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BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED, JHANSI (U.P.

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ROTATION REPORT & SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON LOCOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING
FOR A PERIOD OF FOUR WEEKS

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. K.D MANJHI (DGM, LMM) And Mr. RASHUTOSH UPADHYAY (ENGINEER LMM) LOCOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING DEPT. SUBMITTED BY:

MOHD. DANISH HUSSAIN

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We am extremely thankful & indebted to the numerous BHEL Engineers and technical staffs who provided vital information about the functioning of their respective departments thus helping me to gain an overall idea about the working of organization. We are highly thankful for the support & guidance of each of them. We are extremely thankful to Mrs. Seema S. Rawal (Manager-HRD) for providing me the opportunity to undergo this training and to work on my project. We also express my thanks to Mr. Ravinder and all the members of HRD for their help & cooperation. We am highly indebted and thankful to my project guide, Mr. K.D MANJHI (DGM, LMM) and Mr. Arvind Verma and Mr. Rishav Kumar for giving me their valuable time and helping me to grasp the various concepts of locomotive manufacturing and their various parts and assembly processes and testing. We would also like to thank Mr. Rahul, Mr. Ashish and all other members of LME Dept. and Ishwar Chandra of Testing Dept. for providing enough support and cooperation. Last but not the least, We would like to thank my parents & all my fellow trainees who have been a constant source of encouragement & inspiration during my studies & have always provided me support in every walk of life.

SAURABH AGARWAL VIPUL AGARWAL
NIT-ALLAHABAD NIT-K SURATKAL

2nd yr Mechanical Engg.

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1. BHEL – AN OVERVIEW
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India a dream which has been more than realized with a well recognized track record of performance it has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy, Defence, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power Sector regional centres, over 150 project sites, eight service centres and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services – efficiently and at competitive prices. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001 certification for environment management.

1.1 POWER GENERATION
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW in the country, as against nil till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects from concept to commissioning; it possesses the technology and capability to produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW units rating. Co-generation and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies to make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available in India, BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants. The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets.

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The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement through renovation modernisation and updating of a variety of power plant equipment besides specialised know how of residual life assessment. BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers of electric locomotives. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL. valves. dieselelectric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP. substation projects. orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal. well-head equipment. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems. hydro and gas-based types. overhead equipment cars. production.2 TRANSPORTATION BHEL is involved in the development design. diesel-electric locomotives. Pelton and Kapian types for different head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL. switchgears. health diagnostics and life extension of plants. installation. 1. gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on date. Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use. both for mainline and shunting duly applications. marketing. covering turnkey power projects of thermal. 1. rehabilitation projects. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. heat exchangers. engineering. Special well wagons.. and execution of four 4 . In all. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port handing equipment and pipelines transportation system.. In the area of rolling stock. The company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally competitive. and maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. electrical multiple units and metro cars.Custom made hydro sets of Francis. like transformers. photo-voltaic equipment etc. over the years. insulators. castings and forgings.3 INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS BHEL has. ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. Rail-cum-road vehicle etc. light rail systems etc. besides a wide variety of products. BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP. hydro. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia. established its references in around 60 countries of the world. centrifugal compressors. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz.

4. TOTAL BUSINESS SOLUTIONS THROUGH AND QUALITY OTHER PRODUCTS. Egypt. Hyderabad: Heavy Electrical Power Equipment Plant. Saudi Arabia. FOSTER LEARNING. 1. ENSURE SPEED OF RESPONSE.1 VISION A WORLD-CLASS ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE COMMITTED TO ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER VALUE. STRICT ADHERENCE TO COMMITMENTS. 1. Iraq etc. Malta. INTEGRITY AND FAIRNESS IN ALL MATTERS.4.3 VALUES ZEAL TO EXCEL AND ZEST FOR CHANGE.4 VISION. MISSION AND VALUES OF BHEL 1. LOYALTY AND PRIDE IN THE COMPANY 1. Sri Lanka. SYSTEMS AND SERVICES IN THE FIELDS OF ENERGY. Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia. Bangladesh.1 FIRST GENERATION UNITS Bhopal Haridwar : Heavy Electrical Plant. INFRASTRUCTURE POTENTIAL AREAS. Greece. 5 .prestigious power projects in Oman. : Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant.5. TRANSPORTATION. RESPECT FOR DIGNITY AND POTENTIAL OF INDIVIDUALS. 1.4.2 MISSION TO BE AN INDIAN MULTINATIONAL ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE PROVIDING INDUSTRY.5 VARIOUS UNITS OF BHEL ACROSS THE COUNTRY 1. CREATIVITY AND TEAMWORK. Azerbaijan. Cyprus. Libya.

6 ACTIVITY PROFILE OF BHEL 1.4 NEW MANUFACTURING UNITS Ranipet Jagdish Rudrapur Bangalore : : : : Boiler Auxiliaries Plant.1.5.1.3 UNITS THROUGH ACQUISTION & MERGER Bangalore : Electronics Division Electro Porcelain Division.5. BHEL is growing concern to meet the changing needs of the nation has taken it beyond power into the total gamut of energy. POWER SECTOR PROJECTS • • • • • • • Thermal sets and Auxiliaries. Air pre heaters. Component and Fabrication Plant.5. 1. Steam generators and Auxiliaries. industry and transportation BHEL is able to offer a service in each of this fields.6.2 SECOND GENERATION UNITS Tiruchy Jhansi Haridwar Tiruchy : : : : High Pressure Boiler Plant. Industrial fans. Seamless Steel Tube Plant. Transformer and Locomotive Plant. 1. 1. Its manufacturing capability is supported by a corporate R&D division at Hyderabad works closely with the research and development cells at various units and Welding Research Institute at Tiruchinapalli. Hydro sets and Auxiliaries. Nuclear power equipments. Central Foundry and Forge Plant. Electrostatic precipitators. Insulator Plant. Energy Systems Division Govindwal : Industrial Valve Plant. 6 .

sets. Capacitors.6. DC locomotives and loco shunters.6. Power devices. 1. Electric trolley buses.6. Transformers.3. Traction system for railways. Seamless steel tubes. Porcelain/Ceramics insulators. Photo Voltaic cells. Gas Turbines. Valves. Solar Cells. 1.2. SYSTEMS/SERVICES • • • • • Turnkey power station. 1. 7 . AC/DC locomotives.• • • • • • • • • Motors. Pumps. T. Rectifiers.4.G. HVDC Commissioning systems. Power systems. Modernization and Rehabilitation. Casting and forging. TRASPORTATION SECTOR • • • • • Diesel Electric generators. Heat Exchangers. INDUSTRY SECTOR • • • • • • • Boilers. Data acquisition Systems.

which would manufacture power and other types of transformers in addition to the capacity available in BHEL Bhopal. 132 KV class and other 77transformers like Instrument Transformers. BHEL JHANSI 2. Indira Gandhi the prime minister on 9th Jan. it was envisaged by the planning commission that the demand for power transformer would rise in the coming years. It is called second-generation plant of BHEL set up in 1974 at an estimated cost of Rs 16. Control systems for electric devices. special transformer and instrument transformer. Anticipating the country’s requirement BHEL decided to set up a new plant. The plant of BHEL is equipped with most modern manufacturing processing and testing facilities for the manufacture of power. Its foundation was laid by late Mrs. The layout of the plant is well streamlined to enable smooth material flow from the raw material stages to the finished 8 . Drive Turbines.1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION By the end of 5 th five-year plan.1 crores for township.H. Wind mills.• • • • • • Compressors. The commercial production of the unit began in 1976-77 with an output of Rs 53 lacs since then there has been no looking back for BHEL Jhansi. 1974. Traction transformers for railway etc. No 26 on Jhansi Lalitpur road.22 crores inclusive of Rs 2. Diesel shunting locomotives and AC/DC locomotives. Blow out preventers. BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED JHANSI (UNIT) 2. This unit of Jhansi was established around 14 km from the city on the N. Oil rigs. The Bhopal plant was engaged in manufacturing transformers of large ratings and Jhansi unit would concentrate on power transformer upto 50 KVA.

BHEL has progressed a step further in under taking the production of AC locomotives. This unit of BHEL is basically engaged in the production and manufacturing of various types of transformers and capacities with the growing competition in the transformer section. in 1985-86 it under took the re-powering of DESL. and subsequently it manufacturing AC/DC locomotives also. In 1987-88.goods. which after inspection are sent to main assembly bay. 2. All the feeder bays have been laid perpendicular to the main assembly bay and in each feeder bay raw material smoothly gets converted to sub assemblies. The raw material that are produced for manufacture are used only after thorough material testing in the testing lab and with strict quality checks at various stages of productions.2 MODERN MACHINARY IN BHEL JHANSI: CNC CROPPING LINE MACHINE  VAPOR PHASE DRYING SYSTEM  COMPUTER ICM 6040 AND 6080 AND IRISII 40/20 WITH GRAPHIC FACILITIES  BOGIE FRAME MACHINE CENTER  CNC AXLE TURNING LATHE  FACING AND CENTERING MACHINE  WHEEL FORCING PRESS  CNC PIPE BENDING MACHINE 9 . but it took the complete year for the manufacturing to begin.

5. 100 KV.3 THE PRODUCT PROFILE OF BHEL JHANSI UNIT PRODUCTS RATINGS 1. 1400 MA 3900 to 5400 KVA & 7475. 3. Well wagon 200 tone. 9. Bus-Duct transformer Instrument transformer Diesel electric locomotives AC/DC locomotives Over Head Equipment cum Test Car upto 5000 KVA. 10. 11. VT & CT up to 220 KV class. 6.2. 8. 1385 KVA (3 phase). 2. Freight Loco transformer up to 220 KV class 250 MVA up to 132 KV. up to 2600 HP. 7. 4. 2.4 GROWTH OF PRODUCTIONS AND MILESTONES YEAR OUTPUT Rs. (crores) MILESTONES 10 . ACEMU transformer upto 1000 KVA 2(1-phase). 5000 HP. Power transformer Special transformer ESP transformer. KVA for 3 phase.

Crossed 100 crore target. Start of ESP transformer.1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1990-91 0. Repowering of DESL loco started. ACHIEVED BREAK EVEN.10 Start of Instrument Transformer Start of traction transformer and power transformer (up to 132 KV). Start of Bus-Duct.74 19.0 328.0 238.56 7. manufacturing facilities of AC loco.42 38.43 435. Successful CCL.49 7. AC/DC locomotive first time in India 100th loco manufactured. Start of HFTT type freight loco transformer .05 215. 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 225.61 43.78 28.82 215.54 37. commissioning of 2. design and manufacturing 450 HP 3 axel DESL 1991-92 1992-93 155.29 109.02 15.60 Unit has been awarded ISO 9001 certificate fir quality Schemes 240 MVA power transformer produced first time. Start of 220 KV power transformer.500 KV DG set (due to server power cuts).87 65.41 128.61 Manufacturing of first 2600 HP DESL for NTPC. Successful Design and development of 5000HP Thirstier control locomotive. Start of new DESL loco manufacturing. Start of dry type transformer.53 3.67 51. 250 MVA transformer 11 .

0 Developed over head equipment cum test car. Approximate cost of the work. It is this department that bags contracts of building transformers. Transformer section.5 SECTIONS OF BHEL JHANSI UNIT BHEL has many departments. It brings out tenders and notices and also responds to them. Loco section. 4. 7. 8. 5.96 Diesel hydraulic shunting. while production and administrative departments are separate. 1998-99 287. Earnest money. The place and time where contract documents can be seen. The place and time where tender documents can be obtained. Bus Duct section 2. 2. 3. 2. The main work of the TRC is classified as: 1. 12 . Broadly speaking BHEL has two-production categories1. 3. Place of the work. Interaction with design department.6 TRANSFORMER SECTION 2. After delivery regarding faults. All such snags are reported to them and they forward the information to the concerning department. The time up to which the tender documents will be sold. 1999-00 218.produced first time. this department does failures and maintenance. Tenders and notices. Exported one DESL loco to Malaysia.6.1 TRANSFORMER COMMERCIAL (TRC) The objective of the department is interaction with the customers. 2. 6.

which are air-cooled.6. 11 KV and 13. If the current is kept high the copper losses become very high but iron losses are practically constant.2 TRANSFORMER ENGINEERING (TRE) The transformer manufactured in BHEL Jhansi range from 10 MVA to 240 MVA and up to 220 KV.1 POWER TRANSFORMER Power transformer a) Generator transformer b) System transformer. so in order to obtain it we require a tapping circuit. c) Auto transformer. In certain cases the required voltage may be less than the output voltage. Special transformer. For this voltage needs to be stepped up. The output voltage may have a certain percentage variation. which may be tapped in 4 or 6 equal steps. a) Freight loco transformer. needs thinner wire and hence is economical.8 KV but due to certain advantages like economical generation 11 KV is the most widely used.9 KV. b) ESP transformer.2. c) Instrument transformer. All above types are oil cooled except dry type. Transmission at high voltage is desirable because it results in lesser losses. 13 . The various transformer manufactured in this unit are:- Figure 2. d) Dry type transformer. The generated voltages at the power station are 6.

Planner machine – To reduce thickness CNC / ANC Flame Cutting machine – To cut complicated shaft items using Oxy-Acetylene flame Bending machine Rolling machine Flattening machine Drilling machine Nibbling machine 9.1BAY-0 It is the preparation shop while the other two bays form the assembly shop.3TRANSFORMER MANUFACTURING (TRM): The manufacturing of transformer is carried out in a systematic manner with work assigned to the following sections to smoothly carry out the job within the promised period.6. Pantograph flame cutting machine Shearing machine 2. It comprises of 3 bays i. 5. This section has the following machines: 1.e. at a substation in cities etc. 3.3. 8.6. 4. Bay1 &Bay 2. Bay0.6. where a continuous power supply is not required an Off Circuit Tap Changer (OCTC) may be used and where a continuous power supply is a must e. 7. 14 . on Load Tap Changer (OLTC) is used.g. after which a rough surface is obtained Grinder operating at 1200 rpm is used to eliminate the roughness.The type of tap changer depends on the application of the transformer. 2. 2.1. 6.Here welding processes are used for assembly. 2.2 BAY-1 It is an assembly shop where different parts of tank come from bay 0..1.3.3.1FABRICATION: Fabrication is nothing but production. 2.6.

headstock. 3. Here turret head is used in presence of tailstock because turret head contains many tailstocks around six.2 BAY-3 Here are basically three sections in the bay: 1.e. Ultrasonic test: to detect the welding fault on the CRO at the fault place high Die Penetration test: Red solution is put at the welding and then cleaned.6.3. acid pickting) is done on different parts of jobs to clean the surface before painting. 2.6. 5-cross feed assembly 6-core clamp assembly 7-pin and pad assembly 2. 3. 4. lower part of tailstock is fixed and tail stock spindle is moving.3. Sticking of the iron powder in the welding indicated a fault.6. The shop consist of following machines: CENTRAL LATHE: it consist one tailstock. Appearance of a red spot indicates a fault at the welding.1. the welding. On this machine facing. some time white solution is put. 15 . short blasting (firing of small materials i.2. amplitude waves are obtained. After Magnetic crack detection: Magnetic field is created and then iron powder is put at X-Ray Test: It is same as human testing and the fault is seen in X-ray film. turning and threading is done TURRET LATHE: its function is same as central lathe but it is used for mass production.3 BAY-2 It is an assembly shop dealing with making different objects mentioned below:1-Tank assembly 2-Tank cover assembly 3-End Frame assembly 4-foot assembly Before assembly.2.1 MACHINE SECTION: The operations to form small components of power and traction transformer are done in this section. 2.. After assembly some tests are done known as NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST 1.3. Machine section Copper section Tooling section 2.

TUBE SLITTING MACHINE: This machine is developed here and is used for cutting the tube along its length and across its diameter. and T-slot cutting is done 2. WATER COOLED BRAZING MACHINE: It contains two carbon brushes. Solder has a composition of 60% Zn and 40% Pb. facing etc. which is on the top of the machine. The sheet is put along with a sulfas sheet and the carbon brushes are heated. b) Vertical milling machine: By the machine facing cutting.3 TOOLING SECTION: 16 . around 5. SOLDER POT MACHINE: It has a pot that contains solder. LINCING BELT MACHINE: It creates a smooth surface.CAPSTAN LATHE: It is belt drive.2.1 mtr long. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE: It is computerized and used for making bore.6.3. HYDRAULIC BENDING MACHINE: It is used for bending the job upto 90°. It is operated mechanically by a wheel. FLY PRESS MACHINE: It is used to press the job. A Lap Joint is formed between the sheets as the sulfas sheet melts.3. Its blade thickness is 3mm. 2. SHEARING MACHINE: It is fully mechanical and is used to cut the job along its width. It has a circularly operated blade. SHEARING MACHINE: It is operated hydraulically and its blade has V-shape and a thickness of 15mm DIE AND PUNCHING MACHINE: It is also hydraulically operated and has a die and punch for making holes. RADIAL ARM DRILLING MACHINE: It is used for drilling and boring.2 COPPER SECTION: All the processes related to copper are done here. BEND SAW MACHINE: This machine is used for cutting job having small thickness. HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE: To press the job. MILLING MACHINE:a) Horizontal milling machine: It is used for making gear and cutting operations.6.2.

2. Reverse section winding. For winding first the mould of diameter equal to inner dia meter of required coil is made . Belly types 17 .In this section the servicing of tools is done. DRILL GRINDING MACHINE: To grind the drills. High voltage coil (HV) 3. Conductors used for winding is in the form of very long strips wound on a spool. Tertiary coil 4. MINI SURFACE GRINDER MACHINE: It serves grinding purposes. TYPES OF WINDING : 1. Tap coil The type of winding depends upon job requirement. the conductor is covered by cellulose paper for insulation. This interlocking can be increased or decreased to adjust the inner diameter of coil.The specification of coil are given in drawing. BLADE SHARP MACHINE: It sharpens the blade using a circular diamond cutter. Spiral winding 4. The moulds are of following types.3. Also. the width and thickness of the conductors are designed particulars and are decided by design department. TOOL & SURFACE GRINDING MACHINE: This is specially used to grind the tools used in Bay 7. Half sectional winding There are four TYPES OF COIL fixed in a transformer. The diameter of mould is adjustable as its body is made up of wooden sections that interlock with each other. Blade of CNC cropping line machine is sharpened here. It has a grinding wheel made of “Aluminum Oxide”. they are : 1.1. Helical winding 3. 2. Interleaved winding 5.3 BAY 4: This is the winding section. Low voltage coil (LV) 2.6.

6. CNC CROPPING LINE PNEUMATIC: It contains only one blade. The supply lines for this transformer is of 25 KV and power of the transformer is6500 KVA.33 mm thickness is used 2. Germany.M4 quality sheet 0.6.6 BAY-7: 18 . It is operated hydraulically . Cone type 2. 1mt wide and measured in Kg . The lamination used in power.5BAY-6 Single-phase traction transformer for AC locomotives is assembled in this section. CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented) silicon steel is used for lamination. Link types 3.3.23-0.2.28 mm thick sheets. SLITTING MACHINE: It is used to cut CRGO sheets in different width. ESP transformer etc for making core is cut in this section. U.27 and 0. 3.3.It is operated pneumatically. one is fixed and the other rotates 90° above the sheet. CNC CROPPING LINE HYDRAULIC: It is also used to cut the CRGO sheet. For the purpose of cutting and punching the core three machines are installed in shop 1.6. It contains two blades. It is available in 0. These Freight locomotive transformers are used where there is frequent change in speed.4BAY-5 It is core and punch section. which is imported in India from Japan. It has a circular cutter whose position can be changed as per the requirement. In this bay core winding and all the assembly and testing of traction transformer is done.The sheet s are coated with very thin layer of insulating material called “carlites”. which can rotate 90° about the sheet . 2. Three-phase transformers for ACEMU are also manufactured in this section. dry. 2.3. Rectified transformer is used in big furnace like the thermal power stations / plants ( TPP).K. The tap changer of rectifier transformer is also assembled in this bay.

from H.1 INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER - 19 . Various types of insulations are 1.7 BAY 8 It is the instrument transformer and ESP transformer manufacturing section.V.3.2-0.7. It is up to 38 mm thick. 3-PRESS BOARD: This is used for separation of coils e. The paper is 0. 8-SILICON RUBBER SHEET-It is used for dry type transformer. 2. 6-BAKELLITE 7-GASKET-It is used for protection against leakage.V.AWWW: All Wood Water Washed press paper. 5-FIBRE GLASS: This is a resin material and is used in fire pron areas.6. L.6.3. 2-PRE-COMPRESSED BOARD: This is widely used for general insulation separation of conductors in the forms of blocks. The machines used for shaping the insulation material are 1-Cylindrical machines 2-Circle cutting machine 3 Scarping machines 4-Punching press machine 5-Drilling machine 6-Guilletin machines 7-Bench saw (spl for OD) 8-Jig saw (spl for ID) 9-Circular saw 10-Linesin machines & 2.5mm thick cellulose paper and is wound on the conductors for insulation.This is the insulation shop. 4-UDEL: UnDemnified Electrical Laminated wood or Permawood This is special type of plywood made for insulation purposes.g.

For higher rating a set of wires is passed through the pipe. over current. Aluminum is used for low rating. High current is not directly measured by the CT but is stepped down to lower measurable voltages. They are used in AC system for measurement of current voltage and energy and can also be used for measuring power factor. For still higher ratings. There is also connection box to which the connection of the low voltage (LV) coil is made. 1-Current transformer (CT) 2-Voltage transformer (VT) 2. It has terminals for Below the top chamber is the bushing made of porcelain. folds or “rain sheds” to provide a specific electric field distribution and long leakage path. earth fault and various other types of relays. This arrangement depends on the current 20 . The top chamber is a cylindrical tank of mild steel. It has several connection of HV coils. which houses the winding and also acts as an insulator. They find application in protection of power system and for the operation of over voltage. • Bottom chamber houses the secondary winding. a copper pipe is used and for highest rating copper pipe with copper wires passing through it is used. • • • The CT has a bottom and top chamber.1 CURENT TRANSFORMERIt is a step down transformer. frequency and for indication of synchronism. It also has a glass window to indicate the oil level.7. Some bushings are cylindrical while modern ones are conical as amount of oil porcelain used is reduced without any undesirable defect.3.1. BODY: The main body is a bushing.These are used for measurement.6. They are of two types. Actual measurement is done by measuring instruments but these transformers serve the purpose of stepping down the voltage to protect the measuring instrument. WINDINGS: The primary winding consists of hollow copper/aluminum pipe bent in form of a ‘U’.

They are of particular use in thermal power stations and cement industry. After winding the coils are covered with paper tape insulation.3.2 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS: This is also a stepped down transformer. The customer gives the choice of paint.3. which are. The clean and painted with either enamel or epoxy paint.6. The thickness of the insulation goes in increasing as we go downwards in the bottom chamber. It is used to filter in a suspended charge particle in the waste gases of an industry.1. It has a hollow cylinder passing centrally through it. The secondary is divided in a number of coils for different set of tapings.7.carrying capacity. The straight portion lies inside the bushing. The coils are then slipped into both the legs of the primary winding and connections are made in connection box for different tapping. bushing and a bottom chamber. 2. which takes care of its dispatch by packing it in the wooden boxes. Each coil has an annular core of CRGO (silicon steel). The difference is only in the winding. The free ends are provided with ‘ferrules’. small hollow cylinders through which wires can pass connection to the primary are made through these ferrules. Connections are different tapings are made in connection box.6.1.7. which houses the secondary winding. The winding is heavily insulated with paper insulation. The job is then sent to the shipping department. The outer construction is same as that of the CT that is this also has a top chamber. WINDINGS: The primary winding is of the thick wire having a few turns. 2. The winding may be done both manually and by machine.3 ESP TRANSFORMER: The Electrostatic Precipitator transformer is used for environmental application. The wire use is insulated copper wire. The primary is wound with crepe paper insulation. The bent portion of primary as in the bottom chamber where as the free end is the top chamber. Terminals are then mark and ratings and diagram plate is fixed. Epoxy paint is generally used in chemical plants and seashore installation. 21 .

The core is laminated and is made up of CRGOS. For this a network of plates has to be setup all across the plant. One side of the transformer output is taken and other side has a ‘marshalling box’ which is the control box of the transformer. A relive vent is also provided to prevent the transformer from bursting it higher pressure develops. The output of the transformer must be DC that is obtained by rectifying AC using a bridge rectifier (bridge rectifier is a combination of several hundred diodes). An AC reactor is connected in series with primary coil. It is the weakest point in the transformer body.8 BAY-9 In this bay power transformer are assembled. It is a step up transformer. After taking different input from different bays 0-9 assembly is done. inside it. The DC output from the secondary is given to a set of plates arrange one after the others. System & Auto transformer.6. It has a primary and secondary. There are various ratings –11KV. Impurity particles being positively charged stick to these plates. The output is chosen negative because the particles are positively charged. 2. An oil temperature indicator and the secondary supply spark detector are also provided. The design of the transformer is done by the design department & is unique of each job.3. they are Generator transformer. depends on the requirement of customer. manufactured.The ESP is a single-phase transformer. Power transformer is used to step and step down voltages at generating and substations. 22 . Core Lifting. 22KV. A radio frequency choke (RF choke) is connected in series with the DC output for the protection of the secondary circuit and filter circuit. which assembles it accordingly. The steps involved in assembly are: 1. A transformer in a process of assemblage is called a job. Core building 2. The design department provides drawing to the assembly shop. This is very costly process in comparison with the transformer cost. which can be jerked off.

Megger Test.6. 2.3. Brazing copper makes the connections. Here it is assembled with the help of drawing a set of 4 laminations is called a packet. Unlacing. It is undesirable to keep the X section of core circular to provide low reluctance part without air space.8.8.3. 2. 2.3. 2. After core building the end frames are bolted.3 Unlacing & Core Coil Assembly: The yoke of the core is removed using crane. The bolts are insulated from the cores. The removed yoke is placed end-frame bolted back into its position. The following tests are done during re lacing: 1.3.3. The vertical portion of the core is called a ‘leg’ the horizontal one is called as ‘yoke’. 6. Final servicing and tanking. tertiary and tap in that sequences. All the conductors are insulated using crepe paper. 5.6. secondary. Vapour phasing and oil soaking 7.1Core Building: It is made of cold rolled grain oriented steel ‘CRGO’. The rest of the spaces left are filled with thin wooden rod. Ratio test. Delacing and end-frame mounting. High voltage terminal gear and low volt terminal gear mounting. For brazing silphos is used.4 Relacing & End-frame Mounting: After lowering a coil the top insulation similar to the bottom one is provided. The connections are then made as per drawings. The coil are then lowered primary. A perfect circle cannot be made so the core is stepped to achieve a near circle. Bottom insulation in form of 50MM thick UDEL sheets is placed PCB and press board are also used for filling the gap and to provide a good base for the coil to rest. Packets of both are interlinked. The rest of assembly is done on the core in this position. 8.2 Core Lifting: The core is lifted by a crane and is placed vertical.6. 23 .8.6. The punched core is sent to this shop from core punching shop. Case fitting. 4.8. 2.

then the tapings changes but in on load type the tapings can be changed while the supply is on. moisture presence in transformer will effect insulation.3. A solvent vessel is released is the chamber which enters all transformer parts and insulations. so that every gets wet with oil.V. It is an airtight chamber with heating facilities.8. 2.8.6. It is then taken out of the vessel and also out of the dummy time. On load tap changer (OLTC) are used where the supply is desired to be continuous.G. Tap changer can be on load or offload. The bottom part houses the terminals and the mechanism.8. The job is put in dummy type and place in a vacuum vessel. Main device used is tap changer. 2.V.6 Vapour Phasing & Oil Soaking: It is well known fact that water (impure) conducts electricity. The job is heated in vacuum. may burst the job After moisture removal tank is filled with transformer oil and soaked for at least three hours. It absorbs water rapidly. This is essential because if false are seen at a later stage. All the solvent vapours are sucked out with moisture.3. OLTC IS filled with oil. To get rid of it. the process of moisture removal from transformer is called vapour phasing.6. The terminals are made of thick aluminum strips. But there is a possibility of sparking.T. which makes automatic connections.T.6. Testing at this stage is called pre testing. 2.3. whole of the transformer will have to be dissembled. Therefore. There is switch which changes tap in very small type (Micro-seconds).: Terminals gears are accessories provided at high voltage and low voltage terminals. Metals contain no moisture but a lot of insulations is provided which contains this moisture and if not taken care of.5 H. The upper portion of the OLTC contains mechanism by which tapping is changed. The job remains in vessel for three days during phasing.7 Final Servicing & Tanking: 24 .3. Meg current / High Volt test.G & L. In offload type the supply has to be tripped.

which is bolted to bottom chamber with a cork gasket in vacuum.3. After tanking oil is filled. It also has 3 two-stage air compressors for supplying compressed air to the various bays. fixing valves etc. There are various sub-stations (SS) inside the factory. WE&S takes prompt action to rectify it. 2. The department has 03 different divisions:  Electrical Engg Electronics Engg Mechanical Engg   ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: This division looks after all the electrical machinery and power distribution of the factory. for distribution of power to different sections.7.After taking the job out of dummy time all the parts retightened any other defects are rectified and job is retimed in mild steel tank. (Rating and Diagram) plate is fixed.8 Case Fitting: The accessories are fixed and final touches given to job.1 WORK ENGINEERING & SERVICES (WE&S) This department looks after the commissioning and maintenance of all the machinery used in the factory. Snags detected in the system are immediately reported to this department by the concerning department. The terminals are marked and R and D. Bushings are hollow to provide a passage for conductor.6.8. Bushing is built on a mild steel base. The accessories include tank cover. This chamber houses the secondary winding. The factory has a feeder of 11KV .The total load sanctioned for the factory is 2500MVA but the maximum demand reaches the range of 1700-2000 MVA. Bolting and not riveting because it may require maintenance and hence opening close the tank. The bottom chamber is mild steel tank with a steel frame attached to its base for earthling. 2. 25 . oil is filled inside the hollow spaces for better insulation. fixing bushing.

2 TECHNOLOGY This department analyses the changes taking place in the world and suggest changes accordingly. air bubbles in welding  Special tools requirement: Special tools are allotted. The principle of working is that 26 .  Productivity projects compilation: It includes the initial analysis of the problem and their appropriate solution to enhance productivity. cracks.SS -1 SS -3 SS -4 SS -5 SS -6 Supplies Supplies Supplies Supplies Supplies Bay-6 to Bay –9 Bay 1to Bay-4 Boiler and loco plant Bay -5 Administrative building 2. FUNCTIONS: Technology functions can be classified as:  Processing Sequence: The sequence of process of manufacturing is decided for timely and economic completion of the job. This is very important because the products must not get obsolete in the market otherwise they will be rejected by the customer.7. if possible.  Operation time estimate : It includes incentive scheme management Allowed operation time: It includes incentive amount Facilities identification: It includes looking for new equipment or plant or tools to increase productivity    Special process certification: Special processes are the ones requiring expertise for example identifying errors. when required else the design has to be reconsidered.

QUALITY CONTROL The operational technique and activities that are used to fulfill requirement for quality are quality control. testing. 3.7.3 QUALITY CONTROL CENTRAL QUALITY SERVICE First we get acquainted with a few terms concerning this department. 2. QUALITY It is the extent to which products and services satisfy the customer needs. QUALITY INSPECTION Activities such as measuring.1 INTRODUCTION We the human beings are known to continuously improve our surroundings and in endeavour to do so we curiously keep reinventing with the technologies and one of such greatest inventions of man is known to be electricity which has completely made our lifestyle 27 . gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirement to determine conformity is termed quality inspection. ELECTRIC TRACTION 3. THE CUSTOMER WILL CHANGE YOU”. QUALITY ASSURANCE All those plants and systematic action necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirement is called quality assurance.“IF YOU DO NOT MAKE THE CHANGES IN YOUR COMPANY.

3. adequate stock of insulators.complacent. ladders. As an engineer what often fascinate me are what this traction is and how this all technology works and today after my training at BHEL Jhansi I would like to share how all this stuff works with the advent of my knowledge gathered here.2. It describes traction as an act of hauling or pulling a thing over a surface and electric traction means doing it with the aid of electricity. We would be discussing these devices in brief here as the next section would be dedicated to electric locomotive’s technical know-how completely. etc. Be it about facing the scorching heat or resisting a chilly December night we are dependent on electricity. trams and trolleys 3) Battery driven and solar powered vehicles 3. These are of two types: – – Four Wheeler (speed potential upto 75 KMPH) Eight Wheeler (speed potential upto 110 KMPH) 28 . This is all possible because of electricity only and electric traction has basically helped to redefine our complacent lifestyle. Electric traction according to the same author can be broadly classified as: 1) Electric Trains 2) Electric buses.2 OTHER TRACTION DEVICES MANUFACTURED AT BHEL BHEL is not only into manufacturing electric locomotives but also some various other devices required to cater the need of transportation sector. local emu trains. It carries necessary tools for maintenance and break downs such as tackles. It means to transport men and material from one place to another as described in the book ‘Fundamentals of Electrical Drives’ by Gopal K. What is traction? This is the question that arises first in everybody’s mind and here is what the oxford dictionary has to say about it. Our day to day life has become inaccessible without electricity. ropes. clamps. straining screws. One such example is of our day to day to travelling to our workplaces for which we our dependent on metros. Dubey.1 OHE Inspection Car (Tower Wagon) This is the recording cum test car for the overhead equipment used for maintenance of OHE and for attending to break downs. length of contact and catenary wires and other OHE fittings.

Figure3.2 RRV RRV stands for Rail cum Road Vehicle.2.6 RAIL CUM ROAD VEHICLE 3. Figure 3. It is a type of track equipment which can be run both on rail and the road.2. 29 .5 OHE INSPECTION CAR 3.3 BALLAST CLEANING MACHINE This is used for cleaning of the tracks after some accident or incident has occurred on the railway tracks.

Figure 3.4 DYNAMIC TRACK STABILIZER This is used for track stabilization after ballast cleaning.8 DYNAMIC TRACK STABILIZER 3.7 BALLAST CLEANING MACHINE 3.2.2. Figure 3.5 OTHER USEFUL EQUIPMENTS The various other useful equipments are shown below with their descriptions just below them a) UTILITY VEHICLE 30 .

Presently.10 200T. 18 axle Well Wagon 31 .9 UTILITY VEHICLE CAN BE USED FOR A HUGE NUMBER OF TASKS b) WELL WAGON Well wagon are manufactured at BHEL Jhansi for BHEL Haridwar for the transportation of turbines manufactured there.Figure 3. two types of well wagons have been manufactured and they are: Figure 3.

11 280T. 24 AXLE WAGON 32 .Figure 3.