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Cardiovascular System The Circulatory System: The circulatory system delivers oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes

carbon dioxide and waste from tissues. Blood circulation: Pulmonary Circuit - circulation between lung and heart releases carbon dioxide. Systemic Circuit - circulation between the heart and body delivers oxygen and nutrients and also picks up waste. The Heart: Anatomy and Conduction: The main pump in the cardiovascular system which generates the pressure required to move blood through the system. SA node: The heart has a unique, automatic electrical conducting system. The central nervous system (CNS) modulates the rate of contraction of the heart, but the heart can generate and maintain its own rhythm independent of the CNS. Sinoatrial node contains pacemaker cells, which create action potentials at a frequency that results in a normal heart rate of 70-80 beats/minute. Electrocardiography: The electrocardiogram detects the electrical activity of each heartbeat as it develops over time. The P wave represents the depolarization as it spreads over the atria. The QRS complex corresponds to the current that spreads over the ventricles. The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles, during which time they become ready for the next contraction. Oxygen Delivery to the Tissues Blood pressure is generated by the heart and facilitates delivery of nutrients to the body. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels, where exchange takes place. Passive diffusion lets oxygen/ nutrients out of the blood into the tissue, and lets carbon dioxide/ waste out of the tissue into the blood. Hydrostatic pressure is caused by the blood pressure generated by the heart beating. Na+ and other electrolytes cause osmotic pressure. Blood & Blood Vessels Smooth muscle around arterioles modulates blood pressure by changing peripheral resistance. If systemic blood pressure is decreased, neuromodulation of the arterioles causes vasoconstriction, which, in turn, causes an increase in blood pressure. Blood is made up of the following components: plasma contains water and proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Coagulation is an important process in which soluble proteins form an insoluble clot. Oxygen is delivered to the tissues bound to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a metalloprotein, made up of 4 globin polypeptide chains with 4 imbedded oxygen-binding heme molecules. The Cardiovascular System Your heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Your heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells. Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins. If all the vessels of this network in your body were laid end-toend, they would extend for about 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 kilometers), which is far enough to circle the earth more than twice!

Twenty major arteries make a path through your tissues. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart. many are so tiny. Most capillaries are thinner than a hair.The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. In fact. . where they branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. Venules eventually join to form veins. the roles are switched. In the diagram. In pulmonary circulation. though. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart. and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue. which deliver the blood back to your heart to pick up oxygen. Arterioles further branch into capillaries. only one blood cell can move through them at a time. the true deliverers of oxygen and nutrients to your cells. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. they move the blood back through wider vessels called venules. the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red. and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart. Once the capillaries deliver oxygen and nutrients and pick up carbon dioxide and other waste.