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Volume XII Number 5
Claire Elizabeth Claire’ s
primary elections* or at meetings called caucuses* [ kaw/ kis siz ]. Different states have their primary elections or caucuses at different times. The first caucus is in Iowa on January 3. The first primary election is in New Hampshire on January 8. Six other states will have caucuses or primary elections later in January.
See page 10 for prices and ordering information.
Primary elections begin
The next president of the United States will take office* on January 20, 2009. Who will it be? Many people are running* for this office. The way Americans elect the president is very complex*. Not all Americans understand the way our democracy* works. Primary elections There are two large political parties*: the Democrats and the Republicans. There are many smaller parties, too. Registered* voters* may join any political party. They may vote in the primary elections. Each party chooses its own candidate* for president and vice president. Members of the two big parties will be voting soon in
Words in black print with a star (*) are in WORD HELP on page 12.
Candidates travel the country to meet people in their own party. Here, former New York City Mayor, Rudy Giuliani talks to a woman after making a speech at North Carolina A&T University in Greensboro, N.C., December 3, 2007 AP Photo.
Thousands of delegates Each political party holds a national convention in the summer. In the primary elections, party members vote for delegates* to go to their convention*. A total of 4,339
(continued on page 2)
Life in the U.S.A.
Getting to work
How do you get to work? How do you get to school? Can you walk to your food market or to a drug store*? Can you take a bus to the shopping mall*, the movies, or your friends’ homes? People often think about transportation* when they choose a place to live. How much will it cost to get to work? How long will it take? Public* transportation is the cheapest way to go. But it is not always convenient*. People who drive to work have to buy a car and then pay for gas, tolls*, and parking. They have to pay for insurance and repairs, too. People save money and time if they live close to the place they work. Riding a bike or walking to work or school is good exercise. Each city has a public transportation system. The most common forms of transportation are bus, trolley*, train,
(continued on page 10) Commuters at a subway station
Events in January ................2, 3 This is your page .................... 4 Ask Elizabeth ......................... 5 Green Card Scams ................ 5 America the Beautiful— The Climate ....................... 6 Electing a president ........ 7,8,11 Idiom Corner .......................... 8 Funny Stuff ............................. 8 Citizenship test questions ....... 9 Crossword Puzzle .................. 9 Answers to quiz and puzzle ....11 Let’s talk about it ...................11 Word Help ............................ 12
Page 2 Easy English NEWS
New Year’s Day
This is a day of new beginnings. Many people start diets and other projects. They make plans for the things they want to accomplish* in the new year. They make New Year’s resolutions* to help start new habits*. Some people sleep late. Some people visit friends and family. Other people stay home and invite people to visit them. Some people watch football games on TV on this day. “Polar Bear Clubs”* go swimming in icy waters. Other clubs, like the Mummers*, have parades. Some mayors, governors, and other government officers are sworn in* on New Year’s Day.
The Gregorian* calendar is used by people all over the world for business purposes. It is a solar* calendar, based on the sun. Christians say that it’s the year 2008 A.D.* Non-Christians call it 2008 C.E.* The solar year is 365.24 days long. There is an extra day every four years to keep the dates in time with the seasons. The year 2008 is a Leap Year, with an extra day, February 29. The Jewish New Year is in early fall. The old Irish (Celtic) new year was in the late fall. The Chinese New Year is in January or February. The Persian (Iranian) New Year is March 21. The Muslim year is 254 days long. The New Year comes eleven days earlier each year. In 2008, the Muslim year is 1428. The Jewish year is 5768. The Persian year is 1386. The Chinese year will be 4705 .
Primary elections begin
(continued from page 1)
delegates will go to the Democratic Convention and 2,066 delegates will go to the Republican convention. More than 24 states will have primaries on February 5. People are calling this date “Super Duper* Tuesday.” See the dates for primary elections on page 8. The conventions The Democratic Convention will be August 25 to 28 in Denver, Colorado. The Republican Convention will be September 1 to 4 in St. Paul, Minnesota.
The person who gets a majority* of delegates’ votes at a party’s convention becomes the party’s candidate for president. The conventions also name the candidates to run for vice president. The campaign The political parties try to help their candidate get elected. They raise money to pay for the campaign*. The candidates travel around the country to meet people, make speeches, and take part in debates*.
Secretary of the State Susan Bysiewicz and State Senator Andrew Roraback show voters how the new optical scanning voting machine works, in Litchfield County, Connecticut, September 14, 2006 at Sharon Town Hall. Photo from: www.sots.ct.gov/ CAPITOL/ 2006WeekInReview
The general election The general election is November 4. Voters do not vote directly for president. They vote for electors* from their states. They choose electors who are pledged* to the candidate they want. A candidate must get 270 electoral votes to become president. Each state has a number of electoral votes, based on its population. The number is equal to the number of its representatives in Congress, plus two for its two senators. The official election On December 15, the electors vote for president. They must vote the way that they promised. It’s just a formality*. Americans do not have to wait until December 15. They usually know the winner of the election by early morning, November 5.
See page 7: Electing a president. See page 8 for the dates of the primary elections. See page 11 for the Republican and Democratic candidates.
The campaign means meeting millions of people. Here, Hillary Clinton writes her name on a supporter’s sign. Photo courtesy www.HillaryClintonforPresident.com
Easy English NEWS Page 3
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
The third Monday of January is Martin Luther King, Junior* Day. This day celebrates the life and work of a great civil rights* leader. King became famous when he was 26 years old. He was a minister* in a small church in Montgomery, Alabama. At that time, there were segregation* laws in the southern states. These laws separated white people and black people in schools and in all public places. For example, there was a law that said that black people had to ride in the back of any bus, while white people rode in the front. The Montgomery bus boycott One day in 1955, a black woman in Montgomery, Alabama was arrested. She had refused to give her seat to a white person. Black people asked Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. to lead a boycott* of the bus company. It was the beginning of the great Civil Rights Movement* in the United States. King was an eloquent* speaker. He encouraged* people to walk to work, and not ride the bus. He taught the boycotters to be nonviolent*. The police arrested King and put him in jail, but the boycott continued. It was very dangerous to oppose* the segregation laws. Some angry white people bombed King’s home. They bombed a church, too. They killed four little girls who were at Sunday school in the church. The end of bus segregation Finally, the Supreme Court said that bus segregation was not legal. Anybody could sit in any part of a bus. After that, King and other civil rights leaders worked to end segregation in restaurants, schools, and all public places. They registered* black people to vote. They marched in parades. King taught them to “use love, not violence” to change the hearts of the people and change the laws. But many Southerners were not peaceful. The police attacked the civil rights workers with water
Martin Luther King’s brother’s home was bombed, May 13, 1963. AP Photo
I have a dream.
“. . . .I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed*: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident*: that all men are created equal.’ “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. . . . I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content* of their Martin Luther King , Jr. speaking at the character. I have a dream March on Washington, August 28, 1963 AP today. . . .” Photo
Source: Martin Luther King, Jr: The Peaceful Warrior, Pocket Books, NY 1968. You can see and hear Martin Luther King at http://www.holidays.net/mlk/speech.htm
hoses and police dogs. They beat them. White governors of southern states vowed* that they would never let segregation end. The March on Washington People in the North watched the events* on TV. They admired King. They joined the Civil Rights Movement. In 1963, King organized a huge march on Washington, D.C. He wanted Congress to pass a new law to protect black people’s rights. He gave a speech about his dream of equality*. This became one of the most famous speech of the 20th century*. Congress passed the
Civil Rights Act* of 1964. Soon after that, Martin Luther King, Jr. won the Nobel Peace Prize*. More work to do Martin Luther King, Jr. also worked to help all poor people. He worked to end the war in Vietnam. However, in 1968 he was assassinated*. His killer never told who had hired him. King worked to make great changes in the United States. This holiday reminds people of the work that King did, and the peaceful way in which he did it.
Police used dogs to attack a 17-year old civil rights activist during a march in Birmingham, Alabama.on May 3, 1963 AP Photo.
Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. center front, walks with more than 10,000 people in downtown Chicago, July 26 to protest* segregation in the city’s schools. AP Photo
Page 4 Easy English NEWS
This is your page
Did you get a plate?
One Monday moring I was late for my class at the Huntington Beach Adult school. When I walked into the classroom, Mr. G., my teacher, said “Did you get a plate?” I was confused. What was he talking about? I didn’t know what to say. During class, I kept thinking about that odd question. When class was almost over, Mr. G. said, “If your alarm clock doesn’t wake you up on time, you should get it fixed so you won’t be late again.” Then his question became clear. He had asked me, “Did you get up late?” not “Did you get a plate?” Finally I decided to talk to an I apologized to him and explained older coworker*. She did not seem fearful like me. To my that I had had car trouble. surprise, she knew about the Vinh Do boss’s nature. She told me not Westminster, CA to quit my job. She said that I might find the same kind of person like him in my next job. “Don’t come in early anymore,” she said. “And don’t stay late.” I began to leave when she left the office every evening. I stayed away from my boss whenver I could. I talked to him only when it was necessary for the job. Soon he realized I was not interested in him, and he gave up. I was very young and shy at that time. I became scared and upset. I started thinking that I would have to quit* my job. But I didn’t want to because I could learn a lot there. There weren’t many jobs for people with no experience. I didn’t know what to do.
We made a miracle*
I was working in New York with a friend, editing a Chinese pholosophy book. She found out that another friend of hers needed help. Marjorie Holcombe, a professor of English, had become paralyzed* Her muscles were shrinking*. Doctors did not know the cause. My friend asked me to go to California to help Marjorie with the exercises she needed to do. There was no one left to help her. I had no training, but I have fine Qi * (energy) and I am strong. When I arrived in California Marjorie could not use her muscles any more. She could not stand or move her legs at all. She couldn’t eat or drink by herself. One medical doctor had said she would never walk again. Another doctor had said she had only a short time to live. I noticed that Marjorie’s thinking was clear. She said over and over, “I don’t want to give up! I want to stand again, and I want to walk again!” Yet each day, her muscles got worse and worse. Marjorie went to Dr. Zhu, a Chinese acupuncturist*. Dr. Zhu said she could walk again if she followed his instructions. Marjorie had to exercise six hours or more every day. We had to use special ways to make her muscles and nerves grow again. We had to make them grow faster than they were dying. It was a race. Many of us worked as hard as possible: Marjorie’s family, the aide*, doctors and therapists*, acupuncturist*, and her chiropractor*. I helped Marjorie exercise six hours a day, seven days a week. I used my own style of massage* to wake up Marjorie’s muscles and nerves and give her energy. I planned her daily exercise and tried to do something new, something fun every day. I built equipment* for her and changed the store-bought equipment. I drove her from the mountain to town three times a week for appointments. After the first week, Marjorie began to eat and drink a little by herself. I saw the first little smile on her face. Two weeks later she began to practice sitting. Some of her confidence* came back. Three weeks later she began to practice standing. Six weeks later she began to practice walking and painting pictures. Twelve weeks later she practiced going up and down stairs and playing the piano! Everybody says that we made a miracle. On December 6, Marjorie was able to walk without a cane! She still has a long way to go. I hope she will continue building her body even after she can walk normally. I hope she will write a book about it. Other people with health problems like this may find a way to keep going. Sean Cheng, Gettysburg, PA (China)
Read Marjorie’s story at our website: www.easyenglishnews.com
When I got to the United States, I felt very strange. I saw big cities and lots of lights. I was so excited when I saw snow. I had never ever seen snow before in my life. There is no snow in India. I thought people could eat snow and that’s why it came from the sky. I tried to catch the snow in my hand and eat it. I asked my uncle, “Do the people eat snow?” My uncle said, “No, they don’t eat it, they play with it.”
After that everything went Arpita Patel well. I worked there for another Easthampton, MA year with no problems. India M.K India.
I could read his eyes
Eleven years ago I finished my studies to be an architect*. I got a job at a small architectural firm. There were just five people in the office, including our boss. I liked my job and was very enthusiastic* about my work there. I always got to the office before anyone else. After a while, I became afraid of my boss. He always tried to touch me when he passed by me or stood near me. He started coming early when he learned that I came to work early. I read the look in his eyes. I was afraid to be with him.
Are you a citizen? Are you 18 years old or over?
Learn about the candidates. Register to vote! Join a political party.
You may be able to vote in your state’s primary elections. Find out how and when to register in your state at www.DeclareYourself.com Do you see your story on this page? Did you receive a check from us? If not, we don’t have your address. Please email us your address at Eceardley@aol.com
Sean Cheng, Marjorie Holcombe, Dr. Ming Qing Zhu
Easy English NEWS Page 5
Other large employers in the U.S. are: McDonald’s (UPS) United Parcel Service Sears Target GM (General Motors) IBM (International Business Machines) GE (General Electric) Citigroup Ford Motor Home Depot Nestlé Tyco International FedEx Dear Elizabeth, it cost for him to go to medical school as a graduate each year? Can you give us this information? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_medical_schools_in_the_ United_States At that website, you can reach any medical school in the U.S. Oanha-- Click* on a school’s website. Then look for “admissions” and Dear Oanha, then “international students”. Look for “graduate studies” to find out I do not have information to if the school has the advanced answer these complex* questions. programs your brother wants. You I can only point you in some may find telephone numbers so directions so you can get you may ask to speak directly information from the correct with a person in the admissions places. office or the International Student Affairs office. You can read information in Russian about education in the U.S. hospitals hire many USA at http:// doctors who have degrees from educationusa.state.gov/life/ other countries. English is pubs.htm This on-line book has important here, of course. information about getting a student visa, too. This is very complex and important. You need help from an Your brother can call or visit the experienced person. After you American consulate* or have gotten all the information you embassy* in Russia to ask how can get easily, look for a to get a visa to the U.S. professional to help you. Ask a doctor you know to recommend a The medical schools have counselor to help. Or a high information about the costs of their school guidance counselor may be programs. They will tell about the able to help you. It will cost you TOEFL exam, too. money, but can save you many You can get a list of the medical weeks of time. schools in the U.S. at Good luck.
Dear Elizabeth, I read in Easy English NEWS in October that the U.S. Postal Service is the second largest employer* of Americans. I wonder which is the largest one. What are the other large employers? Grace Tong (Taiwan)
You are my family’s last hope. I cannot find the information I need on the Internet. I have written to administrators but they have not The U.S. government is the largest answered me. employer! Dear Grace, The federal government employs more than 2,715,000 workers. If you add in the military* and people who work for companies that work for the government, the number is much larger, nearer 14 million workers. Wal-Mart is the largest private employer in the whole world. My brother lives in Russia. He’s a medical student in his last year. He wants to get a higher degree in the U.S. However, we don’t know anything about requirements*. How can he get permission to come here? Is an M.D. degree from Russia good in the U.S? Does he have to take the TOEFL and MCAT tests? How much will
Green card scams* hurt many immigrants
by Betsy J. Green A scam* is a criminal’s plan to get your money. A scam artist* does not use a gun or other weapon*. He or she uses words to tell a story. There are many, many different stories. At the end of the story, the victim* has lost thousands of dollars! Immigrants are easy targets* for scam artists! The first thing a scam artist does is gain the trust* of the victim. He or she seems to be a friend. Then the story begins. “I have a friend who works in the Immigration Office. She can get a green card for you, but I have to pay her.” An immigrant with a green card can get a better job. With a green card, a person can become a citizen. A green card lets a person bring his or her children to the U.S. A person who entered the U.S. without a visa cannot legally get a green card. Then the story continues. “You know what you can do with a green card,” says the “friend.” “And it’s only $9,000.” The victim gets happy and excited. He or she borrows money from friends and family members. The “friend” tells the victim when and where to bring the money (in cash* of course). The victim drives or flies to another city. He brings the cash. He fills out application* papers. “Go home and wait six weeks,” says a clerk. “You will get your green card in the mail.” Six weeks go by. Nothing comes in the mail. The “friend” has said good-bye a long time ago. Then the victim “wakes up.” Illegal immigrants are afraid to go to the police. They are afraid to go after the scam artists. They are afraid the scammers will tell immigration authorities* about them. The police cannot stop scam artists if no one reports* them. Immigrants who have been victims can help others. They can send an anonymous* letter to the United States Attorney in their state. The U.S. Attorney’s job is to stop such scams. The victims should describe everything they can about the scam artists: What did they look like? How old were they? What story did they tell? Where did they receive the money? What kind of car did they drive? To report an immigration scam, go to http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/ offices/index.html First find your state. Then, find the phone number and address of the U.S. Attorney.
Hispanic immigrants are targets of many scams. Here, Texas State Attorney General Greg Abbot speaks to the press in 2003 warning about scams. AP Photo/Tony Gutierrez
Page 6 Easy English NEWS
America the Beautiful
The climate of the United States
The United States is a very large country. The climate* is different in different places. The Southwest is warm and dry all year. You seldom* see clouds. It’s cool at night. There are deserts* in the Southwest, too. Death Valley is the hottest and driest place in the country. The temperature there on a summer day is often 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The Southeast is also warm. It rains more frequently* there. Many retired* people move to the Southwest or Southeast. They don’t want to shovel* snow anymore. Do you enjoy the changes of the seasons*? You will like the Northeast. Winters in the Northeast are cold and snowy. Spring and fall are colorful and pleasant. Summers are hot. In the Northwest, there is a rainy season and a dry season. It is never too hot in the summer. Winters are 2. The Northeast and northern states have cold winters and warm summers. not too cold. It rains a lot. The North Central states have the greatest differences between winter and summer. North Central winters can be very cold with lots of snow. Summers are hot. The Hawaiian islands are pleasant* all months of the year. Alaska has long, cold, dark winters. The summer is short, with long days.
3. Florida is hot in summer, warm in winter. 6. The Northwest has cool wet winters and mild* summers.
CANADA Northwest North Central Midwest UNITED STATES
x Death Valley
Central Plains Southeast South
5. Death Valley
1. Arizona is hot in the daytime and cool at night
4. Spring is a lovely time in New York.
7. Hawaii is pleasant all year round.
Easy English NEWS Page 7
Electing a President
1. Primary Elections and Caucuses in each state
Democrats vote for delegates to the Democratic national convention. The delegates are pledged* to certain candidates for president.
January 3 to June 3
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
Republicans vote for delegates to the Republican national convention. The delegates are pledged to certain candidates for president.
January 3 to June 3
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
4339 Delegates to convention
2066 Delegates to convention
2. National Conventions
Democratic Convention August 25 to 28 Denver, Colorado
Delegates vote for a Democratic candidate for president. Then they choose a candidate for vice president.
Republican Convention September 1-4 St. Paul, Minnesota
Delegates vote for a Republican candidate for president. Then they choose a candidate for vice president.
Small party Conventions
3. The Campaign*
Candidates travel around the country to meet people, make speeches, raise money, advertise on TV, and debate issues with other candidates on TV.
Democratic Candidates for President and Vice President
Republican Candidates for President and Vice President
4. General* Election November 4, 2008 Election Day
Registered* Voters vote for “electors*” in their state who are pledged* to a candidate. The number of votes in each state decides which candidate gets that state’s electoral votes*. The winner will need 270 electoral votes.
5. Official* election
December 15, 2008 Electoral College votes January 6, 2009 The votes of the Electoral College are counted in the House of Representatives
6. Official counting of electoral votes
! ! ! !
Small Party Candidates
January 20, 2009 The new President takes office.
Page 8 Easy English NEWS
Have you heard people use these idioms?
Illustrations by Dave Nicholson
Write an idiom in each sentence. Be sure to use the correct tense of the verb and the correct pronoun. (Answers are on page 11.)
1. That ad for a job seems too good to be true. I _______ _______ _________. Find out if you are paid a salary or only get paid after you sell something.
to be toast
to be in trouble; will soon lose or be punished You forgot to call your mother? Uh- oh. You’re toast. She’s going to be angry. I’m toast. I didn’t get my homework done on time. My report card grade will be zero.
to turn down
to say no to an invitation Paul asked Sara out on a date, but she turned him down. The Joneses offered $200,000 for the house. The seller turned them down. He wanted more money.
2. Sally had many invitations to the dance, but she _____ them all _______.
3. Mr. Sweet won $50,000 in the lottery. He’s ___________ _______ _______ _______ _______ ________ now.
4. I forgot that my girlfriend’s birthday is tomorrow. can’t take her out. She’s going to be really upset. 2. to be sitting on top of the world
to be extremely happy; to feel very lucky Janet agreed to marry Ken. Now Ken is sitting on top of the world. Carla got a great new job. She’s so happy, she’s sitting on top of the world.
to smell a rat
to suspect that someone has done something wrong I walked to my locker and saw that it was open. I smelled a rat. I looked to see if my jacket was gone. The price for the house was very low. Jack smelled a rat. He found out that the house needed a lot of fixing.
Are you a citizen 18 years old or older? Find out how and when to register to vote in your state at www.DeclareYourself.com
Dates for 2008 Primary Elections and Caucuses
(R) = Republicans only
January 3: Iowa January 5: Wyoming (R) January 8: New Hampshire Primary January 19: Nevada; South Carolina R) January 26 South Carolina (D) January 29— South Carolina, (D) Florida February 1: Maine (R) February 5: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas,
(D) = Democrats only
February 19: Washington (state), Wisconsin, Hawaii (D) February 26: Hawaii (R) February 22 Puerto Rico (R) February 23 Virgin Islands (R), American Samoa (R) March: Americans living in other countries. March 4: Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, Texas March 8: Wyoming (D) March 11: Mississippi April 22: Pennsylvania May 3: Guam (D) May 6: Indiana, North Carolina May 13: Nebraska, West Virginia May 20: Kentucky, Oregon May 27: Idaho June 1: Puerto Rico (D) June 3: Montana, South Dakota, New Mexico (R)
Patient: I’m very sick. I’d like to see the doctor. Nurse: The doctor can see you on January 20, at 3:45 pm. Patient: But that’s two weeks! I could be dead by then! Nurse: In that case, you can cancel* your appointment.
Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho (D), llinois, Kansas (D) , Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico (D), New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, American Samoa (D) February 9: Louisiana, Kansas (R), Nebraska D), Washington, February 9: Guam (R), Virgin Islands (D) February 10: Maine (D) February 12: District of Columbia, Mary land, Virginia
Source: Federal Election Commission as of 11/27/07. These dates may change!
Easy English NEWS Page 9
Citizenship Test Questions and answers
All applicants who file for citizenship on or after October 1, 2008 will take the new test. Ten questions will be picked out of 100, by a computer. Students who study for the test will learn more about the American government and history. Easy English NEWS will help!
1. What is the supreme* law of the land? 2. What are the first three words of the Consitution that tell about the idea of self-government? 3. What is an amendment*? 4. What is another name for the first ten amendments to the Constitution? 5. What is one right or freedom in the First Amendment to the Constitution? 6. How many amendments does the Constitution have? 7. What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence*? 8. What are two rights that people have, according to the Declaration of Independence? 9. What is freedom of religion? 10. What is the “rule of law?”
The Constitution We the people An addition or change to the Constitution. The Bill of Rights Freedom of speech; freedom of religion, freedom to assemble*, freedom of the press*; freedom to petition* the government Twenty-seven To say that the the United States were no longer colonies* of Britain Life, liberty, and the pursuit* of happiness. The right to go to any church, or practice any religion, and the right to not have a religion. The idea that everyone must follow the law, with no one having special privileges*. Even leaders and the government must follow the law. No one is “above” the law.
The Preamble* to the Constitution* of the United States of America
We the people
of the United
1. The story of people and events in the past 7. Rule made by a government 10. Having the same value or worth; ___ rights for all people 11. The national bird of the United States 12. Without water; not wet 13. Having great age; opposite of young 14. Music note: Do re me fa sol la ____ do 16. Conjunction: Which do you want, juice ___ milk? 18. A woman who rules an empire 22. Has more sand: this beach is ___ than that beach. 23. Abdominal muscles, for short 25. Put shoe strings into one’s shoes (past form) 26. Overweight; chubby; opposite of thin 27. Speak: What did the teacher ___ about the homework? 29. A condition in which a person owns another person 31. A man’s name; short for Alfred 33. We see with these. 34. Cold season: spring, summer, autumn, ____ 35. Tom Trainer’s initials
1. People who do great things 2. Intelligence quotient (abbreviation): He has a very high ____. 3. Quickly, without any warning. The sun was shining when ___ it started to rain. 4. Sticky black material made from petroleum; it’s used in making roads. 5. Sports contests for athletes of the world; ____ games 6. The day before today was _____. 7. Large (abbreviation) 8. In addition; too 9. You and I together 15. A verb. He ___my friend. 17. Style again. 19. Missile Defense Agency (abbreviation) 20. Person who reels in a fish on a fishing pole 21. The least dangerous 24. Another name for tavern 27. Past form of see 28. Famous boxer was Mohammed ____. 30. Animal doctor (short form) 32. Pronoun for a thing. (Give ___ to me.)
10. 9. 8. 6. 7. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.
States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish* justice*, insure* domestic* tranquility*, provide for the common defense*, promote* the general welfare*, and secure* the blessings* of liberty to ourselves and our posterity*, do ordain* and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Page 10 Easy English NEWS
Getting to work
(continued from page 1)
Easy English NEWS
Published by .................. Elizabeth Claire, Inc. Editor ..................................... Elizabeth Claire Design ............................... Dr. Andrew Sachs Copy Editors ....... Nancy Baxer, Sharon Flynn, Devra Weingart, Lorraine Sarhage, Jonathan Steele, Marilyn Gelman Writers ........... Elizabeth Claire, Betsy J. Green Customer Service ........................ Tina DiBella Circulation .......................... Fumie Fukushima Illustrations ........................... Dave Nicholson Editorial Assistants ................ Adelaide Coles Printed by ............. JB Offset, Westwood, NJ Welcome to the United States! The purpose of Easy English NEWS is to help new readers of English to learn about the language, culture, customs, holidays, history, heroes, geography, laws, and government of the U.S. Easy English NEWS is published ten months a year, from September to June. It is sold by subscription. Class discounts are available. A monthly Teacher’s Guide and Reproducible Quizzes are included. Send comments via mail, fax, or Email. Stories for This Is Your Page should be sent by Email, typed, or neatly written. The writer’s name, address, native country, and telephone number must be on or stapled to each article. If you want us to return your materials to you, please include a stamped envelope addressed to yourself. Be sure to write the names of people in any photos you send. All material in Easy English NEWS is protected by copyright. It is against the law to photocopy it. Easy English NEWS P.O. Box 2596 Fair Lawn, New Jersey 07410 ©2008 Elizabeth Claire, Inc. ISSN: 1091-4951 Telephone: Toll free: (888) 296-1090 Fax: (201) 791-1901 Email: Eceardley@aol.com Website: www.Elizabethclaire.com
subway*, and ferry*. A city transportation system has stations where you can buy tickets. You can also get maps and a schedule* of the bus routes* and subway routes.
You can get a map of the bus routes or a schedule of train stops at the same place you buy your ticket. You may find public transportation information for your city on the Internet. In some cities, one fare* lets you travel anywhere in the city. You can get a transfer* if you have to take a second bus. In other cities, the farther you ride, the more you pay. It can cost two dollars or more each way for a bus or train ride to work. In some cities, commuters* can save money if they buy a monthly ticket. Car pools* are popular. In a car pool, two (or more) people ride together. They share the costs of driving to work or school. Useful Bus and Train Conversations How much is the fare? Can I pay cash when I get on the bus? Can I get a discount if I buy a monthly pass? Where can I buy a subway ticket? A metro card?
We don’t use tickets. We use tokens*. A token costs $2. We use magnetic* swipe* cards. The card costs $50. It’s good for 40 swipes. Do you have a bus schedule? Get one at the token booth* over there. Or use this vending machine*. Do children travel free? Children aged five and under travel free. You must pay the full fare for children six and older. Can I get a discount*? I’m a student. Yes. Show your student ID. Senior citizens* get a discount too, if they travel at “off times.” That is, not during rush hour*. When is rush hour? When everyone is going to work or going home: from seven-thirty to nine-thirty in the morning, and from four p.m. to six p.m. in the evening. Does this train go to the City Zoo? No, take the Number 4 train uptown. Get off at 59th Street. Change for the Number 6 train. Get off at the City Zoo station. Which bus goes to Fair Lawn? That’s the NJ Transit bus, Route 164. How often does the Crosstown bus come? On week days, during rush hour, it comes every five minutes. At other times, every twenty minutes. When do I get off the bus for Broadway? That’s the next stop. When is the last bus to Fair Lawn?
A city bus. Photo: www.itsmybus.com/city.php
The last bus leaves at midnight.
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Easy English NEWS Page 11
Electing a president
1 2 3 4 5 6
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Answers to Idiom Quiz 7 8
Have you seen these faces? Do you know their names? These men and a woman want to be president. American voters will begin to choose their party’s candidates in primary elections and caucuses in January. Numbers 1 to 8 are Democrats. Numbers 9 to 16 are Republicans. 1. I smell a rat. 2. turned . . . down 3. sitting on top of the world 4 . I’m toast.
14 Answers to Crossword Puzzle
1. Christopher Dodd 2. Barack Obama 3. Joe Biden 4. Dennis Kucinich 5. Hillary Rodham Clinton 6. John Edwards 7. Bill Richardson 8. Mike Gravel
9. Mike Huckabee 10. John McCain 11. Ron Paul 12 Rudy Giuliani 13. Fred Thompson 14. Mitt Romney 15. Duncan Hunter 16. Tom Tancredo
Let’s talk about it
Electing a president (pages 1, 2, 7, 8, and 11) 1. Who is the president of the United States now? When does his term end? 2. When will there be an election for a new president? Who can vote in that election? 3. What are the two largest political parties in the U.S.? Transportation— part 1 4. What are caucuses? What are (pages 1 and 10) primary elections? 1. How do you get to English 5. When will your state have a class? How do you get to primary? Who can vote in it? work? To other places? 6. What is a convention? When 2. Is transportation in your are the Democratic and native country different Republican national from transportation here? conventions? Tell about it. 7. Who votes at the convention? 3. Tell the meaning of these Who do they vote for? words: fare, tolls, 8. Who chooses the candidate schedule. for vice president? 9. How many electoral votes are Events (pages 2 and 3) needed for a candidate to be elected president? 10. Tell six steps in electing a new 1. What do people in your U.S. president. native country do on 11. Have you watched any debates January 1? What will you or seen the candidates on TV? do? How many candidates can you 2. Have you made any New name? Year’s resolutions? How 12. Do you have an opinion about will you keep them? any of the candidates? Tell 3. What is the Gregorian about it. calendar? 13. Who is the leader of your 4. When is the New Year for: home country? How did he or Chinese? Jews? Iranians? she become the leader? Muslims? 12. Who can vote for the national leader in your country? 13. Tell the meaning of these words: term, political party, campaign, delegate, convention, general election, electoral college, official, formality 5. Who was Martin Luther King, Jr.? 6. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. teach his followers? 7. Who marched to Washington in 1963? What happened after that? 8. Do all people have equal rights in your home country? Tell about it. 9. Who, in your opinion, does not have equal rights in the U.S.? 9. Tell the meaning of these words: civil rights, segregation, nonviolence. This is your page (page 4) 1. Does it snow in your area of the U.S.? Does it snow in your home country? 2. What is the difference between a plate and up late? 3. Have you ever had problems with a boss at work? Tell about it. 4. What was the miracle that Sean Cheng and Marjorie Holcombe made? 5. Have you ever done or seen a “miracle?” Tell about it. 6. Tell the meaning of these words: architect, enthusiastic, quit, avoid. Ask Elizabeth (page 5) 1. Do you have a job? Tell about it. 2. What kind of job would you like to have some day? 3. How can a person find
information about visas? About colleges? 4. Tell the meaning of these words: employer, military, requirement. Green card scams (page 5) 1. What is a scam? 2. Why do scam artists ask for their money in cash? 3. Why is it hard for police to stop scam artists? 4. What scams have you heard of? 5. What can you do to avoid being “scammed?” 6. Tell the meaning of these words: gain someone’s trust, out of reach, authorities, anonymous. America the Beautiful (page 6) 1. Tell about the climate in your native country. 2. What kind of climate do you like best? What part of the United States has that climate? 3. What is your favorite season? Tell why. 4. Tell the meaning of these words: desert, plains, mild, pleasant. Visit our website: www.Elizabethclaire.com
Page12 Easy English NEWS
Some of the words below have many meanings. We give only the meanings you need for this month’s newspaper.
20th century noun. 1901-2000 accomplish verb. To complete a job or project . act noun. A law. activist noun. A person who does things in order to make changes in society. acupuncturist noun. A doctor who applies small needles in specific places in the body. A.D. anno domini, or the year of the Lord (since the birth of Jesus Christ). aide noun. A personal assistant; a health aide. amendment noun. A change to the Constitution. anonymous adjective. Without giving a name. application noun. A written request. architect noun. A person who designs buildings. arrest verb. To take into control by the police. assemble verb. To gather together in a group. assassinate verb. To kill an important person. authorities noun, plural. People in charge; police, etc. blessings noun, plural. Good things given by nature or by God. bomb verb. To blow something up with dynamite or other explosive. booth noun. A small place where you can do some activity: ticket booth, voting booth, telephone booth, etc. boycott 1. verb. To stop using a company’s services in order to change something about their business. 2. noun. An act of boycotting. campaign noun. The time before an election when candidates are trying to get people to like them. cancel verb. To call off an appointment; to stop an event. candidate noun. A person who wants to be elected. car pool noun. A group of drivers who take turns driving each other to work. cash noun. Money in bills, not in checks or credit card. caucus noun. A convention of political party members. C.E. Initials for the common era (the calendar we all use). chiropractor [kiy / roh prak tuhr] noun. A doctor who specializes in the health of the spine. civil rights noun, plural. The rights that all citizens in a country have, equally. Civil Rights Movement noun. Activities to bring equal rights to blacks and other minorities in the U.S. click on verb phrase. To press a computer mouse button. climate noun. Weather over a long period of time. colony noun. A land that belongs to another country. common adjective. For all the parts or states. commuter noun. A person who travels to work. complex adjective. Having many steps or parts; not easy to understand quickly. confidence noun. A feeling of being able to do something. Constitution noun. The basic set of laws for the United States. consulate noun. The office that helps people in other counries to get visas to the United States content [kahn / tent] noun. Something that is inside of another thing. convenient adjective. Easy to use; close by. convention noun. A gathering of a large group of people in an organization. coworker [co-worker] noun A person at the same job. creed noun. Belief. debate verb. A discussion in which each person gives an opinion and facts to support the opinion. Declaration of Independence noun. The document that told why the United States had the right to be free from Great Britain. decorate verb. To put ribbons, flowers, jewels, ornaments, etc. to make something look beautiful. democracy noun. Government by the people. defense noun. Protection against enemies. delegate noun. A person who will represent, or vote for, or speak for, a group of people at a convention. Democrat noun. A member of the Democratic party which generally has more liberal ideas about government. demonstration noun. A public act that shows how a person or group of people feel about a law or an event. desert noun. A large area that gets very little rain, and has no trees or grass. discount noun. Money that is subtracted from a usual price. domestic adjective. Belonging to things at home; inside the country. drug store noun. Pharmacy; a place where you can buy medicines, prescriptions, and toiletries. easy target noun phrase. Someone who is easy to hurt or steal from. elector noun. A person who casts one of the state’s votes for president. electoral college noun phrase. All of the electors from all of the states. electoral vote noun. A vote by an official elector eloquent adjective. Able to speak very well. embassy noun. The place in another country where an ambassador works. employer noun. A person or business that gives someone a job. encourage verb. To give a person energy or spirit to do something. enthusiastic adjective. Excited; full of positive feelings. equality noun. The condition of having equal rights. equipment noun. Things that are needed to do a job or perform an action. establish verb. To cause the beginning of a government. event noun. Something that happens. fare noun. The cost of riding on a bus, taxi, train, or plane. ferry noun. A boat that carries cars and people across a body of water. festival noun. A celebration with music, food, dancing, and activities. fire verb. To end a person’s job. formality noun. An action that is done by tradition and law, but doesn’t have any power to change things. frequently adverb. Often; happening many times. gain someone’s trust verb phrase. To cause a person to believe that the speaker is honest. general election noun. An election in which all voters in the country can vote. Gregorian adjective. Named for Pope Gregory, who reformed the calendar in 1582. habit noun. Actions that are done over and over again. insure verb. To make sure; to be certain about something. junior (Jr.) noun/adjective. A son who has the same name as his father. justice noun. Fair treatment under the law. major adjective. Large, important. majority noun. A number that is at least one more than half of a larger number. mall noun. A place where people may shop in many stores. massage noun. Manipulating, rubbing, pinching, tapping, etc. on the body with hands. meal noun. Breakfast, lunch, dinner, or supper. mild adjective. Gentle, warm. military noun. Armed forces; army, navy, air force, etc. minister noun. A leader of a religious group of people. miracle noun. Something that seems impossible without the help of God. mummer noun. People in masks and costumes. Nobel Peace Prize noun. A prize each year for a person who promotes peace. nominate verb. To name someone to a job or as a candidate for president, etc. nonviolent adjective. Using peaceful actions only. official adjective. According to the Constitution or law. oppose verb. To speak or fight against something. ordain verb. To set up or begin. out of reach idiom, prepositional phrase. Not in a person’s ability to get. paralyzed adjective. Unable to move. petition noun. A request to the government to get something changed. pleasant adjective. Pleasing; making others feel good. pledged past participle, adjective. Promised; committed. Polar Bear Club noun. People who like to swim in cold weather. political party noun. An organization of people with similar ideas about government. population noun. the number of people who live in a place. posterity noun. The future generations; one’s children and grandchildren and great grandchildren. preamble noun. The beginning of a written document that explains its purpose. press noun. Newspapers, magazines, movies, television, Internet, radio, etc. primary adjective. Something that happens before something else. primary election noun. An election within a state to choose a party’s candidate for the national election. privilege noun. A special right that a person has because of his or her position in society. promote verb. To increase or make better. protest verb. To publicly tell that one does not like a law or a situation. public adjective. Not private; partly paid for by taxes. pursuit noun. The search for something. qi noun. in Chinese philosophy: life force. quit verb. To leave a job. refuse verb. To say that one will not do something. register verb. To put one’s name on a list. report verb. To tell someone about something. Republican noun. A member of the Republican Party, which has more conservative ideas about government. requirements noun, plural. The conditions a person needs in order to get a job, get into a school, etc. resolution noun. A promise to take some action. retired adjective. Referring to older people who have stopped working. Reverend noun/adjective. The title for a minister of a church. reunion noun. A gathering together of people who have been separated for a while. route noun. A map showing where a bus or train goes, and where it makes stops. run for office verb. To be a candidate for president, governor, mayor, etc. rush hour noun. The time when most people are going to, or coming home from, work. scam noun. A trick played on someone in order to get money from the person. scam artist noun. A person who tricks others into giving him or her their money. schedule noun. A chart with the times that buses, trains, or planes stop at each place. season noun. Summer, fall, winter or spring. secure verb. To get and make sure of. segregate verb. To separate into groups by race, religion, language, gender, age, etc. segregation noun. The condition of being separated into groups by race, etc. seldom adverb. Not often; almost never. self-evident adjective. Easy to see; obvious. senior citizen noun. An older person, usually 60 or more. shovel verb. To clean snow off one’s sidewalk. shrink verb. To become smaller and weaker. shy adjective. Not having courage in social gatherings; quiet and reserved. slot noun. A narrow hole into which you can put a coin or dollar bill in a vending machine. society noun. The people, manners, customs, rules, laws, and traditions in a place. solar adjective. Having to do with the sun. subway noun. A train that has stations in a tunnel underground. super duper slang adjective. Extra special; very powerful and large. supreme adjective. Highest. sworn in swear in verb phrase. To officially induct a person into an office. symbolize verb. To represent something. A flag may symbolize a country. take office verb phrase. To begin a job after being elected. term noun. A number of years that an elected official keeps the office. therapist noun. A health professional: a physical therapist helps a person regain the use of muscles. token noun. A type of coin that is used to pay a fare. toll noun. The cost of using a bridge, tunnel, toll road, etc. traditional adjective. Following the way things have been done for a long time. tranquility noun. Peacefulness; calm.. transfer 1. verb. To change to another bus or train. 2. noun. A ticket for a later train or bus. transportation noun. Ways to move oneself to other places: by foot, by bicycle, by car, train, plane, etc. trolley noun. A one-car train powered by electricity. union noun. The joining of the states into one country. vague adjective. Cloudy, not clear. vending machine noun. A machine that you put money into, to buy something. victim noun. A person who has been hurt in an accident, war, robbery or injustice. voter noun. A citizen 18 or older who is registered to vote. vow verb. To promise with great intention. weapon noun. An object used for defense or offense: gun, knife, etc. welfare noun. Health, wealth, and safety.