ENGR2782/8782 Computer Networks/GE
Semester 2, 2011
Tutorial 1 - Solutions
IPv4 addresses are usually written as four decimal numbers separated by dots, where each decimal number represents one byte (8 binary bits). a) Convert this dotted-decimal IP address into a 32-bit binary IP address: 192.168.1.62 11000000 10101000 00000001 00111110 b) Convert this binary IP address into dotted-decimal format: 00001010 00010010 10011000 11000000 10.18.152.192
Consider the following two binary numbers: 10011011 00101101 a) Calculate the sum of these two numbers directly in binary, showing working. Convert the binary result into a decimal number. 10011011 00101101 + ---------11001000 = 200 b) Convert each of the numbers to a decimal number and then calculate their sum using decimal arithmetic. [Hint: the result should match your answer from a) above.] 10011011 = 155 00101101 = 45 + ------200 c) Repeat a) and b), but calculate the product (i.e. multiply rather than add). 10011011 00101101 x -----------10011011 000000000 1001101100 10011011000 000000000000 1001101100000 ----------------1101100111111 = 6975 10011011 00101101 = = 155 45 x ------
Are there any disadvantages? Physical. a) Convert this ethernet address into it's 48-bit binary form: 00:24:2B:6F:13:B9 0 0000 4 0100 8 1000 1 0001 2 0010 5 0101 6 0110 9 1001 A 1010
C 1100 D 1101 E 1110
3 0011 7 0111 B 1011 F 1111 00000000 00100100 00101000 01101111 00010011 10111001 b) Rewrite this ethernet address in hexadecimal form: 00000110 00001110 00111100 01011110 11110011 01111100 06:0E:3C:5E:F3:7C
Name the five layers in the 5-layered network model. ACCEPT. Link. SEND. Network. a) Draw a pair of state transition diagrams (one for the client. modularity facilitates easy replacement of implementations and addition of new services.
Consider a basic connection-oriented client-server protocol. List some advantages of using a layered model for network architecture. There are other things that could be said too. including that its packet-switchedness facilitated resilience by allowing re-routing around failed links/nodes.
What was the ARPANet? What was it's major contribution to computer networking? The ARPANet was the first functioning packet-switched network.
. RECEIVE. Application Advantages: decomposes complexity into manageable chunks. one for the server) showing the state transitions necessary for successful processing of client requests and server responses.775 6200 + -----6975
48-bit ethernet addresses are conventionally represented in hexadecimal notation as six colon-separated pairs of digits. Transport. space/bandwidth overhead with multiple layers of encapsulation/headers. Disadvantage: efficiency – processing overhead with multiple layers of function calls. A pair of hexadecimal digits represents one byte. accessed from the layer above using the six service primitives: LISTEN. CONNECT. and DISCONNECT.
Suppose mission control wants to download a picture which is 25MB in size.
Define bandwidth and latency.5454 + ( 25 * 220 * 8 / 108 ) = 2. but depending on the scenario it may not be imperative that the latency is especially low. List several applications for which latency is the dominant consideration. Bandwidth: the number of bits that can be transmitted onto a link in one second. web browsing.5454 + ( 25 MB * 8 bits/byte / 100Mbps) = 2. Latency: the time taken for one (small) message to travel from one end of a network (or link) to the other.5454 seconds b) Using the RTT as a delay. a) Calculate the minium RTT (Round Trip Time) for the link.550 km. Therefore. if implementing reliable delivery.82 MB (megabytes) c) What is the significance of the delay * bandwidth product calculated in b)? It is the minimum amount of data you would be able to transmit before an acknowledgment for the first packet sent could arrive back at the sender. IP telephony demands consistently low latency. Data travels over the link at the speed of light – 299. but we have no info to go on). c) Propose for discussion one or more options for handling the scenario in c). and that the request packet is small. RTT = 2 * distance / speed = 2 * 381550 / 299792 = 2. and that would generate confusion if it did occur.0972 = 4.54 Mb (megabits) = 31. 2. File transfer. Latency = Transmission + Propagation + Queuing.6426 seconds
. calculate the delay * bandwidth product for the link. you should plan on being able to buffer at least this much data at the sender's end.5454 + 2. The distance from the earth to the moon is approximately 381. the minimum possible time would be: 1 * RTT + transmit time for 25 MB onto a 100Mbps link = 2. As discussed in tutorial class.5454 * 100 * 106 bits = 254.b) Give an example of a possible sequence of operations that should never occur.792 km/s. What is the minimum amount of time that will elapse between the request being sent from Earth and the last byte of the image file arriving on Earth? Assume processing/turnaround time is negligible (which it might not be. d) A camera on the lunar surface takes pictures of Earth and saves them in digital format to disk. Audio/Video streaming work best if latency is consistent/predictable (minimal jitter).
Suppose a 100Mbps point-to-point link is being set up between Earth and a new lunar colony. List several applications for which bandwidth is the dominant consideration.
5 * 10243 * 8) * 18 / (155 * 106 * 3600) = 6.5GB of data. which then confer by telephone to arrange the legal aspects. As a result. For what range of distances does Bernie have a higher bandwidth than a 155Mbps ATM line? Taking a straightforward view: Bandwidth = data volume / time = data volume / ( distance/speed ) = data volume * speed / distance So if BATM = BBernie. then 155Mbps = 22. gets the idea to work with a local beer brewer to produce an invisible beer can (as an anti-litter measure).e. the two corporate presidents discuss the financial side of the deal. Bernie can travel at 18 km/hour.
.23 km (i. No. Is this an example of protocol layering in the sense of the OSI model? Justify. and they in turn ask engineering for help. Finally. In a strictly layered communication model. his bandwidth is better than the 155 Mbps ATM line for ranges less than half of the 6. 3.2 km). Making this allowance.5GB * 18 km/h / distance => distance = (22.23 km However. they break the layered model that OSI would require. and when the presidents talk directly (not via legal and then via engineering). ALL communication between layer-peers happens ONLY via lower layers – except for the bottom layer where the peers do communicate directly.Question 9
[Tanenbaum. to maintain this transfer rate for a large multi-trip data delivery. the chief engineer calls his counterpart at the brewery to discuss the technical aspects of the project. NOTE: The OSI model is not ideal for interpersonal communication and relationships(!). The president tells her legal department to look into it. When the legal departments communicate directly by phone (not via engineering). chap 1 ex 11] The president of Specialty Paint Corp. These DVDs can each contain up to 4.
[based on Tanenbaum] Bernie the St Bernard has been trained to carry a box of 5 DVDs instead of brandy. Bernie would need to allow time to return to base to collect the next batch of DVDs. The engineers then report back to their respective legal departments.