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Petrol engine was introduced by the engineers GOTTLIEB DAIMLER and KARL BENZ (both from Germany) in 1885. It is considered as one of biggest achievement in the automotive field. It uses petrol called as gasoline in USA as a fuel. It is made up of about 150 moving parts. Within the engine burning of fuel mixed with air causes hot gases to expand against parts of the engine and force them to move. So petrol engines are called internal-combustion engines. Petrol engines are compact and light in weight for the power they produce. The rate at which it produces work is usually measured in horsepower or watts. Gasoline engines vary significantly in size, weight per unit of power generated, and arrangement of components. The principal type is the reciprocatingpiston engine. In four-stroke engines, each cycle requires four strokes of the piston— intake, compression, power (expansion), and exhaust—and two revolutions of the crankshaft. In a two-stroke cycle, the compression and power strokes of the fourstroke cycle are carried out without the inlet and exhaust strokes, in one upstroke and one down stroke of the piston and one revolution of the crankshaft. The size, weight, and cost of the engine per horsepower are therefore less, and two-stroke-cycle engines are used in smaller motorcycles, most marine motors, and many handheld landscaping tools (e.g., hedge trimmers and chain saws).

Reciprocating petrol engines are distinguished in a number of ways. Some of them are as follows: (1) Type of compression (2) Valve arrangement (3) The way they are cooled, (4) The way they are supplied with air and fuel. (5) Number of piston strokes per cycle, (6) Cylinder arrangement Classification based on number of stokes per cycle: a) Two Stroke I

b) Four Stroke II .

They are called upward and downward stroke. Big size bulky two-stroke cycle engines have lubrication systems like that of four-stroke cycle engines. The fresh fuel mixture is forced into the cylinder through circumferential ports by a rotary blower. An ignitable mixture of gasoline vapour and air is drawn into the cylinder by the partial vacuum thus created. As the end of the stroke is approached. The cycle then repeats itself. with both valves still closed and the gas pressure. As the piston moves in upward direction from bottom to top in the first stroke the air and fuel mixture gets compressed and ignited by spark plug as upward stroke comes to end. Since they have less moving parts they are light in weight . and exhaust—and two revolutions of the crankshaft. the most important so far has been the four-stroke cycle. compression. III . the piston first descends on the intake stroke. This results in an explosion of mixture which forces the piston to move downwards thereby producing power. provides more positive clearing out of exhaust gases (scavenging) and reloading of the cylinders. With the inlet valve open. the compression and power stroke of the four-stroke cycle are carried out without the inlet and exhaust strokes.Also the design is simple compared to four stroke engines. pressing on the piston head or crown. The engine ignites fuel at every upward stroke. The power stroke follows. so there are two strokes for every ignition of fuel. reducing the loss of fresh charge to the exhaust. A disadvantage of the four-stroke cycle is that only half as many power strokes are completed as in the two-stroke cycle and only half as much power can be expected from an engine of a given size at a given operating speed. From the name itself we get the idea about the functioning of the engine. however. The four-stroke cycle.TWO STROKE CYCLE In the original two-stroke cycle (as developed in 1878). thus requiring only one revolution of the crankshaft to complete the cycle. FOUR STROKE CYCLE The four stroke engine is called so because the working of an internal combustion engine is divided into four stages called four strokes of the engine namely     Suction Compression Ignition Exhaust Of the different techniques for recovering the power from the combustion process. Each cycle thus requires four strokes of the piston—intake. the charge is ignited by an electric spark. The mixture is compressed as the piston ascends on the compression stroke with both valves closed. power. During the exhaust stroke the ascending piston forces the spent products of combustion through the open exhaust valve. due to the expansion of the burned gas. a conception first developed in the late 19th century.

After this the four strokes of the engine are repeated again and again IV . b) The compression stroke: After this the inlet valve gets closed. a) Suction or intake stroke: Initially when engine is started piston moves downwards towards bottom of the cylinder which creates low pressure at top. The spark produced causes explosion of fuel. Now the exhaust valve closes and the intake valve opens. Combustion is started by an ignition system that fires a high voltage spark through a field replaceable air gap called a sparkplug. As the crank shaft movess. This forces gases to move through the exhaust valve into the atmosphere. Carburetor now decides in what ratio gasoline/petrol and air should be mixed. and exhaust strokes. The piston is linked to the piston rod and the piston rod to the crank shaft.Working of a petrol engine Generally the vehicles using petrol/gasoline engine have four strokes as they are more efficient than two stroke engine and give complete combustion of fuel to optimum use. Due to this intake valve opens and the fuel mixture containing petrol vapors and air are sucked in by the cylinder. The temperature and pressure inside the cylinder increases due to compression caused. power. They all move each other due to the link between them. c) The power stroke: During this stroke the inlet and exhaust valve remains closed. compression. The piston now moves towards the top of cylinder and compresses the fuel mixture to one tenth of its initial volume. The four-stroke cycle engine has four strokes namely suction. d) The exhaust stroke: In this stroke the exhaust valve remains open at the start. As the piston reaches near top position spark plug produces an electric spark. The hot gases expand and force the piston to move downwards. the wheels rotate and move the car. The piston is forced to move upwards because of the momentum gained. The crank shaft is connected to the wheels of a car.

which were manufacturing kerosene for lamps. gasoline and the engine were harmonized to attain the best possible matching of characteristics. V . has been found to contaminate the exhaust gases with poisonous lead oxides. Properly formulated gasoline helps engines to start in cold weather and to avoid vapor lock in hot weather. Volatility is a measure of the ease of vaporization of gasoline.FUEL Gasoline was originally considered dangerous and was discarded and destroyed at early refineries. To suit the needs of a modern engine. Lubricating oil is added to gasoline used in crankcase-compression twostroke-cycle engines. The most important properties of gasoline are its volatility and antiknock quality. a gasoline must have the volatility for which the fuel system of the engine was designed and an antiknock quality sufficient to avoid knock under normal operation. The size and structural arrangement of the molecules principally determine the knocking tendency of a gasoline as well as its volatility. Lower compression ratios* and improved combustionchamber designs have eliminated the need for extremely high-antiknock gasoline. Tetraethyl lead. added to gasoline for many years to improve antiknock fueling. which is adjusted in the production process to account for seasonal and altitude variations in the local market. and so the practice has ended. volatility and knock rating are the most important. As the gasoline engine developed. Although other specifications must also be met.

it is best known for powering cigarette lighters. the most commonly found molecules are alkenes (linear or branched). VI . The alkanes. like color and viscosity. because butane's high vapor pressure assists with cold starts. paraffin wax is an alkane with approximately 25 carbon atoms. and is consumed for just about every application relying on petroleum for energy. although these are usually cracked by modern refineries into more valuable products. They tend to burn with a sooty flame. Cycloalkanes have similar properties to alkanes but have higher boiling points. from cooking to heating to transportation. The shortest molecules. sold as liquified petroleum gas under pressure. a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. and many have a sweet aroma. black spheres are carbon. although trace amounts of shorter or longer molecules may be present in the mixture. the ones from nonane (C9H20) to hexadecane (C16H34) into diesel fuel and kerosene (primary component of many types of jet fuel). those with four or fewer carbon atoms. Depending on demand and the cost of recovery. white spheres are hydrogen Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons. aromatic hydrocarbons. also known as paraffins. also known as naphthenes. or used to power the refinery's own burners. The cycloalkanes. are in a gaseous state at room temperature. while asphalt has 35 and up. At the heavier end of the range. During the winter. The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are refined into gasoline (petrol). Propane can be liquified under modest pressure. Butane (C4H10). is blended into the gasoline pool at high rates. and the ones from hexadecane upwards into fuel oil and lubricating oil. Each petroleum variety has a unique mix of molecules. these gases are either flared off. are saturated hydrocarbons with straight or branched chains which contain only carbon and hydrogen and have the general formula CnH2n+2 They generally have from 5 to 40 carbon atoms per molecule. are saturated hydrocarbons which have one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. but it is also a main fuel source for many developing countries. lines are single bonds. to which hydrogen atoms are attached with the formula CnHn. Liquified under pressure slightly above atmospheric. The aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings.Chemistry Octane. or more complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. They are the petroleum gases. cycloalkanes. Some are carcinogenic. which define its physical and chemical properties.

and other hydrocarbons. jet fuel.These different molecules are separated by fractional distillation at an oil refinery to produce gasoline. such as a flame ionization detector or a mass spectrometer. has a chemical formula of C8H18 and it reacts with oxygen exothermically: The amount of various molecules in an oil sample can be determined in laboratory. widely used in gasoline.2. Incomplete combustion of petroleum or gasoline results in production of toxic byproducts. kerosene. then separated in a gas chromatograph. VII . The molecules are typically extracted in a solvent. exhaust gases from gasoline combustion in car engines usually include nitrogen oxides which are responsible for creation of photochemical smog. For example 2. Too little oxygen results in carbon monoxide. and finally determined with a suitable detector.4-trimethylpentane (isooctane). Due to the high temperatures and high pressures involved.

The peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. This growth is due to the travel of the flame front through the combustible fuel air mix itself and due to turbulence rapidly stretching the burning zone into a complex of fingers of burning gas that have a much greater surface area than a simple spherical ball of flame would have. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic "pinging" sound. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive. but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front. depending on many factors including engine speed and load. In normal combustion. As it grows in size its heat output increases allowing it to grow at an accelerating rate. detonation. This ignition advance allows time for the combustion process to develop peak pressure at the ideal time for maximum recovery of work from the expanding gases. and at a precise time in the piston's stroke cycle. VIII . spark knock or pinging) in sparkignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder starts off correctly in response to ignition by the spark plug. then pressure falls as the piston descends. as they are two separate events. as nearly all the available fuel is consumed. The spark across the spark plug's electrodes forms a small kernel of flame approximately the size of the spark plug gap.KNOCKING IN PETROL ENGINE Knocking (also called knock. It should not be confused with pre-ignition (or preignition). expanding rapidly through the combustion chamber. so that the increasing pressure can give the piston a hard push when its speed and mechanical advantage on the crank shaft gives the best recovery of force from the expanding gases. and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. this flame front moves throughout the fuel/air mixture at a rate characteristic for the fuel/air mixture. The fuel-air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only. The combustion is started by the spark plug some 10 to 40 crankshaft degrees prior to top dead center (TDC). Normal combustion Under ideal conditions the common internal combustion engine burns the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder in an orderly and controlled fashion. Maximum cylinder pressure is achieved a few crankshaft degrees after the piston passes TDC. Pressure rises smoothly to a peak.

a water injection system can be employed to reduce combustion chamber peak temperatures and thus suppress detonation. increasing mixture turbulence or swirl by increasing engine revolutions or by increasing "squish" turbulence from the combustion chamber design. During compression/expansion "squish" turbulence is used to violently mix the air/fuel together as it is ignited and IX . engine parts can be damaged or destroyed. Because pressure and temperature are strongly linked. Manganese compounds are also used to reduce knock with petrol fuel. knock can also be attenuated by controlling peak combustion chamber temperatures by compression ratio reduction. decreasing the manifold pressure by reducing the throttle opening. steam. explosive ignition of at least one pocket of fuel/air mixture outside of the flame front.. It has been theorized that lead. If detonation is allowed to persist under extreme conditions or over many engine cycles. exhaust gas recirculation. Certain chemical changes must first occur for knock to happen. and careful design of the engine's combustion chambers and cooling system as well as controlling the initial air intake temp. enriching the fuel/air ratio. hence fuels with certain structures tend to knock easier than others.Abnormal combustion When unburned fuel/air mixture beyond the boundary of the flame front is subjected to a combination of heat and pressure for a certain duration (beyond the delay period of the fuel used). rupture of the combustion chamber). Knock is less common in cold climates. Turbulence as stated has a very important effect on knock. and combustion products into the oil system. Hypereutectic pistons are known to break easily from such shock waves. Engines with good turbulence tend to knock less than engines with poor turbulence.e. Branched chain paraffins tend to resist knock while straight chain paraffins knock easily. Detonation is characterized by an instantaneous.. or reducing the load on the engine. shifting to a lower gear. The addition of tetraethllead (TEL) a soluble salt added to gasoline was common until it was discontinued for reasons of toxic pollution. Interestingly the addition of certain materials such as lead and thallium will suppress detonation extremely well when certain fuels are used. detonation may occur. A local shockwave is created around each pocket and the cylinder pressure may rise sharply beyond its design limits. reducing peak cylinder pressure by increasing the engine revolutions (e. either of which depressurizes the affected cylinder and introduces large metal fragments. there is also evidence that knock occurs easier at low rpm than high regardless of other factors). Lead dust added to the intake charge will also reduce knock with various hydrocarbon fuels. As an aftermarket solution. Steam (water vapor) will suppress knock even though no added cooling is supplied. appropriate calibration of the engine's ignition timing schedule. Severe knocking can lead to catastrophic failure in the form of physical holes punched through the piston or head (i. and the like interfere with some of the various oxidative changes that occur during combustion and hence the reduction in knock. The simplest deleterious effects are typically particle wear caused by moderate knocking. Turbulence occurs not only while the engine is inhaling but also when the mixture is compressed and burned. fuel. which may further ensue through the engine's oil system and cause wear on other parts before being trapped by the oil filter. which adds extra fuel to the mixture and increases the cooling effect when the fuel vaporizes in the cylinder. Detonation can be prevented by any or all of the following techniques: the use of a fuel with high octane rating. which increases the combustion temperature of the fuel and reduces the proclivity to detonate.g.

There is a short lag between the fuel being injected and combustion starting. due to the greater dispersal of oxygen in the combustion chamber and lower injection pressures providing a more complete mixing of fuel and air. some of which must be allowed for in the engine design.burned which reduces knock greatly by speeding up burning and cooling the unburnt mixture. X . Also such engines were sensitive to ignition advance and had less power of course. By this time there is already a quantity of fuel in the combustion chamber which will ignite first in areas of greater oxygen density prior to the combustion of the complete charge. Careful design of the injector pump. fuel injector. Diesel fuels are actually very prone to knock in gas engines but in the diesel there is no time for knock to occur as the fuel is only oxidized during the expansion cycle. where fuel is injected into highly compressed air towards the end of the compression stroke. In the gas engine the fuel is slowly oxidizing all the while it is being compressed before the spark. piston crown and cylinder head can reduce knocking greatly. One excellent example of this is all modern side valve or flathead engines. in the early days of side valve heads this was not done and a much lower comp ratio had to be used for any given fuel. Engines using indirect injection generally have lower levels of knock than direct injection engine. making for much turbulence near T. combustion chamber. not unstable combustion. An unconventional engine that makes use of detonation to improve efficiency and decrease pollutants is the Bourke engine. Diesels actually don't suffer the exact same "knock" as gas engines since the cause is known to be only the very fast rate of pressure rise. A considerable portion of the head space is made to come in close proximity of the piston crown. This sudden increase in pressure and temperature causes the distinctive diesel 'knock' or 'clatter'. Knocking is more or less unavoidable in diesel engines.C. and modern engines using electronic common rail injection have very low levels of knock. This allows for changes to occur in the structure/makeup of the molecules before the very critical period of high temp/pressure.D.

The maximum possible ratio based on cylinder dimensions may not be achieved if the intake valve closes after the piston begins its compression stroke. or bottom dead centre) divided by the volume with the piston in the full-compression position (with the piston nearest the head of the cylinder. XI . *COMPRESSION RATIO Compression ratio in an internal-combustion engine. Pre-ignition is initiated by an ignition source other than the spark. as the fuel supply to the carburetor is typically regulated by a passive mechanical float valve and fuel delivery can feasibly continue until fuel line pressure has been relieved. proper fuel/air mixture adjustment. Consequently. Preignition and engine knock both sharply increase combustion chamber temperatures. Given proper combustion chamber design. as the injectors will not be permitted to continue delivering fuel after the engine is shut off. Many engines have suffered such failure where improper fuel delivery is present. and describes the event wherein the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires. as this would cause backflow of the combustible mixture from the cylinder. In the case of highly supercharged or high compression multi-cylinder engines particularly ones that use methanol (or other fuels prone to preignition) preignition can quickly melt or burn pistons since the power generated by other still functioning pistons will force the overheated ones along no matter how early the mix preignites. such as rough engine operation or loss of performance due to operational intervention by a powertrain-management computer. either effect increases the likelihood of the other effect occurring. Often one injector may clog while the others carry on normally allowing mild detonation in one cylinder that leads to serious detonation. or run-on when it causes the engine to carry on running after the ignition is shut off. or top dead centre). a person not familiarized with the distinction might describe one by the name of the other. or sometimes dieseling. such as hot spots in the combustion chamber. then preignition. A high ratio promotes efficiency but may cause engine knock. is the degree to which the fuel mixture is compressed before ignition.Pre-ignition Pre-ignition (or preignition) in a spark-ignition engine is a technically different phenomenon from engine knocking. It is defined as the maximum volume of the combustion chamber (with the piston farthest out. a spark plug that runs too hot for the application. This effect is more readily achieved on carbureted gasoline engines. For reasons like these. and any occurrence may indicate the presence of a leaking (failed) injector. The occurrence is rare in modern engines with throttle-body or electronic fuel injection. or carbonaceous deposits in the combustion chamber heated to incandescence by previous engine combustion events. A compression ratio of six means that the mixture is compressed to one-sixth its original volume by the action ofthe piston in the cylinder. The phenomenon is also referred to as after-run. preignition can generally be eliminated by proper spark plug selection. and both can produce similar effects from the operator's perspective. and periodic cleaning of the combustion chambers. provided the fuel can be somehow drawn past the throttle plate.

In general. as well as some advantages and disadvantages. gases have better antiknock qualities than gasoline. certain similarities and differences. or industrial by-product gas is limited primarily to stationary power plant use because it must remain connected to the gas pipeline. The gas engine has much in common with the gasoline engine. sometimes called bottled gas. become apparent. in some instances their differences are very slight at best. Compared with agasoline engine of the same horsepower. however. Structurally. XII . From the standpoint of application. the diesel engine is heavier and more expensive. The diesel engine and the gas engine (an engine utilizing a gas such as compressed natural gas or propane as the fuel) have a good deal in common with the gasoline engine. the fuel is liquefied petroleum gas. since they are all cylinder-and-piston engines that burn air-fuel mixtures in contact with moving components. the containers of gas can be carried in a vehicle. permitting slightly higher compression ratios without knock or other combustion difficulties. manufactured gas. the gas engine burning natural gas. in fact. If. The important difference that distinguishes the diesel engine is that it has no spark-ignition system. The cylinder and piston configurations are the same.Comparison engines with other When the gasoline engine is compared with other types of internal-combustion engines. the difference lies primarily in the substitution of a gas-mixing valve for a carburetor. but it has a longer life and operates at less cost per horsepowerhour because it burns less fuel.

Differences Between Petrol and Diesel Engines The most distinguishing feature of the diesel engine is that it uses compression ignition to burn the fuel. they have more torque. which causes it to burn and no spark is required for this. However. The higher compression ratio is helpful in raising fuel efficiency. Earlier the pre-mixing used to be done in a carburetor but now (except in the smallest engines) electronically-controlled fuel injection is used for this. Engine weight is an important factor which affects speed and performance of a car. while the piston is on its way up. This creates parasitic loss and destruction of availability of the incoming air. In case of a petrol engine. the mixture starts to burn to soon. They consume significantly lower fuel and offer better mileage. Diesel engines are left idle for many hours or sometimes days in many applications. Diesel engines. compressed air in the cylinder. fuel and air are pre-mixed usually before compression. The Petrol engine uses the Otto cycle in which a fuel/air mixture is ignited by a spark plug. which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of compression. Diesel engines offer better fuel efficiency when compared to petrol due to the fact that they have higher compression ratio. The diesel engine has no fuel in the cylinder and thus allows the turbocharger to suck as much air as it can without creating any problem. “compression ignition" is done rather than "spark ignition". This mechanism makes the diesel engine an attractive choice for many. A diesel engine can relatively last longer. In a diesel engine. This is one of the reasons why some of the fastest cars in the world run on petrol. The engines are more efficient when compared to petrol engines of the same power. and thus efficiency. Diesel engines are much more efficient than petrol engines when at low power and at engine idle. reducing the efficiency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. unlike the petrol engine. fuel is injected at high pressure into the hot. agriculture. which closes at idle. a major advantage of petrol engines is that they are relatively lighter than diesel engines. and railways. While all the above support diesel engines. due to the fact that petrol destroys lubrication and diesel doesn’t. The air and fuel mixture when ignited by a spark burns and thereby expands to force the piston down. lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system. XIII . The pre-mixing of fuel and air makes a petrol engine to run at a much higher speed than a diesel. it severely limits their compression. It should be noted that even though diesel engines are heavier and make the automobile heavy. a diesel engine can be more easily turbocharged than a petrol engine because of the fact that if the compression ratio and the pressure in the cylinder are high during the inlet stroke. The petrol engine is known as a “spark ignition” engine. Thus. Another advantage is that. such as marine.

But by the time they cover 50. such as soot generated by combustion of various fuels.Engines and Emissions Diesel engines consume around 30% less fuel than petrol engines and this result in much lesser carbon dioxide emissions. XIV . Tests done on car emissions reveal that while Nitrogen Oxides are higher in a new diesel engine when compared to a new petrol engine. diesel is certainly more dangerous from the point of view of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Ironically. they are the same and after that the petrol engine produces more Oxides than the diesel engine. The diesel engines produce virtually no carbon monoxide and are much safer than petrol engines. SPM refers to solid particles suspended in open air. Hydrocarbon emissions contained in petrol engine emissions are considerably more than that in diesel engine emissions. diesel cars are more expensive than petrol cars. diesel is much cheaper than petrol. They might cause respiratory problems because of their tendency to deposit themselves in the lungs. Though much has been done to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce emissions from the petrol engine. In India.000 miles or so. However. still more needs to be done.