Book Reviews

The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, Second Edition (C. H. Scholz) Review by: Jeffrey R. Keaton AMEC Earth & Enviromental Inc., 1290 North Hancock Street, Suite 102, Anaheim, CA 92807

Have you wondered why those short, en echelon, calcite-filled fractures that all geologists have seen have a mild ‘‘S’’ shape? Why are the en echelon fractures oriented at an angle to the trend of the fracture zone? Which came first, the fault or the shear zone? Why are map traces of strike-slip faults straighter than dip-slip faults? How are tension cracks and shear cracks related? Why are fault-bend folds more pronounced on thrust faults than on other fault types? The answers to these and other questions can be found in Christopher Scholz’s 2003 book, The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, published by Cambridge University Press. The 2002 second edition was reprinted with corrections in 2003. This upper-division/graduate-level reference book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 1 addresses brittle fracture of rock, including pore-fluid effects on fracture and brittle-plastic transitions caused by pressure and temperature, and extrapolates laboratory results to geological conditions. The three modes of crack propagation from fracture mechanics are described early in the chapter. These modes should be understood by all geologists working on ground-deformation problems, including landslides and subsidence, where the distribution and nature of cracks are fundamental to interpretation of process. Rock friction, the subject of Chapter 2, is a contact property of faults that already exists; it is not a bulk property. This chapter sets the stage for an understanding that seismic or aseismic fault motion is governed by the stability of friction. Fault surfaces have topography and touch only at asperities. Asperity area increases as shearing occurs, but other aspects of interaction contribute to actual friction: ploughing, riding up, and interlocking. Regular stick slip is a dynamic instability with all sliding occurring during the instability. A mechanism proposed for earthquakes is recurring slip instability on preexisting faults that remain stationary between earthquakes. Unstable sliding may be associated with slip weakening or velocity weakening. Velocity dependence on shear strength may be caused by a form of thermally activated anelastic-shear creep at the contact junctions on the fault surface, in which the strain rate depends exponentially on stress, implying that some slip occurs in response to applied stress at any level. Two effects interact to control the velocity dependence of the junction

shear strength: 1) healing under quasi-stationary contact resulting from growth in the real contact area, and 2) direct velocity dependence. Total slip and particle velocity and acceleration are proportional to friction drop. During dynamic slip, rupture velocity approaches the shear-wave velocity of the rock mass through which the fault passes. Mechanics of faulting, addressed in Chapter 3, must be considered on two timescales: short, for earthquakes; and long, for faulting. Faults, after all, grow and develop by the cumulative action of earthquakes and thereby contain the history of past earthquakes. Scholz starts by considering a fault as a quasi-static crack with friction and discusses theories developed by Anderson (brittle fracture and Coulomb criteria) and by Hubbert and Rubey (role of fluid pressure in low-angle over-thrusting). ‘‘Detachment’’ is a term commonly applied to nearhorizontal ductile faults in crystalline basement rocks. Anderson’s theory does not apply because 1) ductile shear occurs only on planes of maximum shear stress rather than at the Coulomb orientation, and 2) at crystalline-basement depths, the near-surface boundary condition requiring one principal stress direction to be vertical need not apply. Furthermore, fully plastic flow would not be explained by Hubbert and Rubey’s theory because strength for plastic deformation would be independent of pressure. Scholz explains that the frictional strength of faults is less than the stress necessary to form them, and once formed, they constitute planes of weakness that may be reactivated in stress fields that are not optimally oriented, leading to ambiguity in inferring stress-field orientation for orientation of active faults or earthquake focal mechanisms. Scholz demonstrates that faults are not perfectly planar at any scale. He notes that the anisotropy of fault surfaces reflects the anisotropy of fault wear, which modifies the fault surfaces once they have formed, making them smoother in the slip direction. Irregular features appearing on fault-surface topography appear at all scales. Features forming a fractal set will have appropriate power-law distributions. However, features formed by brittle processes should have distinctive forms governed by the mechanics of brittle fracture. Here, Scholz notes that geologists over the years have introduced a broad collection of terms that vary regionally and by style of


Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. XI, No. 2, May 2005, pp. 177–190

Earthquake prediction means accurate forecasting of the place. along with reservoir-induced seismicity. Creep ceased for about 2 years following the earthquake and resumed at the initial rate. Earthquake slip and moment-scaling relations are defined in three size regimes expressed in terms of rupture length and rupture width. pre-seismic. Recurrence examples and seismic gaps are discussed with examples from the circum-Pacific zone and the Nevada seismic belt. A fourfold structure of crustal deformation. seismic-wave propagation. presumably when the strain had reaccumulated to restore stress to the previous level. one has the orientation of the fault plane. The focal mechanism or fault-plane solution is discussed in qualitative terms. co-seismic. the uniform slip model. hydrological and geochemical changes. Understanding the mechanics of earthquakes (Chapter 4) is a relatively recent development. Idealized models of dynamic rupture described in this chapter provide an understanding of the physics of the earthquake mechanism. The connection between faults and earthquakes was theoretical until global measurements became common in the early 1960s as a result of the Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network. The final chapter of Scholz’s book (Chapter 7) addresses earthquake prediction and hazard analysis. The principal axes of the seismicmoment tensor bisect the dilational and compressional lobes and are also the principal axes of the stress-drop tensor. and 3) swarms. Earthquake recurrence. to dispel a few naysayers and to moderate expectations for realistic and useful results. and New Zealand are included. and electrical and Environmental & Engineering Geoscience.and short-term predictions both depend on identification and quantification of secondary processes that indicate a threshold in the loading cycle is being approached or has been reached. He shows power-law relations between seismic moment and rupture area that provide a strong argument for the self-similarity (fractal character) of earthquakes. 2. area) and earthquake magnitude do not reflect the existence of the three regimes. Long-term predictions are based on recurrence intervals of earthquakes on specific fault segments and a forecast of the approximate time of the next earthquake from the known date of the previous one. the auxiliary plane. location on the San Andreas fault is discussed. succinct discussion of seismic moment and explains why surface-wave magnitude saturates at about magnitude 7. such as land-level changes and ground fog in Japan. May 2005. and time of an impending earthquake. has the property of evolving to a self-organized critical state that is characterized by a power-law size distribution. Scholz provides an excellent. Pull-apart basins form along strike-slip faults in regions of extensional jogs. Intermediate. To be meaningful. He notes that the Coulomb failure stress in the vicinity of the future 1992 Landers earthquake was progressively increased by about 1 bar by four M . Seismotectonics is the subject of Chapter 6. and step). but recognition of pre-seismic deformation has remained elusive. A philosophical discussion of the possibility of earthquake prediction is presented. Three types of earthquake sequences have been identified: 1) mainshock–aftershock. crustal deformation. Recurrence of earthquakes in the seismic cycle is discussed in Chapter 5. post-seismic. Also covered is the distribution of compressional and dilational first motions of the P wave for the familiar quatrefoil shape. it seems.5 and body-wave magnitudes saturate at lower magnitudes. California. Co-seismic deformation has been measured in a large number of earthquakes. and ruptures are not planar. The observations leading to the elastic-rebound theory are briefly presented. Scholz notes that the commonly used empirical relations between rupture parameters (rupture length. primarily. 177–190 183 . 2) foreshock–mainshock–aftershock. but real earthquakes are complex. which correspond to the directions of tension and compression. 1994 Northridge. pp. An interesting example of aseismic creep is described in which the creep rate was steady for about 10 years with a pre-seismic creep rate increase for about 2 years in advance of an earthquake causing a small amount of slip at the measurement location. and the other. when an earthquake occurs. jog. size. This mathematical model is the first one that predicted a fractal distribution without a built-in assumption.Book Reviews faulting. whereas push-ups form in regions of compressional jogs. Precursory phenomena are described from the perspective of pre-instrumental observations. along with discussions of the variable slip model. A rupture will encounter a jog as a Mode II crack and a step as a Mode III crack. slip. No. Strain accumulation is dominant in the postseismic and inter-seismic phases. explained with mechanical systems and mathematical models. He uses descriptive terms from dislocation mechanics (slip plane. Geologic examples of earthquake recurrence from California. and the characteristic earthquake model. XI. so all relevant dynamic rupture propagation parameters are likely to be heterogeneous at all scales. 5 earthquakes from 1975 to 1992. 1989 Loma Prieta. Subduction-zone earthquakes are discussed. time-predictable. Detailed discussions are provided for the 1992 Landers. with the four lobes separated by two planes. Scholz is quick to point out that the stressdrop tensor is not the same as the stress tensor because the stress-drop tensor contains only shear stresses. Utah. and 1983 Borah Peak earthquakes. seismicity patterns. The Parkfield. has the slip vector as its normal. is based on geodetic observations at many places because it has not been observed at any one location. Simple earthquake recurrence models are described (perfectly periodic. and slip-predictable). and inter-seismic. a prediction must be specific enough so that. no doubt exists that it was actually predicted. Vol.

The preface to the first edition (1989) notes that the study of earthquakes is seismology. Long-term hazard analysis is described with examples from Japan and California. 2003. pp.. therefore. Estimation of earthquake hazards is a straightforward goal of earthquake prediction research. Extrapolation of the rate of small to moderate earthquakes in a region to represent large earthquake rates is useful only in large regions with numerous active faults because the large earthquakes belong to a different fractal set than small earthquakes. 471 p. Seismic hazard maps have been produced for many years and such maps assume that future seismicity will be more or less the same as past activity.. Scholz notes that the current instantaneous hazard model for the San Andreas fault produces the approximate rupture time. Stereographic Projection Techniques for Geologists and Civil Engineers. Lisle and Peter R.Book Reviews magnetic changes are described as intermediate-term precursors. Loma Prieta. No.: Cambridge University Press. It has extensive well-written descriptions of examples. 2. Seismicity and crustal deformation are described as short-term precursors. Therefore. and Northridge) and because new technologies came about (e. which is not discussed further. Niwot.. ground motion produced by each earthquake also could be calculated. Landers. deformation processes using field observations and laboratory measurements. usually much shorter. Columbia University. His background in rock mechanics leads him to study brittle. hazard maps based on the distribution of past historical seismicity might indicate low hazard where a seismic gap and. and moment of each segment-breaking earthquake. Instantaneous hazard analysis is described as being potentially more valuable than simple long-term hazard expressions in mitigating damage from future earthquakes. the focal mechanism. space-based geodesy with globalpositioning system receivers and synthetic-aperture radar interferometry). Therefore. Vol. Jackson INTERA Inc.’’ Issues related to surfacefault rupture and shaking-induced landslides and liquefaction processes.. Scholz makes a bold statement that the instantaneous seismic hazard analysis process ‘‘provides a basis for all the activities that can lead to the mitigation of seismic hazard to society. and disciplinebased treatments of multidisciplinary topics is a piecemeal approach. REFERENCE SCHOLZ. Usually a complete record of damaging earthquakes is available only for the most recent 100 or 200 years.g. Second Edition (Richard J. and the well-known example of the San Andreas fault is presented. A general lack of communication between seismology and geology disciplines fosters misunderstanding and promotes schools of thought. whereas the study of faulting is geology.O. Box 818. Leyshon) Review by: Richard E. May 2005. and micro-zonation maps of soil and bedrock conditions for site response of the predicted ground motion could be prepared. XI. The second edition (2002) required some important new sections because of well-studied earthquakes that occurred after the first edition was published (e. however. Suite 200. 177–190 . their structural elements.g. 2nd ed. than the seismic cycle of potentially damaging faults in a given region. which is shorter. The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. in addition to theory. More recent texts on rock mechanics (e. C. high hazard actually exists. Scholz recognizes that rock mechanics is not part of earth science programs in most cases. Goodman’s Introduction to Rock 184 Environmental & Engineering Geoscience. Scholz is a professor of earth science and applied mathematics at Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory. H. CO 80544 It is likely that many readers of this journal learned to use stereographic projection in the geometric description of rocks. The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting contains 41 pages of references. 137 Second Street. P. are not mentioned in the book.g.. Directivity effects of rupture propagation directions and heterogeneity can be treated in a statistical manner. Possible mechanisms of precursory phenomena are described in some detail. but parts of it are necessarily mathematical. and their discontinuities from Hoek and Bray’s Rock Slope Engineering (1981) or from a textbook on structural geology. He included the chapters on brittle fracture and rock friction to provide geologists a foundation for understanding the subsequent discussions on fault and earthquake mechanics. New York.

177–190 185 . Niwot. But Lisle and Leyshon provide a very readable account of when and why it is necessary to use ‘‘equal-area’’ nets (i. Cambridge University Press.’’ It is highly recommended to the readers of this journal. INTERA Inc.99 in paperback). For example. 58): ‘‘Conjugate faults are broadly contemporaneous faults which formed under similar stress conditions. etc. i. the authors provide simple and elegant definitions when the occasion calls for them. Lisle and Leyshon consider the issue of estimating the stress distributions in conjugate faults that daylight. Most of the examples use the Wulff or ‘‘equal-angle’’ stereonets. Lisle and Leyshon have written a fine and comprehensive introduction to a difficult topic. and well-illustrated introduction to the topic. AND P.. Suite 200. No. UK.Book Reviews Mechanics.’’ The AGI’s definition. Thus. and formulae for use in both stereographic and equal-area projections.’’ Nicely put. a classification chart to identify the magnitude of fold orientations. which appear standard among structural geologists. the intersection of two planes or the geometrical analysis of folds. Statistical contouring of joints is demonstrated with an example from rocks along the coast of South Wales.. Therefore. The last four topics addressed by Lisle and Leyshon specifically consider issues of geotechnical relevance: rock slope stability. or Wyllie’s Foundations on Rock. Also included is a list of web sites providing software for plotting stereonets. 2nd ed. R.g. 137 Second Street. or Brady and Brown’s Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining. LEYSHON. Jackson.e. lacks the geomechanical relevance of Lisle and Leyshon’s definition (p. a ‘‘paleostage indicator. Ancient Floods.. pp. The visualization of three-dimensional structures and orientations of planes and lines within those structures are well described. either as a reference text for the practicing engineering geologist or as a supplement for courses in engineering geology or the hydrogeology of fractured rocks. XI. 1989. J. This reviewer has long forgotten what a ‘‘conjugate fault’’ is and reached for the AGI’s Dictionary of Geologic Terms. daylighting. as well as those hydrogeologists whose work involves the analysis of fractures in rocks. Vol. identified slackwater flood deposits (SWD) as the primary indicator of a historically high stage of a river. e. In the authors’ words: ‘‘The book is written for undergraduate geology students following courses in structural geology. R.’’ Such SWDs are believed to have Environmental & Engineering Geoscience. the next pair estimates the direction of principal stresses for a conjugate fault. Modern Hazards: Principles and Applications of Paleoflood Hydrology (Edited by P. and wedge failures. It will also be useful to students of civil engineering following courses in geotechnics. R. Lambert or Schmidt nets) that are more commonly used in rock mechanics because of their ability to more accurately portray the statistical distribution of joints. Baker. a Kalsbeek counting net. by inference. 107) speaks of ‘‘faults that are of the same age and depositional episode. CO 80544 Paleoflood hydrology. 2. to the education and training of engineering geologists. Webb. inexpensive ($34.e. PO Box 818. The left-hand page is text that outlines the manner by which a particular stereonet is drawn for a particular purpose. 1999) contain detailed reviews of this aspect of structural geology in the early pages of their textbooks. an equal-area polar net. 1993. this is important the longer one has been in practice and absent from university courses. R. The style of writing of Lisle and Leyshon is remarkably good and free of the jargon of structural geology. K. and D. Levish) Review by: Richard E. Lisle and Leyshon’s second edition is written for those wanting a readable. Stereographic Projection Techniques for Geologists and Civil Engineers. The right-hand page of the pair illustrates the method of geometrical construction. The book’s format is that of pairs of pages addressing over 40 topics that become progressively advanced in their content. V. plane failure and frictional resistance. on page 58. we can conclude that the use of stereonets is of importance in geological engineering practice and. 2004. and the book is well worth its modest price. which (p. Cambridge.. H. A number of particularly useful issues are addressed. however. One pair of pages illustrates the calculation of the net slip in a fault plane. as it developed in the 1970s. House. REFERENCE LISLE. May 2005. 120 p. These are informative and well written. The Appendices contain copies of stereographic and equal-area equatorial nets.. R.

Ten years later. definitive in scope. Colo. Retrofitting such dams would be enormously expensive. This monograph.. geomorphologists and paleoflood hydrologists have been able to contribute their insight to flood-frequency analysis. the economic benefits of paleoflood hydrology are significant. these engineers discussed the estimation of the probable maximum flood (PMF) generated by the probable maximum precipitation that is used to place an upper bound on the maximum runoff volume and discharge for a particular watershed. Of course. H. Using one-dimensional hydraulic models of bedrock channels and estimates of bed roughness described by Manning’s coefficient. such as nuclear reactors. and to engineering geology and fluvial geomorphology in general. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) are unable to accommodate the PMF.e..’’ Citing the results of this workshop. by the principal actors in paleoflood hydrology. the USBR hydrologists showed that the paleohydrologic data set firm limits on maximum flood discharges associated with annual exceedance probabilities in the range 10À2 to 10À4. But Harris and colleagues point out that ‘‘recent paleoflood evidence in the western United States indicates that the largest floods occurring during the past 10. i. If undisturbed by even larger floods.. In the Californian example. this may also apply to dams built by the Corps of Engineers. Vol.S. May 2005. J. No. Bretz had identified the Lake Missoula floods in the 1920s. Some years have past since Environmental & Engineering Geoscience published a research paper on lowprobability floods and their estimation (Malamud et al. Consequently. e. 1986). Jahns was later to join Stanford University and teach engineering geology.000 years. Baker on the flood deposits in western Texas. there is a reasonable likelihood that pedogenic processes will create a soil horizon within the SWD that can be age-dated using 14C. Paleoflood hydrology is. explains them away with facility. 1996). a vibrant area of scientific research that has particular significance to dam safety and floodplain protection of critical structures. Ancient Floods. R.g. is rich in detail. floods with return periods of 1 in 100 to 1 in 10. Thus an approximate age of the paleoflood can be estimated as well as the paleostage.’’ This is followed by a set of nine chapters on ‘‘Principles and Methods’’ that consider such topics as the use of geophysical survey data and dendrochronology in reconstructing ‘‘paleofloods’’ and the reliability of historic high-water marks and their operational use for flood hazard assessment. the paleoflood hydrologist employs the same tools as used by engineering hydrologists to estimate peak flood discharges.000 years are significantly smaller than PMF estimates. The introductory paper by Baker. this dismissal is much more easily done in the first few years of this new century than it was in the 1970s. for which he suffered such scorn from his contemporaries— and on Mars for NASA.S. this handsome volume from the AGU defines the subject in terms of its scientific basis and its operational implementation. California. This has become a critical and controversial subject in recent years because many of the dams built by the U.. the USGS released Water Supply Paper 996 by R. however. (2002) of the Corps of Engineers’ Hydrologic Engineering Center. In the words of Daniel Levish of the USBR. Davis. the Bayesian flood-frequency analysis indicated that peak discharges associated with annual exceedance probabilities as low as 10À4 would not exceed the spillway capacity of a nearby dam. Thus. R. XI. and House addresses the criticisms that engineering hydrologists have directed towards paleoflood hydrology and. that improvements in geochronology and hydraulic modeling and the application of Bayesian statistics have provided paleoflood hydrology with the tools to gain it considerable acceptance even in the skeptical engineering hydrology community. and of moderate cost ($75 hardback). The advance in paleoflood hydrology that permitted this conclusion—the concept of ‘‘paleohydrologic bounds’’—can be traced back to the USGS Water Supply Papers of Mansfield and Jahns. This acceptance is implicit in a report by Harris et al. previously the sole domain of engineering hydrologists.. Mansfield on the Ohio River flood deposits of 1937. Baker then investigated paleoflooding in eastern Washington—where J. pp. There can be no doubt. the maximum flood stage. Webb.Book Reviews formed in eddies at the mouths of tributaries of rivers that caused sedimentation of sands and silts in topographically elevated locales relative to the present position of such rivers. 177–190 . Nine chapters of ‘‘Applications’’ follow.’’ It is possible to trace paleoflood hydrology back to the late 1930s when the U. as might be expected. H. Mansfield and Jahns recognized 186 Environmental & Engineering Geoscience. Using Bayesian flood-frequency analysis. Harlen Bretz’s story is legendary (Allen et al.’’ This evidence was recently reported in Water Resources Research for two watersheds in California and Idaho by O’Connell and colleagues (2002) with the USBR in Denver. and the monograph ends with a ‘‘Perspective’’ article on the ‘‘Geology and Geography of Floods. 2. It begins with ‘‘Background’’ papers by Baker and his former students at the University of Arizona on ‘‘The Scientific and Societal Value of Paleoflood Hydrology’’ and by Redmond and colleagues on ‘‘Climate Variability and Flood Frequency at Decadal to Millennial Time Scales. however.e. Geological Survey (USGS) published Water Supply Paper 838 by G. on a workshop organized by the Federal Emergency Management Agency titled ‘‘Hydrologic Research Needs for Dam Safety. Jahns on the then-recent flooding in the Connecticut Valley. the step-backwater method. Modern Hazards is published by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). But it was not until the 1970s that our present understanding of the importance of paleofloods developed through the work of V. i.

2. 707 View Point Road Mill Valley. HOUSE. OSTENAA. 2002.. 2002. S. V. D. Modern Hazards is that of climate and its effects on flooding. including environmental remediation activities and redevelopment. K. Washington DC. The sediment volume from construction projects on Environmental & Engineering Geoscience. we now know that this assumption of stationarity in hydrologic variables is false. H. .. H.. Fifield) Field Manual on Sediment and Erosion Control Best Management Practices for Contractors and Inspectors (Jerald S. 479–486. R. In Proceedings of Dam Safety 2002... May 2005. Vol. E.14. Ancient Floods. WEBB.g. L. Hydrologic research needs for dam safety. Modern Hazards: Principles and Applications of Paleoflood Hydrology. 4. 2.. Also. pp. R. Portland.. They point out that most of paleoflood hydrology has been undertaken in arid climates where paleostage indicators are better preserved and ‘‘cleaner. R. AND LEVISH.. and his colleagues in Israel and Nevada. Construction sites. climate change figures prominently in the monograph. C. Fifield) Review by: James A. Nevada. M. Water Resources Research. ‘‘Paleohydrologic Bounds: Non-Exceedance Information for Flood Hazard Assessment.Book Reviews ‘‘that historic floods had overtopped sites not previously inundated in hundreds or thousands of years.’’ This has led to the identification of stable geomorphic surfaces that have not been modified by erosion or sedimentation and thus can be age dated to yield ‘‘a minimum return period of a flood that could significantly alter that surface’’ (Levish. 16-1. No. Jacobs Environmental Bio-Systems. AND KLINGER. FELDMAN. page 177). Vol. A. D.. R. American Geophysical Union. XI. P. Modern Hazards. C. This is a most informative monograph that makes for fascinating reading. LEVISH. 177–190 187 .. No. can contain a variety of natural and man-made contaminants that might exceed regulatory levels. AND SARGENT. No. TURCOTTE. E. Cataclysms on the Columbia: A Layman’s Guide to the Features Produced by the Catastrophic Bretz Floods in the Pacific Northwest: Timber Press. federal guidelines for floodfrequency analysis dating back to 1981 assure us that ‘‘. . AND BARTON. A. 5. e. D. Bayesian flood-frequency analysis with paleohydrologic bound data. J. Levish concludes his fascinating article that the ‘‘most reliable way to obtain probability estimates of extreme floods is to study their geomorphic and stratigraphic record. 221 p. The U. 1986... 385 p. 2002.’’ This point is reiterated by Steven Kite (Associate Editor of Environmental and Engineering Geoscience) in his study of paleostage indicators in the canyons of central Appalachia where post-flood modification can obscure the historic record. 38.’’ With our new knowledge of ocean–atmosphere interacˇ tion. D. Thus. B. pp..’’ One particularly important theme that runs through Ancient Floods. R. HARRIS. MALAMUD. REFERENCES ALLEN. Inc. Vol. 1996. This issue is explicitly addressed by Redmond of the Western Regional Climate Center of the Desert Research Institute in Reno. CA 94941 Surface-water and groundwater impact from non-point pollution sources is a major regulatory challenge. These sites are locations where special erosion-control measures may be needed to prevent storm-water runoff and sediment buildup in nearby waterways and groundwater recharge areas. Tampa. flood flows are not affected by climatic trends or cycles. BURNS. AND GOLDMAN.. Florida: Association of State Dam Safety Officials. D. The 1993 Mississippi River flood: A one hundred or a one thousand year event? Environmental Engineering Geoscience.S.’’ therefore. BAKER. D. R. Redmond and colleagues present a useful discussion of this topic that reinforces the need for paleohydrologic studies in risk assessment for dams and other critical structures. J. D. C.. Designing for Effective Sediment and Erosion Control on Construction Sites (Jerald S. the El Nino–Southern Oscillation phenomenon.’’ in Ancient Floods. KY. ‘‘annual maximum peak flows may be considered a sample of random and independent events. Lexington.. J.. (Editors). pp. Harlen Bretz would surely relish the growing recognition of paleoflood hydrology given the skepticism he faced in the 1920s. O’CONNELL. OR..

2. Regulatory requirements and various agency permits are discussed in detail. 188 Environmental & Engineering Geoscience. as well as pesticides.Book Reviews a national scale fills our streams. engineers. The history of erosion control is one written not only by engineers and scientists but also by contractors who are out in the field. Field Manual on Sediment and Erosion Control Best Management Practices for Contractors and Inspectors: Forester Communications Inc. contractors. Each chapter includes a preview and chapter summary. It is from this perspective that these two books on sediment and erosion control were written.. XI. designers.. S. great erosion-control designs on paper do not always translate into terrific sediment. 336 p. Written for a wide audience. Most sediment-containment systems described use commonly available materials or engineered systems that have been proven. more portable version for field personnel of the main points of the larger Designing for Effective Sediment and Erosion Control on Construction Sites. REFERENCES FIFIELD. J. and regulatory personnel. Designing for Effective Sediment and Erosion Control on Construction Sites is a workbook and field reference. testing out the ideas of the former. Erosion control tends to be one of the parts of development and building projects that is not well planned and is redone at significantly more time and cost than if it was planned and executed properly from the beginning. The book starts off describing water-quality impacts from non-point sources and many of the regulations and statutory requirements that attempt to ensure that construction projects are performed in a way that minimizes potential damage to the environment. 2004. a hydrologist with much field experience in sediment and erosion control in California. It has nine chapters. The book is written in clear and concise language that is augmented with numerous drawings. For a lot of construction projects. hydrocarbons. naturally occurring heavy metals. students. These books are hands-on. Field Manual on Sediment and Erosion Control Best Management Practices for Contractors and Inspectors is a smaller. 177–190 . The two companion books were written by Jerald Fifield. It is from these skeptical contractors that the limited practicality of some of the industry’s standard procedures and practices were evaluated over a period of many years. There are two new books that will make sediment. chapter test questions. Physical characteristics of both air and water erosion and the mechanics of sediment transport and deposition are thoroughly described. CA. The books were designed to make construction site sediment and erosion control more effective and easier for the variety of design professionals. pp. The cooperation of the innovative erosion-control professional with the practical contractor has the greatest chance for success. S.. and lakes. soil scientists and geologists. rivers. Santa Barbara..and erosion-control systems in the field. These unintended consequences of construction and re-development can be controlled with effective erosion-control methods. Turbidity. The technical changes in the erosion-control industry have advanced rapidly over the past few years. including contractors. Not all the erosion-control contractors or design professionals have kept up with these updates and improvements. Vol. An important chapter on inspection and maintenance of sediment. and test answers. For those designers. There are even blank copies of various permits in the book. FIFIELD. No. and other organic contaminants can be major sources of non-point pollution during construction. easy-to-use manuals for realworld field applications of erosion and sediment control. there is a chapter for performance goals and effectiveness of sediment. and others who are involved with construction projects. Designing for Effective Sediment and Erosion Control on Construction Sites: Forester Communications Inc. As many contractors know. these books do help to make what could be a complicated subject more accessible. Design professionals know all too well that incorrect installation or poor maintenance practices by others doom even the most innovative erosion-control solutions. and scientists taking professional responsibility for erosion control on a property. May 2005. 2004.and erosion-control challenges a little less daunting. Only the most practical best management practices (BMPs) are defined and described in detail in the two books. It is with focus on practical solutions that these two books provide real value and guidance. This chapter provides the list of commonly asked regulatory questions and makes recommendations for common problems that might be detected during the site inspections. maps and charts. engineers. 160 p.and erosion-control measures adds practical value to field personnel who are required to ensure continued success of the field systems and procedures. these books provide the technical explanations and recommended guidelines to demonstrate effective erosion control on building sites. erosion control does not always get the focus it should.and erosion-control plans. In the process. J. CA. Santa Barbara. These books are a worthy edition in the libraries of those involved with erosion-control and construction projects.

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