HYDROCARBONS

Tekst voor de cursus Grondstoffen en het Systeem Aarde (HD 698) H.E.Rondeel, december 2001

Teksten gebaseerd op: Blackbourn, G.A. (1990) Cores and core logging for geologists. Whittles Publ.,Caithness. 113 pp. Shauer Langstaff, C. & D. Morrill (1981) Geologic cross sections. IHRDC, Boston. 108 pp. Stoneley, R. (1995) An introduction to petroleum exploration for non-geologists. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 119 pp. Waples, D. (1981) Organic geochemistry for exploration geologists. Burgess Publ. Co., Mineapolis. 151 pp. Waples, D.W. (1985) Geochemistry in petroleum exploration. Reidel Publ. Co, Dordrecht & IHRDC, Boston. 232 pp.

HYDROCARBONS

CONTENTS
1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 5 FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS......................................................................................................... 5 2 - ORGANIC FACIES.......................................................................................................................... 6 THE CARBON CYCLE ....................................................................................................................... 6 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS............................................................................ 7 PRODUCTIVITY .............................................................................................................................. 7 PRESERVATION.............................................................................................................................. 8 DILUTION ..................................................................................................................................... 11 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 12 3 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY .............................................................................................................. 13 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 13 NAMES AND STRUCTURES........................................................................................................... 13 HYDROCARBONS ......................................................................................................................... 13 NONHYDROCARBONS ................................................................................................................. 15 4 - KEROGEN...................................................................................................................................... 17 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN FORMATION................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN COMPOSITION ............................................................................................................. 18 KEROGEN MATURATION .............................................................................................................. 20 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 20 EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS ............................................................................. 21 HYDROCARBON GENERATION................................................................................................... 22 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 23 5 - BITUMEN, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS...................................................................... 24 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 24 COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ......................................................... 24 GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS ....................................................................................... 24 SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS.............................................................................................................. 25 FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM................................ 25 SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS ......................................................................................................... 25 RESERVOIR TRANSFORMATIONS ............................................................................................... 26 COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ....................................................................... 27 NATURAL GAS .............................................................................................................................. 28 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 28 6 - MIGRATION.................................................................................................................................. 29 DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................................... 29 PRIMARY MIGRATION................................................................................................................... 29 MECHANISMS............................................................................................................................... 29 DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 30 SECONDARY MIGRATION............................................................................................................. 31 MECHANISM................................................................................................................................. 31

Contents

DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 31 ACCUMULATION............................................................................................................................ 32 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 32 CLASSICAL TRAPS........................................................................................................................ 33 KINETIC TRAPS ............................................................................................................................ 33 TAR-MAT TRAPS ........................................................................................................................... 34 GAS HYDRATES ............................................................................................................................ 34 EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION ................................................................................ 34 SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION ............................................................................................ 35 7 - PETROLEUM TRAPS ................................................................................................................... 36 THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS .............................................................................................. 36 STRUCTURAL TRAPS ..................................................................................................................... 37 STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS ................................................................................................................ 41 COMBINATION TRAPS................................................................................................................... 42 HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS .............................................................................................................. 43 THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS ................................................................................... 43 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 45 8 - SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION.................................................................................................. 49 DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK.................................................................................................... 49 PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION .......................................................................... 49 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 49 MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL.......................................................................................... 49 CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING....................................................................................... 52 ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY ...................................................................... 52 INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA ............................................................................. 53 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 53 TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER....................................................................................................... 53 MATURITY..................................................................................................................................... 54 COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS ......................................................................................................... 54 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 55 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 56 9 - PREDICTING THERMAL MATURITY ...................................................................................... 60 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 60 CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL ....................................................................... 60 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES.......................................................................................................... 61 TEMPERATURE HISTORY............................................................................................................ 61 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES ............................................ 62 CALCULATION OF MATURITY..................................................................................................... 63 FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY............................................................................ 64 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS ..................................................... 65 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 66 10 - QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................... 69 OIL IN PLACE .................................................................................................................................. 69 RESERVES........................................................................................................................................ 69 DISCOVERED RESERVES............................................................................................................. 70 UNDISCOVERED RESERVES ....................................................................................................... 72 ULTIMATE RESERVES.................................................................................................................. 73

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or under different diagenetic conditions. porosity and permeability decrease. the principal products consist of smaller gas molecules. As temperature rises. convert some of the organic debris to biogenic methane. and are called bitumen . kerogen begins to decompose into smaller. thermal reactions become increasingly important. The earliest stage of hydrocarbon generation occurs during diagenesis. Migration through these conduits often leads to traps. Certain microorganisms. where hydrocarbon movement ceases and accumulation occurs. Once formed. In recent years this relatively simple picture of hydrocarbon generation has been complicated slightly by our growing awareness that kerogens formed from different kinds of organic matter. Most of this organic matter is transformed during diagenesis info very large molecules. called catagenesis. Although the transformation process is very complex. Low-temperature chemical and biological reactions (called diagenesis) that occur during transport to and early burial in the depositional environment modify this organic matter. . oil and gas molecules can be expelled from the source rock into more permeable carrier beds or conduits. In the early stages of catagenesis most of the molecules produced from kerogen are still relatively large. but only within the last few years have we realized that in many areas a large portion of the natura!-gas reserves are biogenic. These changes lead to a gradual cessation of microbial activity. more mobile molecules. In the late stages of catagenesis and in the final transformation stage. As burial depth increases.Introduction FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS Proponents of the organic origin of oil and gas have given us a general picture of how organic matter derived from dead plants is converted to hydrocarbons. Many of the chemical compounds present in sediments are in fact derived from bacteria. called methanogens. These differences can have a significant effect on hydrocarbon generation. called metagenesis. and were formed as dead organic matter was converted to microbial tissues. are chemically distinct from each other. with many details still poorly understood.Organic Facies . Formation of biogenic methane has been recognized for a long time. and temperature increases. and thus eventually bring organic diagenesis to a halt. these are the precursors for petroleum. During this second transformation phase.5 1 . it is known that organic debris derived from plants and algae is best preserved in fine-grained sediments deposited in the absence of oxygen. These play a key role as the precursors for oil and much natural gas. however. the largest of which are called kerogen.

Despite the great imbalance in biomass between terrestrial plants (450 billion metric tons [t]) and aquatic phytoplankton (5 billion t). A large fraction. The recently discovered deep-sea ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean that derive their energy from oxidation of sulfides in hydrothermal vents are interesting but volumetrically unimportant. Because of . we need to understand how this organic matter came to be preserved in the rocks. Some of the organic material in sediments consists of fragments of plants or algae that derived their energy from the sun. Most organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere through the carbon cycle. the yearly productivity of both groups is about equal. as a consequence of the much more rapid reproduction of simple aquatic organisms. Zooplankton and higher animals contribute relatively little organic matter to sediments.6 2 . Preservation of organic matter begins with photosynthesis. less than 1% of the annual photosynthetic production escapes from the carbon cycle and is preserved in sediments.Organic Facies . Oxidative decay of dead organic matter is a highly efficient process mediated largely by microorganisms. comprises microbial tissue formed within the sediments by the bacterial transformation of plant and algal debris.Organic Facies THE CARBON CYCLE Because oil and gas are generated from organic matter in sedimentary rocks. Preservation of organic material is actually a rare event. however.

temperature. a great deal of the oxidation of organic matter occurs within the sediments themselves. PRODUCTIVITY A partial listing of the many factors influencing productivity would include nutrient availability.Organic Facies . and general water chemistry. Namibia. If this deeper water is enriched in nutrients. however. because without adequate productivity.000 billion t) dispersed in fine-grained sedimentary rocks. preservation. On the other hand. where there is local recycling of nutrients from decaying organisms and influx of fresh nutrients from terrestrial sources. Peru. In relatively unrestricted marine environments. When we consider inefficiencies in discovery and recovery. light intensity. There is another zone of seasonal upwelling off the Horn of Africa in the Indian Ocean as a result of . and dilution. one of the critical parameters governing productivity. high photosynthetic productivity will occur at the site of upwelling.7 extensive oxidation of land-plant debris in soils. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values decrease monotonically through the first 300 meters of burial before levelling out at about 0. In the modern world there are zones of intense seasonal upwelling off the west coasts of California. volcanism. Each of these categories could in turn be further subdivided. and that the microbes have given up trying to digest it. accumulation of organic-rich sediments cannot occur.05%) occurs in economic deposits of fossil fuels. Although oxidative decay destroys most of the yearly production. Bodies of water naturally develop density stratification. only one molecule out of about every one million successfully negotiates the journey from living organism to the gasoline pump.1%. the low TOC values could indicate that the remaining organic matter has no more nutritional value.000 billion t. and Northwest Africa that result from the movement of surface waters away from these coasts. carbonate supply. with a preference for horizontal water movement within each density layer. nutrient availability would depend on such factors as water circulation patterns.000. watercirculation patterns are particularly important for supplying nutrients and thus controlling productivity. Upwelling occurs where bulk movement of surface water away from a particular area allows deeper water to ascend to replace it. predators. Although some destruction of organic material occurs during transport to the depositional environment. orogeny and erosion. are therefore much more productive than the open ocean. Nutrients dissolved in waters below the photic zone therefore go unutilized. Nutrient availability is. and recycling by organic decay. Shallowmarine environments. Only where there is upwelling of subsurface waters can these nutrients return to the photic zone. paleoclimate. over vast amounts of geologic time the small fraction that escaped the carbon cycle has built up extremely large quantities of organic matter (20. or about 0. Each factor may be dominant under different conditions. For example. Productivity is the logical place to begin our analysis. suggesting that either depth or organiccarbon content eventually limits diagenesis. The three primary factors influencing the amount of organic matter in a sedimentary rock are productivity. Depth could interfere with microbial diagenesis when compaction reduces pore sizes and nutrient fluxes in interstitial waters. much of the terrestrial organic material is already highly oxidized when it arrives in the sediments. Only a small fraction of this (10. because under normal circumstances they cannot move upward into the zone of photosynthesis. significant amounts of organic matter must be deposited and protected from diagenetic destruction. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS In order for organic-rich rocks to be formed. in fact.

All these areas exhibit high productivity when upwelling occurs. PRESERVATION The principal control on organic richness is the efficiency of preservation of organic matter in sedimentary environments.5 mL/L). much oxic sediment also contains large amounts of organic matter. although some species can tolerate extremely low oxygen levels (0. Anoxic sediments always contain elevated TOC values (generally above 2% and always above 1% ). the simplest way to limit oxidation is to limit the supply of oxygen." hut because of the radical change in biota that occurs at about 0. The presence of undegraded marine organic material is a strong indication of anoxia. increasing preservation rates is a very efficient way to increase organic richness. oxidizing agents are probably the most crucial factor. and because most biological oxidation processes require molecular oxygen. Theoretical models have been developed to predict upwelling (and consequent productivity) in ancient seas from input data on continental configurations. Such models are interesting. and are usually limited in scope by the availability of sulfate or nitrate. its use in practice has been expanded to include very low oxygen levels as well. especially in the Palaeozoic. the remaining individuals often become dwarfed in an effort to survive in a hostile environment. paleoclimatic conditions. There are many more organic-rich facies resulting from excellent preservation than from extremely high productivity. many species disappear. Anoxic sediments are not always easy to recognize. soils. At lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Secondly. Anoxia is of tremendous importance in the preservation of organic matter in sediments. if on the average only 1% of organic matter is preserved. landmasses. the zone where oxygen falls below 0. Because most of the oxidation occurring in the water column. The term dysaerobic has been used to describe processes occurring in the transitional zone (0. microorganisms that utilize materials like sulfate or nitrate ions instead of molecular oxygen as electron acceptors in their metabolic processes. Thus if anoxia can develop. ANOXIA. TOC values alone must therefore be used with caution. Three factors affect the preservation (or destruction) of organic matter: the concentration and nature of oxidizing agents. Processes that occur in these two zones are called aerobic and anaerobic. preservation of organic matter will be much enhanced. There are. wind and water circulation patterns.8 monsoonal winds that drive surface waters away from the coast. However.5 milliliters (mL) per liter (L)).2 mL/L.2-0.Organic Facies . and may in fact prove useful in future exploration efforts. Its presence in . however. essentially the only viable organisms are those that we call anaerobes. because some of the commonly used indicators of anoxia may be misleading.2 mL/L. and all the other factors that influence upwelling loci is severely limited. and sediments is biological. the type of organic matter deposited. because marine organic matter is consumed preferentially by organisms. diagenesis is restricted to anaerobic processes. At dissolved oxygen levels below about 0. Of these. All large organisms require oxygen in order to live. We call the zone in which oxygen contents are high the oxic zone.2 mL/L is called the anoxic zone. First. After all. and paleoclimates. and the sediment-accumulation rate. the accuracy with which we can reconstruct continental positions. especially of woody origin. respectively. because when the availability of oxygen is limited. and we could coin the term dysoxic to describe the zone itself. The term "anoxic" literally means "having no oxygen. productivity is probably not as important a factor as preservation. some problems associated with their application. These anaerobic processes are inefficient compared with aerobic diagenesis.

are not rich in organic carbon. intense pyritization of benthic bivalves is testimony to the fact that pyrite is not a good indicator of bottom-water anoxia at the time of deposition.2 mL/L. Conversely. and therefore that dissolved-oxygen levels were below 0. anoxic sediments. but limnic environments often are. anoxic sediments show preserved depositional laminae on a millimeter or submillimeter scale. they often owe their dark color to finely divided pyrite or to particular chert phases. Lakes of the Rift Valley of East Africa are excellent modern analogs receiving much attention from both researchers and explorationists at the present time. STAGNANT BASINS. the Elko Formation (Eocene/Oligocene. leading to the eventual development of a pycnocline (density interface) which prevents interchange between the two layers. that most of the world's oil was generated from source beds deposited under anoxic conditions. Many black rocks. All anoxic sediments will be very dark gray or black when deposited. Truly stagnant basins are actually quite rare. OXYGEN-MINIMUM LAYER (OML). it cannot represent an anoxic facies. it has been estimated. once the original oxygen has been consumed in oxidizing organic matter. most likely by absence of oxygen. If an isolated body of water is deep enough. and strata from several basins in China. The oxygen minimum layer usually begins immediately below the photic zone. The supply of fresh oxygen is therefore limited to horizontal . Finally. Lakes in failed rifts can also contain organic-rich. it may well have developed after burial. The laminae prove that burrowing fauna were absent. and both the waters in the bottom layer and the underlying sediments will become anoxic. no more oxygen can enter. Consumption of oxygen results from decay of dead organisms that have sunk from the photic zone above. very dark. then permanent density stratification will arise as a result of temperature differences within the water column. slow circulation or turnover of the water column occurs almost everywhere.Organic Facies . Nevertheless. Color is not a reliable indicator. The cooler. and if the climate is subtropical or tropical. denser waters remain at the bottom. particularly in understanding lacustrine beds. Nevada). Furthermore. however. Lack of communication between the layers prohibits replenishment of oxygen in the bottom layer. Therefore. Wyoming). Marine basins are seldom isolated enough to fit well into the stagnant-basin model. it is instructive to consider complete stagnation. and warm climates are necessary to avoid overturn caused by freeze-thaw cycles. there is no guarantee that anoxia was present at the sea floor. This oxygen minimum develops when the rate of consumption of oxygen within that layer exceeds the rate of influx of oxygen to it. although stunted burrows can be used as evidence of dysoxia. The oxygen-minimum layer is a layer of subsurface water that has a lower dissolved-oxygen content than the water layers either above or below. It therefore behoves us to understand the conditions under which anoxia develops. where photosynthesis and turbulence can no longer contribute oxygen to the water. The presence of pyrite itself can also be deceptive. Depths in excess of 200 m are required to prevent mixing during storms. anoxia can be very local. Among the ancient lake beds thought to have been deposited in permanently stratified waters are the well-known Green River Shale (middle Eocene.9 rocks therefore indicates that diagenesis was stopped prematurely. Color should be used mainly as a negative criterion: If a rock is not very. The ultimate implications of anoxia for petroleum exploration are great. Lake deposits associated with continental rifting. in fact. are anoxic in some of the places where they have been penetrated. the presence of bioturbation indicates that the bottom waters were not anoxic. and its presence indicates that the anaerobic reduction of sulfate ion did occur. especially during the Triassic along the margins of the developing Atlantic Ocean. Although pyrite does indeed form under anoxic conditions.

Any organic matter arriving in those sediments will have an excellent chance to escape oxidation. because of their connection with the open-marine realm. Although an oxygen-minimum layer exists virtually everywhere in the ocean. The result is often deposition of organic-rich laminae within evaporites. foreset beds within the same system are leaner in organic matter because they are deposited above the OML. Although circulation in coal swamps is generally sluggish. High productivity reduces oxygen levels. those environments can also incorporate the features of an oxygen-minimum-layer model. but it is too slow to disturb the anoxia which develops in the bottom layer. In actuality there is a lazy turnover of the bottom waters. During those times the OML expanded both upward and downward because of poor supply of oxygen to subsurface waters. Late jurassic. mid-Cretaceous. as a result of diminished oxygen demand. sediments will be deposited under low-oxygen conditions. However.. Below the OML oxygen levels again increase. permanent density stratification will develop. Late Devonian) the world oceans were severely depleted in dissolved oxygen. since most organic matter was destroyed within the overlying OML. Shallowly silled basins often yield evaporites. if the basin is deep enough.g. or as lateral facies equivalente thereof. to a lesser extent. In times like the mid-Cretaceous. In contrast. the waters entering or leaving the basin are near surface. the shallowness of the swamps prevents the waters themselves from becoming anoxic. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION. In either case.Organic Facies . and high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations create conditions poisonous to predators. in areas of poor circulation. There are other ancient and modern examples of organic-rich rocks deposited under anoxic or near-anoxic conditions associated with OMLs. Settings in which circulation is restricted are much more common than stagnant basins.10 movement of oxygen-bearing waters. In an evaporitic environment (Karabogaz in the Caspian Sea) there is a net flow of water into the basin. Anoxia . the oxygen they can contribute is limited. an upward expansion of the OML led to a tremendous increase in the surface area covered by anoxic bottom waters. Coal swamps can develop under a variety of conditions in both marine and non-marine environments. Large amounts of organic material are preserved in coal swamps as a result of the combined effects of poor water circulation. including paleoclimate and water circulation. because these horizontally moving waters also lie within the oxygen minimum layer. It has been proposed that at certain times in the past (e. Evaporitic environments combine the opportunity for abundant growth of algae with ideal conditions for preservation. Wherever an intensely developed OML intersects the sediment-water interface. which could be excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. and grazers and predatory organism are eliminated by the high salinities. when a major transgression had greatly increased the continental shelf area. the point of connection between the restricted area and the open-marine environment. This depletion was probably the result of the complex interplay of several factors. Bottomset beds associated with prograding delta systems can be rich in organic matter if they are laid down within a well-developed oxygen-minimum layer. high influxes of organic matter. These include the modern Peru-Chile shelf (high productivity associated with upwelling) and occurrences of black sediments of Aptian to Turonian age in the North Atlantic. Shallow Silling. with the bottom layer almost isolated from the open-marine waters. It is not coincidental that these were times of deposition of large amounts of organic-rich rocks in many parts of the world. Circulation is often restricted by the presence of a sill. whereas in a fluvially dominated system (Black Sea) the net flow of surface water is out over the sill. Nutrients are concentrated by evaporation. Intensely developed OMLs occur in areas of high productivity and. Where the sill is shallow. Coal Swamps. its intensity varies greatly. and diminished bacterial activity. Furthermore.

11 develops within the sediments rather than in the water column. forest fires. because extensive decomposition occurs during its fall to the ocean floor. or resinous material. cuticular. biogenic inorganic sediment. with their high concentrations of organic matter. RAPID SEDIMENTATION AND BURIAL. thus preventing extensive diagenesis of such material. provide an ideal means of maintaining low-oxygen conditions. but it does spread that organic material through a larger volume of rock. and may include woody. all of which are chemically quite distinct from each other. especially in structural (woody) material. which settle several orders of magnitude faster than individual phytoplankton. In fact. because its chemical components are digestible and provide precisely the nutrients required by scavengers and predators. TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER. and therefore wi11 contain primarily oxidized organic matter. or organic material. renders it of little nutritional value. Rapid burial is accomplished by a high influx of inorganic detritus. Coals also accumulate very rapidly and. Lack of sulfate in non-marine swamps further prevents anaerobic microbial destruction of the organic matter. . Rapid sedimentation and burial con also enhance preservation. much of the organic material that does reach the bottom in deep waters arrives in relatively large fecal pellets. but their supposedly low potential for generating oil is to be reconsidered. Organic matter of algal (phytoplanktonic) origin is consumed more readily by organisms than are other types of organic material. Near-shore oxidizing facies sometimes have high TOC values.Organic Facies . That material which remains is dominantly of terrestrial origin. and other oxidative processes. Any extensive organic diagenesis is therefore likely to eliminate algal organic matter first. cellulosic. at very high accumulation rate dilution may become a more important factor than increased preservation. and more favorable for gas than for oil. Rapid settling of organic debris through the water column is also important. Coals are important source rocks for gas accumulations. Most depositional settings not specifically catalogued above will be more or less well oxygenated. DILUTION Although high sediment-accumulation rates enhance preservation of organic matter. Furthermore. Dilution does not reduce the total amount of organic matter preserved. Nitrogen and phosphorus are in particular demand. Phenolic bactericides derived from lignin hinder bacterial decay in the water and throughout the sediment column. Oxic Settings. The extremely high accumulation rates for biogenic carbonates and siliceous sediments in zones of high productivity promote preservation of the associated algal protoplasm. and low productivity in the overlying pelagic realm. The net result is a reduction in TOC values. very slow sedimentation rates. Abyssal sediments are notoriously low in organic carbon as the result of the combined effects of high oxygen levels in abyssal waters. Rapid deposition of inorganic detritus is common in turbidites and in prodelta shales. the phenolic components present in lignin-derived terrestrial material are toxic to many micro-organism. lignitic. The hydrocarbon-source potential of all of these oxidizing facies is low. but the organic material is almost invariably woody. as a result of more rapid removal of organic material from the zone of microbial diagenesis. their virtual absence in much terrestrial organic material. It may also contain very resistent organic debris derived from erosion of ancient rocks. TOC values increase as sediment-accumulation rates increase.

a strongly developed oxygen-minimum layer. There are a number of mechanisms by which oxygen depletion may be fostered and maintained. Preservation is best accomplished where oxygen is excluded from bottom waters. Facies changes from carbonates to shales may create large dilution effects that can be wrongly interpreted as indicating changes in oxygen levels. Although certain periods undeniably contain more than their share of anoxic rocks. however. where sediment-accumulation rates are directly proportional to organic-carbon-accumulation rates. Direct control of the anoxia was thus probably local. in which the organic and inorganic materials arrive together. Anoxic events in the past were probably not as large in scale or as long lasting as some workers have suggested. such events were often interrupted for long periods before anoxia was reinduced. anoxia in bottom waters is a phenomenon whose effects we should learn to recognize in ancient rocks. If the rapidly accumulating sediment is mainly clastic. dilution is far less marked. The most reliable criteria for bottom-water anoxia are the preservation of fine depositional laminae. and the presence of high TOC values coupled with the occurrence of undegraded marine organic matter. lack of knowledge of seawater chemistry and nutrient availability at those times. Rapid accumulation of sediment shortens the residence time of organic matter in the zone of diagenesis and thus promotes preservation. as a result of high productivity or sluggish circulation. Biogenic sediments.12 Dilution effects depend upon rock lithology. show strong dilution effects when accumulation rates are very high. dilution effects may lead to lower TOC values in spite of enhanced preservation rates. and rapid burial. Our ability to make accurate predictions is limited. however. anoxic sediments were deposited discontinuously through time and space. are not as strongly affected by dilution. Of these. including stagnancy or near-stagnancy. It is important to be able to distinguish local anoxia or anoxia developed deep within sediments from anoxia induced by anoxic bottom waters. . in contrast. To derive maximum value from our analyses. As in the modern oceans. effectiveness of preservation. however. we should always strive to place the organic rich rocks in the larger context of basin evolution through time and space. Consequently. Productivity can be predicted by locating ancient sites of marine upwellings. It is often very difficult to separate the influences of these various factors in a particular depositional environment. preservation is generally the most important.Organic Facies . In biogenic sediments or coals. such models are not yet of much practical value for the distant past. by uncertainties about exact continental positions and configurations in the past. in contrast. Some of the commonly applied criteria are apt to be misleading.and atmospheric-circulation patterns. and dilution by inorganic material. Because of its role in creating rocks with excellent hydrocarbon-source potential. Models that integrate the concepts of organic richness with depositional cycles and facies analysis will be valuable tools for understanding hydrocarbon systems in basins. Shales. and a very imperfect understanding of oceanic. SUMMARY There are three principal factors that affect the amount of organic matter in sedimentary rocks: primary photosynthetic productivity.

three bonds. The structures of methane and ethane are thus represented by CH4 and CH3CH3 respectively. oxygen and sulfer.Organic Chemistry . sulfur. oxygen. as it does in the real world. are termed organic. ethane. creating long chains and ring structures. NAMES AND STRUCTURES HYDROCARBONS In chemical terms a hydrocarbon is a compound containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen. elsewhere in this text usage will vary. This objective is very different trom that of a normal course in organic chemistry. and cyclohexane. and organic geochemistry the study of organic compounds present in geological environments. Organic chemistry is thus the study of carboncontaining compounds. and other elements. and indeed in every carbon compound (except a few highly unstable ones created only in laboratories). especially if one has to do it only occasionally. Writing the detailed structure of a simple molecule like methane is no problem.13 3 . however. Petroleum and natural gas are themselves often referred to as "hydrocarbons. except carbon dioxide. The objective of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with the names of common compounds and with several different conventions for drawing their structures. trace metals. whose structures are shown below. using a subscript on the H to denote the total number of hydrogens around that atom. We can make other logical simplifications for longer carbon chains. Carbon atoms like to form bonds with each other. The chemical reactions of interest to us are very few and are discussed only briefly. . If one wants to draw large molecules. two bonds. This usage is historical and does not imply that all such compounds are necessarily derived from living organisms. and nitrogen.Organic Chemistry INTRODUCTION Anyone who uses petroleum geochemistry must be familiar with basic chemical terminology." but that usage is incorrect trom the chemist's point of view because those materials often contain substantial amounts of nitrogen. This unique property of carbon is responsible for the existence of literally millions of different organic compounds. The following representations of n-pentane are equivalent: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)3CH3. Similarly. and metal carbides. One common convention is to represent all the hydrogen atoms attached to a given carbon atom by a single H. every carbon atom forms four bonds. Several different types of shorthand have therefore developed to facilitate drawing organic molecules. in which one must also learn all the reactions of many classes of compounds. In this chapter we restrict the usage of the term hydrocarbon to the standard chemical one. hydrogen always forms one bond. carbonates. In each of these compounds. All compounds containing carbon atoms. the explicit inclusion of every atom and every bond becomes extremely tedious. Examples of hydrocarbons are methane.

Note that the name of each compound ends in -ane. because they are saturated with respect to hydrogen. Another important group of hydrocarbons is the unsaturates. These cyclic compounds (called naphthenes) are named by counting the number of carbon atoms in the ring and attaching the prefix cyclo. a CH3 (methyl) group is attached to the second carbon atom. In the case of 2methylhexane (C7H16) the basic structure is hexane. in contrast. That is. For example. is the adjectival form of the word methane.14 An even quicker shorthand that uses no letters at all has evolved. Names and formulas of the ten smallest n-alkanes Methane CH4 CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3 Butane C4H10 CH3 (CH2)2 CH3 Pentane C5H12 CH3 (CH2)3 CH3 Hexane C6H14 CH3 (CH2)4 CH3 Heptane C7H16 CH3 (CH2)5 CH3 Octane C8H18 CH3 (CH2)6 CH3 Nonane C9H20 CH3 (CH2)7 CH3 Decane C10H22 CH3 (CH2)8 CH3 Carbon atoms need not always bond together in a linear arrangement. but the prefixes denoting the number of carbon atoms in the other alkanes are derived from Greek numbers. Many unsaturated compounds have carbon-carbon double . n-pentane and cyclohexane are represented by the line structures shown below.Organic Chemistry . are able to combine with additional hydrogen. no more hydrogen can be incorporated into the molecule without breaking it apart. Among the most important branched hydrocarbons in organic geochemistry are the isoprenoids. The zigzag configuration illustrated for n-pentane is adopted to show clearly each carbon atom. Because we know that each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. Isoprenoids ranging in length from six to forty carbon atoms have been found in petroleum and rocks. The term methyl." The first four names are irregular. which. and carbon-carbon bonds are shown as lines connecting those points. as in "alkane. simple inspection shows how mant' hydrogen atoms each carbon atom must have. giving rise to a vast number of possible structures. and indicates that there is no branching in the carbon chain. Hydrogen atoms and bonds to hydrogen atoms are not shown at all. Branching can occur. We have also seen that carbon atoms can be arranged in rings. The letter n stands for normal. which we used earlier. Regular isoprenoids consist of a straight chain of carbon atoms with a methyl branch on every fourth carbon. these molecules are called n-alkanes or nparains. Each carbon atom is represented by a point. All the compounds mentioned above are called saturated hydrocarbons or saturates. The simplest series of hydrocarbons has linear structures. Other adjectival forms are made by dropping the -ane ending and adding yl (for example. the names of the other nine simplest n-alkanes are given in the following table. ethyl and propyl). We have ahready encountered n-pentane.

Among the most important NSO compounds are the asphaltenes. A variety of reactions. In the laboratory they are readily converted to alkanes by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having fused ring structures are quite common. these compounds are quite different trom the majority of the organic molecules found in living organisms. and cyclohexene (C6H10). Many of the heterocompounds present in organisms are converted to hydrocarbons during diagenesis and catagenesis. phosphorus. At first glance aromatics appear to be nothing more than cyclic alkenes containing several double bonds. sulfur. bitumen. some complex hydrocarbons that are found in fossil organic material can be related directly to individual biological precursors. that is. In fact. The circle indicates that the electrons in the double bonds are delocalized. they are free to move throughout the cyclic system instead of being held between two particular carbon atoms. except that the ending -ene indicates the presence of a double bond. The hydrocarbons present in petroleum are mostly the end products of extensive degradation of biogenic molecules. which are large. They are named in a similar manner to the alkanes. Some aromatic molecules are very large. Heterocompounds are also called NSO compounds. Although they are very important constituents of petroleum. including hydrogenafion. converts alkenes to alkanes and cyclic compounds during diagenesis. and oxygen. highly aromatic materials of . sulfur. Aromatics possess a system of alternating single and double bonds within a cyclic structure. and kerogen are called heteroatoms. the compounds in which they occur are called heterocompounds. but they actually have completely different chemical properties from alkenes and are unusually stable. By hydrogenation ethene thus reacts to form ethane. of which some are biogenic and others are formed during diagenesis. propene (C3H6). Their stability permits aromatics to be important constituents of oils and sediments. the majority contain oxygen. Examples are ethene (C2H4) . Many common NSO compounds are not directly related to biogenic precursors. Fossil organic matter often contains a vide variety of heterocompounds. The hydrocarbons we discussed so far are relatively simple molecules. NONHYDROCARBONS Atoms other than hydrogen and carbon that occur in petroleum. Because alkenes are highly reactive. or other elements. A simplified notation for drawing these molecules permits us to represent the double-bond system by a circle within the ring. It is this delocalization of electrons which makes aromatic compounds very stable. they do not add hydrogen easily. The extreme case is graphite. which is an almost-endless sheet of aromatic rings.15 bonds. Although they are unsaturated. they do not long persist in geologic environments. the structures of which are shown below. these compounds are called alkenes. Most biological molecules are larger and more complex than the simple hydrocarbons. Aromatics form an extremely important class of unsaturated hydrocarbons. because the most common heteroatoms are nitrogen.Organic Chemistry . nitrogen.

Upon decomposition lignin forms phenolic compounds. lignin is rather resistant to degradation. Because phenols are potent bactericides. providing much of the structural support for large land plants. Among these are lignin. most carbohydrates are attacked readily by microorganisms.Organic Chemistry . it is an important constituent of terrestrial organic matter. however. Carbohydrates include starch.16 varying structure. sugars. It is a polymer consisting of many repetitions and combinations of three basic aromatic subunits.000 atomic mass units. but asphaltene molecules are smaller and more aromatic than most kerogens. Lignin monomers are linked topether to form molecules having molecular weights from 3000 to 10. and cellulose. Lignin and cellulose are major constituents of humic coals. the latter is the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere. Although cellulose is quite resistant to decomposition under some conditions. They have many characteristics in common with kerogen. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. where small amounts of preserved amino acids can be used to date specimens) . Lignin is an important component of wood. Many nonhydrocarbon molecules common to living organisms are also present in sediments. which are aromatics having a hydroxyl group (OH) attached. and thus tends to become concentrated as other organic matter is decomposed. and amino acids. and thus are seldom preserved in sediments (exceptions occur in shell material and in bones. They are rapidly metabolized by virtually all organisms. carbohydrates. Like lignin.

During the course of diagenesis in the water column. as well as dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks. KEROGEN FORMATION The process of kerogen formation actually begins during senescence of organisms. If anaerobic sulfate . having very high molecular weights. The chemical and physical characteristics of a kerogen are strongly influenced by the type of biogenic molecules from which the kerogen is formed and by diagenetic transformafions of those organic molecules. Diagenetic and catagenetic histories of a kerogen. which are reflected in their chemical and physical properties.Kerogen . Today it is used to describe the insoluble organic material in both coals and oil shales. Oil shales. called bitumen. strongly influence the ability of the kerogen to generate oil and gas. Each kerogen molecule is unique. with some of the inorganic matrix often being contributed by the algae themselves. and less regular in structure. Coals are a subcategory of kerogen. as well as the nature of the organic matter from which it was formed. The amount of organic matter tied up in the form of kerogen in sediment is far greater than that in living organisms or in economically exploitable accumulations of coal. slightly larger ones. which have molecular weights of several thousand or more. because it has patchwork structures formed by the random combination of many small molecular fragments. in contrast.17 4 . Kerogen composition is also affected by thermal maturation processes (catagenesis and metagenesis) that alter the original kerogen. Diagenesis results mainly in loss of water. and the individual component parts are either destroyed or used to construct new geopolymers. and still larger ones. Humic coals are best thought of as kerogens formed mainly from landplant material without codeposition of much mineral matter. Algal (boghead) coals are formed in environments where the source phytoplankton lack both calcareous and siliceous skeletal components. True kerogens. and sediments. when the chemical and biological destruction and transformation of organic tissues begin. the geopolymers become larger. more complex. Lack of solubility is a direct result of the large size of kerogen molecules. will be discussed in a following chapter. The residual kerogens also undergo important changes. large molecules that have no regular or biologically defined structure. soils. for example) are partially or completely dismantled. The detailed chemistry of kerogen formation need not concern us greatly. The smallest of these geopolymers are usually called fulvic acids.Kerogen INTRODUCTION Kerogen is normally defined as that portion of the organic matter present in sedimentary rocks that is insoluble in ordinary organic solvents. Coals and oil shales should therefore be viewed merely as sedimentary rocks containing special types of kerogens in very high concentrations. A basic understanding of how kerogen is formed and transformed in the subsurface is therefore important in understanding how and where hydrocarbons are generated. humic acids. Kerogen is of great interest to us because it is the source of most of the oil and some of the gas that we exploit as fossil fuels. humins. and ammonia from the original geopolymers. Large organic biopolymers of highly regular structure (proteins and carbohydrates. Subsurface heating causes chemical reactions that break off small fragments of the kerogen as oil or gas molecules. and natural gas. carbon dioxide. and how much oil or gas can be expected. The soluble portion. oil. have more mineral matter than algal coals. whether these hydrocarbons are mainly oil or gas. These geopolymers are the precursors for kerogen but are not yet true kerogens. develop after tens or hundreds of meters of burial. The term kerogen was originally coined to describe the organic matter in oil shales that yielded oil upon retorting.

Subsequent investigations have identified Type IV kerogen as well. which are highly reactive. better organic preservation. and their organic precursors Transformation of organic material in sediments and sedimentary rocks. it is somewhat fruitless to attempt a detailed discussion of the chemical composition of kerogens. is developing a general method of describing gross kerogen composition and relating it to hydrocarbon-generative capacity. Kerogen formation competes with the destruction of organic matter by oxidative processes. They identified three main types of kerogen (called Types I. contain mainly the most resistant types of biogenic molecules that were ignored by microorganisms during diagenesis. because the bacterial enzyme systems do not know how to attack them. in contrast. it would not be of great and direct significance to exploration geologists. One way that we can begin is by classifying kerogens into a few general types. in contrast.18 reduction is occurring in the sediments. Microorganisms prefer to attack small molecules that are biogenic. In an oxidizing environment many of the small biogenic molecules will be attacked by bacteria before they can form geopolymers.Kerogen . the subdued level of bacterial activity allows more time for the formation of geopolymers and. Those kerogens formed under oxidizing conditions. and if the sediments are depleted in heavy-metal ions (which is often the case in nonclastic sediments but is seldom true in shales). II. and III) and have studied the chemical characteristics and the nature of the organisms from which all types of kerogens were derived. large amounts of sulfur may become incorporated into the kerogen structure. . are converted into saturated or cyclic structures. Even if such a description were possible. The amount of sulfur contributed by the original organic matter itself is very small. Geopolymers are more or less immune to bacterial degradation. About a decade ago workers at the French Petroleum Institute developed a useful scheme for describing kerogens that is still the standard today. the macerals that they are composed of. or at least look very much like biogenic molecules. and ultimately of much greater practical value. The four types of kerogen. Kerogens formed under reducing conditions will be composed of fragments of many kinds of biogenic molecules. Carboncarbon double bonds. KEROGEN COMPOSITION Because each kerogen molecule is unique. What is within our reach. therefore. Most organic oxidation in sedimentary environments is microbially mediated. In a low-oxygen (reducing) environment.

Type IV kerogens. Hydrogen contents of immature kerogens (expressed as atomic H/C ratios) correlate with kerogen type. leaf waxes. They also include contributions from bacterial-cell lipids. The shaded areas approximately represent diagenesis. and fossil resin. and carbohydrates. Type I and Type II kerogens. cellulose. despite their very disparate origins. of middle Eocene age. pollen and spores. Type III kerogens have high oxygen contents because they are formed from lignin. successively. Type III kerogens are composed of terrestrial organic material that is lacking in fatty or waxy components. In the immature state. which mainly contain polycyclic aromatic systems. Type IV kerogens are highly oxidized and therefore contain large amounts of oxygen. Type II kerogens arise from several very different sources. Cellulose and lignin are major contributors. phenols. The best-known example is the Green River Shale. in contrast. because they all have great capacities to generate liquid hydrocarbons. Extensive interest in those oilshale deposits has led to many investigations of the Green River Shale kerogens and has given Type I kerogens much more publicity than their general geological importance warrants. The various Type II kerogens are grouped together. including marine algae.Kerogen . Type IV kerogens contain mainly reworked organic debris and highly oxidized material of various origins. They are generally considered to have essentially no hydrocarbon-source potential. are normally considered to generate mainly gas. Type III (humic) kerogens. Van Krevelen diagram showing maturation pathways for Types 1 to IV kerogens as traced by changes in atomic HIC and OIC ratios.19 Type I kerogen is quite rare because it is derived principally from lacustrine algae. Most Type II kerogens are found in marine sediments deposited under reducing conditions. and metagenesis. Type II (liptinitic) kerogens are also high in hydrogen. Utah. Type III kerogens have much lower hydrocarbon-generative capacities than do Type II kerogens and. in contrast. . unless they have small inclusions of Type II material. have lower hydrogen contents because they contain extensive aromatic systems. Occurrences of Type I kerogens are limited to anoxic lakes and to a few unusual marine environments. contain far less oxygen because they were formed from oxygen-poor lipid materials. Type I kerogens have high generative capacities for liquid hydrocarbons. Heteroatom contents of kerogens also vary with kerogen type. Type I (algal) kerogens have the highest hydrogen contents because they have few rings or aromatic structures. have the lowest hydrogen contents. and Colorado. catagenesis. from Wyoming.

20 Sulfur and nitrogen contents of kerogens are also variable and. Thus few kerogens consist of a single maceral type. because there is not a perfect biological separation of the various types of living organic matter. In principle. Kerogen types are defined by the morphologies of the kerogen particles. in some cases. In others the original fabric has disappeared completely. which is destroyed rapidly during diagenesis. they are to kerogen what minerals are to a rock. they are not precisely equivalent. called maturation. but they really represent different aspects of the same process. Kerogen sulfur. A list of the most common macerals and their precursors is given in the table presented earlier in this chapter. most terrestrially influenced kerogens are low in nitrogen. Metagenesis. a term taken trom coal petrology. Although the terms catagenesis and oil generation are often used synonymously. Many high-sulfur kerogens are also high in nitrogen. By convention the term catagenesis usually refers to the stages of kerogen decomposition during which oil and wet gas are produced. The division of kerogens into Types I-IV on the basis of chemical and hydrocarbon-generative characteristics has been supported by another independent scheme for classifying kerogens using transmitted-light microscopy. Macerals are essentially organic minerals. proving the origin of the particle. especially when we are discussing both aspects simultaneously. Catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation occur concurrently. in contrast. however. . Sulfur is only incorporated into kerogens in large quantities where sulfate reduction is extensive and where Fe +2 ions are absent (organic-rich. metagenesis is not equivalent to "metamorphism. called catagenesis and metagenesis. Because lignins and carbohydrates contain little nitrogen. Thermal decomposition reactions. Microscopic organic analysis has reached a fairly high level of refinement and is often capable of assessing kerogen type with good accuracy. The correspondence is not perfect. anoxic. break off small molecules and leave behind a more resistant kerogen residue. they represent fundamentally different perspectives. The biggest problem comes in identifying Type III kerogen. In this text we shall use the terms somewhat interchangeably.Kerogen . The different types of kerogen particles are called macerals. because fresh waters are usually low in sulfate." Metagenesis begins long before true rock metamorphism. is derived mainly from sulfate that was reduced by anaerobic bacteria. Nitrogen is derived mainly from proteinaceous material. whereas hydrocarbon generation focuses on the production of hydrocarbon molecules. occur when a kerogen is subjected to high temperatures over long periods of time. interrelated. Maceral names were developed by coal petrologists to describe. KEROGEN MATURATION INTRODUCTION Very important changes. marine. Despite its name. which occurs after catagenesis. the materials from which a maceral was derived. High-sulfur kerogens (and coals) are almost always associated with marine deposition. Catagenesis refers to transformations of kerogen molecules. but it also continues through the metamorphic stage. represents drygas generation. forcing us to make assumptions about the source organisms. The small molecules eventually become petroleum and natural gas. It is possible to make a reasonably good correlation between kerogen type based on chemical characteristics and kerogen type based on visual appearance. What appears to be vitrinite (Type III kerogen) by visual analysis may have chemical characteristics intermediate between Type II and Type III kerogens because of the presence of small amounts of resin or wax. Most high-nitrogen kerogens were therefore deposited under anoxic conditions where diagenesis was severely limited. nonclastic sediments). In many cases the original cellular structure is still recognizable. The kerogen in a given sedimentary rock includes many individual particles that are often derived from a variety of sources. however. wherever possible.

II. simply because the longer time available compensates for lower temperatures. as evidenced by low maturity. Types I. Old rocks will often generate hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures than young rocks. Because many of the light product molecules are rich in hydrogen. Some of these changes can be measured quantitatively. after hydrogen loss is well advanced. The composition of the products (bitumen. the residual kerogen gradually becomes more aromatic and hydrogen poor as catagenesis proceeds. Furthermore. it is also true that other changes in kerogen properties have little or nothing to do with it. This complex interplay between the effects of time and temperature on maturity is discussed in a later chapter. the chemical process of maturation never stops completely. Kerogen maturation is not a reversible process-any more than baking a cake is reversible. The more hydrogen a kerogen contains. Furthermore. much of the sulfur is lost in the earliest stages of catagenesis. As we saw earlier. The most important implication of these chemical changes is that the remaining hydrocarbongenerative capacity of a kerogen decreases during catagenesis and metagenesis. Chemical reaction-rate theory requires that the rates of reactions decrease as temperature decreases.21 This chapter will focus on those changes in the residual kerogen that accompany catagenesis. but it also states that at any temperature above absolute zero reactions will be occurring at some definable rate. high-sulfur oils found in a number of areas. Thus the steady decrease in hydrogen content of a kerogen (usually measured as the atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio) during heating can be used as an indicator of both kerogen catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation. in most cases decreases of temperature in excess of about 20°-30° C due to subsurface events or erosional removal will cause the rates of catagenesis to decrease so much that it becomes negligible for practical purposes. and III kerogens will therefore be very similar chemically. The real reason for following kerogen catagenesis. the cracking of any organic molecule requires hydrogen. but they are not necessarily identical with hydrocarbon generation. much as a cookie browns during baking. however. even if drastic decreases in temperature occur. Nitrogen loss occurs primarily during late catagenesis or metagenesis. Nitrogen and sulfur are also lost from kerogens during catagenesis. It is impossible to set precise and universal temperature limits for catagenesis. is to monitor hydrocarbon generation. oil. because time also plays a role. including the Miocene Monterey Formation of southern California. and thus are not necessarily valid indicators of hydrocarbon generation. Although it is obvious that many measurable changes in kerogens are related to hydrocarbon generation. For practical purposes. We shall look now at the various techniques for estimating the extent of hydrocarbon generation from kerogen properties and see how closely each of them is related to hydrocarbon generation. of course. These reactions are intimately related to important changes in the chemical structure of kerogen. possessing essentially no remaining hydrocarbon generative capacity. thus allowing us to judge the extent to which kerogen maturation has proceeded. All kerogens become increasingly aromatic and depleted in hydrogen and oxygen during thermal maturation. There is a steady color progression yellow-goldenorange-light brown-dark brownblack as a result of polymerization and aromatization reactions. provided that the hydrogen content of the kerogen was known prior to the onset of catagenesis. and gas) will be discussed in a following chapter.Kerogen . the rates of catagenesis are generally not important at temperatures below about 70° C. EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS Kerogen undergoes important and detectable changes during catagenesis and metagenesis. the more hydrocarbons it can yield during cracking. In contrast. In the late stages of maturity. There is therefore no necessary cause-and-effect relationship . Kerogen particles become darker during catagenesis and metagenesis.

Cracking often produces free radicals. A general name tor these molecules is bitumen. Because coal rank is merely a measure of coal maturity. Bitumen generation occurs mainly during catagenesis. As kerogen matures and becomes more aromatic. its structure becomes more ordered. Kerogens often fluoresce when irradiated. however. carbon-isotopic compositions of kerogens are affected little by maturation. the more an incident light beam will be scattered. especially highly aromatic ones. One property that is strongly affected. HYDROCARBON GENERATION As kerogen catagenesis occurs. The concentration of free radicals in a given kerogen has been found to increase with increasing maturity. If neither expulsion from the source rock nor cracking of bitumen occurred. The more random a kerogen's structure. contain large numbers of unpaired electrons. and the less it will be reflected. resulting in lower bitumen contents in the source. Some properties of kerogen change very little during catagenesis. is that some of the bitumen is expelled from the source rock or cracked to gas. For example. has been widely and successfully applied in assessing kerogen maturity. What actually occurs. Half a century ago coal petrologists discovered that the percentage of light reflected by vitrinite particles could be correlated with coal rank measured by other methods. The difference between the two curves represents bitumen expelled from the rock or cracked to light hydrocarbons. and because vitrinite particles also occur in kerogens. Plot of bitumen generation as a function of maturity (dashed fine) compared to bitumen remaining in rock (solid line). Both curves are highly . there would be a large and continuous build-up of bitumen in the rock as a result of catagenetic decomposition of kerogen. which are unpaired electrons not yet involved in chemical honds. and no guarantee that a particular kerogen color always heralds the onset of oil generation. is the ability of kerogen particles to reflect incident light coherently. the technique.Kerogen . Some of these are hydrocarbons. These structural reorganizations bring about changes in physical properties of kerogens. because the flat aromatic sheets can stack neatly. somewhat beyond the oil-generation window. These small compounds are much more mobile than the kerogen molecules and are the direct precursors of oil and gas. small molecules are broken off the kerogen matrix.22 between kerogen darkening and hydrocarbon generation. The intensity and wavelength of the fluorescente are functions of kerogen maturity. Except for darkening. while others are small heterocompounds. and which can be used to gauge the extent of molecular reorganization. Free-radical concentrations can be measured by electron-spin resonance. the visual appearance of kerogen also does not change during catagenesis: kerogen types are generally recognizable until the particles become black and opaque. Kerogens. called vitrinite reflectance. during metagenesis the chief product is methane.

Given the significant chemical differences among the various types of kerogens. Resinite consists of polymerized terpanes (ten-carbon isoprenoids) that can decompose easily by reversing the polymerization process. Rich rocks will become overpressured earlier than lean ones and thus will also expel hydrocarbons earlier. Numerous methods exist for tracing the history of a kerogen and determining its original chemical and physical characteristics. Microfracturing is related to overpressuring. Other kerogens usually follow a more traditional model. whereas those kerogens that contain few lipids will generate mainly gas. Catagenesis of kerogen produces a more aromatic. Kerogens formed from resinite will generate condensates or light oils quite early. Thus.Kerogen . The chemical composition of a kerogen controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and the type of products obtained. Sulfur-rich kerogens decompose easily because carbon-sulfur hbonds are weaker than any bonds in sulfur-poor kerogens. but none of these measurements is closely linked to the actual process of hydrocarbon generation. this result is hardly surprising. Effective generation of hydrocarbons requires that the generated products be expelled from the source-rock matrix and migrated to a trap. In such cases the expelled products will be mainly gas. . Conversely. Several methods exist for estimating the extent to which hydrocarbon generation has occurred in a given kerogen. Kerogens formed from lipid-rich organic material are likely to generate liquid hydrocarbons. when large geopolymers are created from biological molecules. however. including rock physics and organic-geochemical considerations. because natural variations among samples cause much scatter in experimental data. In very lean rocks expulsion may occur so late that cracking of the generated bitumen is competitive with expulsion. residual kerogen as well as small molecules that are the direct precursors for petroleum and natural gas. Source rocks that generate large amounts of hydrocarbons early are likely to expel those hydrocarbons early. High-sulfur kerogens generate heavy. we cannot always define the limits of hydrocarbon generation with great confidence. Resinite and sulfur-rich kerogens are able to generate liquid hydrocarbons earlier than other kerogens because of the particular chemical reactions occurring in those two materials. The chemical composition and morphology of kerogen macerals depend both on the type of original organic matter and on diagenetic transformations. which in turn is partly attributed to hydrocarbon generation itself. Timing and efficiency of expulsion depend on a number of factors. hydrogen-poor. SUMMARY Kerogen begins to form during early diagenesis. high-sulfur oils at low levels of maturity. Many workers now believe that microfracturing of source rocks is very important tor hydrocarbon expulsion. those rocks that generate few hydrocarbons may not expel them until they have been cracked to gas. It has become apparent in recent years that not all kerogens generate hydrocarbons at the same catagenetic levels. although we know that oil generation does occur during the phase we call catagenesis.23 idealized. We shall consider the latter briefly here. as measured by parameters such as vitrinite reflectance. Candidates for early expulsion would be very organic rich rocks and those containing resinite or high-sulfur kerogens.

we must separate the characteristics related to kerogen composition from those related to the transformation of bitumen to petroleum and from those related to changes occurring in reservoirs. are more commonly studied. Much of this variety is related to source-rock facies and the composition of the kerogens that generated the bitumens. bitumen is almost universally accepted as the direct precursor for petroleum. have been studied in petroleums. However. Some of these are present in relatively large quantities. many unanswered questions remain about the processes that transform bitumen into petroleum. Most of the NSO compounds appear in the remaining two fractions. and how much is due to physical separation of chemical compounds having very different properties. like benzene and toluene. This chapter will compare and contrast bitumen and petroleum compositions and examine the factors responsible for the observed differences. In order to investigate the individual compounds present. but these compounds are lost from bitumens during evaporation of the solvent used in extracting the bitumen from the rock. In order to understand bitumen and petroleum compositions and to use them for exploration. and form complexes with molecular weights of perhaps 50. and Natural Gas INTRODUCTION Petroleum obtained from reservoir rocks and bitumen extracted from fine-grained rocks have many similarities. The final fraction contains very large. n-alkanes. COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS Both bitumen and petroleum contain a very large number of different chemical compounds. highly aromatic asphaltene molecules that are often rich in heteroatoms. branched hydrocarbons (including isoprenoids). Petroleum. and steranes. Petroleum. however. NSOs. while others are only trace contributors. Light aromatic hydrocarbons. triterpanes. but they also exhibit many important differences. Major compositional changes occur in going from bitumen to petroleum. Both bitumens and petroleums exhibit a wide range of compositions. and Natural Gas - 5 . Such correlations can be particularly useful in establishing genetic relationships among samples. particularly those derived from diterpanes. Reservoir transformations in some cases greatly affect oil composition and properties. indeed. The influence of the lithologies of source and reservoir rocks on these compositional changes is poorly understood. The lighter of these fractions. Asphaltenes tend to aggregate into stacks because of their planarity. and resins. contains a wide variety of small and medium-sized molecules with one or more heteroatoms. A second fraction consists of aromatic hydrocarbons and some light sulfur-containing compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons are the most thoroughly studied of the components of petroleum and bitumen because they are the easiest to work with analytically. One fraction consists mainly of saturated hydrocarbons.Bitumen. We also do not know how much of the change involves chemical reactions. Heavier aromatic and naphthenoaromatic hydrocarbons. we first separate a crude oil or a bitumen into several fractions having distinct properties. The large sizes of asphaltene units render . Maturity also exerts control over bitumen and petroleum composition. and cyclics. but we are not certain whether they occur mainly within the source rock or during migration through the reservoir rock. Bitumen and petroleum compositions can also be used as tools in correlating samples with each other. Few of these heterocompounds have been studied carefully.000. Each of the fractions contains certain types of chemical compounds. variously called polars.24 Bitumen. There is no doubt that they are related.

although we know for certain that the biomarker molecule is biogenic. CPI values can therefore . and by their catagenetic formation from long-chain compounds such as fatty acids and alcohols. an abbreviation for biological markers. In contrast. the CPI is 1. we are unable to use it as an "index fossil" for specific organisms. If odd-carbon homologs predominate. Sediments are also known that exhibit a strong preference for n-alkanes having an even number of carbon atoms.0. Their high concentration in bitumens and oils is best explained by their existence in plant and algal lipids. receive contributions of n-alkanes from both terrestrial and marine sources.or even-carbon homologs is evident. Other compounds.25 them insoluble in light solvents. These n-alkanes are believed to be formed by hydrogenation (reduction) of longchain fatty acids and alcohols having even numbers of carbon atoms. In a few cases specific precursor organisms or molecules can be identified. Petroleum. the lower-carbon homologs are given more weight in the calculation. They are. Another important indication of the origin of n-alkanes is the distribution of individual homologs. however. are essentially molecular fossils. If the number of odd.Bitumen. Many of the compounds and classes of compounds that we find in crude oils and bitumens are called biomarkers. (Among the acids and alcohols present in living organisms. which are derived from biogenic precursor molecules. However. Many sediments. or CPI. The average of two ranges is taken to minimize bias produced by the generally decreasing n-alkane concentrations with increasing number of carbon atoms. or members of the n-alkane series. Many other types of organic compounds in crude oils and bitumens are not considered to be biomarkers because they cannot be related directly to biogenic precursors. Carbon Preference Index.0. asphaltene molecules have not been studied in detail. For the most part n-alkanes present in terrestrial plants have odd numbers of carbon atoms. Because of their molecular complexity and heterogeneity.and even-carbon members is equal. marine algae produce n-alkanes that have a maximum in their distribution at C-17 or C22. The most useful biomarkers serve as indicators of the organisms from which the bitumen or petroleum was derived. and no preference for either odd. especially 23. where input of terrestrial n-alkanes is minimal and diagenetic conditions are highly reducing. and Natural Gas . because the concentration of n-alkanes often decreases with increasing carbon number. 29. whereas in other instances we may be able to limit the possible precursors to only a few species. In most cases. was developed as a measure of the strength of the odd-carbon predominance in n-alkanes over the even alkanes (in the series from 23 upwards).) Even-carbon preferences occur principally in evaporitic and carbonate sediments. SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS Biomarkers. The distributions are quite sharp. of course. but their sources are simply no longer recognizable due to diagenetic and catagenetic transformations. such as pentane or propane. Asphaltenes can thus be removed from oils or bitumens in the laboratory or refinery by adding a light hydrocarbon. of biological origin. the CPI is greater than 1. even-carbon homologs predominate as strongly as do the oddcarbon homologs among the n-alkanes. and 31 atoms. or of the diagenetic conditions under which the organic matter was buried. however. 27. Their n-alkane distributions reflect this mix. 25. depending upon the species present. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS Biomarkers n-Alkanes were among the first biomarkers to be studied extensively. These compounds.

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deviate from 1.0 even when no preference is distinguishable by visual inspection of the distribution curve. n-Alkane distributions are greatly modified by thermal maturity. Chain lengths gradually become shorter, and the original n-alkanes present in the immature sample are diluted with new n-alkanes generated during catagenesis. Because the newly generated n-alkanes show little or no preference for either odd- or even-carbon homologs, CPI values approach 1.0 as maturity increases. n-Alkane distributions in bitumens and oils derived from algae do not show the influences of maturity as clearly because the original CPI values are already very close to 1.0. It is therefore often difficult to estimate maturity levels in pelagic rocks on the basis of n-alkane data. Parameters other than Biomarkers. Sulfur contents are also strongly influenced by diagenetic conditions. For economic and environmental reasons, oils having more than about 0.5% sulfur are designated as high-sulfur. Many high-sulfur oils contain 1% sulfur or less, but in some areas sulfur contents can reach 7% (Monterey oils from the onshore Santa Maria area, southern California, for example). A few oils contain more than 10%. These high-sulfur bitumens and crude oils are derived from high-sulfur kerogens. As we saw earlier, sulfur is incorporated into kerogens formed in nonclastic sediments that accumulate where anaerobic sulfate reduction is important. Most oils and bitumens derived from lacustrine or ordinary clastic marine source rocks will be low in sulfur content, whereas those from euxinic or anoxic marine source rocks will be high-sulfur. Sulfur occurs predominantly in the heavy fractions of oils and bitumens, particularly in the asphaltenes. High-sulfur oils therefore have elevated asphaltene contents.

RESERVOIR TRANSFORMATIONS
Introduction. There are two main types of reservoir transformations that can affect crude oils (reservoir transformations are not applicable to bitumen because, by definition, the material in a reservoir is petroleum). Thermal processes occurring in reservoirs include cracking and deasphalting. Nonthermal processes are water washing and biodegradation. Of these, cracking and biodegradation are by far the most important. Cracking and Deasphalting. Cracking, which breaks large molecules down into smaller ones, can convert a heavy, heteroatom-rich off into a lighter, sweeter one. Waxy oils become less waxy. API gravities increase, and pour points and viscosities decrease. When cracking is extreme, the products become condensate, wet gas, or dry gas. Cracking is a function of both time and temperature, as well as of the composition of the oil and the catalytic potential of the reservoir rock. It is therefore impossible to state that cracking always occurs at a certain depth or reservoir temperature. Most oils, however, will be reasonably stable at reservoir temperatures below about 90° C, regardless of the length of time they spend there. On the other hand, a reservoir above 120° C will contain normal oil only if the oil is a recent arrival. Although the role of catalysis in hydrocarbon cracking in reservoirs has not been proven, many workers suspect that clay minerals are important facilitators of hydrocarbon breakdown. Catalytic effectiveness varies greatly from one clay mineral to another, however, and our partial understanding of this difficult subject is not of much practical use at the present time. Cracking also brings about deasphalting, because asphaltene molecules become less soluble as the oil becomes lighter. Precipitation of asphaltenes in the reservoir will lower sulfur content and increase API gravity appreciably. Biodegradation and water washing. Water washing involves selective dissolution of the most soluble components of crude oils in waters that come in contact with the oils. The smallest hydrocarbon molecules and the light aromatics, such as benzene, are the most soluble. The effects of water washing are rather difficult to determine because they do not affect the oil fractions that

Bitumen, Petroleum, and Natural Gas - 27

are most frequently studied. Furthermore, in most cases the effects are quite small because of the low solubilities of all hydrocarbons in water. Finally, water washing and biodegradation often occur together, with the more dramatic effects of biodegradation obscuring those of water washing. Biodegradation is a transformation process of major importance. Under certain conditions some species of bacteria are able to destroy some of the compounds present in crude oil, using them as a source of energy. The bacteria responsible for biodegradation are probably a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic strains. Only aerobic bacteria are believed to actually attack hydrocarbons, but anaerobes may consume some of the partially oxidized byproducts of initial aerobic attack. Because biodegradation changes the physical properties of oils, it can have serious negative financial implications. Heavily biodegraded oils are often impossible to produce (Athabasca Tar Sands of Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco heavy oils of Venezuela, for example). If production is physically possible, it may be expensive or uneconomic. It is therefore important to understand where and why biodegradation occurs, and what its effects are on oil composition. Biodegradation may actually start during oil migration (provided required temperature and oxygen conditions are met), because oil-water interactions are maximized then. Most biodegradation probably occurs within reservoirs, however, since the length of time an oil spends in a reservoir is usually much longer than its transit time during migration. Biodegradation can vary in intensity from very light to extremely heavy. Because the chemical and physical properties of an oil change dramatically in several predictable ways during biodegradation, biodegraded oils are easily recognized. Many basins have at least a few biodegraded oils, and in some areas they are epidemic. Bacteria that consume petroleum hydrocarbons have strong preferences. Hydrocarbons are not their very favorite foods, and they eat them only because there is nothing else available. The preferred hydrocarbons are n-alkanes, presumably because their straight-chain configurations allow the bacterial enzymes to work on them most efficiently. Also attractive to the "bugs" are long, alkyl side-chains attached to cyclic structures. After the n-alkanes and alkyl groups are consumed, the bacteria begin to destroy compounds having only a single methyl branch or those having widely spaced branches. Then they move on to morehighly branched compounds, such as the isoprenoids. In the last stages of biodegradation, polycyclic alkanes are attacked. Because the hierarchy of bacterial attack on crude oils is well known, it is possible to assess the degree of biodegradation by observing which compounds have been destroyed. Sulfur contents of crude oils also increase as a result of biodegradation. In a heavily biodegraded oil the sulfur content may increase by a factor of two or three. Sulfur is undoubtedly concentrated in the oil by selective removal of hydrocarbons, and may also be added by bacterially mediated sulfate reduction.

COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM
Although bitumens and crude oils contain the same compounds, the relative amounts are quite different. In the process of converting bitumen to petroleum, either the NSO compounds are lost in large quantities, or they are converted to hydrocarbons. In actuality, both processes probably occur, although selective loss of nonhydrocarbons during expulsion is probably most effective in concentrating the hydrocarbons. Bitumen composition depends strongly on the lithology of the host rock. Carbonates contain bitumens that are much richer in heterocompounds than are shales, and their hydrocarbon fractions are more aromatic. These differences are the result of the higher sulfur contents of kerogens in carbonates. Oils derived from carbonate sources are also richer in heterocompounds than oils sourced from shales.

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NATURAL GAS
Natural gas contains many different compounds, although most of them are present only in trace quantities. The principal components with which we shall be concerned are light hydrocarbons (methane through butanes), C02, H2S, and N2. Carbon dioxide and N2 are generally associated with very hot reservoirs. C02 is derived either by oxidation of oil or gas or by decomposition of carbonates. The origin of the C02 can be determined easily by carbon-isotope measurements: the very different isotopic compositions of organic-carbon species and carbonates are carried over into any C02 derived from these materials. Nitrogen is thought to be an indicator of high levels of maturity formed primarily by metagenetic transformation of organic nitrogen and ammonia bound to clay minerals. Hydrogen sulfide is usually derived from high-sulfur kerogens or oils. These in turn are formed most readily in carbonates. Thus sour gas is most common in carbonate reservoirs or in places where the source rock was a carbonate. H2S could also be formed by the reaction of hydrocarbons with sulfate in reservoirs, especially carbonates containing anhydrite. Biogenic gas, most of which occurs at shallow depths, but which can apparently form (or at least persist) at depths of a few thousand meters, is very dry, containing only trace amounts of hydrocarbons heavier than methane. In contrast, the first gas produced during catagenesis is quite wet. With increasing maturity, gas again becomes progressively drier as a result of cracking of the heavier hydrocarbons to methane.

SUMMARY
Bitumens and crude oils contain the same classes of compounds, but their relative concentrations are quite different. These differences are in some cases related to differences in maturity; in other examples they are probably a result of preferential expulsion of hydrocarbons from source rocks. Individual compounds occur in quite variable proportions in bitumens. Source, diagenesis, and maturity all exert control over these distributions. When source and diagenetic influences have been removed, the porphyrins, steranes, triterpanes, and n-alkanes in mature bitumens are found to be very similar to those in crude oils and quite different from those in immature bitumens. Oil compositions can also be strongly affected by reservoir transformations, including biodegradation, water washing, cracking, and deasphalting. Many of the factors that influence the composition of oils and bitumens are well understood and predictable, and can be used to obtain information about paleoecology, thermal history, and reservoir conditions. Gas composition is governed first of all by whether the gas is of biogenic or thermal origin. Biogenic gas is always dry, whereas thermal gas may be wet or dry. Carbon-isotope ratios are good indicators of the source of gas; biogenic gas is much lighter isotopically than thermal gases. Other important components, such as CO2, N2, and H2S, are indicative of high temperatures or sulfur-rich source material.

Based on empirical evidence. Diffusion has been shown to be active on at least a minor scale and over short distances in carefully studied cores. During intense hydrocarbon generation. One occurs most commonly as a result of microfracturing induced by overpressuring during hydrocarbon generation. Accumulation is the concentration of migrated hydrocarbons in a relatively immobile configuration. There appear to be three distinct ways in which oilphase expulsion can occur. The main problem with diffusion as an important mechanism of migration is that diffusion is by definition a dispersive force. PRIMARY MIGRATION MECHANISMS Many theories about primary migration (expulsion) have been popular at various times. Momper (1978) suggested that in most cases no microfracturing or expulsion could occur until a threshold amount of bitumen had been generated in the source rock. Diffusion would therefore have to be coupled with a powerful concentrating force to yield accumulations of appreciable size. it is probably most effective in immature rocks. Laminated source rocks may therefore expel hydrocarbons with greater efficiency than massive rocks. oil-phase expulsion. Traps are the means by which migration is stopped and accumulation occurs. When the internal pressures exceed the strength of the rock. whereas accumulation of hydrocarbons requires concentration. lowpermeability source rock into a carrier bed having much greater permeability. This chapter wi11 not go into the physics and chemistry of migration in detail. Primary migration is the first phase of the migration process. Secondary migration is the movement of oil and gas within this carrier bed. .Migration . the microfractures heal. expulsion. Its importance is probably limited to the edges of thick units or to thin source beds. Each of these steps is quite distinct from the others. Furthermore. Today there are only three mechanisms of primary migration that are given serious consideration by most petroleum geochemists: diffusion. In order to understand the complex sequence of events that we call migration. particularly along lines of weakness such as bedding planes. An important implication of the microfracturing model is that expulsion cannot take place until the strength of the source rock has been exceeded. but will describe the most widely held views on the dominant mechanisms of primary and secondary migration and accumulation. we must look at each of these steps separately. and solution in gas.Migration DEFINITIONS Migration is the movement of oil and gas within the subsurface. but those that have been discounted will not be discussed here. The hydrocarbons within the pores then become isolated again because of the impermeability of the waterwet source rocks to hydrocarbons. Although the exact threshold value must vary considerably as a function of rock lithology and other factors. Momper's value has been widely accepted as a reasonable average. any contribution by diffusion will be overwhelmed by that from other expulsion mechanisms. and pressure release can be repeated.29 6 . it involves expulsion of hydrocarbons from their fine-grained. By far the most popular mechanism invoked today to explain primary migration is expulsion of hydrocarbons in a hydrophobic (oily) phase. and overpressuring commences anew. microfracturing. where pre-existing light hydrocarbons bleed out of the rocks prior to the onset of significant generation and expulsion. Once the internal pressure has returned to normal. microfracturing occurs. Many cycles of pressure buildup. where they can be preserved over long periods of time.

Thus primary migration ends whenever a permeable conduit for secondary migration is reached. Finally." We can only estimate the fraction of the bitumen left in the source rock during microfractureinduced expulsion. but also an "exit tax. or downward. Thus a source rock lying between two sands will expel hydrocarbons into both carrier beds. Primary migration is difficult and slow. expulsion can be lateral. Therefore. but the mechanism by which overpressuring is achieved is not understood. but it does give some idea of the efficiency of expulsion. it would be expected only in the late stages of catagenesis or in source rocks capable of generating mainly gas. the migrating fluids will take them. unfractured source-rock units are relatively rare. depending upon the carrier-bed characteristics of the surrounding rocks. and assuming that expulsion of hydrocarbons is ten times as efficient as expulsion of NSO compounds. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION The distances traversed by hydrocarbons during primary migration are short. Massive. where they do exist. The third mechanism. Because the driving force for microfracture-induced primary migration is pressure release. this early expulsion mechanism seems to be limited to rocks having very high original contents of lipids. Of course. primary migration may be of poor efficiency. Therefore the threshold must represent not only a hurdle to be cleared by the bitumen before it can leave the source rock. The organic matter expelled consists mainly of lipids that were present in the sediment during deposition and diagenesis. . hydrocarbons will be expelled in any direction that offers a lower pressure than that in the source rock.30 Once the threshold has been exceeded. but a large proportion of NSO compounds and heavier hydrocarbons are left behind. we conclude that solution in gas is a minor mechanism for oil expulsion. particularly in brittle carbonate and opal-chert source rocks. Primary migration is unquestionably the most difficult part of the entire migration process. because petroleum is being forced through rocks having low matrix permeabilities. Thus inefficiency of expulsion is responsible for much of the difference in composition of bitumen and petroleum that we noted earlier. Sand stringers within shale units can provide secondary migration conduits for hydrocarbons sourced in the shales. Expulsion of hydrocarbons is facilitated because water-mineral and water-water interactions no longer need be overcome. also make excellent secondary-migration pathways. oil-phase expulsion can take place when bitumen forms a continuous network that replaces water as the wetting agent in the source rock. In most cases the distances of primary migration are probably between 10 centimetres and 100 m. This type of expulsion is probably only operative in very rich source rocks during the main phase of oil generation. Such a phase could only exist where the amount of gas far exceeds the amount of liquid hydrocarbons. Because the source rock is overpressured. By comparing the average hydrocarbon compositions of bitumen and crude oil. In most cases hydrocarbons are generated within short distances of viable secondary-migration conduits.Migration . A second way in which oil-phase expulsion can occur is from very organic-rich rocks prior to the onset of strong hydrocarbon generation. expulsion of oil dissolved in gas. Fracture and joint systems. most of the hydrocarbons are expelled. requires that there be a separate gas phase. we can estimate that once the expulsion threshold is reached the expulsion efficiency for bitumen is about 50%. This expulsion process probably releases internal pressures in the rock. Because neither case is of great general significance for petroleum formation. therefore. upward. As soon as easier paths become available. this approach is rather approximate.

the globule must deform to squeeze into the pore. These modifications to the overall scheme are probably minor.31 SECONDARY MIGRATION MECHANISM Once hydrocarbons are expelled from the source rock in a separate hydrocarbon phase into a secondary-migration conduit. the globule cannot enter. secondary migration will cease until either the capillary-entry pressure is reduced or the buoyant force is increased. The smaller the pore throat. if bulk water movement opposes the direction of buoyant movement. When hydrocarbons cease moving. then the rate of hydrocarbon movement should be enhanced somewhat. we say that accumulation has occurred. the force required to deform the oil globule enough to enter the pore throat. which is resistance to entry of the hydrocarbon globule or stringer into pore throats. Thus movement within a confined migration conduit will be updip perpendicular to structural contours whenever possible. Opposing the buoyancy is capillary-entry pressure. Coalescence of globules of hydrocarbons after expulsion from the source rock therefore increases their ability to move upward through water-wet rocks. Whenever a pore throat narrower than the globule is encountered. whereas capillary-entry pressure retards or stops it. however. If. secondary migration will occur both laterally and vertically. can modify hydrocarbon movement. Hydrocarbons are almost all less dense than formation waters. The magnitude of the buoyant force is proportional both to the density difference between water and hydrocarbon phase and to the height of the oil stringer. hydrocarbons entering the land from an underlying source rock will move toward the top of the sand even as they migrate laterally updip. then the rate of hydrocarbon transport will be retarded. the pore throat is very tiny or if the buoyant force is small. Where faulting or facies changes create impassable barriers (capillary-entry pressure exceeds buoyant force). A third force-namely. requiring only the existence of two forces. but it is not essential and does not change our basic model. and becomes stuck until either the buoyant force or the capillary entry pressure changes. In contrast. This model is very simple. hydrodynamic flow. If water is flowing in the subsurface in the same direction as hydrocarbons are moving by buoyancy. Retardatin of buoyant movement as an oil globule (X) is deformed to fit in to a narrow pore throat (Y). Within massive sandstone. The upward buoyant force is partly or completely opposed by the capillary-entry pressure. Hydrocarbons are thus capable of displacing water downward and moving upward themselves. Buoyancy promotes migration. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION Secondary migration occurs preferentially in the direction that offers the greatest buoyant advantage. the globule will squeeze into the pore throat and continue moving upward. This fact has important implications for tracing migration pathways through a thick conduit. migration may have to proceed at an oblique angle to structural contours. and therefore are more buoyant.Migration . That is. the more deformation is required. If the capillary-entry pressure exceeds the buoyant force. subsequent movement of the hydrocarbons will be driven by buoyancy. If the upward force of buoyancy is large enough. Structural contours on the top of the carrier bed will .

Cap rocks having low . Indeed. thus providing a potentially very effective system for combined vertical and lateral migration. are basins in which lateral migration distances do not exceed a few tens of kilometers. Vertical migration can also occur across formations. and the Saudi Arabian crude oils. leading to smaller fault-bounded accumulations and vertical migration. It is possible to have lateral migrations of as much as a few hundred kilometers in exceptional circumstances. Vertical migration distances can also be considerable. because final control on migration direction will be exerted by the upper part of the bed (assuming that no laterally continuous shale breaks divide the carrier bed into two or more separate systems). ACCUMULATION INTRODUCTION In the old days. Vertical migration across stratigraphic boundaries is more difficult. the largest hydrocarbon deposits known. There is no a priori reason why secondary migration cannot be a very-long-distance phenomenon. Nevertheless. Most basins. as a result of both tectonic disruption and facies changes related to tectonic events. not only because they often juxtapose carrier beds from different stratigraphic horizons. the heavy oils in the Orinoco Belt of Venezuela. at which time they suddenly became immiscible with the water and formed a separate hydrocarbon phase. because now accumulation can occur where the buoyancy-driven movement of the hydrocarbon phase is stopped or even strongly impeded. otherwise it is impossible to account for the incredible volumes of hydrocarbons in place today. when migration was thought to occur mainly in water solution. Much more common. for example. Faults may play an important role in vertical migration. Various mechanisms for exsolution were proposed to explain how all this was supposed to happen. Lateral migration is therefore often stymied. all must have migrated long distances. but also because an active fault or the brecciated zone adjacent to a fault may itself have high permeability. including the Athabasca Tar Sands of western Canada.32 in general be more useful than contours on its base.Migration . although it should be remembered that there are two fundamentally different types of vertical migration. distances of several thousand feet are not unheard of. Long-distance migration implies. Lack of long-distance migration opportunities implies that supergiant and giant accumulations are far less likely and that exploration targets will be smaller. they are rare for very good geological reasons: they occur in extremely stable tectonic settings where major but gentle downwarping has deposited and matured huge volumes of source rocks. Unconformities also can juxtapose migration conduits. However. large drainage areas and chances for very large accumulations. by definition. The question of long-distance migration has been much discussed and disputed. The absence of both tectonic and stratigraphic barriers permits long-distance migration. The problem in discussing long-distance migration is that such cases are rare. Stacked sands in a paleodelta. Today we believe that hydrocarbons migrate as a separate phase. Migration updip within a single stratum can accomplish a large amount of "vertical" migration rather painlessly. Hydrocarbons had to remain in solution until they reached the trap. Drainage area is one of the most important factors influencing the size of hydrocarbon accumulations. and has provided as carrier beds continuous blankets of sand juxtaposed with these source rocks. however. however. can offer possible pathways (although sometimes rather tortuous ones) for vertical migration. This model greatly simplifies the problem of accumulation. the process of hydrocarbon accumulation was somewhat mystical. are broken up tectonically and have poor lateral continuity of carrier beds.

The much smaller Antelope Field produces from the Mississippian Bakken Formation. Fracturing associated with high races of oil generation in the Green River Shale has created a supergiant accumulation at Altamont. Accumulations are small because drainage areas are small. Gas production is actually from the low-permeability sand rather than from the high-permeability sand updip and downdip. Thus the Elmworth Field exhibits a water-over-gas contact. CLASSICAL TRAPS. and will be covered separately. . that strong hydrocarbon generation and migration is going on today. Much of the hydrocarbon storage at Antelope is apparently in silts and sands juxtaposed with the producible Bakken reservoir.33 permeabilities to hydrocarbons provide barriers to migration: that is. No traditional seal exists. Seals in the traditional sense of the word may not exist. The low permeability sand thus creates a bottleneck to gas migration. The seal prevents vertical migration from the reservoir rock into overlying strata. Lateral migration is of necessity short distance. Classical traps are well understood. KINETIC TRAPS Kinetic traps represent a fundamentally new concept in trapping mechanisms for hydrocarbons. a fractured shale that is both source and reservoir. Because gas generation is very rapid. Cross section across the Rhine Graben of West Germany showing the discontinuity of strata as a result of extensional tectonism endemic to rift basins. Most hydrocarbon traps are either structural or stratigraphic. The Elmworth Field in the Alberta Deep Basin of Canada is the prototype for kinetic gas accumulations. it remains water wet. Gas generated in the late stages of kerogen catagenesis in the Alberta Deep Basin is trapped in a sandstone bed having lower permeability than the overlying sand. rocks whose capillary-entry pressures are high enough to overcome hydrocarbon buoyancy. This model requires. of course. and vertical migration becomes important. while the structure or lithologic change prevents lateral updip migration. Because the high permeability sand updip allows gas to migrate rapidly through. High rates of hydrocarbon generation can actually create traps by causing tensile failure of source rocks that have become overpressured as a result of hydrocarbon generation.Migration . The simple principle behind a kinetic trap is that hydrocarbons are supplied to the trap faster than they can leak away. the low-permeability sands become filled with gas.

These gas hydrates consist of a rigid lattice of water molecules that form a cage within which a single molecule of gas is trapped. As soon as two immiscible phases are formed. It will therefore migrate much faster and . large accumulations have formed despite high rates of leakage. because much of the methane trapped is biogenic and was formed in young. TAR-MAT TRAPS Tar mats produced by biodegradation can create excellent seals. Despite the rarity of tar-mat seals. there may be a chromatographic effect during secondary migration. Cap-rocks in those fields are often poor. but it may also include some heavier hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas. The polar (NSO) compounds interact most strongly with both mineral surfaces and water molecules. tar-mat traps are worth discussing because they include the largest hydrocarbon accumulations known: those of the Athabasca Tar Sands and the Orinoco heavy-oil belt.34 Many of the accumulations in Pliocene reservoirs in southern California are also kinetic accumulations in a slightly different sense. Because hydrate zones are often hundreds of meters thick. and would be incapable of sealing accumulations for long geologic periods. Formation of hydrates thus provides an important trapping mechanism. Because intense oil generation is going on now. Phase changes occur as a result of decreases in pressure and temperature during migration. and the poor producibilitv of the hydrocarbons they trap. however. and thus get left behind as the oil globule or stringer moves upward. but in the future gas-hydrate accumulations may be of great economic significance. Methane is by far the most commonly trapped gas molecule.Migration . The polar molecules once again interact most strongly with interstitial water and mineral surfaces. Gas hydrates form and are stable under pressuretemperature regimes that occur at depths of a few hundred meters below the sea floor in deep water. GAS HYDRATES Formation of crystalline hydrates of natural gas provides an extremely efficient trapping mechanism for natural gas. the lighter (gas) phase will be far more buoyant than the liquid phase. the quantities of gas in such accumulations are huge. contain mainly light components. these changes in temperature and pressure can cause separation of the original phase into a liquid phase and a gas phase. A second characteristic is that gas hydrates form effective seals against vertical hydrocarbon migration. tar mats may provide the only possible means for retaining any hydrocarbons. When the original hydrocarbon phase contains large amounts of light components. but hydrates large enough to accommodate butane molecules are known. because the same conditions that created the tar mat persist in the subsurface. unconsolidated sediments that would have no other means of retaining the methane. and thus are not expelled as efficiently with the oil phase. The technology necessary for producing these hydrocarbons has not yet been developed. The base of the gas hydrate zone forms a pronounced seismic reflector that often simulates bottom contours and cuts across bedding planes. of course. Once expulsion has occurred. EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION It has already been suggested that most of the compositional changes seen between bitumens and normal crude oils occur during expulsion (primary migration) from the source rock. At the present time the vast potential of gas-hydrate accumulations is just beginning to be recognized. In cases where no other structural or stratigraphic trapping mechanism exists. One important feature of methane hydrates is that they are much more efficient at storing methane than is liquid pore water. Accumulations beneath tar-mat seals are generally biodegraded themselves. especially methane. and in zones of permafrost. The gas phase will.

by decreases in permeability as a result of facies changes. gas is presumably expelled as a gas phase. by faulting. we will also have determined the timing of expulsion. Thus if we can determine the timing of generation. Tectonically stable basins have the best potential for long-distance migration and supergiant accumulations. Efficiency of expulsion of liquids has already been estimated to be in the neighbourhood of 50% after the expulsion threshold has been reached. We have already stated that oil is expelled primarily as a liquid phase. the barriers that modify die direction of migration and eventually stop it. Efficiency of expulsion for hydrocarbons is apparently much higher than for NSO compounds. depending upon stacking of reservoirs. Proximity to effective source rocks and their permeabilities to hydrocarbons determine conduits. in what direction they moved. Polar compounds interact more strongly with water and rock minerals and thus move more slowly than hydrocarbons. we want to determine the main pathways and conduite through which migration occurs. Lateralmigration distances are strongly influenced by tectonic and depositional histories of basins. and how far they moved. In using our understanding of secondary migration for exploration. Vertical-migration distances can be considerable. Pathways. In summary. both new phases will have compositions that differ drastically from the original phase. We already know two important facts about timing from our previous discussion: expulsion based on microfracturing cannot occur before generation. as we have seen.Migration . and the possibilities of combined vertical and lateral migration. "What does this mean for exploration?" From their perspective the important aspects of primary migration are the nature of the hydrocarbons expelled (oil or gas). the efficiency of expulsion. leading to an enrichment of hydrocarbons in the expelled liquid. or by the presence of tars. SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION Explorationists who are reading about migration will surely ask. and expulsion occurs concurrently with generation to relieve generation-induced overpressuring. and the timing of expulsion. When separation of a single hydrocarbon phase into two phases occurs. Many light oils (often called condensates) probably have such an origin Proposed separation of petroleum components during secondary migration as a result of chromatographic effects. Unstable basins seldom have depositional or tectonic continuities necessary for longdistance lateral migration to occur. We need to know when hydrocarbons moved. vertical faulting. Barriers can be created by folding. are determined by structural contours on the top of the carrier beds. . as explorationists we have very pragmatic interests in migration. and the vertical and horizontal distances involved.35 will also assume the structurally high position in any reservoirs containing both phases. Timing of expulsion must be dealt with in a different way.

36 7 . up towards the ground surface. To complement the structure contour map. exploration used to consist largely of finding a trap. one or more cross-sections may be drawn. Note that we commonly highlight petroleum accumulations by shading or colouring the reservoir formations where they contain oil or gas. Nowadays we can do better. by displacing the water already there in the porosity. except that the contours are in depth below sealevel. A structure contour map resembles an ordinary topographic contour map. If it can. which may refer either to its depth or to the spot under the ground where it lies. THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS Traps are commonly depicted in two ways. but it is often convenient to exaggerate the vertical to show the individual beds more clearly. Indeed.Petroleum Traps . we need a few definitions. they can be mapped by means of contours drawn on the top of the reservoir formation. which may give a misleading impression of `lakes' of petroleum under the ground! Structure contour maps. and furthermore we can map out the extent and shape of the trap with a good deal of precision-thanks mostly to modern seismic techniques. To give a true representation. before we reached our modern understanding of the geology of petroleum. If then we are to find any of it still preserved. The contours are in feet below mean sea-level. they should properly be drawn with the same scale for both the vertical and the horizontal. This may be caused either by the reservoir itself dying out or by an interruption of its upwards continuity to the surface. Faults will be marked by jumps of the contours. (a) A simple hypothetical anticline. is mapped by contours showing depth below sealevel. as the beds on one side are dropped down relative to the other. is known as the crest of the trap. not only must the reservoir be overlain by an impervious layer forming a cap rock or seal (shales or evaporites are likely to be the most effective). if more continues to migrate up into the trap than can be . These are illustrated using a simple anticline as an example.(2-18) Before we go further. The location of a trap in the subsurface is often the first objective of an exploration program. is the spill-point: this is where oil. the ticks are on the downthrown sides of the faults. so that the highest points on the map have the lowest values. Any oil getting there will be unable to migrate further and so it starts to accumulate.Petroleum Traps We have seen petroleum generated in and expelled from the source rock formation into an overlying or underlying reservoir. but there must also be some sort of blockage to prevent further migration. First. The highest point of the reservoir. drilling a well into it. Such a configuration of the reservoir is known as a trap. and hoping for the best. (b) A representation of the Piper field in the North Sea: the heavy lines are faults cutting the top of the reservoir and causing the contours to jump. where it is lost. it will escape to surface as a seepage. The lowest point. The top of a reservoir formation.

and the same term is used loosely to refer to the area of the trap above the level of the spill-point. however. When referring to a single well. being lighter still. will spill out (under) and migrate on. Similarly gas. Some terms used to define a trap. Let us remember. the only structural effect being a tilt to allow the oil to migrate through the reservoir. there are various types of . either by folding or faulting. The vertical height of the oil (or gas) between the crest of the trap and the water contact is the oil. they are embraced by the familiar terms oilfield or gasfield.Petroleum Traps . formed partly by structural and partly by stratigraphic effects. in which the trap is formed by changes in the nature of the rocks themselves. 2. which are rare and are mentioned mainly for completeness. The trap is due to water flowing through the reservoir and holding the oil in places where it would not otherwise be trapped. Stratigraphic. Hydrodynamic traps. separates out on top within the pore-spaces of the reservoir.(or gas-) column. so that we can recognize a generally horizontal oil-water contact. the informal term pay is often used. where the trap has been produced by deformation of the beds after they were deposited. 3. 4. i. or in their layering. A single accumulation of oil or gas is called a pool. Combination traps.e. using a cross-section of a simple anticline as example (2-19). that most reservoir formations include some tight intervals. Structural. but not entirely due to either. Oil being lighter than water. However. Now we can start to consider the types of trap whose discovery may await us. STRUCTURAL TRAPS The best known type of trap is the anticline: on reaching the crest. They are normally classified under four headings (2-21): 1. If there is no oil. will occur as a gas cap above a gas-oil contact. then we may see a gas-water contact. Just a couple more terms. perhaps if more than one reservoir is present.37 accommodated. Where there is more than one such pool in the same or overlapping areas. petroleum migrating up along a reservoir can go no further and it accumulates there as a pool. The vertical height between the spill-point and the crest is referred to as the closure. which have porosities and permeabilities too low for them to contribute oil to production. These have to be discounted and the bits that remain as useful reservoir in a well section may be lumped together as the net reservoir with a net pay.

38 anticlines with different shapes and geometries that can affect both their prospectivity and the positions of optimum drilling locations: we have to try to understand them. This is a very different kettle of fish from the concentric anticline. The general principles of this are straightforward. then the position of the crest will shift with increasing depth. Imagine an old-fashioned stone hot-water bottle in a bed with a blanket over it: we can still see the form of the hot-water bottle. in cross-section. we have to know its depth to know where best to locate the well. therefore in order to drill into a reservoir near its highest point (where we would expect the oil to be). the anticline is asymmetrical. but an understanding of the shape and size of a prospect is clearly critical to programming an exploration well. This can only happen if there is an apparent thickening of some beds over the crest of the fold. The similar anticline. but we commonly have to undertake some form of geometrical construction to interpret what is happening at depth. . We will describe in a little detail the most important types of anticline. we can thus expect to find only smaller and smaller accumulations of petroleum down to the centre of curvature. Cross-sections of trap-forming anticlines. These conditions mean that the anticline becomes smaller and tighter at deeper levels until we reach a common `centre of curvature'. In this type of structure. many structures have forms in-between the two extremes. (a) The dips are the same on both flanks and the crest is beneath the same locality at all depths. Let us see what the implications are for exploration. Traps can also be formed against faults if a chopped-off reservoir is thrown against a shale or other impervious rock. Anticlines.(2-22) In the concentric fold the tops and bottoms of all the layers remain strictly parallel to each other. Other types of anticline can be formed without any lateral compression at all: an important one is the drape or drape-compaction structure. on the other hand. a well would have to be located off-crest at surface. and we may be able to continue exploration down to depths where we have to stop for other reasons. noting the differences in shape and prospectivity that we have to try to interpret. depending on the nature and strength of the rock layers being folded. and the blanket bulges upwards with an anticlinal shape. Cover it with a few more blankets and a duvet or two. There is a definite limit to the depths to which we should drill. To test the crest at depth. If. (b) The anticline is asymmetrical and the crest shifts with increasing depth. we can find the trap present at all levels down to the basement. Seismic may help. This leads us into the next problem. with one flank steeper than the other. Below this point we have just too much rock to fit into the anticline. In practice. These compressive structures pose one problem right from the start. and we may no longer be able to see where the bottle is.Petroleum Traps . beyond which there may be no trap left to explore as the consequence of decoupling of layers. so that the beds maintain a constant thickness throughout. Compressive structures have a range of shapes between the purely concentric or parallel anticline and the similar fold. maintains its shape constant down to depth. so that the beds become intensely crushed and thrust together: we may no longer even have an anticline at all. In this case.

Extensive salt deposits and plugs with associated traps occur in many parts of the world: the southern North Sea and northern Germany. In case anyone should think that this is unimportant. can be a perfect seal to any underlying accumulations. This occurs alongside a normal fault that is curved. and then to burst through them in the form of a salt plug or salt wall. showing the variety of traps that may be associated with them. a salt pillow or a salt dome. and finally a residual bulge may be left between two nearby plugs: a turtle or turtle-back structure. bending downwards into the hole. which contains more than four times as much oil as the whole of the North Sea put together. Note also that salt. it may extend up to the surface of the ground or only part way if the supply of salt is limited. Note that the anticline dies out upwards towards the surface. All of these possible traps may contain hydrocarbons. Not only may an anticline be pushed up over the plug. it is also liable to fracture the overlying and surrounding beds creating fault traps. The last type of anticline that we should be aware of is the roll-over anticline. the Middle East. Another is the Forties field in the North Sea. the Canadian Arctic Islands.39 A drape-compaction anticline. Ghawar in Saudi Arabia. where the beds are draped over the eroded stumps of an old Jurassic volcano. or over an upfaulted block or horst. the beds being draped over an upfaulted block (horst) of basement rocks. Diagrammatic section through two salt plugs. This creates a rollover anticline. being plastic. and hence the combined name.Petroleum Traps . if the first sediments in a basin were deposited over a hilly surface.(2-26) A wide variety of traps can be associated with salt plugs. those near the bottom of the sequence are going to be squeezed and compacted more on the flanks than on top of the feature as it gets buried. note that the largest oilfield in the world. The effect of salt diapirism will be initially to bulge up the overlying sediments as an anticline. higher beds will gradually mute and suppress the structure until it is no longer present at shallow levels. and the beds on the downthrown side above the curving fault collapse to fill the gap. A second effect comes into play here: because there is a greater thickness of beds off the structure than over the top. does not like empty holes. but also . In effect the downthrown side is being pulled away from the upthrown side which would tend to create an open fissure along the fault. then they will blanket the hill as an anticline. Note a characteristic of these anticlines: not only do they `grow' with depth. it is not always easy to separate out the two effects. however. This compaction enhances the anticline formed by the drape. is in one such trap. Nature. so that it is steep near the surface and flattens with depth. much of the west coast and continental shelf of Africa.(2-25) Similarly. it may bend up and seal off the strata it cuts through. the Gulf Coast of the USA. and several others.

we have to know whereabouts in the succession our prospective reservoir lies. and naturally we have some ideas on the subject. we still do not fully understand what the difference is due to. Whether or not there is a trap. The sealing capacity of faults is a major difficulty confronting us. Lower Jurassic. as at Wytch Farm. Kim+P. but we also know that sometimes faults are pathways for migrating petroleum and non-sealing at all. Fault traps We indicated above that a trap may be formed where a dipping reservoir is cut off up-dip by a fault. (2-27) These roll-over structures are particularly important where the `stretching' is caused by a very thick pile of sediments at the edge of a continent gently slipping. (B) a roll-over complicated by subsidiary faulting near the crest.Petroleum Traps . setting it against something impermeable. and its depth. Cross-section through the Wytch Farm oilfield. and how big it is. southern England. Note that. or slumping as a sort of land-slide. to locate an exploration well in the right place. the position of the crest is displaced with depth and that accumulations in successive reservoirs will not underlie the same surface position. and it will depend on the amount of displacement on the fault. UK. whether the fault is normal or reverse. Lower Cretaceous. therefore. in both cases. Triassic.. a fault can provide a seal. BS+MJ+O. it seems that one and the same fault may act. Upper Cretaceous. T. Middle Jurassic. down towards the deep ocean.40 they are asymmetrical. We know that sometimes. L. The reader may care to think through the various situations sketched as bits of cross-sections in the following figure in which the faults themselves are non-sealing. It also depends on whether the fault itself is sealing or non-sealing. Much of the oil under the Niger and Mississippi Deltas is in such roll-over anticlines. . in both ways. although there are many problems in trying to locate them in the subsurface. W. or have acted in the past. All very puzzling! Although attempts have been made to investigate the problem in Nigeria and elsewhere. and in understanding them. The large Wytch Farm oilfield of southern England offers a splendid example. Tr. or by opposing dips. (2-28) We do not propose to discuss fault traps in detail. thus causing sand against sand to permit migration and sand against shale to be sealing. these predated the deposition of the Upper Cretaceous. at deeper levels the crest will shift away from the position of the fault at surface. Roll-over anticlines: (A) a simple roll-over into a normal fault. The proviso is that we also have lateral closure: this may be provided by further faulting. whether or not the reservoir is completely or only partially offset. Occasionally indeed. trapped against faults to the south. will depend on the dip of the reservoir as compared with that of the fault. Tertiary. Again. It adds further uncertainties to our predictions of the subsurface occurrence of oil and gas. The oil is in two reservoirs. Upper Jurassic.

may serve as an isolated stratigraphic trap. are formed by unconformities. becoming younger as time goes on. claystone. say. so we will mention a few to convey the general idea. We would be left with a sandstone reservoir dying out above the unconformity. no structural control is needed. its edges will provide an example of a reservoir dying out laterally. they differ somewhat in principle from the others.Petroleum Traps . gneisses) under an unconformity serve as reservoirs in China and North Africa. let us note that a number of traps. but are generally classified as stratigraphic traps. A dipping reservoir. and leave the reader to speculate on other possibilities. In this manner. It is presumed that petroleum cannot escape up the fault plane. Non-unconformity traps are even more diverse. some of them very important. cut across by erosion and later covered above the unconformity by impermeable sediments. and on the amount of displacement of the reservoir. the porosity could be preserved beneath the unconformity. is the biggest in the USA outside Alaska. for example. A flood of sand washed off the shallow continental shelf into the deeper ocean. to a large extent reflecting the restricted environments in which the reservoir rocks were deposited. if terminated updip as not infrequently happens. thus preventing further migration. the beach sands will spread progressively over the land surface. a hill on the old land surface may be formed of permeable rock. Unconformity traps can also be found above the break. More esoterically. we have an isolated trapping situation. depending on whether the fault is normal or reverse. but nevertheless known. A sand deposited in a river channel will be confined by the banks and. until perhaps the supply of sand runs out. First.(2-29) STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS Petroleum may be trapped where the reservoir itself is cut off up-dip. fan sands provide one of the prime present-day exploration . strongly weathered basement rock (granites.41 Six trapping and two non-trapping configurations against a fault. possibly through a submarine canyon. The variety in size and shape of such traps is enormous. however. A coral reef overwhelmed by muds. to provide a trap when later covered with. We mention just three examples. will spread out as a fan over the ocean floor. It would be pointless to list all of the possible types of stratigraphic trap that can exist. A lot of oil has been found in recent years in this sort of trap in the North Sea. In fact. provides the classic case: the East Texas field. if drowned by shales. Consider the sea gradually encroaching over the land as sea level rises. on the direction of dip of the beds relative to the fault plane.

We may note here one most important consideration. A couple of examples may give the idea.Petroleum Traps . it is presumed that the fault is non-sealing. where there is enough of it in the section. which were eroded and unconformably overlain by Cretaceous shales. although such prospects are not easy to locate and may require a lot of sophisticated seismic. there always seems to be something new as a challenge. The oil in these fields can only have migrated there after the traps were sealed by the higher sequences. This vital factor.(2-31) The oil in the Argyll and many other fields in the North Sea is trapped in tilted and faulted Permian to Jurassic reservoirs. neither completely controls the trap. has most of its oil and gas trapped in a Carboniferous to Jurassic sequence which includes more than one reservoir. possibly even before it . As the more easily found structural traps are running out in much of the world. This combination trap is partly structural (the anticline) and partly stratigraphic (beneath the unconformity). and truncated by erosion. tilted westwards. Both the faulting and the unconformity control the traps. as the fault moved.42 targets. The reservoir beds were folded into an anticline. that the trap must be shown to have been there before the oil migrated. The oil is held in the reservoirs by younger shales overlying the erosion surface (Fig. some of them large. The difference is believed to be due to clay being smeared into the fault plane. the biggest field in the USA. Again the range of possibilities is almost infinite. and where an oil-water contact is continuous across a fault.). The Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. An investigation into the sealing qualities of faults affecting roll-over anticlines in the Niger Delta. where the reservoirs overlie overpressured shales. A block representation of the trap at the Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. occur in traps formed by a combination of structural and stratigraphic circumstances. these beds were folded into a faulted east-west anticline. Where a reservoir is full to spillpoint against a fault. elsewhere it appears to form a trap.(230) COMBINATION TRAPS A number of fields. or the oil would have been lost. which was tilted west and eroded before deposition of the overlying beds now dipping east.

. therefore.43 was generated. Furthermore. attempting to escape to surface up a reservoir. and the oil will be free to move again. It is therefore always important to get a handle on the hydrodynamic regime in a reservoir for both exploration and oilfield development purposes. we would have to be careful where we locate and drill our oil production wells. A hydrodynamic trap. in say ordinary anticlinal traps. HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS Imagine surface water. We would recognize this from residual traces of oil in a water-bearing reservoir. up in the hills and percolating downwards towards a spring. or aquifer. Note that the oil-water contact is tilted down in the direction of water flow. geologically speaking. are the more obscure and generally smaller prospects. It is totally dependent on the flow of water and is effective. only for as long as the water keeps coming: dry up the supply of water. Oil has found its way into the reservoir and is battling to migrate upwards to the surface against the flow of water. a regime of water flow cannot normally be expected to remain constant for long. The trouble. they are known in a number of parts of the world. indicating the former presence of an oil accumulation now lost. In this sort of situation. This may be one of the reasons why oil accumulations trapped hydrodynamically are rare. The oil-water contact in such a hydrodynamic trap is normally tilted in the direction of water flow. but the oil reserves they contain show clearly that generally they are also bigger. The timing of trap formation versus oil migration has not always worked out favorably. of course. cases are known where flowing water has apparently been able totally to flush oil out of an anticlinal trap. entering a reservoir formation.Petroleum Traps . essentially anticlinal. The number of structural field of this size may partly reflect the fact that structural traps are easier to find than the others. is held against an unevenness of its upper surface by water flowing in the opposite direction. perhaps from rain. Such tilted contacts. is that in most parts of the world the larger anticlines have now been drilled. as we do not want to waste the money drilling wells that would miss the oil altogether. There is no structural or stratigraphic closure.(2-32) THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS A review of 200 giant oilfields (those containing 500 million barrels or more) emphasize the importance of structural. it may find itself caught against an unevenness of the reservoir surface where there is no conventional trap at all. Oil. traps in both number and size. is yet another aspect of the petroleum geology that we have to assess in proposing exploration drilling. This is what has been described as a hydrodynamic trap. are not all that rare. What our efforts are increasingly directed towards. from our present-day point of view. Depending on the balance of forces acting on the oil.

.

The logs show SP (Self Potential or Spontaneous Potential) on the left and R (Resistivity) on the right. multi-interpretable (D).Petroleum Traps .45 EXERCISES EXERCISE 1: The following well logs have been hung on a structural datum.Make the interpretations from easy (A) to more difficult. Interpret the geological relationships shown in each by drawing a structural cross-section through the logs. .

46 EXERCISE PetroleumTraps 2 The Wyckoff Gas Field. N.. located in Steuben County. Elevations and marked logs are provided for 6 wells in the Wyckoff Field. The Onondaga forms a thick biohermal reef over part of the field. produces from Onondaga Limestone and/or Oriskany Sandstone. Wyckoff Reef Gas Field WellElevation CORNELL DIBBLE GUILD CHASE BANKS RICHARDS 2257' 2098' 2037' 2206' 2182' 2066' . A deep-seated downto-the-southwest fault extends upward along the southwest flank of the reef.Y. showing the interval from top of Onondaga to bottom of Oriskany. Oriskany production is from a small anticline on the upthrown side of the fault.Petroleum Traps . Use this information to construct a northeastsouthwest structural cross section from the Richards well to the Dibble well. Only the porous core facies is productive in the reef section (see map on next page).

Petroleum Traps .47 .

48 .Petroleum Traps .

where G and Go are identical. overmature. Analysis normally requires about one gram of rock. but if the rocks contain abundant organic matter. the following distinctions can be made: Effective source rock: any sedimentary rock that has already generated and expelled hydrocarbons.49 8 . MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Knowing a rock's remaining source capacity G solves only one part of the puzzle. For example. that usage is a bit too broad and loose. it is also necessary to know what level of thermal maturity is represented by that particular G value. It follows from these definitions that a particular stratum could be an effective source rock in one place. For example. or is it because the rock is "burned out" (i. we actually measure its remaining (or untapped) source capacity at the present day. much smaller amounts can be analyzed. but which may have generated and expelled hydrocarbons. is most meaningful if we can compare it to the rock's original source capacity. Possible source rock: any sedimentary rock whose source potential has not yet been evaluated. a possible source rock in a nearby unstudied region. we cannot measure G directly for a sample that has already begun to generate hydrocarbons. is it because the rock never had a high initial source capacity. The quantity actually measured in the laboratory is always G. The term "effective source rock" obviously encompasses a wide range of generative histories from earliest maturity to overmaturity. Go can only be measured directly for immature source rocks. and inexpensive analysis serves as the first and most important screening technique in source-rock analysis. the Phosphoria Formation of Wyoming and Idaho belongs to each of these classifications in different areas. The difference between Go and G represents the hydrocarbons already generated in the effective source rock. in which case virtually all the initial . Although the term source rock is frequently used generically to describe fine-grained sedimentary rocks. and might have no source potential at all in a fourth area where important facies changes had resulted in a drastically lower content of organic matter. This simple. the remaining source capacity and not the original capacity (Go). Potential source rock: any immature sedimentary rock known to be capable of generating and expelling hydrocarbons if its level of thermal maturity were higher. a potential source rock in a less-mature area.Source Rock Evaluation .Source-Rock Evaluation DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK Much of modern petroleum geochemistry depends upon accurate assessment of the hydrocarbonsource capabilities of sedimentary rocks.. This quantity. PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL The amount of organic material present in sedimentary rocks is almost always measured as the total-organic carbon (TOC) content. For better communication. quick. which we can call G. if G is very low. instead it must be estimated by measuring G for a similar sample that is still immature. Go.e. When we analyze a rock sample in the laboratory. However.

Such histograms are quite often difficult or impossible to interpret. from amorphous kerogen.Source Rock Evaluation . The ideal histogram of reflectance values is therefore rather rare. After the plug is polished. far more common in shales than in coals. where the o indicates that the measurements were made with the plug immersed in oil. Reflectance values are normally plotted versus depth in a well. in obtaining more than one maturity parameter. along with a statistical analysis of the data. The key to using maturity parameters effectively lies in evaluating the measured data carefully (and sometimes with skepticism) and. vitrinite reflectance is the most popular technique today for estimating kerogen maturity. In order to minimize differences in color caused by changes in the type or thickness of the kerogen particles. In many areas it is easy to use and valuable. The feeling of most workers today is that there is no single maturity indicator that tells the whole story unerringly all the rime. however. A substantial number of techniques for measuring or estimating kerogen maturity have been developed over the years. very different. Results are reported as Ro values. Because each maceral type increases in reflectance in a slightly different way as thermal stress increases. If a log scale is used for the reflectance. TAI measurements are carried out on bisaccate pollen grains whenever possible. and pyrolysis temperature. of course. The darkening of kerogen particles with increasing thermal maturity can be used as an indicator of maturity. The most commonly used maturity parameters today are spore color (Thermal Alteration Index. leading to frequent difficulties in establishing which vitrinite population is indigenous. Vitrinite-reflectance techniques were developed for measuring the rank of coals. unless surrounding samples help us determine the indigenous vitrinite population. whenever possible. in fact. paucity of first-cycle vitrinite renders vitrinite-reflectance measurements essentially worthless. the plot is a straight line. more common are histograms showing few vitrinite particles or multiple modes as a result of first-cycle vitrinite contaminated with reworked vitrinite or caving of less-mature material from up-hole. misidentification of macerals can cause problems. Despite its weaknesses.50 hydrocarbon-source capacity has already been used up)? The exploration implications of these two scenarios are. At the end of the analysis a histogram of the collected data is printed. The method is based on the fact that with increasing thermal stress. and then embedding the kerogen particles in an epoxy plug. In all cases it is worthwhile to supplement vitrinite with other measures of maturity. in which the vitrinite maceral is usually very common. There are many problems with vitrinite reflectance as applied to kerogens. the microscopist shines light on an individual vitrinite particle. or TAI). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro). All the techniques discussed are useful and probably reasonably accurate if the analytical work is carefully done. Reworked vitrinite is. vitrinite reflectance. and none can be applied in all cases. The fraction of the incident beam that is reflected coherently is measured and recorded and stored automatically on a computer. Because what is present is often reworked. Vitrinite-reflectance measurements begin by isolating the kerogen with HCl and HF. TAI values are estimated. Other macerals or solidified bitumens can often be misidentified as vitrinite. its maturity is not related to that of the rock in which it is found. All the methods have strengths and weaknesses. in some cases it is essential. Less commonly used are fluorescence and conodont color (CAI). Thermal Alteration Index (TAI). In other rocks. even for experienced workers. between 50 and 100 measurements will be taken. with lower confidence. the reflectance value of vitrinite increases. If enough vitrinite particles can be found. . In many rocks vitrinite is rare or absent. TAI measurements are made on the same slides prepared for microscopic kerogen-type analysis. A few of these parameters will briefly be discussed. If no pollen can be found.

TAI measurements are therefore often quite accurate and correlate very well with results from other techniques. by removing the mineral matrix with acetic or formic acid. The technique is simple and quick and can be done even by inexperienced workers. One advantage of CAI over other maturity parameters is that because conodonts existed as early as the Cambrian. lack of proper standardization. the absence of spores and pollen in the samples. with the help of color charts can be carried out by inexperienced personnel. use of careful standards and the same type of palynomorph in each analysis greatly aid reproducibility. CAI is only an indirect indicator of hydrocarbon maturity. Other disadvantages overlap with some of the advantages. TAI values estimated from amorphous material are always suspect and should be corroborated by other analyses. most commonly from fossiliferous carbonates. because the organic metamorphism displayed by conodonts is not related to hydrocarbon generation or destruction. where pollen and vitrinite are often absent. conodonts are plentiful in carbonate rocks. or most commonly. they offer a means of measuring maturity in rocks that do not contain pollen grains or vitrinite. A careful worker can reproduce earlier work with excellent precision. Conodonts are not very sensitive indicators of maturity within the oil generation window.Source Rock Evaluation . Colors of the specimens thus obtained are determined under a binocular microscope and compared with standards. TAI values must be estimated from amorphous debris. Early investigations showed that immature rocks often had high CPI . the CAI scale is most sensitive at levels of maturity much higher than can be measured by TAI. Although conodonts are composed of carbonate apatite. Furthermore. Conodonts do not occur in rocks younger than the Triassic. changes in conodont color are apparently due to carbonization of inclusions of small amounts of organic matter during catagenesis and metagenesis. Finally. Conodonts are isolated. and thus helps expand the range over which maturities can be measured. Although TAI determinations are subjective. thus defusing to a large degree the criticism that TAI is too subjective to be valid. where most of the interest is. and thus are of no value in many areas. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI). CAI is inexpensive and easy to measure and. Carbon Preference Index (CPI).51 Each laboratory has reference slides so that microscopists can continually compare the color determinations they are now making with those they and their colleagues made in the past. Thirdly. Finally. leading to an inaccurate assessment of kerogen maturity. which can vary greatly in its chemical and physical properties. The first maturity indicator applied to sediments was the Carbon Preference Index. When palynomorphs are absent. One disadvantage of CAI measurements is that CAI values can be dramatically increased in the presence of hot brines. The chief problems arise with inexperienced workers.

Pyrolysis yields are. because of their friability. have low CPI values even when immature. it is impossible to determine which maturation path brought it to that point. in which the input of terrestrial lipids was very limited. Like pyrolysis. The most common method for taking maturity effects into account in evaluating pyrolysis data is to use a modified van Krevelen diagram to backcalculate the original hydrogen index. Walnut hulls and other organic debris are also easy to detect microscopically. walnut hulls and other solid debris. it can lead to an overly optimistic assessment of the organic richness of the section. It is capable of impregnating sidewall and conventional cores as well as cuttings. Later it was realized that the decrease in CPI with increasing maturity depends upon the type of organic matter originally present as well as on maturity. In contrast to solid additives. diesel fuel affects both kerogen and bitumen. Well Samples . vitrinite reflectance measurements offer the best means of recognizing caving. Atomic H/C ratios must therefore be corrected for the effects of . Without additional information. It breaks down at high maturity levels. As long as kerogen particles are not completely black. Drilling-fluid additives have been a severe headache for petroleum geochemists for a long time. Hydrocarbon contamination is rare except in the immediate vicinity of production or where vehicles are used. however.The main causes of contamination among samples obtained from wells are caving and adulteration by drilling-fluid additives. CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING Surface Samples -The types of contamination most frequently encountered in surface samples are caused by living organic matter or by spills of oil. and can be removed prior to beginning the analytical sequence. strongly affected by maturity. fewer CPI determinations are made now. rocks deposited in pelagic environments. in the last decade kerogen analyses have replaced bitumen analyses as the routine procedure in source-rock evaluation. and lignite from lignosulfonates. atomic H/C ratios measure the present day status of the kerogen rather than its original chemical composition. however. whereas those of oils were almost always below 1. Contaminants of particular notoriety are diesel fuel. Caving is a particular problem for coals. As a result. therefore. and therefore should be easy to avoid. they can usually be identified with reasonable confidence. In particular. This discovery led to the use of CPI as an indicator of maturity.5). ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY Of the three major methods of determining kerogen type. palynological analysis can usually detect the presence of lignosulfonates because of the unique pollen assemblages present in the lignite. Problems with living organic matter are easily avoided by physically removing tiny plant roots and other recognizable debris. Mold or other surface growth may also be present. Furthermore. Fortunately.Source Rock Evaluation . Careful picking of lithologies and comparison with up-hole samples can often recognize caved materials. Caving is not a problem for conventional or sidewall cores. In many cases. The exception to this rule is with amorphous material. of course. This method works fairly well if the kerogen is still within the oil-generation window. In such cases TOC values will be raised and reflectance histograms will show a large population near 0. where the fluorescence that enables us to distinguish between oil-prone and non-oil-prone disappears toward the end of the oil-generation window. TOC values will be raised and vitrinite-reflectance values lowered by the presence of adsorbed diesel. of course.52 values (> 1. because all kerogens have low pyrolysis yields. which affect only the kerogen portion of the sample.5%. only microscopic analysis is relatively unaffected by maturity.2. but it can be devastating in cuttings samples.

however. S2. have little oil-source potential. Many rocks with high TOC values. These raw data are then normalized for the organic-carbon content of the sample. because the type of kerogen preserved in rich rocks is often more oil-prone than in lean rocks.5%). cutinite. Gas-generative kerogen is mainly vitrinite. which ones might be of slight interest (TOC between 0. Those rocks containing less than 0. and S3) are expressed in milligrams of hydrocarbon or carbon dioxide per gram of rock sample. has dissented from this pessimistic view. on the basis of deductive reasoning. the kerogen in such lean rocks is almost always highly oxidized and thus of low source potential. yielding . Raw data (S1. We therefore use TOC values as screens to indicate which rocks are of no interest to us (TOC < 0. and inert.0% TOC are marginal. A rock containing 3% TOC is likely to have much more than six times as much source capacity as a rock containing 0. Rocks containing between 0. INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Almost all measurements of the amount of organic matter present in a rock are expressed as TOC values in weight percent of the dry rock. They will not function as highly effective source rocks. the actual volume percent occupied by the organic material is about twice the TOC percentage.53 maturation by using a van Krevelen diagram. but they may expel small quantities of hydrocarbons and thus should not be discounted completely. that at least some Australian inertinites can generate significant amounts of oil. In some rocks TOC values between 1% and 2% are associated with depositional environments intermediate between oxidizing and reducing.5% TOC. fluorescing amorphous kerogen. As such these quantities are a measure of the total capacity of a rock to release or generate hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide.5% TOC are considered to have negligible hydrocarbon-source potential. resinite. and which are definitely worthy of further consideration (TOC > 1. because the kerogens they contain are woody or highly oxidized.Source Rock Evaluation . TOC values above 2% often indicate highly reducing environments with excellent source potential. Furthermore. and thus of limited source potential. Nevertheless. where preservation of lipid-rich organic matter with source potential for oil can occur.5% and 1.5% and 1. Kerogens in rocks containing less than 1% TOC are generally oxidized. Inertinite is considered by most workers to have no hydrocarbon-source capacity. Interpretation of TOC values therefore does not simply focus on the quantity of organic matter present. In interpreting these observations we normally divide these macerals into oil-generative. The amount of hydrocarbons generated in such rocks is so small that expulsion simply cannot occur. Rocks containing more than 1% TOC often have substantial source potential. Because the density of organic matter is about one-half that of clays and carbonates. however. These immature H/C ratios can then be used to calculate Go. TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER Microscopic kerogen-type analysis describes the proportions of the various macerals present in a sample. exinite. gas-generative.0%). the direct evidence for such a statement is rather meager. The oil-generative macerals are those of Type I and Type II kerogens: alginite. Smyth (1983).0%). Thus high TOC values are a necessary but not sufficient criterion for good source rocks. We must still determine whether the kerogen present is in fact of good hydrocarbon-source quality. etc. Pyrolysis results are normally reported in two ways. claiming.

54 values in milligrams per gram of TOC. because they vary with kerogen type as well as maturity. Because vitrinite reflectance is the most popular method of determining maturity. It is particularly difficult to generalize about TAI values because the numerical values of TAI scales have not been standardized among laboratories.5% Ro. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above 600 usually consist of nearly pure Type I or Type II kerogens.Source Rock Evaluation . either from terrestrial macerals (cutinite. but there are still some minor variations from one laboratory to another. with CAI of 8 reached in a marble. resinite.9% Ro. and thus are considered to have good source potential for liquid hydrocarbons. a unified scale for comparing them with Ro values has not been adopted. Some laboratories put the onset of maturity at 435° C. Determination of the oil-generation window in a particular section is the objective of most maturity analyses performed on possible source rocks. most other maturation parameters are related to Ro values. Because some Cenozoic land plants are richer in resins and waxes than Paleozoic plants. Thus. The ultimate limit of oil stability is not known for certain. because during the Paleozoic the biota was quite different than during the Cenozoic. make sure that you have a copy of their equivalency between TAI and Ro. the hydrogen index serves as an indicator of kerogen type. Measured hydrogen indices must be corrected for maturity effects by using a modified van Krevelen diagram as outlined above. However. Nevertheless. MATURITY Kerogen Parameters. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above about 300 contain substantial amounts of Type II macerals. and the coals were of bituminous to anthracite rank. Age of coals is important.6% Ro. The normalized S2 and S3 values are called the hydrogen index and the oxygen index. They have excellent potential to generate liquid hydrocarbons. others use 440°. for most kerogens the onset of oil-generation is taken to be near 0. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) values ranging from 1 to 5 were tied loosely to vitrinite reflectance and fixed carbon content of coals. this generalization has two fallacies: most of the coalfields originally studied were of Paleozoic age. some Cenozoic coals should have better potential for generating liquid hydrocarbons.35% Ro. The correlations among maturity parameters have been fairly well established. COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS Coals have been traditionally discounted as effective source rocks for oil accumulations because of the lack of geographic correlation between oil fields and coal deposits. exinite) or from marine algal material. The limits of the oil generation window vary considerably depending upon the type of organic matter being transformed. . Those between 150 and 300 contain more Type III kerogen than Type II and therefore have marginal to fair potential for liquids. if you are using TAI determinations determined by an analytical laboratory. Hydrogen indices above 150 reflect increasing amounts of lipid-rich material. but in most cases is probably not much above 1. A second. less common application is to decide whether oil will be stable in a given reservoir. Peak generation is reached near 0. Interpretation of hydrogen indices for immature kerogens is straightforward. Although Tmax values are determined objectively. Hydrogen indices below about 150 mg HC/g TOC indicate the absence of significant amounts of oil generative lipid materials and confirm the kerogen as mainly Type III or Type IV. CAI can actually measure high-grade metamorphism. respectively. Because variations in TOC have been removed in the normalizing calculation. and the end of liquid-hydrocarbon generation is thought to be at about 1.

and organic facies.60 0. To do this intelligently we must have the ability to develop regional models of organic facies and thermal maturity. Interpretation of source-rock data on a basic level is quite simple. therefore.0 2.55 SUMMARY Any source-rock evaluation should attempt to answer three questions: What are the quantity.5 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 Correlation of various kerogen-maturity parameters with vitrinite-reflectance (Ro) values . With increasing experience one can also learn to derive important information on thermal histories.00 4.00 3. type. In some areas one technique may fail completely or may be only partially successful. We should always attempt to extrapolate our measured data over as large an area as possible.00 1.4 3.20 1.0 3.00 Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) 2. and maturity of the organic matter present in the rocks? Satisfactory methods are available in most cases to answer all these questions. Vitrinite Reflectance (%Ro) 0.8 4. rather.8 3.35 1. unconformities and erosional events. Whenever possible.80 1. we should attempt to corroborate the measured data by other analyses.Source Rock Evaluation .0 Pyrolysis Tmax (°C) 420 430 440 450 460 465 470 480 500 500 + 500 + Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) 1 1 1 1.0 4.6 2.2 3.5 3.40 0.50 2. we should not rely on a single analytical technique.3 2.50 0.

To use the H /C data.3 0. Both the immature H / C ratios and the maceral analysis data need to be scaled to calculate "Total Oil.Source Rock Evaluation .7 3.5 2-2.0 3.22 1.72 0.5 2-2. B) H/C versus TAI for Mauve Well samples.0 0. The calculated immature H/C ratios are listed in the table on next page.07 1.5 2. A) Calculation of the immature kerogen H/C ratio(at A) from the present-day H/C ratio and vitrinite reflectance data(at P) .81 1.2 Atomic H/C 1.2 1. present-day H/C ratios to the ones that the kerogens had when they were thermally immature.5 2.05 0.27 1. presenting the kerogen quality factor as a .7 2.7 1.9 3.15 0. and then tracing the H/C ratio back to its immature value. This can be done easily by plotting H/C versus TAI.0 2-2. quality (H /C and %Alginite + Exinite). Source-rock data for the Mauve Well Depth (m) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Type of Sample Sidewall Cores %Corg 0.6 2." Two independent quality measurements have been made.56 EXERCISES Worked out example: Perform a source-rock analysis on the Mauve Well.5 1.1 2.6 2.5 0.3 1.86 0. one must first convert the measured.65 0.7 2.41 0.7 1.5 0. and maturity (TAI).98 0. as shown in Figure B (derived from Figure A).8 % Alginite + Exinite 75 80 80 75 80 90 85 75 70 50 45 60 45 40 ? ? Core Cuttings Data are available on quantity (%Corg).2 3.77 0.5 1.5 2.6 0.1 3. and both should be utilized and examined for possible discrepancies.6 2. however." To do this. so "Total Oil" can be plotted against "Oil Already Generated.8 0.66 0.75 0.2 2.33 1.38 TAI 2. refer to the graph on next page.

70 1.35 0.8 1. to check for analytical error. so some systematic error is likely.60 0.4 1.86 0. Kerogen quality factor as a function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen.90 0.35 1.7 1.60 0.43 1.17 0. it is impossible to pinpoint the error.5 1.35 0.0 0. In likewise manner (not illustrated here) the quality factor can be determined from maceral analysis data.81 1.00 0. and would certainly request that the slides made for maceral analysis be reviewed.15 0.05 1. The most important point being made here is that these discrepanties must be taken seriously by the interpreter.90 0. however. 1500. In each case. Without more knowledge.05 0.57 function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen in order to determine the quality factor from H/C. The samples at 1000.5 1.38 Immature H/C 1. and not .50 1.90 0.5 1.9 1.9 0. and 4500 meters all show differences in the quality factors calculated from the two types of data.05 0.81 1.05 0.75 0. 2000.85 1. 1750.60 ? ? * * * * * 1.8 ? ? * * * Indicates discrepancy between quality factors calculated from H /C and from maceral analysis.90 ? ? Quality Factor Quality Factor (from H/ C) (from 1.72 0.20 1.66 0.27 1.2 0.22 1. Scaled Quality Data tor Mauve Well Samples Depth (m) macerals) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Measured H/C 1. such as pyrolysis. The prudent interpreter might now ask that some of the H/C ratios be rerun.6 1. the H/C ratio gives the lower quality factor.Source Rock Evaluation .07 1.22 1.33 1.30 1.6 1.77 0. the interpreter might then decide to try a third technique.6 1.05 1.41 0. The scaled quality factors are given for each parameter in the table on next page.77 0.90 0. If these attempts produced no resolution of the problem. It is apparent that there are serious discrepanties between the H/C and maceral analysis results for several of the samples.98 0. 4000. 2300.65 0.07 1.65 0.

"Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles are plotted in above figure. These two kerogens are highly mature and quite black. Most of the discrepanties among the different quality factors turn out to be unimportant. More samples between 3000 and 3500 meters should be obtained to define better the zone of high "Total Oil" values. "Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles tor the Mauve Well. about the oil-source history of the section below 4600 meters. The rest of the section shows a good correspondente between the two parameters. although the section between 2000 and 3500 meters shows fairly good potential.Source Rock Evaluation . no maceral analysis was possible here. "Total Oil" values are generally unexciting. a more thermally mature version of the rocks lying between 2700 and 3000 meters in the Mauve Well could already have generated very large quantities of oil. Finally. In fact. The only sample where the discrepancy is significant is that from 2000 meters. therefore. and the H/C ratios are not helpful because the maceral types cannot be ascertained from such low H/C values. . Future exploratory activity could include an attempt to find such a section. It may be necessary occasionally to offer two alternative interpretations without choosing between them. Let us take this last approach to this problem. One can say little. because sourcerock potential is not good for most of the section.58 be overlooked or swept under the rug. except for the two deepest samples. "Oil Already Generated" values indicate that only the section lying below 4500 meters is likely to have generated anything approaching a commercially attractive amount of oil. The relative organic richness of the blackened samples below 4600 meters makes them interesting for further investigation.

EXERCISE Source Rock 2 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well.25 0.3 1.5-3.07 0.0 2.5-3 2.02 0.91 0.27 0.18 0.59 EXERCISE Source Rock 1 Combine the data from the Blue Well to give a coherent picture of thermal maturity in the section drilled.2 0.06 0.06 0.0 2.60 0.44 0.7 0.42 0.25 1.3 Bit/TOC 0.0-2.5-3 2.08 0.59 0.71 0.65 0.5 2. Thermal-maturity data for the Blue Well Depth (ft) TAI Ro Bitumen/TOC 1000 1200 1500 2000 2300 2600 3000 3200 3400 3700 4000 4200 4800 5000 5200 5400 5700 6000 2.11 0.09 0.60 0.5-3 2.3 2.08 0.2 2.6 0.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.88 0.52 0.10 0.51 0.85 0.0-2.0-2.02 0.09 0.46 0.49 0.5 2.0 2.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1.5 0.00 1.0 2.66 0.5-3 2.21 1.91 1.3 2.5 2.05 0.0 0.0 2.99 1.48 Ro 0.63 0.07 1.27 1.05 0.22 0.86 1.02 Atomic H/C 0.6 4.12 *TAI and Ro are interconverted according to the correlation table at the end of chapter 7.17 0.61 0.33? 1.06 0.01 0.7 0.03 0.8 1.5 2.1 2.66 0.5 2.21 0.51 0.91 1.51 0.0 3-3.5 2.3 2.49 0.26? 1.5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance .55 0.5 3.17 0.60 0.03 0.5 2.5 2.41? 1.5 3-3. Explain how you resolved any apparent discrepancies. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10.59 0.5 3.5-3 2.5-3 3.5 2.1 0.07 0.08 0.9 1.90 0.5 2.8 0.65 0.03 0.4 0.08 0.21 1.6 2.Source Rock Evaluation .0 2.67 0.5 2.

He developed a "Time-Temperature Index" of maturity (TTI) to quantify his method. Time-stratigraphic data are usually available as formation tops and ages obtained by routine biostratigraphic analysis of well cuttings. In order to circumvent these difficulties. estimates can be made. for it is in keeping with the predictions of chemical-kinetic theory. Furthermore. however. perhaps from thicknesses of exposed sections nearby. In most cases. It has even been suggested that maturity models are more accurate than measured data for determining the extent of petroleum generation. methods have been developed for calculating maturity levels where measurements are not available. a time stratigraphy can sometimes be constructed using seismic data. especially if the seismic reflectors can be tied to well data. Part of this problem is a consequence of the limitations we face in attempting to obtain reliable maturity measurements. Lopatin in the Soviet Union described a simple method by which the effects of both time and temperature could be taken into account in calculating the thermal maturity of organic material in sediments. In this chapter you will learn how to carry out maturity calculations using Lopatin's method and how to use Lopatin's method in exploration. however. In 1971. measured maturity data are of limited value in exploration. . If no subsurface data are available. In some areas there are no well samples available. This assumption is a logical and defensible one. CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL One of the advantages of Lopatin's method is that the required input data are very simple and easy to obtain. The common thread running through all these models is the assumption that oil generation depends upon both the temperature to which the kerogen has been heated and the duration of the heating. nor do we know at what depth or temperature it occurred. Lopatin's method allows one to predict both where and when hydrocarbons have been generated and at what depth liquids will be cracked to gas. indeed. we still have no clue as to when oil generation occurred.60 9 . and migration with timing of structure development or trap formation. These considerations are important when we want to compare timing of generation.Predicting Thermal Maturity INTRODUCTION Measured maturity values for possible source rocks are invaluable because they tell us much about the present status of hydrocarbon generation at the sample location. If no well data are available. Nevertheless. We need data that will enable us to construct a time stratigraphy for the location of interest and to specify its temperature history. maturity measurements can only tell us about present-day maturity levels. in frontier basins there may not be a single well within tens or hundreds of kilometers. These two factors are interchangeable: a high temperature acting over a short time can have the same effect on maturation as a low temperature acting over a longer period. expulsion. early efforts to take both time and temperature into account in studying the process of hydrocarbon generation were only partially successful because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in allowing both time and temperature to vary independently.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Even in maturely explored basins the samples available for analysis often do not give a representative picture of maturity in the basin. If our measurements indicate that a rock has already passed through the oil-generation window.

Nevertheless. sediment has accumulated continuously but at varying rates since deposition of the oldest rock 100 million years ago (Ma). This geometry is a direct consequence of ignoring compaction effects. Using these present-day data and extrapolating them into the past. which was constructed from the time stratigraphy for the Tiger well. Suppose. by 80 Ma the sediment had been buried to a depth of 900 m (point C). The simplest way to do this is to compute the present-day geothermal gradient and assume that both the gradient and surface temperature have remained constant throughout the rock's history. representing the initial deposition of the sediment (point A) and its position today (point B). Neglecting compaction effects. a burial-history curve may represent only a rather uncertain guess. and that a corrected bottom-hole temperature of 133° C was obtained at 3800 m.(9-2) All of the shallower and younger horizons will have burial-history curves whose segments are parallel to those of the oldest horizon. that the Tiger well was logged. Connecting the six dots completes the burial-history curve. TEMPERATURE HISTORY The next step is to provide a temperature history to accompany our burial-history curve. if constructed as carefully as the data permit. Using the other control points from the input table. burial-history curves represent our best understanding of the geological history of an area. Burial-history curves are based on the best information available to the geologist. In cases where biostratigraphic data are available and deposition has been reasonably continuous. it is easy to construct burial-history curves with a high level of confidence. The burial-history curve was constructed in the following way: two points.61 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES Implementation of Lopatin's method begins with the construction of a burial-history curve for the oldest rock layer of interest. In cases where biostratigraphic data are lacking or where the sediments have had complex tectonic histories.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Today the rock is at a depth of 3700 m. are marked on the age-depth plot. Suppose further that local weather records indicate a yearly average surface temperature of 19° C. The next step is to locate the first control point from the time-stratigraphic data on the input table. In the Tiger well. The subsurface temperature must be specified for every depth throughout the relevant geologic past. An example is shown in the following figure. . we can construct the complete figure. we can construct the temperature grid with equally spaced isotherms parallel to the earth's surface. for example.

If thrusting is rapid compared to the rate of thermal equilibration between thrust sheets. we can change surface temperatures through time without altering the geothermal gradient. burial-history curves for both hanging wall and footwall can be represented on a single diagram. maps of regional geothermal gradients can be useful in estimating the gradient at a particular location. As an example: lowering the geothermal gradient by rapid sediment accumulation results in subsurface temperatures that are anomalously low compared to the "normal" ones that dominated previously. however. In other cases the surface temperature remains constant. the burial-history curve again begins to trend downward. In most cases. we are limited only by our own creativity.62 Where measured bottom-hole temperatures are not available. If. If part of the section is missing as a result of faulting. the resultant thinning of the section must be represented in the entire family of burial-history curves. If deposition resumes later. Whenever erosional removal occurs. Given adequate data or an appropriate model on which to base complex temperature reconstructions. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES The most common complicating factor in constructing burial-history curves is erosional removal. Erosion is indicated in a burial-history curve by an upward movement of the curve. the data necessary for highly sophisticated temperature reconstructions are simply not available. temperature profiles will be based largely on guesswork. The effects of thrusting on thermal maturity are not well understood. There is no theoretical limit to the complexity that can be introduced into our temperature histories. There are numerous other variations that can be employed in creating temperature grids. two separate diagrams should be used for the sake of clarity. For example (9-7). In many poorly explored areas. Causes for such events could include global warming and cooling or local climatic variations resulting from continental drift or elevation changes.Predicting Thermal Maturity . More complicated temperature histories account for changes in thermal conductivities caused by variations in lithology. but the geothermal gradient varies in response to heating or cooling events. however. The individual segments of each of the burial-history curves in a family will remain parallel. some part of the section is repeated as a result of thrusting. the movement of hot rocks from the bottom of the overthrusted slab over cool rocks at the top of the underthrusted slab will affect . Faulting can be dealt with by considering the hanging wall and footwall as separate units having distinct burial histories.

Multiplying the time factor for any temperature interval by the appropriate temperature-factor for that interval gives a product called the Time-Temperature Index of maturity (TTI). Testing of his model and the successful application of Lopatin's method in numerous published examples have confirmed the general validity of this assumption. Chemical reaction-rate theory states that the rate of a reaction occurring at 90° C (a reasonable average for oil generation) and having a pseudoactivation energy of 16.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Temperature intervals are defined by successive isotherms spaced 10° C apart. However. The temperature factor. This intervalTTI value represents the maturity acquired by the rock in that temperature interval during the time . Lopatin (1971) assumed that the rate of maturation followed this doubling rule. Because the rate of maturation was assumed to increase by a factor of two for every 10° C rise in temperature.(9-12) CALCULATION OF MATURITY Once the burial-history curves and temperature grids have been constructed. Now we can carry out the maturity calculations. increases exponentially with increasing temperature. In order to carry out maturity calculations conveniently. Individual burial-history curves remain parallel.400 cal/mol will approximately double with every 10° C increase in reaction temperature. Intersections of the burial-history curve with each isotherm are marked with dots. Index values increase or decrease regularly at higher or lower temperatures intervals.63 organic maturation by causing important perturbations in subsurface temperatures. spent by the rock in each temperature interval. Loss of 1000 m of section by erosion during an uplift event lasting from 70 Ma to 60 Ma. but the distance between the two lines which bracket the erosion. These dots define the time and temperature intervals that we shall use in our calculations. respectively. in contrast. Lopatin chose the 100°-110° C interval as his base and assigned to it an index value n = 0. we need to define both a time factor and a temperature factor for each temperature interval. A Time interval is the length of time that the rock has spent in a particular temperature interval. Total maturity is calculated by summing the incremental maturity added in each succeeding temperature interval. Lopatin defined each time factor simply as the length of time. for any temperature interval the temperature factor (?) was given by: ? = 2n The temperature-factor thus reflects the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature. more work is required before we will understand fully how thrusting influences hydrocarbon generation and destruction. we must paste them together. Studies in the Overthrust Belt of Wyoming indicate that a slow-equilibration model is superior to a simple model invoking rapid thermal equilibration. decreases by 1000 m. expressed in millions of years.

followed by a nonerosional depositional hiatus for the last 50 Ma. In A the rock was buried at a constant rate for its entire 80-my history. we simply sum all the interval-TTI values for the rock. it can never go backward because interval-TTI values are never negative. In the adjoining table interval-TTI values and total-TTI values up to the present day are calculated. maturity continues to increase (albeit at a slower rate) because y is always greater than zero. Figure C shows rapid burial during the first 20 Ma. The first step in calculating TTI is illustrated in the following figure. the cake will bake slowly at first but will bake faster and faster as the temperature rises.64 given. . as the oven cools down. although at increasingly slower rates. On the other hand. If we put a cake in a cold oven and turn the oven on. no matter how much or how rapidly we cool it down. finally. Furthermore.Predicting Thermal Maturity . we cannot "unburn" it. In B burial was very slow during the first 70 Ma of the rock's existence.(9-20) It is also possible to determine the total-TTI value at any time in the past simply by stopping the calculation at that time. baking will continue. where the time factors and yfactors for each temperature interval are shown on the burial-history curve. Maturity always increases. Four of the many paths by which an 80-Ma-old rock could have reached a present burial depth of 3000 m is indicated in the figure (9-21). To obtain total maturity. the specific burial history of a rock can strongly affect its maturity. If we turn off the oven but leave the cake inside. but quite rapid in the last 10 my. In D 40 Ma of rapid burial to a depth of 4000 m was followed by a hiatus lasting 30 Ma and. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY Because maturity is affected by both baking time and baking temperature. A good analogy can be drawn between oil generation and baking. even if a rock cools down. TTI values differ appreciably among these four scenarios. if we forget about the cake when the oven is hot and let it burn. by 10 Ma of uplift and erosion.

the dependence of maturity on time is linear.Predicting Thermal Maturity . we usually have excellent control on rock ages through micropaleontology. showing the evolution of the oilgeneration window through time. The hiatus has been reinterpreted as an erosional unconformity (9-23) POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS The most obvious errors in maturity calculations will come from inaccuracies in time and temperature data.(9-29) Furthermore. B) Revised burial-history model for Well #1 based on the poor correlation with measured maturity data. so even a rather large error in baking time will not produce a catastrophic change in maturity. might we anticipate possible problems with time. Family of burial-history curves for a well in the Big Horn Basin. Km = Lance-Meeteetse formations. in contrast. Kc = Cody-Frontier formations. but there is no guarantee of their accuracy in any particular case. time data are seldom a problem. Wyoming. is the single most important cause of uncertainty and error in maturity calculations. Temperature. The model includes an extensive nonerosional depositional hiatus. Most logged temperatures are too low and require correction.65 A) Initial proposed burialhistory model for Well #1. In actuality. our uncertainties about the true values of subsurface temperatures are much greater than about time. Secondly. Present-day subsurface temperatures are difficult to measure accurately. and can be even better in Cenozoic rocks. Tfu = Fort Union Formation. Only in cases where micropaleontological dating was not or could not be carried out. Various methods have been developed for this purpose. First. Age calls are often made within a million years. . The sensitivity of maturity to temperature is clearly indicated by the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Tu = undifferentiated Tertiary.

3 2.5 3.3 1.66 Even if we could measure present-day subsurface temperatures with perfect accuracy.27 0.5 2.52 0. do not utilize different kinetic parameters for the various kerogen types.22 0. In other cases.07 1.5 2.03 0.1 0.0 3-3.49 0.65 0.7 0.18 0.08 0.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1.25 1.71 0.65 0.41? 1. however.5-3 2.2 0.05 0.90 0.48 Ro 0.00 1. Base Pleistocene 2 Ma Base Pliocene 5 Base Upper Miocene 11 Base Middle Miocene 50 Ma .91 0.91 1.51 0.06 0. Construct a family of burial-history curves for the well and calculate the present-day TTI at total depth.86 1. In many cases.1 2.01 0.5-3 2.5 2.21 1.88 0.5-3.5 3-3.60 0.5-3 2.6 4.02 0. 3500 ft of Pliocene.02 Atomic H/C 0. The corrected bottom-hole temperature was 270° F.5-3 2. particularly where Paleozoic rocks are involved.0 0. A question of some concern comes from the previously mentioned fact that most of the maturity models treat all types of kerogen identically.Predicting Thermal Maturity .000 ft of Upper Miocene before being abandoned at 16.59 0.8 1.5 3.06 0.5-3 2.08 0.17 0.08 0.03 0.33? 1. we still would have to extrapolate the present somehow into the past.5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 2 The Black Well was drilled off the Louisiana Gulf Coast.91 1.7 0. A plausible average surface temperature is 20° C.4 0. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10.66 0.9 1. however. It penetrated 1000 ft of Pleistocene sediments. In such cases we should be very careful about using predicted maturities unless we have some independent confirmation of the validity of our model from a comparison with measured maturity data. and 11.5-3 3.5 0.51 0.3 Bit/TOC 0.26? 1.99 1.150 ft in the Middle Miocene.21 1.8 0. even an inaccurate extrapolation into the past may not cause significant problems.85 0. an accurate interpretation of the ancient geothermal history may be critical.5 2. EXERCISES EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 1 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well. Despite experimental evidence indicating that different kerogens decompose to yield hydrocarbons at different levels of maturity models.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.27 1.67 0. where presentday temperatures are maximum paleotemperatures.

It is also believed that 500 ft of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited before uplift and erosion began. Time-stratigraphic data Temperature data Age (Ma) 0 2 38 65 80 100 Depth (m) 0 500 1200 2700 3000 4000 Present-day average surface temp.5 base Turonian base Cenomanian base Cretaceous top Kimmeridgian base Kimmeridgian 91 Ma 97 144 150 156 Ma . Corrected BHT (4200 m): Estimated surface temp. At a depth of 1500 ft. The following Upper Cretaceous boundaries are noted: Maestrichtian-Campanian Campanian-Santonian Santonian-Coniacian Coniacian-Turonian Turonian-Cenomanian 1807 ft 2002 ft 2360 ft 2546 ft 3017 ft The Cenomanian is 480 ft thick and overlies 1000 ft of Kimmeridgian-age shale. Find when the rock at 3000 m began to generate oil (TTI = 10). Determine when each of the strata began to generate oil. assuming a constant geothermal gradient through time. Assuming a surface temperature of 10° C and a geothermal gradient of 2° F/100 ft.5 88.Predicting Thermal Maturity . micropaleontology indicates the rocks to be of Maestrichtian age. draw a burial-history curve for the section penetrated and calculate maturity for the Kimmeridgian shale. Age data top Paleocene base Paleocene base Maastrichtian base Campanian base Santonian base Coniacian 55 Ma 65 73 83 87. Total depth is reached at 6120 ft in Middle Jurassic rocks. Evidence from related sections indicates that the Paleocene was originally about 3000 ft thick and that no other Cenozoic sediments were ever deposited.67 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 3 Calculate present-day TTI at 3000 m in the Red Well.end Cretaceous: 15° C 141° C 25° C EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 4 The Ultraviolet Well is spudded in Paleocene sediments. Total original thickness of the Kimmeridgian is thought to be 1500 ft.

65°C/100 m and a surface intercept of 15°C are reasonable for the area. Top of Permian Virgil Missouri Des Moines Atoka Morrow Mississippian Kinderhook Sylvan Arbuckle Age (Ma) 230 280 288 296 304 309 320 340 425 470 Period Permian 0 L.68 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 5 Analyze the timing of oil generation in the Pink Well.Predicting Thermal Maturity ." Utilizing the principles of hydrocarbon generation and preservation. The following geological summary is available to you. Erosional removal since the Permian probably totals about 2000 ft.500 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 6 You have been asked to evaluate an undrilled prospect in a remote area that is available in an expensive farm-in deal. oil-prone source rock at about 4300m depth near the prospect. Nearby well control indicates that a geothermal gradient of 3.000 8. Because of the high operations cost.000 13. The reservoir is sealed by a thick salt layer. Time-stratigraphic data are given in the following table. The basin filled at a generally uniform rate from about 300 Ma to 100 Ma. "A regional study of the area suggests the probable presence of a thin. No other source rocks were noted. The geothermal gradient was found to be 1. No unconformities are recognized within the Paleozoic. Carboniferous '' '' '' '' E. The traps at the prospect location formed slightly prior to the beginning of erosional removal in the basin and have retained integrity to the present.000 11. No other reservoirs are anticipated. upper management has decided that gas and condensate are not economical. and the surface temperature today is about 15° C.0° F/100 ft. evaluate the prospect. rich. From 40 Ma to the present about 500m of additional burial occurred.000 18. The source rock is thought to be about 300 Ma old.000 23. Your responsibility is to make a recommendation regarding the nature of hydrocarbons that might be present in die prospect.500 27. Carboniferous '' Ordovician '' Depth (ft) 7. .500 21.000 25. At that time nearby orogenic activity caused the first traps to be formed during a gradual 1200m uplift lasting until 40 Ma. Highly fractured carbonates overlie the source rock. they are in turn overlain at 2750m by a sandstone of excellent reservoir quality.

However. it is desirable to be able to express our degree of confidence in it. Increasingly these days. RESERVES Perhaps the following explanations will give you some idea of what we are up against when we come to consider quantities of the resource on which a good deal of our civilization depends. we have to remember that we are dealing with a resource and that we are very concerned with the quantities involved. which controls the amounts of oil in the reservoir. and oil may be produced directly into it. A bald figure for `recoverable reserves' is somewhat meaningless.69 10 . even within oil companies. of the following terms: OIL IN PLACE This is the total volume of oil. of a well. until actually all of the oil has been produced. We will refer to oil. The stock tank is. and hence the STOOIP refers to the oil in place in the reservoir but corrected to the volume it would occupy under surface pressure and temperature. which can be produced using assisted or enhanced recovery techniques. however. let alone how much. methods. and tertiary reserves using more exotic techniques. You may see the engineers using the term STOOIP: stock tank oil originally in place. just what these changes amount to. half a mile or whatever. It usually refers to what was there originally. that the proportion of the oil in place that we can recover will depend on the economics: how much money are we prepared to spend on getting it out of the ground. and terms can be used equally for gas. First. since we are never able to recover all of the oil that is down there in the reservoir. they might designate as `probable'. our wells. Some might use the term to refer to the amount of recoverable oil that is believed to lie within a given radius. we are involved with a greater or less degree of uncertainty about quantities.Quantitative Assessment So far we have been talking in rather generalized terms. So. there is no way that we can know precisely how much we have found: the geology.Quantitative Assessment . in the case of small fields. How do we handle these problems? Before we get into this. once a discovery is made. And yet oil companies need to know what to expect. we have to clear a good deal of misunderstanding and misuse. We have to try to understand. Now we must see how we can apply our knowledge of the geology to assessing the amounts of petroleum that we have found. and therefore without any dissolved gas of significance. This may be done via a standard deviation or by a statistical probability (see below). Similarly. Note. companies tend to use `proven' for those reserves that are believed to be present with an 85 or maybe 90 per cent degree of . let us again emphasize that we are dealing all the time with uncertainties. secondary reserves. Recoverable reserves: The volume of oil that can actually be produced to surface from an accumulation. What they think is beyond that in the accumulation. This section is included to give an idea of what is involved. We may distinguish between primary reserves that can be produced without any artificial assistance other than pumping. is liable to change between our information points. before we started to take any of it out. or hope to find. or predict. Proven reserves: Here we start to enter a minefield! Different companies have different definitions of what is proven. There is no way of knowing in advance of drilling whether or not there is going to be any oil or gas at all down there under the ground. We cannot regard these quantities as `reserves'. located at surface near the well-head. unless we can be more specific about how we are going to produce them. measured in barrels or other units that is present in an accumulation under the ground. Because anyway there is uncertainty about this amount. but the same considerations.

and just to qualify our figures by statistical probabilities: at least then people would know what is meant! Original and remaining reserves: These are fairly obvious. like `proven'. and the thickness of the reservoir govern it. – N/G is the net to gross ratio. They refer respectively to what was there and recoverable before we started producing. It may well be that it is best to avoid the terms `proven'. the normal way of estimating how much has been found is to start with the volume of the reservoir within the closure of the trap.Sw)] * RF * Constant FVF where: – BV is the volume of the reservoir formation within the closure of the trap above the spill-point. BV will be determined from seismic and well data. We have not only all the problems of average porosity but remember that the size of the pores comes in here as well: the finer the sand. meaning that we have to try to interpret in detail the environments that the sediments were deposited in. We may actually be able to measure the FVF if we have a sample of oil collected under subsurface pressures from the bottom of our well. This reflects the fact that oil under the ground in the reservoir occupies more space than it does when we get it up to the surface. we shall see shortly. and regional and local geological interpretation. if we do. What anyway should we regard as net reservoir? A rather arbitrary porosity cut-off value is often used. Probable reserves: Equally dodgy! One definition was given above: the term may be used. This will be controlled by variations in the nature of the sediments that comprise the reservoir. Usually. then this factor may be little more than a guess. if we hear simply about `reserves'. DISCOVERED RESERVES Once a discovery of oil has been made. It is affected by many factors. Not all of a reservoir formation is going to be sufficiently porous and permeable to contribute oil to production. The shape of the trap. and `possible' altogether. – FVF is the formation volume factor. What this means and how we arrive at the figure. or rather the average porosity of the net reservoir across the entire accumulation. even when we have information from a lot of wells. Sometimes `possible' is also seen. We have to discount those parts of it that are useless and just consider the net reservoir thickness. `probable'.70 confidence or statistical probability. We do our best from measurements on core samples and from wireline log interpretation. – Fill is the `fill factor'. it shrinks because gas bubbles out of it as its pressure is eased during production. the volume of the gas cap and the water-bearing rock below the oil-water contact being discounted. the percentage of the porosity that is occupied by the immovable water. but what happens between and beyond our well control? – Sw is the water saturation. it is the remaining reserves. This can be pretty subjective. faulting. If we do not know where the gas-oil and oil-water contacts are. We then eliminate progressively everything from this volume that is not oil. So we multiply the bulk volume of the reservoir in the trap by those factors that represent the non-oil. and the quality and strength of the cap rock. to cover the reserves that have only a 15 or 10 per cent chance of being present. Again we need an average value for the field. the higher will be the water saturation. to refer to a degree of confidence or probability. Recoverable reserves = [BV * Fill * N/G * ? * (1 . which is the percentage of the bulk volume that actually contains the oil. in this case 50 per cent. including the adequacy of the source rock to provide enough oil to the trap. and what is still there for the taking at a given date. that are meant. then we can go straight to the bulk reservoir volume containing the oil. – ? is the porosity. .Quantitative Assessment .

from minimum possible to maximum possible. then we don't have to worry. A constant is needed to adjust the units. and to try to be as honest and objective as possible. Then we ask it to do the same thing again. The number of answers in successive reserve ranges is plotted against the size ranges themselves. this is commonly about 50-60 per cent. and then analysed statistically. we can work out the standard deviation (the ±) which will give an idea of our confidence in our answer. Different geologists will certainly come up with different values for at least some of the input factors. . the problem is tackled through a statistical technique. Instead of estimating single figures for the factors that go into the reserves formula. and arrive at perhaps wildly different answers. So we have a whole list of answers. for this average value. and again. having regard to all of the geology. The one that has the most answers in (= the modal class of the distribution) we can regard as the most probable value -in other words.). To get an answer to our sum in barrels of oil.This is because. If we are working entirely in the metric system. and we also specify the total range. we give as our preferred figure the average of all the answers (the mean). our best estimate. we have to multiply the figure we calculate by 7758. The Americans measure reservoir volume in acre-feet: area in acres multiplied by reservoir thickness in feet. Then we get a computer to pick a value for each factor at random from the range we have given. then. for each of the factors we work out our best estimate. It will be clear to anyone that.. Alternatively one may plot the frequencies as percentages of the total number of answers: the statistical probabilities. known as a Monte Carlo simulation.71 – – RF is the recovery factor. even though they may be well aware that any such figures will eventually turn out to be wrong. however. companies. is to multiply uncertainties by uncertainties. So we usually have to base our estimate on prior experience elsewhere. since it is about this that the standard deviation can be calculated. and governments must have numbers that they can use for planning purposes. doubtful estimates by doubtful estimates. Most commonly these days. but biassing its pick towards our best estimate. the proportion of the oil in the reservoir that we can actually recover and produce. somewhere within which the `true' figure must be. What we are doing. any one of which could be the real value. and again. there must be considerable uncertainty to say the least. More commonly. The computer does the sum using these values. If we plot out the answers on our list falling within successive size ranges (in barrels of oil). In a sandstone reservoir. It is a figure that we cannot know exactly until we have finished producing. until we begin to wonder whether our answer has any reality or meaning at all..Quantitative Assessment . we shall find that the bulk of them tend to cluster round the middle (Fig. The list is put into order from the smallest to the largest. in producing figures for all of these factors. Who is right? Whose answer should we use? Can we indeed believe any of them? Unfortunately we cannot escape from the problem. but it may be a good deal less from carbonates. maybe 500 or 1000 times. Note that the preferred answer that is usually used is the mean value. Diagrammatic plots of the outputs from two Monte Carlo simulations.

of our confidence that there will be at least some oil. UNDISCOVERED RESERVES This is all very well. but it assumes that we have already discovered oil. we can plot out the percentages of answers in successive size ranges cumulatively as we work down the list (Fig. but rather it is the number an individual geologist might produce to reflect his/her personal interpretation of the geology. the same values are discounted by a 50 per cent risk factor. 50. but also the chance of there in fact being any oil at all. turn out to be totally dry-lacking in hydrocarbons. the 90. We have to give not only our best estimate of how much petroleum there might be. say. in numbers. one of the main benefits from all of this is that it forces us to think carefully about the geological requirements for oil to be present. It is this sort of thing that helps to make the oil exploration business so competitive. as opposed to assessing what we already know to be there. For example. Of course we try to be as scientific. It will give a graph which shows the probability that the reserves will be of a certain size or more. we can read off from the graph the chances of our field containing that much oil or more. objective. When it comes down to risk. This chance (probability) is known as the risk factor: it is an expression. then no oil. The risk factor. and possible at. It is also used to assist management in making their exploration/development decisions. different geologists will arrive at different figures for the probability of success. now gives a more complete picture of the viability of an undrilled prospect .).Quantitative Assessment . and honest as can be in assessing exploration risk. and then merely combine the probabilities to give an overall probability .at least until we start also considering the costs and economics. there really is no such thing as the risk factor. By plotting the answers from the 100 per cent probability downwards. management can then decide whether or not to take the gamble on developing the field at those odds. So this type of graph has now become one of the standard key tools in exploration/development decision. to give the chance of discovering certain reserves or more including the 50 per cent chance that we may find nothing at all. Most usefully. if any one of them fails or is lacking.the risk factor. and 10 per cent levels of probability respectively. that is exactly what it is. we have to go a stage further. combined with the estimate of how much. it doesn't take any account of the fact that our exploration well may. It cannot be worked out completely objectively. you may say. The way it is commonly approached is to go back to the basic conditions for oil acumulation: all of the essential requirements have to be met if there is to be oil in a particular place and that. And if all this sounds like a gambling game. perhaps. and ensures that all possibilities are considered. for geological reasons. Incidently. the curve represents the chance (probability) that the reserves are a certain size or greater. . probable.72 The output from a Monte Carlo simulation with the percentages plotted cumulatively. This is what is used to determine those reserves that may be called proven. In the lower plot. Indeed it does not! When we are looking at exploration of the unknown. if the engineers say that a field of so many million barrels is going to be needed to justify development and production costs. We try to assess the probability that each factor will be satisfied.

We could adopt what is known as a `geochemical material balance' approach. then the area under it represents the total volume of oil found to date. to believe that we can do this would be the height of conceit. Use past statistics (number of barrels of oil found on average for each 100m of exploration drilling?) and extrapolate to future drilling. is a hypothetical figure. get a number of experts to make their forecasts by whatever technique they prefer and. on average. the two elements of size and chance of success.Quantitative Assessment . ULTIMATE RESERVES So far we have been talking about a single oil accumulation or a single prospect.). or underlying each square mile of surface area. and use the figures for the known also for the unknown ones. 1. merely use the average of the figures they produce. knowing how rich it is. otherwise we may be doing little more than guessing. This is known as the Delphi technique. we are said to be consulting the oracles! All of the above techniques have been used. 6. But we have to admit that. This combines in a single estimate. This starts with the volume of mature source rock in the basin and then. 2. remains to be found. This kind of plot can be used also for individual basins or for the whole world. We could make comparisons between known and unknown basins. Delphi was the place in ancient Greece where one went to consult the oracle about one's future. and made available for entrapment (the `charge') can be calculated. and a number of techniques have been employed. for our `best estimate'. however. but some will be dry. However. all of them are very dodgy . Let us look at the more important ones. If all else fails. for example. Some of these will be successful. This figure is extremely imprecise and may be not much more than a guess. and as such can be very useful in planning an exploration program. Many `experts' have scratched their heads over the estimation of undiscovered reserves. unless we really have a lot of information (we never have enough!). 5. go for a large but very risky prospect. 4. we can. and some may be more appropriate in given circumstances than the others. let us note a number known as the risked reserves.73 Lastly. Forcing these experts to agree a figure amongst them might refine the approach. and calculate average quantities of oil per cubic mile of sediment. expelled. In a similar vein the amount of oil found world-wide each year from the beginning of the century can be plotted. the expected reserve estimates from our Monte Carlo simulation multiplied (discounted) by the risk factor (Fig. it is a pretty wild sort of plot. however. we have to assume that today we can identify and assess all of the prospects that ever will be found in the basin. this technique may bring us into the right ball-park. There are lots of uncertainties in this but the calculation would be amenable to a Monte Carlo type of simulation. qualify it by a statistical probability. if we draw a smooth line through it to even out the peaks and the troughs. Extrapolate this smoothing line out into the future. the amount of oil generated. then use these figures for the unexplored parts of the basin. or would our money be better spent on drilling a smaller but safer one? The risked reserves. However. on this tack. How now do we estimate what still remains to be discovered over a wider area or even an entire sedimentary basin? There really is no objective way of doing it-but still companies and governments want to know. If we have a reasonable amount of information and control. and we should be on our guard against believing that it is what we shall find (it most categorically is not) or otherwise trying to read too much into it. Should we. and the area under that bit will represent what. the built-in risk factor takes care of this. 3. The obvious thing to do is to add together the risked reserves estimates of all the remaining prospects. We might look at explored and known parts of the basin. Adding this to the original reserves will give us what is sometimes called the `ultimate reserves'-a grand total for the basin. sometimes in combination. Undiscovered are thus what we hope to find in a prospect area or sedimentary basin in the future.

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