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UNIT 3: GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM BUILDING Structure 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2 What is Group Dynamics? 3.

3 The Nature of Groups 3.4 The Dynamics of Individual Performance in Groups 3.5 The Nature of Teams 3.6 Team Building 3.7 Handling Conflicts in a Team 3.8 Let Us Sum Up 3.9 Key Words 3.10 Suggested Reading 3.11 Answers 3.0 OBJECTIVES

After studying this unit carefully, you will be able to: • • • • 3.1 Understand the concept of Group Dynamics Understand the nature of groups and of teams Understand the concept of team building and how to be a good team player Gain an insight into how to handle conflicts within teams INTRODUCTION

The dynamics of any group can be influenced by the personalities of each of its members, and by what the group is specified to do. The influence of the group on the individual can be strong/weak, influential/ineffective or great/insignificant, depending on the nature of the group and the participation level of the individual. Group dynamics are important in any workplace, especially in the BPO and ITES industry, where there is a large amount of interaction between people in the organisation and between CSRs and their customers outside the organisation. 'Team Building' activities increase the amount of effective co-operation in the organisation. They motivate employees, build cohesiveness, draw out the best in each person and build commitment to organisational goals. With an understanding of group dynamics and team building, you will be better able to deal with the people and challenges you will face in the BPO/ITES industry.

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3.2

WHAT IS GROUP DYNAMICS? Group Dynamics refers to the interactive nature of individuals within the contexts of a group. These interactions between individuals within the group are distinctly different from those in one-on-one interactions. Group Dynamics also refers to the study of the nature of groups.

Group Dynamics may influence the behaviour of the individuals depending on their position within the group, their task within the group and their behavioural pattern with regards to the group. Therefore to understand group dynamics, we need to understand the nature of groups. 3.3 THE NATURE OF GROUPS

Definition A group is defined as a collection of two or more interacting individuals, with a stable pattern of relationships between them, who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group. Formal and Informal Groups Within organisations, there are two major classes of groups- formal groups and informal groups. Formal groups are groups that are created by the organisation, intentionally designed to direct its members towards some organisational goal. For example: the Board of Directors of an organisation constitutes a formal group. Informal groups are those that develop naturally among people, without any direction from the organisation within which they operate. For example: the people that you travel with to your workplace in your office cab form an informal group. Group Formation Groups often develop by going through five principal stages- forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The first stage of group development is known as forming. During this stage, the members are acquainted with each other. They establish the ground rules by trying to find out what behaviours are acceptable, with respect to both the job (how productive they are expected to be) and interpersonal relations (who’s really in charge). During the forming stage, people tend to be a bit confused and uncertain about how to act in the group and how beneficial it will be to become a member of the group. Once the

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Then as members struggle to gain influence over others. the final stage is known as adjourning. The norming stage is complete when the members of the group accept a common set of expectations that constitutes an acceptable way of doing things. the amount of time a group may spend in any given stage 106 . Recognizing that not all groups last forever. Feelings of camaraderie and shared responsibility for the group’s activities are heightened. Having fully developed. Close relationships develop. Moreover. If these conflicts are not resolved and group members withdraw. The second stage of group development is referred to as storming. questions about group relationships and leadership have been resolved and the group is ready to work. During this stage. and a keen interest in finding mutually agreeable solutions develop. you watch to see who comes up with the best ideas. and the like (the forming stage). imagine that you have just joined several of your colleagues on your company’s newly created budget allocation committee. either because members leave or because the norms developed are no longer effective for the group. During this stage. At first. the group members will become highly cooperative.individuals come to think of themselves as members of a group. the group’s task is over and it is disbanded (the adjourning stage). The third stage of group development is known as norming. as the group disintegrates. Other groups may adjourn gradually. As the name implies. you and your associates get to know each other. Now it becomes possible for the committee members to work together at doing their best. However. It is important to keep in mind that groups can be in any one stage of development at any given time. you may see a battle over control of the committee (the storming stage). the group may disband. as conflicts are resolved and the group’s leadership is accepted. who seems to take charge. Groups may cease to exist because they have met their goals and are no longer needed (such as an ad hoc group created to raise money for a charity project). once the budget is created and approved. shared feelings become common. the storming stage is complete. At this stage. Members often resist the control of the group’s leaders and show hostility towards each other. Then. whose suggestions are most widely accepted. and doing things together such as going out to lunch as a group (the norming stage). the forming stage is complete. the group may now devote its energy to getting the job done-the group’s good relations and acceptance of its leadership helps the group perform well. giving it their all (the performing stage). in which case the end is abrupt. Soon this will be resolved and an accepted leader will emerge. working together in harmony. To help illustrate these various stages. the group becomes more cohesive and identification as a member of the group becomes greater. The fourth stage of group development is known as performing. this stage is characterised by a high degree of conflict within the group.

A clear recognition of one’s goals.is highly variable. This is called role ambiguity and is typically experienced by new members who have not had much of a chance to “learn the ropes. Many long-standing teams will go through these cycles many times as they react to changing circumstances. For example. For example.objects reflecting the position of an individual within an organisation’s hierarchy. a change in leadership may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge the existing norms and dynamics of the team.g. Norms: Norms are generally agreed-on informal rules that guide group members’ behaviour. For example. employees who are older and more experienced may be perceived as higher in status by their co-workers. Group Structure The structure of groups is determined by four key factors: Roles: Roles refer to the typical behaviour that characterises a person in a specific social context. and a CSR may be expected to address customer concerns. They represent shared ways of viewing the world. private office that is lavishly decorated).. however.” and often results in job dissatisfaction.. For example. a large. a boss may be expected to give orders. “Director”).g.g. serving on important committees).. Those who have certain special skills (such as CSRs with foreign-language skills) also may be regarded as having higher status than others. Within most organisations. In organisations. some groups may fail long before they have had a chance to work together. a reserved parking space). Status: Status refers to the prestige or relative social position or rank given to groups or group members by others. workers may be confused about the things that are expected of them on the job. status may be recognised as both formal and informal in nature. Sometimes. or role clarity. where people sit at lunch in the cafeteria or how formal or informal a meeting will be are examples of norms.. many roles are assigned by virtue of an individual’s position within an organisation. One of the best-established findings in the study of group dynamics is that higherstatus people tend to be more influential than lower-status people. It is also important to bear in mind that even the most high-performing teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances. such as their level of authority or their responsibility. Norms differ from organisational rules in that they are not formal and written. In fact.g. 107 . Informal status refers to the prestige accorded individuals with certain characteristics that are not formally dictated by the organisation. Examples include job titles (e. helps avoid social disorganisation. the opportunity to do desirable and highly regarded work (e. Formal status is typically accomplished through the use of status symbols. and luxurious working conditions (e. perks (e.

working against its interests. however....... members of closely knit groups participate more fully in their group’s activities. Define group dynamics... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. when the members' desire for belonging and unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.. too high a level of cohesiveness can result in groupthink.Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness refers to how strongly group members desire to remain in their groups. 108 . Highly cohesive work groups are ones in which the members are like each other. a sense of belonging to a group.. Also. In very uncohesive groups...... the members dislike each other and may even work at crosspurposes.. accept the group’s goals. Groupthink occurs when a group is so cohesive that its members lose sight of its ultimate goals for fear of disrupting the group itself. cohesiveness refers to a “we” feeling. In essence.. Make a list of all the groups that you currently belong to. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Group cohesion tends to get strengthened under conditions of high external threat or competition. and help work towards meeting them.. 2.. Categorise them into formal and informal groups. are less absent from their jobs and are sometimes exceptionally productive. attend a group discussion and a one-on-one interview.then. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Cohesiveness generally tends to be greater when group members spend more time together.. a highly cohesive group may actually do a great deal of harm to an organisation.. more readily accept their group’s goals. If it is very hard to get into a certain organisation–candidates have to answer a written exam. On the positive side. the people who do get selected form highly cohesive groups.. the greater the cohesiveness within the group. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. On the negative side.. Some important factors that influence cohesiveness are: The more difficult it is to join a particular group. It is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group. and have atleast 5 years of experience . ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Check your Progress 1 1. It is important to note that group cohesiveness has both positive and negative effects. if a group’s goals are contrary to the organisation’s goals.. For example.

. the group norms and the status conferred on different members... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….3.... Choose any one formal group that you have been a part of and elaborate on your role in the group.... ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………......... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... 109 .....

it is a very welllearned act to smile at another who smiles at you). For example. the dominant response would likely be incorrect (such as speaking incorrect lines during your first practice session).g. but several people’s work can be pooled to 110 . If someone is performing a very well-learned act. you’re probably already aware of the conflict created by two tasks competing for your attention. Performance in diverse groups is initially worse than performance in homogeneous groups. although these differences disappear with repeated involvement with the group.3. Social facilitation is the result of heightened emotional arousal (e. When people are aroused. feelings of tension and excitement) people experience in the presence of others. they tend to perform the most dominant response-their most likely behaviour in that setting (returning the smile of a smiling co-worker may be considered an example of a dominant act. lower-level employees may suffer evaluation apprehension when they are worried about what their supervisors think of their work. Sometimes an individual’s performance improves in the presence of others (when the job he or she is doing is well-learned). A third explanation. Not only is performance influenced by the presence of others. Another explanation of social facilitation is that it results from evaluation apprehension – the fear of being evaluated or judged by another person. each carrying and transporting part of the load from the old place to the new one? Or how about sitting around a table with others stuffing wedding invitations into envelopes and addressing them to different invitees? Although these tasks may seem quite different.. if the behaviour in question is relatively novel or newly learned. and sometimes performance declines in the presence of others (when the job is new). the dominant response would be the correct one (such as speaking the right lines during your fiftieth stage performance). nearby.4 THE DYNAMICS OF INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE IN GROUPS Social Facilitation Individual productivity is influenced by the presence of other group members. If you’ve ever tried doing an assignment while your friends or family watch T. known as distraction-conflict model recognises that the presence of others creates a conflict between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task at hand.V. Social Loafing Have you ever worked with several others helping a friend move into a new house. they actually share an important common characteristic: Performing each task requires only a single person. This tendency for the presence of others to enhance an individual’s performance at times and to impair it at other times is known as social facilitation. However. but by the group’s racial and ethnic diversity.

……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. When several people combine their efforts on additive tasks....... What are additive tasks? Write down at least three examples of additive tasks from your daily life. 111 .. It can be reduced by: Making each worker identifiable–the more one’s individual contribution to a group effort is highlighted (e.. Check your Progress 2 1... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... Thus five people working together raking leaves will not be five times more productive than a single individual working alone... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. such tasks are referred to as additive tasks. loafing may be reduced... there is a tendency for a phenomenon known as social loafing to occur...” In fact the more individuals who are contributing to an additive task. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Threatening punishment–to the extent that performance decline may be controlled by threatening to punish the individuals slacking off.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... Because each person’s contributions can be added together with another’s. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. On such additive tasks..g..g.... weekly sales figures of each individual posted on a chart).yield greater outcomes.. each individual contributes less than he or she would when performing the same task alone.. there are always some who go along for a “free ride.. the less each individual’s contribution tends to be – a phenomenon known as social loafing.. giving all salespeople in a territory a bonus if they jointly exceed their sales goal) may help employees focus more on collective concerns and less on individualistic concerns.. Rewarding people for their group contributions–doing this (e.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Social loafing could be a serious problem in organisations.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. the more pressure a person feels to make a group contribution. Making the work important and interesting–people are unlikely to go along for a free ride when the task they are performing is believed to be vital for the organisation and when they find it intrinsically interesting..

........... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………....... 2. What is social loafing? How can organisations prevent this phenomenon from occurring? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... 112 ... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………........……………………………………………………………………………………… …………..... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………...

5 THE NATURE OF TEAMS Definition A team may be defined as a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. members working together Members of groups do not take responsibility for any results other Each team member shares responsibility than their own. Differences between Groups and Teams Teams Performance depends on both individual Performance typically depends on the contributions and collective work products. marketing. teams may cross over various functional units (e.1. providing services for customers. some organisations use teams that are intact with respect to the existing structure of the organisation. and are established for a specific project with a finite life. such as developing and manufacturing new products. and stay as long as the organisation is operating. For example. Texas Instruments has relied on teams to help improve the quality of operations at its plant in Malaysia. their resources to attain a goal. Teams share a common interest goal plus a common commitment to purpose which supplies a source of Groups share a common interest goal meaning and emotional energy to the activities performed. other kinds of teams are permanent. Companies like General Motors are Groups 113 . Such arrangements are often difficult because of ambiguities regarding authority. teams can be divided into work teams and improvement teams. teams focusing on providing effective customer service tend to be permanent parts of many organisations. Work teams are primarily concerned with the work done by the organisation. Their principle focus is on using the organisation’s resources to effectively create its results. However.. Authority structure – In some organisations. finances. For example. Time – Some teams are only temporary. human resources and so on). Improvement teams are primarily oriented towardss the mission of increasing the effectiveness of the processes that are used by the organisation.g.the joint outcome of team work of individual members. For ex: a team set up to develop a new product is temporary if it disbands once its job is done. and so on. Types of Teams Teams vary along three major dimensions: Their purpose or mission – Along this dimension. although they do pool for the team outcome. By contrast.

structured such that people work together on specific products all the time... Company Result Reduced errors (e. members not doing their share) Replenish or upgrade material resources Replace members who leave the team Team Performance Case studies have reported many remarkable outcomes stemming from teams. Some of the reasons for this are: Team members are unwilling to cooperate with each other They fail to receive support from management Some managers are unwilling to give up their control Some teams fail to coordinate their efforts collectively with other teams. Hackman’s (1987) four-stage model outlined below summarises for managers how this can be accomplished: Stage 1: Do Pre-work Decide what work needs to be done Determine if a team is necessary to accomplish the task Determine what authority the group should have Decide on the team’s goals Stage 2: Create Performance Conditions Provide all the needed materials and equipment to do the job Ensure that the team consists of all personnel necessary to do the job Stage 3: Form and Build the Team Establish boundaries – that is. some teams fail. 114 . they must be created properly. who is and is not in the team Arrive at an agreement regarding the tasks to be performed Clarify the behaviours expected of each team member Stage 4: Provide Ongoing Assistance Intervene to eliminate team problems (e. lost packages) by 13 Federal Express percent in 1989 Defects dropped from 1.g. incorrect bills. Here is a sample of the impressive results.g.800 parts per million to only 9 parts per Corning million in its cellular ceramics plant Xerox Citibank Increased productivity by 30 percent Substantially improved customer satisfaction ratings in eleven key areas Although many organisations have benefited through teams working together. and do not apply their specialty to a wide range of products. Creating Teams For teams to function effectively.

Which ones do you think define what a team is? 1. reducing their negative effect on the team... development and collective motivation of result-oriented teams.. let’s now turn our attention to team building. 3.. Team building is carried out through a variety of practices. Reporting to one boss 7.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. such as group self-assessment and groupdynamic games. a team uses the feedback from the team assessment in order to: • Identify any gap between the desired state and the actual state • Design a gap-closure strategy 115 .. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. Here are some terms that are often used when discussing teamwork. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. To assess itself.Check your Progress 3 1. a team seeks feedback to find out both: • Its current strengths as a team • Its current weaknesses To improve its current performance. A group of people having one aim 2. Team building can be considered a part of the theory and practice of organisational development.. The process of team building includes: • Clarifying the goal. Differentiate between a group and a team.. 2. Serving one customer Having understood the basic concept of group dynamics and the nature of groups...... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Whole > Sum 3..6 WHAT IS TEAM BUILDING? The term team building generally refers to the selection. or if they cannot be removed. and building ownership across the team and • Identifying the inhibitors to team work and removing or overcoming them... Working together 6... Flexibility 5.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. Co-operation 4.

and critiquing team effectiveness are encouraged by all team members. 116 .Characteristics of a Good Team: • • • • • • • • • High level of interdependence among team members Team leader has good people skills and is committed to team approach Each team member is willing to contribute Team develops a relaxed climate for communication Team members develop mutual trust Team and individuals are prepared to take risks Team is clear about goals and establishes targets Team member roles are defined Team members know how to examine team and individual errors without personal attacks • Team has capacity to create new ideas • Each team member knows he can influence the team agenda Evaluating Team Effectiveness When evaluating how well team members are working together. Problem solving. Feedback is asked for by members and freely given as a way of evaluating the team's performance and clarifying both feelings and interests of the team members. knowledge. Team decision making involves a process that encourages active participation by all members. and used whenever appropriate. Participation is actively shown by all team members and roles are shared to facilitate the accomplishment of tasks and feelings of group togetherness. discussing team issues. Team members are allowed to express negative feelings and confrontation within the team which is managed and dealt with by team members. When feedback is given it is done with a desire to help the other person. Team member resources. skills. Conflict is not suppressed. and experiences are fully identified. the following statements can be used as a guide: Team goals are developed through a group process of team interaction and agreement in which each team member is willing to work towards achieving these goals. Dealing with and managing conflict is seen as a way to improve team performance. Leadership is distributed and shared among team members and individuals willingly contribute their resources as needed. recognised. talents.

Managed badly... Examples of 'payoffs' might be: Gaining a sense of achievement from completing a worthwhile and/or high quality job Obtaining financial reward 117 .. What is team building? What are the processes involved in it? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….7 HANDLING CONFLICTS IN A TEAM Conflict is one of the drivers for improved team performance.. it can stop teamwork and hinder individuals from achieving their personal goals. Everyone is trying to achieve some kind of "payoff" or benefit. more creative ideas and higher quality output from the team. What. Game Theory Game Theory is a complex and extensive science..Risk taking and creativity are encouraged. Whenever you work in a big team.. the next step in team building involves determining those areas in which the team members need to improve and develop a strategy for doing so.. The most widely-used methods of resolving conflict are based on 'game theory'.. but there are some simple elements that can be used in everyday dealings with people at work.. If managed well. including the following principles. After evaluating team performance against the guidelines above. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. 2.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... conflict can lead to better decisions. When mistakes are made.. 3. they are treated as a source of learning rather than reasons for punishment.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. but the payoff may be different for different people and organisations.... there ought to arise some disputes and conflicts. Check your Progress 4 1... are the five most important characteristics of a productive team and why? ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. according to you..... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………..

• 118 . The following process can help two or more parties in a conflict to play a game well and achieve a win-win. some competitive and others cooperative. or the argument going round in circles because different people are trying to solve different problems Find out the win position of other parties. when you drive a car. Following the process above means that those involved should: • Clarify what the conflict is or the joint decision that needs to be made. such as between organisations . Types of Games There are different types of games: • A competitive game means that for you to get your payoff. for you to maximise your payoff it is best for other players to get their payoff as well. the other player has to lose and be put out of the tournament. For example. where it is assumed that there is a degree of goodwill and some trust between them. is usually a cooperative game. without judging or arguing against the other parties' views. This helps prevent 'scope creep' in the discussion which makes the conflict endless. other variations on this process may be more relevant. This process is designed for team members. In real life there are often many games taking place in parallel. To play a cooperative game. A manager-employee collaboration. • A cooperative game means that. This process may not be so appropriate for other types of conflict. someone else has to lose theirs. for one player to win and proceed to the next round. This is called a win-win position. This involves: Listening.although the same principles of game theory apply.Making a profit for the company Getting the job done as quickly as possible in order to go somewhere better Having a feeling of self-esteem or self-worth Being recognised for one's efforts Getting your payoff is called a "win". Problems arise when you play a cooperative game competitively (you can end up causing yourself problems). you are most likely to get your "payoff" (getting to your destination safely and on time) if all other players of the game (other drivers on the same road) get their "payoff" and arrive at their destination safely and on time. Declaring your own win position so that other parties understand what you need. or collaboration between team members. For example. in a competitive game of tennis at Wimbledon. or a competitive game cooperatively (you can end up losing). Not getting your payoff is called a "lose". you need to find ways of working where you get your payoff and your partner person/organisation gets their payoff. If other drivers crash they may delay or prevent you from getting where you want to go.

. you may get more conflict in the future (memories tend to be subjective). Check your Progress 5 1. Finally.. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. 2. after evaluation.. If.. because most people only see their point of view and... Brainstorm ideas: This is to generate creative ideas for meeting the desires of both/all parties. compromise positions. Ask other parties to declare how they might also be prepared to compromise. how would you handle the situation? 119 . and often a lose-lose scenario. • If. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. • Reevaluate the ideas to see if any of them meet the new. If you were the team lead. The constant bickering between them is affecting team harmony and performance. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. . What are the different games that are played out in organisations? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….eg: do not express disagreement with ideas at this point in the process)..Accepting others' win positions and not arguing with others' win positions This can be difficult. you may need to get each party to articulate/summarise the others' argument until the other party agrees with the summary.. This might involve referring to an independent senior manager to make an executive decision... in a conflict situation. How would you deal with the following situations in your workplace? a. then: • Declare how you might be prepared to compromise your win position. Persons A and B of your team just don’t seem to get along. where games reach this stage the result is usually a lose for one or other party... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. after this stage. In extreme cases... • Evaluate those ideas to see if any meet the win criteria of both parties. (Classic brainstorm rules mean you should generate ideas without evaluating them ... If you don't ensure everyone remembers what the final decision was and why.. then you have to refer to a third party to make a resolution.. In extreme cases. no ideas meet the win criteria of both parties. once agreement is reached then don't skip the final step-articulating the conclusion.... emotion can make one blind to alternatives.. there are still no ideas that meet the compromised win-win position.

...The interactive nature of individuals within the contexts of a group Group ..……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. We have some basic knowledge of the ‘Game Theory’ and how to apply it in conflict situations in our teams.... intentionally designed to direct its members towards some organisational goal 120 .A collection of two or more interacting individuals. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. b...... We are now familiar with the concepts of group dynamics and team building... 3... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... 3. No one in your team seems interested in answering your questions? What will you do? ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... we have looked at the nature of groups and teams and how they affect performance.. You have a target to meet and are not sure how to go about your tasks..9 KEY WORDS Group dynamics ....... We also know the characteristics of productive teams........ ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group Formal groups ... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………. with a stable pattern of relationships between them.Groups that are created by the organisation.8 LET US SUM UP In this unit..... ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………...

development and collective motivation of result-oriented teams 3.The tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases Team -A group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Team building .The strength of group members’ desire to remain a part of the group Additive tasks.bpoindia.org 121 .The selection.The fear of being evaluated or judged by another person Social facilitation . or rank given to groups or individuals by others.org/seasons/definitions/groupdynamics • www. Role . Ltd.Informal groups .The typical behaviour that characterizes a person in a specific social context Norms . social position. • www.The tendency for the presence of others sometimes to enhance an individual’s performance and at other times to impair it Social loafing . of India Pvt. without any direction from the organisation within which they operate.The relative prestige.10 SUGGESTED READING Prentice-Hall • Behaviour in Organisations – Greenberg and Baron (2000).bccymca.Generally agreed-on informal rules that guide group members’ behaviour Status .Groups that develop naturally among people.Tasks in which the coordinated efforts of several people are added together to form the group’s product Evaluation apprehension. Cohesiveness .

Group Dynamics also refers to the study of the nature of groups. Teams share a common interest goal plus a common commitment to purpose which supplies a source of Groups share a common interest goal meaning and emotional energy to the activities performed. These interactions between individuals within the group are distinctly different from those in one-on-one interactions. although they do pool for the team outcome.3.11 ANSWERS Check your Progress 1 1. Group Dynamics refers to the interactive nature of individuals within the contexts of a group. Additive tasks are tasks in which the coordinated efforts of several people are added together to form the group’s product.the joint outcome of team members working together Members of groups do not take responsibility for any results other Each team member shares responsibility than their own. their resources to attain a goal. products. Groups 122 . Social loafing can be reduced by: Making each worker identifiable making the work important and interesting rewarding people for their group contributions and threatening punishment Check your Progress 3 1. Social loafing refers to the tendency for group members to exert less individual effort on an additive task as the size of the group increases. All except the last which is not true of all teams. Check your Progress 2 1. 2. Differences between Groups and Teams Teams Performance depends on both individual Performance typically depends on the contributions and collective work work of individual members. 2.

Check your Progress 4 1. Problems arise when you play a cooperative game competitively (you can end up causing yourself problems). Often many games take place in parallel. is usually a cooperative game. A manager-employee collaboration. The different games played out in organisations are: • Competitive games which mean that for you to get your payoff. or collaboration between team members. and building ownership across the team and • Identifying the inhibitors to team work and removing or overcoming them. or if they cannot be removed. The process of team building includes • Clarifying the goal. The term team building generally refers to the selection. • Cooperative games which mean that for you to maximise your payoff it is best for other players to get their payoff as well. or a competitive game cooperatively (you can end up losing). someone else has to lose theirs. Check your Progress 5 1. development and collective motivation of result-oriented teams. some competitive and others cooperative. 123 . reducing their negative effect on the team.