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HRW 10

Angular motion

• Rotating body has axis of rotation • Axis might change with time — consider ﬁxed axis for now. • Then every point in the body moves in circle around the axis of rotation

1

PHY110W 2005

HRW 10.2

Angular position

y r s x

**Coordinate system is ﬁxed in space Angle is measured in radians
**

θ

s θ= r 1 revolution = 360◦ = 2πr/r = 2π radians

2

PHY110W 2005

HRW 10.2

Angular coordinates

• Angle can have any value, −∞ . . . ∞ • 2π radians corresponds to 360◦. • 1 radian is about 57.3 degrees. • 1 degree is about 0.0175 radians

3

PHY110W 2005

HRW 10.2

Angular displacement

Suppose the angle θ varies with time. In some time interval t2 − t1 :

• Angular displacement ∆θ = θ2 − θ1 • All points in body have same angular displacement

4

2 Angular velocity • average angular velocity (rotation about z−axis). θ2 − θ1 ∆θ ωz = ¯ = t2 − t1 ∆t • instantaneous angular velocity θ2 − θ1 dθ = ωz = lim ∆t→0 t2 − t1 dt 5 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. The angular velocity is then ω = ωk.3 Angular velocity is a vector ω has direction along axis of rotation given by right-hand rule. Suppose particle moves in a circle in the x − y plane. 6 .

7 .2 Angular acceleration • average angular acceleration (rotation about z−axis).PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. ω2 − ω1 ∆ω αz = ¯ = t2 − t1 ∆t • instantaneous angular acceleration ω2 − ω1 dω = αz = lim ∆t→0 t2 − t1 dt This is also a vector.

4 Motion with constant acceleration Equations are formally equivalent to (1-d) linear motion.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. αz = constant ωz = ω0z + αzt 1 2 θ = θ0 + ω0zt + αzt 2 8 .

Thus: ds dθ v= =r dt dt or v = rω 9 . Arclength s = rθ. Velocity is tangential to circle.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.5 Linear and angular motion Particle at r from axis moves in circle about axis.

axis of rotation along z − axis.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. Then v=ω×r 10 . with ω = ωk.5 Linear and angular motion (2) What about vectors? Suppose particle moves in x−y plane.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.5 Linear and angular motion (3) Velocity is tangential to path — acceleration need not be. Recall that there are two components: Linear (tangential) acceleration (only if speed changes): dv dω atan = =r = rα dt dt Radial acceleration (even if speed constant): v2 arad = = rω2 r 11 .

Its kinetic energy is 1 2 1 2 2 Ki = mivi = miri ω 2 2 12 . so these possess kinetic energy. Suppose the i−th particle of mass mi is located at ri from the axis of rotation. and angular velocity is ω.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.6 Energy and Rotation A rotating body consists of moving particles with mass.

2 2 1 2 2 = miri ω 2 i 1 2 2 mi r ω = i 2 i 13 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. .6 Rotational kinetic energy Kinetic energy of body as a whole is 1 1 2 2 2 K = m1r1 ω + m2r2 ω2 + . .

14 .7 Rotational inertia The quantity I= i miri2 relates the kinetic energy to the angular velocity. It is the rotational inertia (or moment of inertia) (rotational equivalent of inertial quantity like mass).PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. Note that this is a rotational inertia about a particular axis of the body — if we change the axis. I changes.

7 Parallel axis theorem The rotational inertia IP about an arbitrary axis can be related to that about the centre of mass.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. Let M be the total mass of the body. and d the distance from the axis to a parallel axis passing through the centre of mass. Then: IP = Icm + Md2 15 . Icm.

2 Parallel axis theorem A rolling wheel rotates about an axis instantaneously at rest on the road.PHY110W 2005 HRW 11. 1 K = I P ω2 2 1 1 2 2 2 = Icmω + Md ω 2 2 1 1 2 2 = Icmω + Mvcm 2 2 16 .

PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. Apply force F to accelerate particle. 17 .8 Torque Particle of mass m moves in circle around an axis.

Torque is the vector: τ=r×F 18 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.8 Torque (2) Deﬁne the torque (“turning action”) on the body: τ = Fl = Fr sin φ = Ftr We see that this is the magnitude of a vector product.

tri. So.t = miai.9 Torque and angular acceleration Consider again the body to consist of masses mi at ri from the axis of rotation. Tangential acceleration changes speed of particle.t = αzr and τiz = Fi. τiz = Fi.PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.t Now.tri = miri2αz 19 . Fi. ai.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 10. τz = i τiz = i miri2αz = Iαz (For rotation about a ﬁxed axis passing through axis of symmetry τ = Iαz ) 20 .9 Torque and angular acceleration (2) Thus. summing over all particles in the body.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 11.7 Angular momentum Torque is τ=r×F From Newton 2 we have (mass constant in time) r × F = r × ma dv =r×m dt d = (r × mv) dt 21 .

8 Angular momentum (2) We call L = r × mv = r × p the angular momentum Thus the equivalent to Newton 2 for rotation is dL τ= dt 22 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 11.

L complicated.8 Angular momentum (3) We can show (see 10. for a rigid body rotating about an axis of symmetry L = r × p = Iω (More generally.) = Iω.PHY110W 2005 HRW 11.5) that. but directions are more 23 .

11 Conservation of angular momentum In the absence of external torques acting: dL =0 τ= dt Hence L = constant in time Simple cases: Iiωi = I f ω f 24 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 11.

10 Angular work and power Work done by a tangential force: dW = F · ds = Ftanr dθ = τ dθ Thus work done for ﬁnite angular displacement is W= θf θi τ dθ = θf Iα dθ θi 25 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.

10 Angular work and power (2) It follows from this that W= Also. the power is θf θi 1 Iα dθ = I(ω2 − ω2) i f 2 dW dθ P= = τ = τω dt dt 26 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 10.

2 Equilibrium A system with constant angular and linear momentum is said to be in equilibrium.PHY110W 2005 HRW 12. Then: Fext = 0 and τext = 0 27 . we talk of staic equilibrium. In the special case where both of these are zero.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 12.3 Equilibrium (2) Constrain motion to x − y planne (say): Fx = 0 Fy = 0 τz = 0 28 .

2 Simple harmonic motion • Mass and spring • Simple pendulum restoring force oscillatory motion: periodic and repetitive spring 29 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

2 Mass on spring Consider system of mass and spring F(x) = −kx ma(t) = −kx(t) d2 x(t) m 2 = −kx(t) dt 30 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

So: 1 2 1 2 1 2 E = K + U = mv + kx = kxm 2 2 2 Thus 2 mv2 = k(xm − x2) 31 . x = xm.2 Mass on spring — solution Energy is conserved: 1 2 1 2 E = K + U = mv + kx = const 2 2 v = 0 when x is at a maximum.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

integrate both sides k m dt = 1/2 1 dx 2 − x2)1/2 (xm k −1 x t + φ = sin m xm √ and so. with ω = k/m.2 Mass on spring — solution k 2 dx(t) v= = xm − x2 dt m Rearrange. φ = φ + pi/2 x(t) = xm cos(ωt + φ) 32 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

• ωt + φ: phase of the motion (in radians) • φ: phase constant. 33 .2 Simple harmonic motion For all SHM.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15. x(t) = xm cos(ωt + φ) • xm: amplitude of the motion — −xm ≤ x ≤ xm.

ω(t + T ) + φ = ωt + φ + 2π Then 2π T= ω • T : period of the motion. • ω: angular frequency.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15. 34 .2 Phase and period Let T be time for change in phase by 2π.

2 Frequency Number of oscillations per second: 1 f = T where f is the frequency. So ω = 2π f . Units: 1 hertz = 1Hz = 1 per s. 35 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.2 Velocity and acceleration Position as function of time: x(t) = xm cos(ωt + φ) Velocity is derivative: v(t) = −ωxm sin(ωt + φ) Acceleration is derivative of velocity a(t) = −ω2 xm cos(ωt + φ) = −ω2 x(t) 36 .

4 Energy Consider spring again: 1 2 U(t) = kx = = 2 1 2 K(t) = mv = = 2 1 2 kxm cos2(ωt + φ) 2 1 2 2 mω xm sin2(ωt + φ) 2 37 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

1 2 U(t) + K(t) = kxm 2 38 . ω2 = k/m. so 1 2 K(t) = kxm sin2(ωt + φ) 2 And since sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.4 Energy (2) For spring.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.3 Simple harmonic motion Any system with equations of motion d2 x(t) = −ω2 x(t) dt2 undergoes SHM. • determine ω from parameters of system • often for limiting case of small oscillations 39 .

40 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15. use parallel axis theorem).6 SHM: examples • Mass and spring • Simple pendulum (small oscillations) • Physical pendulum (small oscillations.

6 SHM: (1) Mass and spring Force: F = −kx = md2 x/dt2 Angular frequency: ω = k/m Period T = 2π m k 41 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

42 .e.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15. shear stress gives rise to restoring torque.6 SHM: (2) Torsional pendulum Shear stress: Thus torque: ∆x F =G = Gθ A L τ = FR = −κθ i.

6 SHM: (2) Torsional pendulum d 2θ τ = Iα = I 2 = −κθ dt Thus have SHM: d 2θ κ 2 = −ω θ = − θ 2 I dt Hence: ω= κ I and T = 2π I κ 43 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.6 SHM: (3) Simple pendulum Consider torques acting in system: g τz = −mgL sin θ = −I sin θ L Also. this is not SHM 44 . d 2θ τz = I 2 dt Because of the sin θ.

Hence: ω= g L and T = 2π L g 45 .6 SHM: (3) Simple pendulum However. for small θ. we have sin θ ≈ θ.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.e. Then if angles are small: g d 2θ τz = I 2 = −I θ L dt i. we have SHM.

By parallel axis theorem: I = Icm + ML2 46 . I is rotational inertia about P.6 SHM: (4) Physical pendulum Consider torques acting in system: d 2θ τz = −MgL sin θ = I 2 dt L is distance from pivot P to centre of mass.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

SHM with ω= MgL I and T = 2π I MgL Note that. as L → 0 we have T → ∞: approach to static equilibrium.6 SHM: (4) Physical pendulum Thus d 2θ MgL MgL sin θ ≈ − θ = −ω2θ =− I I dt2 For small θ. 47 .PHY110W 2005 HRW 15.

• Forced oscillations and resonance.PHY110W 2005 HRW 15. 48 .6 SHM: The untold story • Damping of SHM: loss of energy. • Coupled oscillations.

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