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Creation of the Universe

Six "Days" or Long Periods of Time
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Asian Muslim GirlsWhere Asian Beauties meets Muslim Romance. Premium Anti-Scam Secure!AsianBeauties.com How to Convert to IslamHow to convert and become a Muslim with Live Help by chatwww.IslamReligion.com The descriptions of creation in the Qur'an are not intended as dry historical accounts, but rather to engage the reader in contemplating the lessons to be learned from it. The act of creation, therefore, is frequently spoken of as a way of drawing the reader into thinking about the order in all things, and the All-Knowing Creator Who is behind it all. For example: "Verily in the heavens and the earth are signs for those who believe. And in the creation of yourselves, and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are signs for those of assured faith. And in the alternation of night and day, and that fact that Allah sends down

sustenance from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the change of the winds, are signs for those who are wise" (45:3-5).

Big Bang?
When describing the creation of the "heavens and the earth," the Qur'an does not discount the theory of a "Big Bang" explosion at the start of it all. In fact, the Qur'an says that "the heavens and the earth were joined together as one unit, before We clove them asunder" (21:30). Following this big explosion, Allah "turned to the sky, and it had been (as) smoke. He said to it and to the earth: 'Come together, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We come (together) in willing obedience'" (41:11). Thus the elements and what was to become the planets and stars began to cool, come together, and form into shape, following the natural laws that Allah established in the universe. The Qur'an further states that Allah created the sun, the moon, and the planets, each with their own individual courses or orbits. "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon; all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course" (21:33).

Expansion of Universe
The Qur'an also does not rule out the idea that the universe is continuing to expand. "The heavens, We have built them with power. And verily, We are expanding it" (51:47). There has been some historical debate among Muslim scholars about the precise meaning of this verse, since knowledge of the universe's expansion was only recently discovered.

Six Days?
The Qur'an states that "Allah created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in six days" (7:54). While on the surface this might seem similar to the account related in the Bible, there are some important distinctions. The verses that mention "six days" use the Arabic word "youm" (day). This word appears several other times in the Qur'an, each denoting a different measurement of time. In one case, the measure of a day is equated with 50,000 years (70:4), whereas another verse states that "a day in the sight of your Lord is like 1,000 years of your reckoning" (22:47). The word "youm" is thus understood, within the Qur'an, to be a long period of time -- an era or eon. Therefore, Muslims interpret the description of a "six day" creation as six distinct periods or eons. The length of these periods is not precisely defined, nor are the specific developments that took place during each period. After completing the Creation, the Qur'an describes that Allah "settled Himself upon the Throne" (57:4) to oversee His work. A distinct point is made to counter the Biblical idea of a day of rest: "We created the heavens and the earth adn all that is between them in six days, nor did any sense of weariness touch Us" (50:38).

com Islam Ads y y y y y Islam Islam Online Dating Islam Chat Room Islam Religious Text Interest in Islam (Continued from Page 1) The Qur'anic account of creation is in line with modern scientific thought about the development of the universe and life on earth. church. and what comes forth out of it. "What is the matter with you.worddiamonds. Muslims acknowledge that life developed over a long period of time.Allah is never "done" with His work. Descriptions of creation in the Qur'an are set in context to remind the readers of Allah's majesty and wisdom. Another verse describes how "Allah has created every animal from water. "He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. every new species that appears on earth. that you are not conscious of Allah's majesty. and made the moon a light in their midst. And He is with you wherever you may be. some that walk on two legs. what comes down from heaven. every seed that sprouts into a sapling.LetGodBeTrue. Creation of Adam & Eve . but see Allah's power behind it all.com Asian Muslim GirlsWhere Asian Beauties meets Muslim Romance. Of them are some that creep on their bellies.www. These verses support the scientific theory that life began in the Earth's oceans. He knows what enters within the heart of the earth. and made the sun as a (glorious) lamp? And Allah has produced you from the earth. is part of the ongoing process of Allah's creation. and peril. And Allah sees well all that you do" (57:4). Each new child who is born. Premium Anti-Scam Secure!AsianBeauties. and what mounts up to it. and some that walk on four. for truly Allah has power over all things" (24:45). then established Himself on the Throne.com Preaching in MalaysiaPlain and powerful truth from KJV about mysteries. seeing that it is He Who has created you in diverse stages? See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another. Sponsored Links worddiamondsconnect the dots see the wholewww. Allah creates what He wills. because the process of creation is ongoing. Life Came From Water The Qur'an describes that Allah "made from water every living thing" (21:30). growing (gradually)" (71:13-17).

and made his mate of like nature. While the creation of Eve is not described in detail. "He began the creation of man from clay. These anisotropies during inflation period expanded into galactic sizes. Quantum effects like quantum fluctuation caused the generation of energy from almost nothing. In short. in order that he might dwell with her in love" (7:189). And. and made you into nations and tribes. human beings are considered as a special act of creation. "It is He Who created you from a single person.. the . with unique gifts and abilities unlike any other: a soul and conscience. Verily the most honoured among you in the sight of Allah is the who is the most righteous of you. Due to quantum uncertainty and other effects the uniformity was broken and there emerged the anisotropies. so that you may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Table of Contents ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF CREATION OF UNIVERSE. According to this theory our universe came into existence about 15 billion years ago in a violent explosion. The life of human beings began with the creation of two people. This cooling has caused the formation of different particles²matter formation. knowledge. from the same nature and soul. but in Islamic tradition she is known as "Hawwa" (Eve). and free will. the Qur'an does make it clear that a "mate" was created with Adam. When the energy got sufficiently low.While Islam recognizes the general idea of the development of life in stages. Faheem Ashraf* The picture of universe provided by the Big Bang Theory is fairly accurate. The Qur'an describes how Allah created Adam: "We created man from sounding clay." (15:26). She is not mentioned by name in the Qur'an. over a period of time. generations of human beings have inhabited the earth. Islam teaches that human beings are a unique life form that was created by Allah in a special way. The energy was spread uniformly.. a male and a female named Adam and Hawwa (Eve). "Oh humankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female. human beings have a fundamental attachment to the earth. Thus. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things)" (49:13). From these two individuals. BIG BANG AND SCIENCERELIGION INTERACTION Prof. While the universe was expanding it was cooling as well. and made his progeny from a quintessence of fluid" (32:7-8). Muslims do not believe that human beings randomly evolved from apes. from mud moulded into shape.

electromagnetism. oxygen and Iron are the products of nuclear fusion reactions within the stars if the initial condition would have been different from formation of stars. Last but not least what caused these physical laws to be applied in the universe or in other words wherefrom these laws came? There is no obvious physical reason. Moreover. The other option though avoid direct appeal to God. or what made it that physical constants have such values to make life possible in this universe. If the relative strengths of these forces were different. Why the physical constants have the value they have. these scenario too preclude the evolution of life. maintains that according to quantum Gravity²No Boundary Proposal. ISLAMIC CONCEPT OF CREATION OF UNIVERSE One thing must be understood that The Quran is not a text book of Astronomy or Physics. which says that universe has no initial or final boundaries and the universe is self generated. that have been posed by Big Bang Theory and modern science. For example. Conversely. It has been evident since long that if our physical constants have been slightly different then the life on the Earth would not have been possible. first of all. increasing the strong nuclear interaction by 3 % relative to electromagnetic interaction gives a cosmological model in which none of the known chemical elements could have been formed. the Hawking² Hartley¶s µNo Boundary Proposal¶. This description of creation of universe is supported both by experimental discoveries and mathematical formulations. weak and strong nuclear interactions.particles like neutron and protons combined to make primordial gases. like all other sciences. There is another key question. each with different values of physical constants. the elements on which life depends such as Carbon. and how have the challenges and implications. has deep religious implications since it specifically deals with creation of universe and emergence of life which are central questions of every religion. Other tiny variation in these forces might have given rise to a universe which contained 100 % helium or one in which supernova explosion could not occur (since these explosions are though to be chief way in which the chemicals necessary for life are ejected from stars). nuclear fusion and supernova which distributed these would not have been possible. These gases due to anisotropies started to concentrate in some regions of universe giving rise to formation of galaxies and stars. Only those universes with suitable physical constants will contain intelligent life. to the questions just raised. The first option is referred to as Divine Action at Quantum Level. the overall chemical composition of the universe was determined by the physical conditions during the first few seconds of the Big Bang. These µprecisions¶ in the various parameters. such as to give rise to life. It is obvious from the above discussion that the cosmology. So the chance of life permitting universe would be vanishingly small as compared to all theoretically possible universes. nitrogen. Let see what is the Islamic concept of creation of universe. decreasing it by just 1 % gives a model in which Carbon atoms would be highly unstable. Both scenarios would preclude carbon-based life. the resultant universe would have been different. Also the processes by which the chemical elements are formed are governed very precisely by the strengths of four fundamental physical interactions: gravitation. in the Big Bang theory. been responded by Muslims and Christians scholars? Let see. As Dr Absar Ahmed has said in his paper on ³Creation and Evolution in Quranic Perspective¶ that the primary function and intent . But one thing is quite certain that according to laws of nature we know today that very small changes in any of these key parameters would have resulted in a grossly different universe. Scientific discoveries always challenged beliefs of all religions. what is Islamic concept of creation of universe and how Modern Muslims thinkers and scholars tackle the question of Science²Religion interaction. to be more precise. But there are some very interesting questions like what happened before the Big Bang and what determine the properties of universe or the initial conditions? These questions are partly answered by quantum gravity. Such enigmas can be responded either by appealing to God that the almighty God has set the values of the physical constants such that the life should be possible or by invoking the µAnthropic Principle¶. they are millions of different quantum mechanically possible universes. are known as the µAnthropic coincidences¶. For example.

Next important question is creation of universe from out of nothing or creatio-ex-nihilo. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah the cherisher and sustainer of the worlds! (7:54) There are many other ayahs (verses) which refer to the fact that all that is on the Earth and in the Heavens is created by Almighty God. (29:19-20) Your guardian-Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o¶er the day each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun the moon and the stars (all) governed by laws under His command. the Omnipotent. Also scholars quote ayah No 47 of Sura 3. and then reproduces it? Surely that is easy for God. as a result.of the Quran is the detailed discussion of practical matters related to Guidance and the Straight Path. Sura 19 Ayah No 9 says: He said: "So (it will be): thy Lord saith `that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before when thou hadst been nothing!' ". (13: 16) God is the Creator of everything and He is incharge of everything. which says: She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: Allah createth what He willeth. Second important fact according to The Quran is that this universe²Earth and Heavens²has definite life period and has some definite objectives like other creations. To this effect let me refer to few Quranic verses. God is the Creator of everything. These matters are of immediate and common concern for every single human being so that he or she may attain salvation on the Day of Judgment. (39: 62) Originator of Heaven and Earth. surely God has power over all things. He says to it: µBe¶ and it is. This Ayah clearly rejects any notion of eternal universe which other theories like steady state theory holds. According to The Quran. . higher gnosis. when He hath decreed a plan He but saith to it `Be' and it is! And many others used by scholars to infer the concept of creation ex-nihilo. the Quran relies upon only general Pointers to address issues related to specialized philosophical or academic interest. the Quran keeps the needs of masses in focus and takes into account their intellectual capacities. from which scholars have derived the creation ex-nihilo. is the One. To this effect we do see few direct references in The Quran. Now let¶s see what picture emerges from the Quranic verses²pointers ± referring to the creation of universe. Say: µtravel in the earth and see how God initiated the creation¶. and whenever He decrees something. (2: 117) Do they not see how God initiates the creation. Consequently. the life containing universe is solely created by the Almighty God²Allah²and He is the Supreme Ruler of the universe. Ayah No 3 says: ³We created not the heavens and the earth and all between them but for just ends and for a term appointed: but those who reject faith turn away from that whereof they are warned´. Then God will create another creation. and subtle spiritual realities. For those with sharpened intellects and heightened spiritual sensibilities theses general pointers should be more than enough to shed light on such matters´. Sura No 46.

And We adorned the lower heaven with lights and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might Full of knowledge. These words according to Maulana had different meaning for people of past. It should be noted that if the word µSamawat¶ is taken equivalent to universe then there are at least 7 other universe (one above other like onion) each with its own sets of physical laws. other heavens which lie above our system or universe may not contain the type of visible objects like we have in our universe. He faces no difficulty and does not need any material or resources in fulfilling this task. These universes may contain different types of objects and even laws if we consider the words µassigned to each heaven its duty and command¶ means natural laws. Referring to the uniformity of the universe on large scale Sura 67 Ayah No 3 says: . Use of present tense means that these systems exist today contrary to what Quantum Gravity theories suggest. As to the formation of Galaxies and stars. which I have scattered into the infinite reaches of the space through a magnificent explosion that started from initial singularity. Will they not then believe? In Sura 21 two words µRataq¶ and µFataq¶ have been used. these universes may have their own values of physical constants and nature of the physical laws. Now as Anthropic principle and quantum gravity suggest that there could have been many more quantum universes in addition to our universe. Next thing is the concept of emergence of universe from a very dense state called singularity. I am your lord. And it is apparent from this Ayah that God created other worlds system and God¶s commands descend (Keep in mind the use of present tense) in those systems. and. So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. which have been formed by an explosion and ordered by My Lordship attribute. Because whoever takes refuge in Me is protected from all evils´.ul -Qadri says. Allama Tahir. To this effect we see in Sura 21 ayah No 30 that: Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation) before We clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. which may be damaging for life. so take refuge from those evils. energies radiations and reactions came into existence.These Ayahs refer to the creation of human being and the birth of Christ but scholars that these creations show that God has power to create things out of nothingness. To this fact we refer to Sura 65 Ayah No 12 which says: Allah is He Who created seven Firmaments (heavens) and of the earth a similar number. the ruler of the Galaxies. According to Maulana Maudoodi the words µRataq¶ and µFataq¶ means that the universe was in a fused matter and God decreed it to separate to form the heavens and the earth. Through the midst of them (Allah) descends His Command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah comprehends all things in (His) Knowledge." These ayahs show that the lowest heaven or our universe is decorated or provided with visible objects like stars and galaxies. The Creation of universe started. now. through this explosion a lot of forces. ³Take the refuge in My Omnipotence from all created things. Physics and Astronomy has changed the meaning of these words. The Quran hints at the formation of the heavens and the earth from the gaseous matter in Sura No 41 Ayah 11-12: Moreover He Comprehended in His design the sky and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together willingly or unwillingly. from initial state which is Falaq lets see Translation of Sura Falaq by Tahir Ul Qadri." They said: "We do come (together) in willing obedience. Similarly Tahir ul Qadri maintains that these words point to creation of universe from the initial singularity.

and that while it is too bad that Christianity emerged from the engagement badly bruised. We can see. It is a form according to which science and scientific knowledge can be employed to understand the Quran and Ahadith but Science. Science can not cause problem for Islam but it has definitely influence the outlook and thinking of many Muslims scholars. Thus we can see Iqbal strongly advocates synthesis of Science and Religion such that this synthesis should be useful for spiritual development of man. who did not encounter any resistance or needed any resources to carryout His plan. For example as we have just shown that Islam has its own concept of creation of universe so the scientific concept of creation of universe like Big bang theory has deep implications for Muslims. as principle. . according to Theologian. but in the nobler interested of a free upward movement of spiritual life. and this relation. in the view of its possibility as a means of controlling her forces. Thus this influence of science has given rise to. he in fact. theologians and even simple minded people. adopted a line which is purely a kind integration of Islam with modern values. guided but unhampered by the work of its predecessors. that he uses scientific data extensively to explain matter related to universe and to clarify and elaborate the Quranic message that had been difficult to understand hitherto. This line can be seen in the work of Maulana Maudoodi. The conclusion drawn about Islam needs to be further elaborated. no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious so turn thy vision again: Seest thou any flaw? Taken collectively.the naturalism of the Quran is only recognition of the fact that the man is related to nature. Let¶s start with Allama Iqbal.´ In another place Allama making his case for Ijtihad says. There is yet another line. SCIENCE ± RELIGION DEBATE: GLIMPSE OF MUSLIMS¶ RESPONSE Many Muslims believe that the historical conflict between religion and science was a conflict between a particular religion²Christianity²and science. In this attempt.He Who created the seven heavens one above another. must be exploited not in the interest of the unrighteous desire for domination. Islam has no fears of such a clash. he says. especially in Tarjuman Ul Quran. Strictly following Iqbal¶s view came forward Ghulam Ahmed Pervaiz. Let us take only a few examples from our region and see how some leading scholars have taken science-religion relationship. sense²perception must be supplemented by the perception of what the Quran Describes as Qalb. like birth control issue. without coming into limelight. ³The teaching. he tried to explain the Quran in modernistic terms using present scientific knowledge instead of traditional approach. He only said Be and there started the process of creation of universe. in the work of Maulana Maudoodi. a kind of science-religion debate since sir Syed Ahmed Khan. ³The Quran recognizing that the empirical attitude is an indispensable stage in the spiritual life of humanity. should be permitted to solve its own problems´. He says in The Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam. the relation between science and religion is not question of only theology or science but it is a question of philosophy as well. There is another track in the field of science ± religion interaction. according to which. of the Quran that life is a process of progressive creation necessitates that each generation. In the interest of securing a complete vision of Reality. Let me quote famous Iranian scholar and physicist Dr. attaches equal importance to all the regions of human experience as yielding knowledge of µUltimate Reality¶ which reveals its symbols both within and without«. But whenever there is a conflict between the science and religion. occupies a lower place than the Sources of Islamic Traditions. Mehdi Golshani. these ayahs²pointers²clearly demonstrate that the universe is created by Allah the Almighty. Maulana quickly adopts orthodox line against the Science. He tried to inculcate a spirit of rationality so that Muslim should take maximum advantage of science but in doing this he went too far. therefore.

The science and religion are entangled with each other since 16th century. in my humble view. but we must avoid making claims about the absolute origination of the universe on physical grounds. the description of the physical aspects of the universe is left for scientific investigation. to appreciate and understand the challenges of modern sciences to religion. It needs theological and philosophical reflection as well´.religion interaction. (2) Others insist that science and religion are so clearly different from each other that conflict between them is logically impossible. but the ultimate explanation of the universe is provided by God.´ There is yet another line advocated by Dr. The problem of creation is not a matter of physics alone. This has initiated the field of study known as science. share many common themes and Beliefs with Christians. here we have some concerns against materialism that we have to share with other religions of the world. dialogue and integration. without any way interfering with science. Philosophy and theology can save us from making unsound exaggerated scientific claims. These are conflict. The field has explored the influences which science exerts on the religion and vice versa. Religion and science both are valid. So the experiences of Christian theologians will be a good guide. and can give us a proper metaphysical framework for our science and a ground for our being. (1) Some hold that religion is utterly opposed to science or that science invalidates religion. but we should rigorously separate one from other. there are lots of confusion and fallacies concerning the problem of creation. and so religion and theology must not ignore new developments in science. especially among modern cosmologists. it has now been felt that there should be some meaningful relationship/interaction between both fields of knowledge and aspiration. and even gives a special kind of blessing. has proposed that there are four types of relations or ways of relating science and religion. science always has implications for religion and vice versa. by science.³In my opinion. to the scientific quest of truth. one the most respected scholar of science-religion debate. The importance of balance in Islam is very relevant here: we have to avoid both extreme views of too much supernatural and of no supernatural. Science and religion inevitably interact. (3) A third type argues that although science and religion are distinct. I shall call this Conflict position. Let see how the question of science-religion relationship has been taken by Christians. This entanglement had bruised both science and religion. it is important to keep in mind that there is an approach to the Islamic beliefs that does not rely on (scientific) example-as ±arguments. For the sake of simplicity I shall call this contact approach. Similarly John F Haught. Let me quote his own words he says. It looks for those ways in which religion. This. (4) Finally. to some extent. He opines: ³A complete natural view of the world is not compatible with the Islamic beliefs as it is not compatible with beliefs of any other religion. also proposed Ian Barbour typology. This is contrast position. Bilal Masood. despite their present clash and mistrust with the west. For example the belief of Omnipresent and Omnipotent God Who constantly act in this universe. or what I shall call confirmation. Professor at Georgetown University. ³I see four principal ways in which those who thought about the problem express their understanding of the relationship of religion to science. is the result of their lack of philosophical understanding. paves the way for some ideas. Ian Barbour. RESPONSE FROM CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS Muslims. Despite different lines followed by Muslim Scholars the general pattern of thought is such that Muslims usually uses science as a means of knowledge like other branches of knowledge and at the same time Muslims uphold Revealed knowledge as well.¶ . He also asserts that (in the preaching Islam) in spite of importance of (scientific) examples. He further recommends the following strategy: ³We should explore our universe. independence. a fourth way of looking at the relationship²akin to but logically distinct from third²emphasizes the subtle but significant ways in which religion positively supports the scientific adventure of discovery. as much as we can. Realizing the importance of both fields. So. In this framework.

as it explained several . that as we have seen that the Islamic concept of creation of universe is not contrary to the present scientific theories. having no boundary or edge. In brief there are three types of people in the west: the one who have µdeveloped the system of idealism by compromising reason with faith¶. and uniformity of universe on large scale. notion of multiuniverse/worlds. This enhanced knowledge of the universe has improved our understanding of the Quran and Ahadith. As Paul Davies put it: A singularity is the nearest thing that science has found to a supernatural agent. it does not offer an ultimate explanation of why anything at all exists in the first place. Also there are a few features of creation where there is no uniformity of ideas between Islamic concept and Big Bang Theory. then. Keeping this in mind let see how some eminent Western scholars deal with Big Bang and question of creation in religion. So science. he says: ³It is equally impossible to imagine a beginning of time or an infinite span of time. Given. though it has provisional theories has become a key requirement in understanding Religion. One prominent reaction to Big Bang has been by those who saw Big Bang as a support for theism. and that the difference between them is only of secondary importance religiously. Let me now quote Ian G. it would have neither beginning nor end. the laws. Second. for example. initial singularity. Barbour. creation out of nothingness. J. the universe is contingent: it does not seem to include the grounds for its own existence. Hawking¶s words is. the universe can take care of itself. and therefore it points to that on which all beings necessarily exist ± God. and no edge of space-time at which one has to appeal to God or some new law to set the boundary conditions for space-time.´ Similarly R. a universe can appear spontaneously rests on the ³prior´ existence of these laws of physics. or whether the universe had an absolute beginning 15 billion years ago. Third. the other group has µdeveloped the system of materialism by clear separation from religious faith¶ and third group hopes to integrate both through a dialogue between them. in fact the theories have enhanced our understanding of the universe. I will agree that the choice of theories could be made on scientific grounds alone. But where do the laws come from? There is another view held by agnostics like S. Now if we compare the Islamic concept of creation of universe appears in The Quran and Current Big Bang theory.It is not necessary to enter into more detail regarding the µTypology¶ of the relationships between science and religion. What place. He also says that µThe possibility that given the laws of physics.´ And: ³But if the universe is really completely self-contained. Hawking their view point in S. concept of formation of galaxies from primordial gases. Russell holds that: ³Whether the origin of the universe as we know it involves a previous quantum super space. we can see that there are some features of Big Bang theory that are closely similar to the Islamic concept of Creation of Universe. Both start with an unexplained universe. My aim is to present a general map of the ways of relating science and religion in Christian and Muslim world. for example. for a Creator?´ There are some who are looking for a dialogue between the Science and Religion like Ian G. if we compare the science religion relationship/interaction in Christian perspective and in Islamic perspective we see that there is a great deal of similarity in the type of ways of interaction/relationship and responses in both monotheistic religions. ³There would be no singularities at which the laws of science broke down. Both are unlike anything we have experienced. Barbour.

W. Allah (S. science has provided us a universal language with which we can interact with the people of other religions and cultures.T. we would have done it if we were going to do (that).. (proofs. The Islamic View of the Universe (Friday Speech was delivered by Imam Mohamed Baianonie at the Islamic Center of Raleigh.) says in surat AZummar. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat. (Verses 16-17). and he is the Wakil. etc which our old exegetes were unable to explain.) says in surat Al-Anbiya¶.things like existence of other universes/worlds and fused status of heaven and earth. They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him. "Allah is the Creator of all things. In the past I had talked about the Islamic View of the Human Being. In the Name of Allah.) Over all things.T. The universe as a whole is a creation of Allah that created it for a purpose. The Islamic view toward the universe is an intellectual. such are they who will be the losers.W." Qur¶an demands man to think and reflect upon the creation of Allah. scientific view that creates the human emotions and feelings toward the greatness of Allah the creator. but most of the do not know. (Verses 62-63 & 67).T." Also Allah (S. If We wanted to create aimless things. "We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them for mere play. upbringing. It also creates emotions and feelings toward the smallness of the human being and his weakness in front of this universe. And on the Day of Resurrection the earth. signs. Dospose of affairs. C. Guardian. to reach to the oneness of Allah and to submit exclusively to Allah. Fourth. "We have not created the heavens and the earth. Most Merciful. and High is He above all that they associate as partners with Him!" . To Him belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth. on July 18. N. and all that is between them. what can be translated as. 1. (Verses 3839). etc. Thus science is not only a requirement of material comfort but also a key requisite for appreciation of religion.) says in surat Ad-Dukhan. Most Gracious. for mere play. what can be translated as.T.) of Allah. Today inshallah I will talk about the Islamic view of the universe.W. Playing was not the cause for creation. which leads to the necessity to submit to Allah (S.). as a whole will be grasped by His fist and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right. We created them not except with truth. what can be translated as. Allah (S. (Trustee. etc.W. 1997) Today I will continue talking about the intellectual foundation of Islamic tarbiah. Glorified be He.

and everything was well explained. (Verses 37-40).T.T. They all float. the Muslim mind is raised to be accurate and to base everything on a standard. (Verses 19-21). And the moon. We withdraw therefrom the day. "And a sign for them is the night. what can be translated as.The attachment of the Muslim to the creator of this universe and to the noblest goal in this life and that is the total submission to Allah.) with a well known portion. "And we made the night and day two signs. And also Allah (S.): Allah (S.T. we erased the sign of the night and made the sign of the day clear for you to make your living from the blessings of Allah.T. The universe is subjected to certain absolute laws that Allah (S. nor does the night outstrip the day. Allah (S. Also.T. That is the Decree of the All-Mighty. He (S.W. the Qur¶an raised the mind of the Muslim upon the fact that the occurrence of the same events is Done according to fixed laws made by Allah (S. It is not for the sun to catch up with the moon." The fact that the sun and the moon are each in a well-defined orbit is all made according to universal laws that Allah created.T.W. "And He withholds the .W. what can be translated as.There are important effects of this Islamic view toward universe upon tarbiyah (upbringing): 1.W. And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed).T) says in surat Al-Isra¶. and behold. The universe is ruled and watched over by Allah (S.) says in surat Yasseen. Allah (S.) taught man reckoning. who made the laws of the universe. is still ruling it and watching over it. "And the earth we made it unfolded and planted in it mountains and made some plants in it to make balanced and made in it your living and those whom you are not providing sustenance for. Allah (S.) is the one who can change it if He wants.W.) and He (S. We have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old dried curved date stalk. (Verse 65) what can be translated as. This way. and to know the number of years and reckoning (calculations).T. 2.W.T. (Verse 12). each in an orbit.W. the All-Knowing. 2. these laws of this universe and its events and its beings were released by Allah (S.T. And there is nothing but we have its treasures and we do not release but with a well known portion. what can be translated as.W.W.Brings the human being up with seriousness because the whole universe was created upon the truth and was created for a purpose and to a certain demise known only by Allah. they are in darkness.T) says in surat Al-Hujur." All this has a great and important effect upon tarbiyah. 3. calculations from the alternations of the day and the night.) made according to certain predestination prescribed by Allah.) says in surat Al-Hajj.W." Everything alive on earth has their share of sustenance well accounted for by Allah who does not release it but with a well defined portion.W.).

(Verse 116)." Also." And in another verse in surat Fatir.T. all are surrendered with obedience to Him. (Verse 61)." The human. The whole universe is surrendered with obedience to Allah: Allah (S." This has a great effect on the tarbiyah of man because all beings are obedient and submissive to their Lord." Also. (Verse 137) Allah (S. but you do not comprehend their glorification. (Verses 32-34). Allah (S. "And he is the Irresistible.W. what can be translated as.T.T. Supreme over his servants. a tiny part of this universe.W.W. and made available for you the ships to float in the sea and made available for you the rivers. in surat Al-Imran. no one can stop it and they will not find besides Him a protector. in another verse.W. "Do you not see that Allah made available for you all what is in the skies and what is in the earth. "The seven heavens glorify him. and he sends to you guardians (angels) over you and when death comes to one of you.) says what can be translated as.) says in surat Al-Baqarah. "Allah is the one who created the heavens and the earth and released from the sky water from which he made fruits as a sustenance for you.T. "For him is all what is in the skies and what is on earth. what can be translated as. "Many similar events happened before you.) says in surat Al-Ra¶ad. (Verse 44). our messengers (angels) would take his soul and they never neglect their duty.W. in another verse in surat Al-Isra¶. and made available for you the sun . The whole universe is in the service of man: Allah (S. (Verse 20).) created social laws for man¶s life. (Verse 41).) says what can be translated as. and if they crumble. Allah (S. So. "Allah withholds the skies and the earth from crumbling. what can be translated as. who can hold them after Him.T." Also. what can be translated as.sky from falling upon the earth except by His permission. man should be the first to submit and obey Allah and to become a harmonious part of the whole universe participating in the glorification of Allah. and torture some nations and perish others.T. Allah (S.W.T. so walk over the earth and see the punishment of the disbelievers. And if Allah wants to harm some people. flooded you with many blessings known and unknown. Indeed he is ever most Forbearing and Oft. in another verse in surat Ibrahim. Allah (S. what can be translated as. (Verse 11). is also subjected in his life and death to the well defined ending of Allah.T) says what can be translated as.forgiving.W.T. and sends messengers to enforce them. 5. and there is nothing but glorifies Allah.W.) says. Allah (S." 4.W. "Verily! Allah does not change the situation of a people as long they do not change their state of themselves. and so does the earth and what is in them.) says in surat Luqman.) says in surat Al-An¶aam. Allah (S." Also.

" All these verses and others in the Qur¶an raise man to be grateful to Allah and to recognize his care. (Qur'an. glorify him and submit to Him. This mass later divided into smaller parts to form galactic matter and later . and signs and with stars they are guided. and gave you everything you asked for. The Hour is certainly coming.T. (Verses 12-18). Man is indeed oppressive and disbelieving. and if you count the bounties of Allah. "And He made available for you the night and the day and the sun and the moon and the stars all obedient to him. the heavens and what lies between: We did not create the heavens and earth and everything between them. Indeed. 15:85) Everything in the heavens and everything on the earth and everything in between them and everything under the ground belongs to Him. and if you count the blessings of Allah. THE CREATION OF WHAT LIES BETWEEN THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH The Qur'an contains a great many verses concerning the creation of the earth.and the moon incessantly in motion and made available for you the night and the day. Is that who does not create like the one who does?! Do you not remember. you will not be able to count them. 20:6) We did not create heaven and earth and everything in between them as a game.W. there is a great sign in this for people who remember. 21:16) Scientists state that first of all. except with truth. (Qur'an. and to make your living from his blessings and so you may thank him. his mercy and his greatness so he will be driven to thank Allah. so turn away graciously. Allah is the forgiving and the compassionate. there are signs in this to people who have minds. You see the ships sailing in it. a mass of hot gas increased in density. (Qur'an. and he is the one who made available the sea from which you eat soft meat and make from it garments to wear.) also says in surat An-Nahal. what can be translated as." Allah (S. And what he spread for you on earth of different colors. you will not be able to count them. Indeed. and planted in the earth mountains so that the earth will be stable and rivers and pathways so you may be guided.

fundamental bodies forming in space. in such a way as to confirm the scientific accounts. 7. To put it another way. Although the existence of this interstellar galactic matter was only discovered in 1920. when one considers these substances as a whole. We have now entered the 21st century and a new dawn is upon us. are all parts which separated from a united body of gas. had existed forever and that it will continue to do so for all time. Brockhaus AG: 1995). attention was drawn to the existence of these particles. The emergence of the universe is described with the most suitable words in the Qur'an." the universe had no end or beginning. Digitale Ausgabe LexiRom (Digital Expenditure LexiRom). 99% of the interstellar matter consists of interstellar gas and 1% of interstellar dust. Scientists regard these substances as very important from the point of view of astrophysical measurements. As we have set out in earlier sections of this book. the stars and planets. In maintaining that the universe is a collection of fixed. united) and then became "fataqa" (divided into parts). this view has constituted the basis of materialist philosophy and has consequently rejected the existence of a Creator. known as the "static universe model. a few particles remained outside the new. static and unchanging substances. The scientific name for these extra particles is "interstellar galactic material. the static universe model has been completely uprooted. THE COMING OF THE UNIVERSE INTO EXISTENCE Until the mid-20th century.001 mm in diameter. These substances are so fine as to be capable of being regarded as dust.0001 to 0. According to this view. Through numerous experiments. 6 On the occasion of every division. they represent a larger mass than the total of all the galaxies in space. Meyers Lexikon in drei Bänden (Meyers Encyclopedia in three volumes) (Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut & F. 53. the Earth along with stars around it. Some of these parts brought the suns and planets into being. as science and technology progressed during the 20th century. modern physics has proven that the universe did indeed have a . the universe was first in a state of "ratq" (fusion: combined together. which probably consists of heavy elements in small particles of 0. However. 130 Evident Miracles in the Qur'an. Kazi. 38% of helium and 2% of all other elements.A.still. However. smoke or gas. observations and calculation conducted by some of the world's most prominent thinkers. the prevalent view across the world was that the universe was infinite.7 6. described as "ma baynahuma"-translated as "everything between them"-hundreds of years ago in the Qur'an. thus leading to the emergence of the many Solar Systems and galaxies." Interstellar matter consists of 60% of hydrogen.

Al-Attique Publishers Inc. energy. the conclusion that astrophysics has reached today is that the entire universe. captured evidentiary remnants of the Big Bang. known as "The Big Bang. This explosion." is the catalyst for the creation of the universe from nothingness. emanated from a single point some 15 billion years ago. The origin of the universe is described in the Qur'an in the following verse: He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. as materialists still stubbornly maintain. This discovery served as evidence for the Big Bang. change and expansion. nor energy. THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE . and time were all created in an instant. was announced to us in the Qur'an 1. 6:101) This information is in full agreement with the findings of contemporary scientists. all these facts are universally accepted by the scientific community. launched by NASA in 1992. (Qur'an. 2000) Before the Big Bang. Today. which is the scientific explanation of the fact that the universe was created from nothing. Furthermore. all parties in the scientific community agree. together with the dimensions of matter and time. The sensitive sensors on board the COBE space satellite. there was no such thing as matter. On the contrary. (See Harun Yahya. This event. Canada. it is undergoing a constant process of movement. came into existence as a result of a great explosion that occurred a long time ago. only recently discovered by modern physics. it has been established that the universe is not fixed and static.beginning.400 years ago. From a condition of non-existence in which neither matter. nor even time existed-and which can only be described metaphysically-matter. As we stated earlier. This fact. The Creation of the Universe. These recently-established facts all act as nails in the coffin of the static universe theory. that it came into being from nothing in a single moment in a huge explosion.

" The his giant telescope prefix "la" emphasises the following name or title and adds a sense of "to a great extent. While observing the sky with a telescope. light heading towards a point of observation turns violet. observations. This discovery is regarded as one of the greatest in the history of astronomy." However. but also from each other. (Qur'an. stating that the universe "expands. That is because according to the known laws of physics. it is We Who are steadily expanding it. 1 Until the dawn of the 20th century. the American astronomer. This notion was confirmed by the use of observational data in 1929." meaning "to expand. is used in various places in the Qur'an. Hubble established that the stars emit a light that turns redder according to their distance. comes from the verb "evsea. In short. which was revealed fourteen centuries ago at a time when the science of astronomy was still primitive." This expression therefore means "We expand the sky or the universe to a great extent. the stars were moving further and further away. modern research. The stars and galaxies were not only moving away from us. A universe where everything constantly moves away from everything else implied a constantly expanding universe. discovered that the stars and galaxies were constantly moving away from each other. Hubble noted a tendency towards the colour red in the light emitted by stars. and light moving away from that point assumes a more reddish hue." At the beginning of the 20th century. During his observations. Here again. and verily. During these observations. and calculations carried out by means of modern technology have revealed that the universe in fact had a beginning and that it constantly "expands." This is the very conclusion that science has reached today. It is referring to space and the wider universe. the expansion of the universe was described in the following terms: And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might. the only view prevailing in the world of science was that "the universe has a constant nature and it has existed since infinite time. the universe has been constantly expanding at a great speed. ." The Arabic word "moosiaaoona" in the term "inna lamoosiaaoona.In the Qur'an. all the time. 51:47) The word "heaven. The observations carried out in the Georges Lemaitre From the moment of the Big Bang." translated into English as "it is We Who are steadily Edwin Hubble with expanding it". Edwin Hubble. the Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann and the Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated that the universe is in constant motion and that it is expanding. the word is used with this meaning. Scientists compare the expanding universe to the surface of a balloon that is inflated." as stated in the verse above.

." This would lead to the end of all forms of life as we know them. and at a much larger distance itself with increasing speed. that began expanding with the Big Bang. We have found that some of the universe has lost all its mass and turned into a single point of infinite best attempts to describe dark energy predict that it will gradually become negative. will collapse in on The universe may be doomed to collapse and disappear. this expansion will come to an end because of gravity.following years verified that the universe is constantly expanding. Physicists have known that dark energy could become negative and the universe could collapse sometime in the very distant future. Renata Kallosh and Andrei Linde. it will be the same as if you were inside a black hole. Scientists say that when the mass of the universe has reached a sufficient level. This was theoretically discovered by Albert Einstein. which will cause the density. in order to avoid violating the "static universe model" that was generally accepted at that time.. causing the universe to collapse in on itself. 2 This fact was explained in the Qur'an in a time when telescopes and similar technological advancements were not even close to being invented. made the The Big Crunch theory proposes that following statements on the subject: the universe. Everything we see now. will collapse into a point smaller than of the universe will continue until the a proton. this collapse that we cannot see. but now we see that we might be. However. 3 It is also believed that the contracting universe will end in a fierce heat and contraction known as the "Big Crunch. celestial bodies also move away from one another as the universe expands. regarded as one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. Locally. the universe has been expanding ever since. In order to gain a clearer understanding of this. not in the beginning.. He would later describe this as the greatest blunder of his life. but in the middle of the life cycle of our universe. universe to become unstable... professors of physics from Stanford University. Einstein laid that discovery aside. the creation of the universe began with a huge explosion. let us imagine the universe to be the surface of a balloon being inflated. In the same way that the more the balloon is inflated. THE END OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE BIG CRUNCH As we have stated above.. This is because the Qur'an is the Word of Allah: the Creator and Ruler of the entire universe. 4 . From this point. then collapse. According to the theory. the further away the points on its surface move from one another.

the universe will begin to collapse slowly and will then increasingly pick up speed. Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the partners they ascribe! (Qur'an. The Big Bang is a theory that has been proven with scientific evidence. and blessed it and measured out its nourishment in it. the Qur'an has employed the most appropriate word from the Arabic language for describing the appearance of this phase of the universe. cosmic smoke in question. 21:104) In another verse. describes this smoke very accurately for it is a warm body of gas containing mobile particles connected to solid substances. scientific evidence has caused the Big Bang theory to be completely accepted by the scientific community. 39:67) According to the Big Crunch theory." (Qur'an. Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke and said to it and to the earth. It is a promise binding on Us. Formation from a warm mass of gas also applies to the creation of the universe. At the end of the process the universe will have infinite density and be infinitely hot and small. "We come willingly. Let us note that only in the 20th century have scientists discovered that the universe emerged from a hot gas in the form of smoke. That is what We will do. this state of the heavens is described thus: They do not measure Allah with His true measure. As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it. Although some scientists tried to advance arguments against the Big Bang. "Come willingly or unwillingly. laid out for those who seek it-all in four days. towering over it. Here. which revealed once again that Allah created the universe from nothingness. 5 . in pinpoint fashion. (Qur'an. (Allah knows best) CREATION FROM HOT SMOKE Scientists today are able to observe the formation of stars from a hot gas cloud. The whole earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising the heavens folded up in His right hand." They both said.This is how this scientific hypothesis of the Big Crunch is indicated in the Qur'an: That Day We will fold up heaven like folding up the pages of a book. The Arabic word for "smoke" in the above verse is "dukhanun. This word in the Qur'an. 41:10-11) The picture represents the Big Bang. This scientific theory runs parallel to the Qur'anic explanation of this particular scientific concept." which describes the hot. The creation of the universe as described in the Qur'an confirms this scientific discovery in the following verse: He placed firmly embedded mountains on it.

21:30) The word "ratq" translated as "sewn to" means "mixed in each. this point exploded violently." They are separated (fataqa) with one coming out of the other. 52. blended" in the Arabic vernacular. In other words.The fact that such information about the creation of the universe is given in the Qur'an is nothing short of a miracle of the Qur'an. Look again-do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. THE SPLITTING ASUNDER OF "THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH" Another verse about the creation of the heavens is as follows: Do those who disbelieve not see that the heavens and the earth were sewn together and then We unstitched them and that We made from water every living thing? So will they not believe? (Qur'an. The sprouting of a seed from the soil is one of the actions to which this verb is applied. Then. USA: Crescent Publishing House: 1998). THE PERFECT EQUILIBRIUM IN THE UNIVERSE He Who created the seven heavens in layers. Kazi. when we think about the first moments of the Big Bang. Intriguingly. Let us take a look at the verse again. causing its matter to disunite. sky and earth are at first subject to the status of "ratq. In the verse. 67:3-4) . we see that the entire matter of the universe collected at one single point. Dr. It is used to refer to two different substances that make up a whole. 5. The phrase "we unstitched" is the verb "fataqa" in Arabic and implies that something comes into being by tearing apart or destroying the structure of things that are sewn to one another. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted! (Qur'an. You will not find any discrepancy in the creation of the All-Merciful. Mazhar U. 130 Evident Miracles in the Qur'an (New York. everything-including "the heavens and earth" which were not created yet-were in an interwoven and inseparable condition.

no collisions take place that might damage the great order in the universe. The speed of the Earth as it orbits the Sun is some 60 times faster than a bullet: 108. we can see how fast the Earth is moving. galaxies and conglomerations of galaxies-whose numerical properties can only be conceived by mathematicians-weigh billions or trillions of tons. 67:3-4) Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers? (Qur'an. with its 200 billion or so stars. the concept of speed assumes giant dimensions when compared to earthly measurements. Stars. For example.The billions of stars and galaxies in the universe move in perfect equilibrium in the paths set out for them. There is no doubt that there is a very high risk of collisions in such a complicated and fastmoving system.800 kmph. Yet amazingly. In the universe. Look again-do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Those for the Solar System are even more fascinating. These figures apply only to the Earth. the Earth rotates at 1. 71:15) . planets.000 kmph. Sometimes. as stated in the verse. Yet nothing of the sort actually happens and we continue with our lives in complete safety.000 kmph. The speed of that system is such as to exceed the bounds of reason: The larger the systems in the universe. despite its enormous size and mass. It is for this reason that. If we were able to construct a vehicle capable of moving at that speed.000 kmph.670 kmph. You will not find any flaw in the creation of the All-Merciful. there is no "discrepancy" in the system. Stars. galaxies containing 200-300 billion stars move across each others' paths. This miracle is something over which all of us should reflect. moves through space at 950. the greater their speed. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted! (Qur'an. THE FINE TUNING IN THE UNIVERSE He Who created the seven heavens in layers. The Solar System's speed of orbit around the centre of the galaxy is 720. The Milky Way. it would be able to circumnavigate the Earth in 22 minutes. planets and satellites rotate not only around their own axes but also together with the systems of which they are an integral part. That is because everything in the universe functions according to the flawless equilibrium set out by Allah. If we consider that the fastest-moving bullet today possesses an average speed of 1. and move through space at extraordinary speeds.

represents this truth revealed in the verses. from the Earth's distance from the Sun to its angle of tilt to its orbit. there are perhaps as many planets as stars.. uncontrolled. one can better comprehend the significance of the formation of such an exceptional environment on the Earth. that the flawless order and balance within them were the work of chance. He created everything and determined it most exactly. However. the world of science describes these features by means of the concepts of the "Anthropic Principle" and "FineTuning. measure." meaning "in harmony." meaning "to design. The word "tibaqan." that those who seek disharmony will fail to find it. (Qur'an. 8th ed. Furthermore. and from the speed at which the Earth revolves around its own axis to the functions of the oceans and mountains on the Earth: every single detail is ideally suited to our lives. Today. intellectuals and writers have shown that the universe is not a collection of coincidences. Attention is drawn in the above verses to the measure and harmony in Allah's creation. Taha Publishers. the false nature of materialism and of Darwinism. violation. chance collection of matter but that it has a purpose directed towards human life and has been designed with the greatest precision. we see that only the Earth meets these particular conditions. The word "taqdeeran. today. each with-on average-a hundred billion stars.8 In the face of such overpowering numbers. Goodword Books. On the . Over the last quarter-century or so. There are some hundred billion galaxies." is employed in Qur'anic verses such as Surat al-Furqan 2. Discoveries have revealed that there is a great design and fine-tuning in the material world and this has categorically demonstrated the groundless nature of the claims of materialism. In all the galaxies. The Evolution Deceit. He does not have a son and He has no partner in the Kingdom. Allah also reveals in Surat al-Mulk with the word "tafawutin. there are innumerable conditions taking place simultaneously and unceasingly all around us. (See Harun Yahya. from the type of light emitted by the Sun to the level of viscosity of water. For an environment suitable for life. Considering the conditions necessary for life.He to Whom the kingdom of the heavens and the earth belongs. its so-called scientific foundation. 2004 and Darwinism Refuted. from the distance of the Moon to the Earth to the level of gases in the atmosphere." is used in Surat al-Mulk 3 and Surah Nuh 15. The term "fine-tuning. From the force of the Big Bang explosion to the physical values of atoms. the Big Bang theory has shown that the universe was created from nothing. create by measuring. opposite." meaning "disagreement. As the theses of Darwinism collapsed. disorder. 25:2) Materialist philosophy emerged with the claim that all the systems in nature and the universe were like machines that functioned on their own. has been scientifically demonstrated. from the levels of the four basic forces to the chemical processes in the stars. one after the other. non-conformity. in the fields of astrophysics and biology have proved that life and the universe were created. 2003. a great many scientists." These concepts summarise the way that the universe is not an aimless." which began to be used towards the end of the 20th century.) The scientific discoveries of the 20th century that followed swiftly.

These forces possess extraordinarily different values to one another. According to the well-known Adelaide University professor of mathematical physics Paul Davies. 3:109) The speed of the Big Bang explosion: The balances established with the Big Bang. An average star would have a mass a trillion times less than the sun and a life span of about one year. The physicist Dr. the instantaneous formation of the universe. the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size. the gravitational force was a trillion times stronger. Michael Denton. if the rate of expansion that took place following the Big Bang had been just one in a billion billion parts different (1/1018). electromagnetic force. (See Harun Yahya. Al-Attique Publishers. All matters return to Allah. then the universe would be far smaller and its life history far shorter. the only element that would be . 10 Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Allah. Stephen Hawking recognises this extraordinary precision in the universe's rate of expansion: If the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million. describes the extraordinary equilibrium among these forces thus: If. if gravity had been less powerful. November 2002 and A Chain of Miracles.) Many features in the universe clearly show that the universe has been specially designed to support life.contrary. 9 The British astrophysicist Professor George F. The other relationships and values are no less critical. strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. the universe could not have come into being. 12 The Four Forces: All physical motion in the universe comes about thanks to the interaction and equilibrium of the four forces recognised by modern physics: gravity. (Qur¶an. Realization of the complexity of what is accomplished makes it very difficult not to use the word "miraculous" without taking a stand as to the ontological status of the word. no stars or galaxies would have ever formed. some physicists observed that our universe appears to have been fine-tuned for the existence of human life. are one of the proofs that the universe did not come into being by chance. for example. If the strong force had been just slightly weaker. On the other hand. Ellis refers to this fine-tuning in these terms: Amazing fine tuning occurs in the laws that make this [complexity] possible.11 In his book A Brief History of Time. Karl Giberson expresses this fact thus: In the 1960s. Global Publishing. it has an extraordinary design and order ideally suited to human life in its every detail. May 2004. the famous molecular biologist. The Creation of the Universe.

If this distance was much less.If it were weaker.If the Earth were any closer to the Sun. and the planet would enter an ice-age. making life impossible. which would have a most damaging effect on life. and life would become impossible. If it had been slightly stronger in relation to electromagnetism. the planet would grow very cold. the water cycle in the Earth's atmosphere would be irreparably damaged. If it was much more. must be very close to the actual observed figure. then the flickering of the supernovae must occur at a very precise rate and the average distance between them. The distance between stars in our galaxy is about 30 million miles. and indeed between all stars. The Earth's Distance from the Sun: . they would be very different from the way they are. no atoms. . the water cycle in the atmosphere would be affected. plants would burn up. no life. planetary orbits would be destabilized. there would be no stars. then an atomic nucleus consisting of only two protons would be a stable feature of the universe-which would mean there would be no hydrogen. Clearly. and if any stars or galaxies evolved. then the debris thrown out by a supernova would be so diffusely distributed that planetary systems like our own would in all probability never form. If the cosmos is to be a home for life. No other atoms could exist.If this were any greater.If the crust were any thicker.If gravity were stronger. the resulting amount of volcanic activity would make life impossible. 13 The Distances between Celestial Bodies: The distribution of celestial bodies in space and the enormous spaces between them are essential to the existence of life on Earth. 14 Gravity: . In his book Nature's Destiny Michael Denton describes the distance between supernovae and stars: The distances between supernovae and indeed between all stars is critical for other reasons.stable would be hydrogen. .If it were any thinner. excessive ammonia and methane would collect in the Earth's atmosphere. no supernovae. no planets. .The Thickness of the Earth's Crust: . the Earth's atmosphere would lose excessive quantities of water. then an excessive amount of oxygen would be transferred to it from the atmosphere. . The distances between celestial bodies have been set out in a calculation compatible with a great many powerful universal forces in such a way as to support life on Earth. if these various forces and constants did not have precisely the values they do.

Seismic Activity (Earthquakes): . the Earth's temperature would fall enormously. and cyclones and storms would make life impossible. -If it were any faster. the atmosphere would overheat.If this were any more powerful. then the Earth would lose its protection against the harmful particles given off by the Sun and known as solar winds. the temperature of the atmosphere would fall. The Earth would first be flooded with the melting of the glaciers.If it were any less. Both situations would make life impossible. there would be constant upheaval for living things. The Thickness of the Ozone Layer: . vital functions would adversely slow down.The Albedo Effect (Ratio between the amount of light the Earth reflects and the amount of light that is absorbed): . .The Speed at which the Earth Revolves: If this were any slower. . the temperature difference between day and night would grow enormously. the Earth would overheat and be defenceless against the harmful ultraviolet rays emitted by the Sun. then atmospheric winds would reach enormous speeds. very strong electromagnetic storms would arise. . an ice-age would rapidly result.If this were any greater.If this were any greater.If this were any greater.If it were any less. the greenhouse effect would lead to excessive warming. .If it were any weaker. .If this were any greater. . and would then burn up. The Proportion of Carbon Dioxide and Water in the Atmosphere: . vital functions would be adversely accelerated.The Proportion of Oxygen and Nitrogen in the Atmosphere: .If this were any greater. The Earth's Magnetic Field: .If it were any less.If it were any less.

The Attraction between the Earth and the Moon: . the speed at which the Earth revolves around its own axis and on the ocean tides. leading the oceans to be less mobile. and the alternation of night and day.If they were even a little closer. (Qur an. This would have a damaging effect on life in the seas and oceans and all living things on Earth. . the temperature difference between the seasons would reach extreme dimensions.If this were any greater. The friction emerging as a result of this would raise the temperature of the oceans and the sensitive temperature balance essential to life on Earth would disappear. the powerful attraction of the Moon would have extremely serious effects on atmospheric conditions. the nutrients at the sea bottom would fail to spread into the water.If they were even a little further away.If it were any less. It is this inclination that gives rise to the seasons. and the level of the oxygen we breathe would be endangered.If they were any further. the Moon would crash into the Earth. there are Signs for people with intelligence.The Distance between the Earth and the Moon: . 3:189-190) . If this angle were any greater or any less than it is now. . The Size of the Sun: A smaller star than the Sun would mean the Earth would freeze and a larger star would lead to its burning up. Immobile water would endanger life in the seas. In the creation of the heavens and the earth. the tides would decrease.If they were just a little closer. the Moon would become lost in space. Allah has power over all things. Ocean waves would inundate low-lying areas.. the Moon's effect on the Earth's tides would reach dangerous dimensions. . 15 The kingdom of the heavens and earth belongs to Allah. with unbearably hot summers and bitterly cold winters. this would lead to extreme climate changes.- The Earth's Angle of Tilt: The Earth has a 23 degree angle of inclination to its orbit.If it were any less. .

10. Curi (New York: Cambridge University Press: 1993). 30. 14. nucleic acid and protein: These constitute the basis of life. Michael Denton. "The Anthropic Principle: Laws and Environments. www. Bertola and U. 8. the basis of all life. 13. Karl Giberson. 5-7. 12.pathlights. The harmony and proportion therein were described with magnificent accuracy fourteen centuries ago in the Qur'an. These are just a few of the exceedingly sensitive balances which are essential for life on Earth to have emerged and to survive.. 121-125. 184. the only source of light in the Solar System is the Sun. Stephen Hawking. Yet even these are sufficient to definitively reveal that the Earth and the universe could not have come into being as the result of a number of consecutive coincidences. the existing temperature needs to be no lower than -20 degrees and no higher than 120 degrees Celsius. astronomers discovered that the Moon was not a source of light but that it merely . Paul Davies. Ibid. A Brief History of Time (London: Bantam Press: 1988). Ellis. 15. 78:12-13) As we know.´ Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 9 (1997). 11.com/ce_encyclopedia/01-ma10. For that reason. Superforce: The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature. 9.´ The Anthropic Principle. 1984. life can only be carbon-based. 12-13. (Qur'an. Carl Sagan. Given this. These are just the temperature limits on Earth. George F. 11. NJ: Wings Books: April 1983).htm#Elemental Forces. Carbon is an essential substance for organic molecules such as amino-acid. Nature's Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe (New York: The Free Press: 1998). THE MOON AND THE STARS We built seven firm layers above you.The Temperature of the Earth and Carbon-Based Life: The existence of carbon. depends on the temperature remaining within specific limits. THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUN. ³The Anthropic Principle. Cosmos (Avenel. With advances in technology. The concepts of "fine-tuning" and the "anthropic principle" that began to be employed in the 20th century are further evidence of Allah's creation. We installed a blazing lamp. F.

In the Qur'an Allah employs different words when referring to such celestial bodies as the Moon. a constant source of heat and light." meaning "appearing. It was an age when peoples' knowledge of celestial bodies was severely restricted. bright. This is how the differences between the structures of the Sun and Moon are expressed in the Qur'an: Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers. This further emphasises the miraculous nature of the book of Islam. On the other hand. the Sun and the stars. to say the least. 71:15-16) In the above verse." As in the verse below. the word "star" comes from the Arabic root "nejeme.reflects the light reaching it from the Sun. We also know that the Sun and stars do emit their own light. The word used for the Sun refers to a celestial body which is always burning." which most perfectly describes the Sun. and placed the moon as a light in them and made the sun a blazing lamp? (Qur'an. These facts were revealed in the Qur'an in an age when mankind simply did not have the means to make scientific discoveries of their own accord. the word "light" is used for the Moon ("nooran" in Arabic) and the word "lamp" for the Sun ("sirajan" in Arabic. The expression "lamp" in the above verse is a translation of the Arabic word "sirajan. stars are also referred to by the word "thaqib." which is used for that which shines and pierces the darkness with light: self-consuming and burning: It is the star that pierces through darkness! (Qur'an. 86:3) We now know that the Moon does not emit its own light but reflects that reaching it from the Sun. emerging. visible. . the source of light and heat. motionless body.) The word used for the Moon refers to a light-reflecting.