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Group No.2, Reporter No.

11 2011 Members: Balderama, Harley IT41P1 Nakano, Ryuu Ochea, Cherry NTS112- Earth Science

Date: July 29 Section:

Biosphere The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life. is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth Earth has 4 main systems that interact: The Atmosphere The Hydrosphere The Biosphere Life on Earth Sea life, plants, flying creatures, humans Encompasses hydrosphere, upper geosphere, and lower atmosphere. The Geosphere The relationship between an organism and its environment is the study of ecology. Biotic Factorsliving components in the biosphere Biotic, meaning of or related to life, are living factors. Plants, animals, fungi, protist and bacteria are all biotic or living factors. Abiotic Factorsnonliving components in the biosphere Environmental factors such habitat (pond, lake, ocean, desert, mountain) or weather such as temperature, cloud cover, rain, snow, hurricanes, etc. are abiotic factors. Role of Water in the Biosphere Water is the universal solvent and the basis of all life on our Planet. The hydrosphere is important to the Biosphere! Role of the Sun for the biosphere The Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain life on Earth and is the ultimate source of energy.

Biotic and abiotic factors combine to create a system or more precisely, an Ecosystem. An Ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving thing Examples of ecosystems Agroecosystem Aquatic ecosystem Chaparral Coral reef Desert Forest Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Human ecosystem Large marine ecosystem Littoral zone Lotic Marine ecosystem Pond ecosystem Prairie Rainforest Riparian zone Savanna Steppe Subsurface Lithoautotrophic Microbial Ecosystem Taiga Tundra Urban ecosystem

The Impact of Changing Factors If a single factor is changed, perhaps by pollution or natural phenomenon, the whole system could be altered. Examples: -humans can alter environments through farming or irrigating. While we usually cannot see what we are doing to various ecosystems, the impact is being felt all over. - acid rain in certain regions has resulted in the decline of fish population A food chain Shows how each living thing gets its food. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. For example, a simple food chain links the trees, the giraffes and the lions. Each link in this chain is food for the next link. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal. An is added and means is eaten by; also shows the flow of energy (the giraffe gets his energy from the leaves) Plants are called producers or autotrophs because they are able to use light energy to make their own food. Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals. They are called consumers or heterotrophs. There are three groups of consumers.

Herbivores are animals that only eat plants or plant products (seeds). They are also
called primary consumers

Carnivores are animals that eat other animals.

There are 2 kinds of carnivores Secondary Consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat other carnivores

Omnivores Animals and people who eat BOTH animals and plants Then there are decomposers (bacteria, worms, and fungi) which feed on decaying
matter. These decomposers speed up the decaying process that releases mineral salts back into the food chain for absorption by plants as nutrients Do you know why there are more herbivores than carnivores? Because In a food chain, energy is passed from one link to another -Lets say a plant has the # 100 to represent the energy it has made. -When a herbivore eats, it does not get all the plants energy. It uses up some of the energy in everyday activities. The herbivore may only get 10% of that energy. -A carnivore then eats this herbivore. The carnivore only gets 1% of that plants original energy. This is why the carnivore has to eat many herbivores to get enough energy to grow. Energy and mass is transferred from one level of the food chain to the next with an efficiency of about 10%. -Most animals are part of more than one food chain and eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web.