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A presentation by

Ashwin Gandhi CONTENTS

(i) • • • • •

Acknowledgement Introduction About Techkriti 2011 The team from DSI Objectives Ideas, designs and our working Strategies • • The innovation in rocket’s structure The rocket recovery systems o The glider rocket
o

The parachute deployment mechanism

The launchers o The cork mechanism o The locking-unlocking mechanism

• • •

The launch pad Maximizing the range of a rocket

Merits and demerits of each design

Dept. We are really grateful to the chemical engg. We would like to acknowledge our HoD Dr. Vaggar for letting us get on with the project with the departmental support and providing us with a wonderful room to work. P. They have always motivated us and have been with us at every hurdle. Soma and Ms. . Vijaysarathy. We thank our department faculty Dr. who not only helped us with the construction of the rocket. and finally let us choose Aeronautical Engineering as our branch for graduation.• • Ideas and our team in action The ‘Techkriti’ experience Total expenditure Plans for tomorrow • • (i) Acknowledgement Though we have come up with a project in the 1st semester itself. but was also ready to make us the adhesives in his lab for us. We thank our parents who have funded us with all the projects that we have ever done till now and all the support that they have given to us all these years. Nirupamma for all the technical support which they gave us and also for the emotional support that they gave us to boost us up when we were down on confidence. HoD Dr. it would not have been possible without few people who we would like to thank.

who gave us the PET bottles for making the rocket. . Dean of academics. The team WINGZ takes up project initiatives for research and innovation in science and thereby tries to encourage classmates.We would also like to thank Mrs. • INTRODUCTION ‘WINGZ’ is an initiative taken up by a small group of 1st year aeronautical engg. Though it was originally formed to make a club as our college lacked one. college club members and the college youth to come up with few of their own inspiring and innovative ideas. its aim now. and to effectively work in co-ordination with them to convey everyday news and upcoming events to 1st and 2nd year students and to organize events related to aeromodelling in DSI campus. classmates and our seniors who helped us with their needy help from time to time. friends. we thank our Principal. marketing head of Manjushree tech. Last but not the least. Its objective is to team up with the DSI’s official aeromodelling club ‘FALCON’. is to promote our college’s official aeromodelling club which was formed quite recently. students of DSCE. Teresa.

The present projects that were done were not only for IIT-K. students and to set up a path for them to trod on later. a lot funds flow in and flow out during this mega event. • ABOUT TECHKRITI 2011 Techkriti is a technical festival of IIT-Kanpur which is conducted every year in the month of February. So. This techfest has competitions and workshops related to all fields ranging from robotics for mechanical and electrical engineers to paper presentations for chemical engineers and aeromodelling and rocket designing for aeronautical engineers.E. There are many companies and organizations that sponsor most of the events in this techfest right from CII to Boeing. The cash awards for winners is so designed that it can not only get them back all the money that they had invested in their project but will also leave them with enough money to work on their next projects for techfests in IITs. but were also done for creating awareness in the 1st year classroom of B. . making things simpler and easier for them.

The teams that could accomplish the given tasks efficiently in given time were adjudged as winners. Eagle . Backfire . 2. Cruise control .5 lakhs! .for the geeks who like to design one of their own aircrafts rather than go for the time tested models. It was about designing rockets powered only by water and pressurized air to accomplish the two tasks given to the teams a month prior to the competition.for those who love making and flying boomerangs.Techkriti 2011 had 4 main events for aeronautical engineers under the name ‘Take Off’. 4. The prize money for the Take-Off events was about 1. It was a paper presentation on innovative flying objects.for those who love rocketry science and getting their hands dirty with mud and water during every launch of their rocket. They were: 1. Impulse .for the ones who are good at flying aeromodels to check their skills at flying and their aerobatics. 3.

Aeronautical Engineering Salik Altamash – 1st year B. Aeronautical Engineering. as it became difficult to complete the project on time we had got a helping hand from ‘Pranshu’. one for ‘Eagle’ and one for ‘Impulse’.• THE TEAM FROM DSI There were two teams from 1st year aeronautical engineering. The teams that exceeded this mark were liable to be disqualified.E. Aeronautical Engineering Nagajyothi P.E. – 1st year B.E.E. one of our seniors from 2nd year B. . Our team’s name was ‘The SeventyPSI’ and was named after the competition’s only condition which was to maintain the air pressure inside the bottle rocket at 70psi. It was a team of 3 for the ‘Impulse’ water rocket competition. Mechanical Engineering Later. The following are the team members: Ashwin Gandhi – 1st year B.

The rounds were aimed at testing the precision/accuracy and the controllability of our rockets. Round 1: The first round was about the maximum time taken by our rockets to go up and come down and hit the ground. their center lying at 50m from the point of launch. The team that hit the bull’s eye got 100 points. . The time was measured in seconds and the score was 10 times the number of seconds. There were three concentric circles each made of 2.• OBJECTIVES OF IMPULSE There were two rounds in ‘Impulse’. 4 and 6 m radius. the team that hit the middle circle got 80 points and the team that hit the outermost circle got 60 points. Round 2: the second round was about hitting a given target at 50m from the launch pad with you rocket.

These rockets are made and flown for entertainment by the men having an interest and inclination towards rocketry science. the rocket (bottle) radius. there is a lot of engineering involved behind the scene of any aqua-jet launch. . • IDEAS.The total score was the score in round 1 plus the score in round 2. Though it sounds simple. These rockets can also be propelled by vinegar. DESIGNS AND STRATEGIES A water rocket or an aqua-jet is a rocket made of bottles generally propelled by water and pressurized air. Moreover. an amateur has to know only four things ie. as we get down to the actual mathematical equations and science concerned in building even a small water rocket becomes a bit tricky. As far as the fundamentals of water rockets are concerned. the nozzle radius. The winner was the one with maximum score. soapy water (for a tail). or sugar or salt solutions to increase the density of the water and thereby increase the height of the flight. the capacity of the rocket (bottle) and the volume of water to be taken before the launch to have an efficient and best of flights.

checked out aquajet simulators and tried contacting people who have done it before and also tried to learn few of . Though we failed at the beginning because of inadequate knowledge.• THE INNOVATION IN ROCKET’S STRUCTURE (Idea dated to 30th Jan 2011) Our research on water rockets was running parallel to the construction of the water rocket. at a much later stage we started getting a zest of the basics of this rocket stuff. We read online books.

then one would have had to add fins and make to nose unnecessarily heavy to compensate for the whole 6 caliber stability (3 calibers to level the C.75 caliber stability.G.e. is placed well below the C. As all flying objects usually have three degrees of freedom.G. ‘(a)’ denotes the normal water rocket.G.P. the height of C.G. For any flying object. (center of pressure) and C. And as one can see the C. We solved one of the greatest challenges of balancing the C. up instead of getting the C. may it be a rocket of an aircraft.. placed ahead of C. down by adding fins.G. (center of gravity) of a water rocket in an easy way without using fins! The previous figure explains the difference between the existing water rockets and our design for C.G. Such a rocket is highly instable and to reduce this instability. this is the only condition that can make it stable i. should be in front of C.P. by introducing an unwanted weight to the rocket. . By this.P. But we believed in a much effective method of taking the C.P.5 to 2 caliber stability that is usually required for a perfect flight.G.G. If it were not for this idea. we came with a sound design which was very innovative and appealing. of the rocket or they make the nose heavy to raise the level of C. This implies that we need to add fins to the rocket only to make up for the remaining 0. the C. In the previous figure.the actual equations involved in real rocketry stuff.P. having the C. giving -3 caliber stability. water rocket enthusiasts use fins to bring down the C. And the design that we ended up with is as shown in (b) and (c).G. in the direction of flight. and 3 more for a stable flight)!! .P. This makes that flying object stable. shoots up considerably and the rocket thus has 0. and C.P. We planned to insert another pipe inside the rocket of 45% of the total rocket volume and fill that with water during the launches.C.P. Having done all this.

• THE ROCKET RECOVERY SYSTEMS (Ideas dated to 4th Feb 2011) The glider rocket: for recovering our rocket successfully. these wings will be opened by switching on a motor inside the rocket which will roll the nylon . we had designed a retractable wing structure to be attached to the bottle rocket which would open up with the help of a hand held radio controlled unit at the time of descent. At the time of descent of the rocket. The wing structure was something like this… The idea was to roll the wings and keep it at the sides of the rocket during the upward flight to reduce the drag and to reduce the shearing stress action on the wing roots at 30 to 40Gs of flight.

(The above figure is of a stretched wing). and as the wire is held taut the units get together to make a series of ribs and spars and make a whole wing.P. . for the glider (i. As we also have to balance the C. The following figures explain the structure of the rocket during its ascent and descent. the rocket can be guided to us using the rudder and the elevators. and C. Once the wings are open. the rocket becomes a glider once you open the wings up) the glider will have to be a canard winged aircraft. These stabilizers will be attached to the rocket body near the nose cone. As the nylon wire is relaxed at the beginning.e.wire running through the ribs of the wing and thereby make the separate units unite together to make a single wing.G. the wings can be easily rolled.

-For guiding and maneuvering the rocket: for guiding the rocket down to the landing spot we designed a propulsion system attached to the body of the rocket at its C. (when it .G.is rotated. This rubber band is stretched over the nose cone and wound about a servo.The parachute deployment mechanism: the figure below explains how the nose cone opens up and the parachute is let out. There is a rubber band holding the nose cone and the body of the rocket together. When this servo -that is being controlled by a radio from the ground. the rubber band is let loose and thus the nose cone opens up about the point that is hinged to the rocket body.

There will be two propellers and their axis of thrust will intersect perpendicularly at the C. of the rocket. • THE LAUNCHERS (Ideas dated to 10th and 25th Feb 2011) The cork mechanism: we had used a cork with a bike valve at the center for launching the bottle rockets. The propellers can be rotated in both the directions. These propellers will be battery driven and the batteries will be contained in the nose cone.is empty). The locking-unlocking mechanism: there is a locking unlocking mechanism that we designed which let the rocket will fly only when we let it go at a pressure we want. . We have tried to explain the mechanism in the following figure. This will give the rocket a free movement in any direction that we need.G. clockwise and anti-clockwise. This let us pressurize the bottle from outside while the pressure built inside pushed the cork out and the bottle would fly up.

the design of the launch pad had to be changed a little bit. But. We constructed it out of plywood and a protractor and a hinge was attached to the launch pad for this purpose. . may it be the cork mechanism launcher or the lockable launcher.• THE LAUNCH PAD (Idea dated to 14th Feb 2011) We designed a launch pad for the measurement of angle of the rocket launch and for holding the rocket in a stable position. The launcher was so designed that it could also hold the launcher in it.

. And at the same time. The rocket’s flight and range is entirely dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of its flight. but the stability of the rocket. Such kind of objectives in a competition tests not the structure. If the wind and other factors are in favor of that team. the fact is that no one understands that the winner in a competition with this kind of an objective just gets lucky. then that team wins. and this happens in water rocket competitions usually. if the conditions for flying are not suitable. then the team loses. But.• MAXIMIZING THE RANGE OF A ROCKET At times you are asked to launch the rocket at an angle to find out the maximum range of the rocket.

Because of this dolphin shaped structure of rocket. glide a bit further than usual and eventually giving the rocket an extra 10% to 20% range. Now.But again. we had designed a structure which will not only be stable but also give a much farther range as compared to normal water rockets. if you give this rocket (which has a cylindrical structure as it is made up of bottles) a shape of an airfoil then this new structure is going to create some lift of its own during the flight. its motion can be assumed to be as a projectile motion. What happens in a normal rocket is that although its mass is not constant throughout its flight. it’s pretty obvious that the rocket is going to go a bit higher than usual. It travels just like a particle with some mass launched at an angle. the parachute deployment of the rocket will also be much easier as . Not only that. Due to this lift. the range will increase.

The following figure compares the flight of a normal water rocket and the dolphin shaped water rocket.e. stability.compared to other designs.P. the C. . • MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EACH DESIGN The innovation in our rocket structure: though our design solves one of the most important problems encountered while making a water rocket -i.it increases the weight of the rocket leading to a decrease in the maximum height attained by normal rockets by few meters. the construction of this rocket is extremely difficult. it becomes quite expensive for a water rocket. and C. Above all.G. and if we go on about fabricating it. we don’t know by what amount this decrement would be. at the same time. But.

we never know at what pressure the rocket is going to push the cork out and leave the ground. STAYING TOGETHER IS PROGRESS AND WORKING TOGETHER IS SUCCESS!! -HENRY FORD Honestly speaking.The rocket recovery systems: in the recovery of the rocket using a foldable glider wing. which won’t let the motor open the wing fully. the primary reason why we have postponed the construction and testing of this idea. This is because. It has always been ‘I’ for me and never ‘WE’ and . In the cork launching system. • IDEAS AND OUR TEAM IN ACTION COMING TOGETHER IS A BEGINNING. I never got to know what team work was in my life till this project on water rockets. This. the nylon wire used might get tangled. might mean that the rocket is no longer a water rocket or an aqua-jet. using battery powered propulsion system for guiding the rocket would mean an addition of weight cum addition of an energy source other than water and air pressure. Moreover. the rocket leaves the launcher at a very early stage and thus flies to a very low height. In the rocket with the parachute. for few. the mechanism is not a reliable one.

we have been able to do only a small part of the rocket. filled with most wonderful times of college life that one should cherish. We still wait for the day when we can go out and launch the big ones with multi stages and a beautiful and impressive landing mechanism with the perfect launches and a heart gripping flight… • THE TECHKRITI EXPERIENCE Our experience in IIT-Kanpur was amazing. But. a bit of anger. a bit of disappointment.only when I started working on this rocket with my superb team members that I got to know how it feels to have something to say with a ‘WE’ in it. Even now if we turn back and see the intensity with which we worked. we don’t believe that we actually did it! In spite of all this hard work. It was studded with almost all emotions and feelings for our rocket and each other. a lot of compliments. inspirations and self-motivation and yes… the most tiring sleepless nights. have not yet tested the big rockets and the gliding mechanisms for them. . a bit of confusion. We have no words to correctly explain the fun time we had there. The techfest was organized exceptionally well. the launch pad and the parachute part of the small rocket. Our days have been hard for the past two months. We have finished the launcher. The students who had come there were very talented and well versed with the concepts of science and engineering with which they were working. a bit of joy.

6 seconds.The water rocket competition too went on well. We are keen enough to complete our rocket and . And the biggest mistake was that we had expected too much of innovation in the water rockets by the other participants who came to IIT-K. In round one we got 46 points as our time of flight was 4. That was a proud moment for us even though we didn’t win the competition as only 4 or 5 teams out of the 50 teams that had turned up. but also a team that dreams big. • PLANS FOR TOMORROW The team ‘WINGZ’ is not only hard working. We had not finished our project and tested it even once before we went there. we believe that we can do better if we keep the good work going. and in round two we got 100 points for hitting the bull’s eye of the concentric circles. The reason for our loss was our ideas that were not implemented on time. Having done a lot for the first project. We had a tough competition as there were 93 teams in total.

we will also be making R.C. Aircrafts and other things and will be working with the college’s aero club to organize the big and small events in our college. . For now. we can just hope that we succeed in our endeavors and work towards it. They are:  Wind Tunnel  An Astronomical Telescope  Ornithopter  Micro Airplanes  Fly-Bot  Bucket-Bee  Flying Bicycle These are the innovative ideas that have already been put on paper by our team. We only need the time to work and test on these things.start with new projects and techfests. As we work on these projects. We have designed a set of projects that we would like to undertake as soon as we complete our rocket stuff.