanners are computer input devices that help you make virtual
photocopies of your hard copy document or even a photograph. You can copy a
digital image of the document you wish to copy and save it on the computer or take
print outs. This copy can be edited by running a graphics program.


Headsets: The headsets are computer input devices that have an earphone as
well as a microphone. This helps you record your voice, dictate data or even
commands to the computer. Some headsets help you keep your hands free for
working on different tasks. You can even add voice recognition software, so that
only your voice will be accepted by the computer to dictate commands.




PRACTICAL N0Ǥ Ͳʹ

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM
Operating system is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs
on computers , manages computer hardware resources, and provides common
services for execution of various application software. The operating system is the
most important type of system software in a computer system. Without an
operating system, a user cannot run an application program on their computer,
unless the application program is self booting.
For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the
operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the
computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by
the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it.
Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, iOS, Linux, and
Microsoft Windows.


Real-time
A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at
executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use
specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic
nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is
their quick and predictable response to events.


Multi-user vs. Single-user
A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer
system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user
systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the
sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user
operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have
multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-
user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user.


Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking
When a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped
under a single-tasking system, while in case the operating system allows the
execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking
operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types namely, pre-emptive or
co-operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the
CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs.

Distributed
A distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers
and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of
networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other,
gave rise to distributed computing.



Embedded
Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer
systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with
less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources.
They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and
Minx 3 are some examples of embedded operating system







DATA PROCESSING
data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter data and
summaries, analyses or otherwise convert data into usable information. The
process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing,
sorting, summarizing, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data is
most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems
are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly
synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically
manipulate raw data into information.
Basically, data is nothing but unorganized facts and which can be converted into
useful information. This process of converting facts to information is Processing.
Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data
processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light,
etc. are converted by human observers into electrical signals in the nervous
system as the senses we recognize as touch, sound, and vision.



DATA PROCESSING CYCLE
A data processing cycle also simply called a database or a DB is for any set of
data.
A database is an entity in which it is possible to store data in a structured manner
and with the least possible redundancy.
A database must be designed to allow consultation as well as easy modification of
its content, possibly by several users simultaneously.
In a database, the data is stored in fields of given types grouped into tables and
linked together. An encyclopedia with its structured data is a database, even if the
user usually cannot bring any change, so is .
A database must allow you to quickly find an information. Enter a name and you
get all the information about a person.
It is also possible to allow members to update their own information. The
possibilities offered by all types of databases are numerous and can respond to
multiple expectations.



DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS)

INTRODUCTION:
When the computer starts, it starts the operating system that takes the control of the
machine. An Operating System is a set of programs that help in controlling and
managing the Hardware and the Software resources of a computer system. A good
operating system should have the following features;
1. Help in the loading of programs and data from external sources into the internal
memory before they are executed.
2. Help programs to perform input/output operations, such as;
o Print or display the result of a program on the printer or the screen.
o Store the output data or programs written on the computer in storage
device.
o Communicate the message from the system to the user through the
VDU.
o Accept input from the user through the keyboard or mouse.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this lesson, you would be able to;
y explain the concept operating system
y discuss the functions of operating system
y understand the procedures of loading operating system into the memory
y use file management features of operating system
y create separate locations for logically related files
y copy files from one computer to another
y use Windows for File Management


DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS)
As the name suggests, the operating System is used for operating the system or the
computer. It is a set of computer programs and also known as DOS (Disk
Operating System). The main functions of DOS are to manage disk files, allocate
system resources according to the requirement. DOS provides features essential to
control hardware devices such as Keyboard, Screen, Disk Devices, Printers,
Modems and programs.
Basically, DOS is the medium through which the user and external devices
attached to the system communicate with the system. DOS translate the command
issued by the user in the format that is understandable by the computer and instruct
computer to work accordingly. It also translates the result and any error message in
the format for the user to understand.



Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft.
Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,
1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user
interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal
computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. As of
October 2009, Windows had approximately 90% of the market share of the client
operating systems for usage on the Internet.