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to improve e mployee competency and organizational performance. Human resource development: A major HRM function that consists not only of T&D b ut also individual career planning and development activities and performance ap praisal. Training: Activities designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skill n eeded for their present jobs. Development: Learning that looks beyond the knowledge and skill needed for a pre sent job. Learning organizations: Firms that recognize the critical importance of continuo us performance-related training and development and take appropriate action. Business games: Simulations that attempt to duplicate selected factors in a part icular business situation, which are then manipulated by the participants. Case study: A training method in which trainees are expected to study the inform ation provided in the case and make decisions based on it. Behavior modeling: A training method that utilizes videotapes to illustrate effe ctive interpersonal skills and the ways managers function in various situations. In-basket training: A simulation in which the participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers such as memoranda, re ports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager’s desk. Role playing: A training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in their jobs. Computer-based training: A teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, me mory, and data manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction. Multimedia: An application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, ani mation, graphics, and interactive video. Virtual reality: A unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise impractical or impossible. On-the-job training (OJT): An informal approach to training in which an employee learns job tasks by actually performing them. Apprenticeship training: A combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job t raining. Simulators: Training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. Vestibule training: Training that takes place away from the production area on e quipment that closely resembles the actual equipment used on the job. Management development: Learning experiences provided by an organization for the purpose of upgrading skills and knowledge required in current and future manage rial positions. Orientation: The guided adjustment for new employees that strives to inform them about the company, the job, and the work group. Organization development (OD): An organization wide application of behavioral sc ience knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of a firm’s strategie s, structures, and processes for improving its effectiveness. Survey feedback method: A process of collecting data from an organizational unit through the use of questionnaires, interviews, and objective data from other so urces such as records of productivity, turnover, and absenteeism. Quality circles: Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their s upervisors to discuss problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and tak e corrective action when authorized to do so. Team building: A conscious effort to develop effective work groups throughout an organization. Sensitivity training: An organization development technique that is designed to
make people aware of themselves and their impact on others. I. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: DEFINITION AND SCOPE
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT—The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve empl oyee competency and organizational performance. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT—A major HRM function that consists not only of T&D but also individual career planning and development activities and performance appra isal, an activity that emphasizes T&D needs. TRAINING—Designed to permit learners to acquire knowledge and skills needed for th eir present jobs. DEVELOPMENT—Involves learning that looks beyond today’s job; it has a more long-term focus. II. ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The most prominent changes affecting T&D that have been prophesied and that are actually occurring today in business include: * Changes in organization structure caused by mergers, acquisitions, rapid growth, downsizing, and outsourcing * Changes in technology and the need for more highly skilled workers * Changes in the educational level of employees * Changes in human resources; a diverse workforce consisting of many group s * Competitive pressures necessitating flexible courses and just-in-time an d just-what’s-needed training * Increased emphasis on learning organizations and human performance manag ement III. • • • • • • IV. FACTORS INFLUENCING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TOP-MANAGEMENT SUPPORT COMMITMENT FROM SPECIALISTS AND GENERALISTS TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES ORGANIZATIONAL COMPLEXITY LEARNING PRINCIPLES OTHER HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Adjustments in external and internal environments necessitate change. Once the n eed for change is recognized and the factors that influence intervention are con sidered, the process of determining training and development needs begins. Essen tially, two questions must be asked: “What are our training needs?” and “What do we wa nt to accomplish through our T&D efforts?” After stating the T&D objectives, manag ement can determine the appropriate methods for accomplishing them. Various meth ods and media are available; the selection depends on the nature of T&D goals. N aturally, T&D must be continuously evaluated in order to facilitate change and a ccomplish organizational objectives. V. DETERMINING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. T
he first step in the T&D process is to determine training and/or development nee ds. Three types of analysis are required in order to determine an organization’s T &D needs: organization analysis, task analysis, and person analysis. VI. ESTABLISHING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES Objectives are desired end results. In human resource development, clear and con cise objectives must be formulated. VII. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT METHODS Regardless of whether programs are presented in-house or by an outside source, a number of methods are utilized in imparting knowledge and skills to managers an d operative employees. A. COACHING AND MENTORING—Coaching and mentoring are primarily on-the -job development approaches emphasizing learning on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss who has greater expe rience or expertise and is in the position to offer sage advice. The same is tru e with a mentor, but this person may be located elsewhere in the organization or even in another firm. The relationship may be established formally or it may de velop on an informal basis. B. BUSINESS GAMES—Simulations that attempt to duplicate selected fact ors in a particular business situation, which are then manipulated by the partic ipants. C. CASE STUDY—A training method in which trainees are expected to stu dy the information provided in the case and make decisions based on this informa tion. D. VIDEOTAPES—The use of videotapes continues to be a popular trainin g method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is provided by behavior model ing. Behavior modeling has long been a successful training approach that utilize s videotapes to illustrate effective interpersonal skills and how managers funct ion in various situations. E. IN-BASKET TRAINING—A simulation in which the participant is given a number of business papers such as memoranda, reports, and telephone messages t hat would typically cross a manager’s desk. F. INTERNSHIPS—An internship program is a training approach whereby u niversity students divide their time between attending classes and working for a n organization. G. ROLE PLAYING—Participants are required to actually respond to spec ific problems they may encounter in their jobs. Rather than hearing about how a problem might be handled, or even discussing it, they learn by doing. H. JOB ROTATION—Involves moving employees from one job to another for the purpose of providing them with broader experience. I. COMPUTER-BASED TRAINING—Takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instru ction. J. WEB-BASED TRAINING: THE INTERNET, INTRANETS, AND JUST-IN-TIME TR AINING—An overwhelming advantage of using Web-based training is that it can be pro vided when needed and to any location on earth. K. DISTANCE LEARNING AND VIDEOCONFERENCING—For a number of years many firms in the United States have used videoconferencing and satellite classrooms
for training. This approach to training is now going interactive and appears to offer the flexibility and spontaneity of a traditional classroom. L. CLASSROOM PROGRAMS—Classroom programs continue to be effective for certain types of employee training. M. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING—An informal approach to training that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them. N. APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING—A method that combines classroom instructi on with on-the-job training. O. SIMULATORS—Training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world. P. VESTIBULE TRAINING—Takes place away from the production area on eq uipment that closely resembles the actual equipment used on the job. Q. CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES— The corporate training institution differs from many traditional training programs in that its focus is on creating organi zational change and is proactive and strategic. R. TRAINING IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES—Some employers have discovered that community colleges can provide certain types of training better and more cost e ffectively than other alternatives. Rapid technological changes and corporate re structuring have created a new demand by industry for community college training resources. EVALUATING HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The credibility of T&D is greatly enhanced when it can be shown that the organiz ation has benefited tangibly from such programs. Organizations have taken severa l approaches in attempting to determine the worth of specific programs.
• PARTICIPANTS’ OPINIONS—Evaluating a T&D program by asking the participants’ opinion f it is an inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggesti ons for improvements. The basic problem with this type of evaluation is that it is based on opinion rather than fact. In reality, the trainee may have learned n othing, but perceived that a learning experience occurred. • EXTENT OF LEARNING—Some organizations administer tests to determine what the parti cipants in T&D program have learned. The pretest, posttest, control group design is one evaluation procedure that may be used. • BEHAVIORAL CHANGE—Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little insight into desired behavioral changes. • ACCOMPLISHMENT OF T&D OBJECTIVES—Still another approach to evaluating T&D programs involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.
• BENCHMARKING—Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to e valuate and improve T&D programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of Ameri can firms engage in some sort of benchmarking.
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