illillijillllii

:

THE LIBRARY THE INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES TORONTO
PRESENTED BY
Rev. A.A. Vaschalde, C.S»3.

A.

Co

\

(

V
^

\

RECOMMENDATIONS.
The
FROM
J.

following Recommendations of the

Work

and statements in respect
:

to the study of the Syriac language are respectfully submitted
G.

FORMERLY OF THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL CONNECTED WITH HARVARD UNIVERSITY. " It is one of the best Grammars of any language with which I am acquainted. The S}Tiac is easily learned with the help of that proficiency in the Hebrew which is now generally carried away from our Theological
PALFREY,
1>.

D.,

institutions and the little labor necessary for its acquisition is richly repaid by the privilege of consulting a version of the New Testament, which ranks before all others as the oldest and best, and which, besides its importance in respect to evidence of the genuineness of the Sacred Text, has the peculiar interest of presenting the discourses of Our Saviour essentially in the same language in which they were originally pronounced."
;

"I
it

as

FROM PROF. SMITH, OF BANGOR THEOLOGICAL INSTITUTION. have been acquainted with the Grammar for many years, and I regard better adapted for translation in this country than any other grammar

know of. I shall be heartily glad to see an English translation of it, and I have no doubt that such a work would greatly tend to promote, what, by the way, is a most desirable object, the knowledge of the Syriac among our Clergymen and Theological students. There has not been hitherto so much interest taken in our Seminary in the study of the languages cognate
that I
to the

Hebrew
FROM

as I could wish."

C. E.

STOWE,

D. D.,

OF ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.

" It is highly desirable that all Theological students should make themselves acquainted with the Syi'iac tongue for it is not only (next to the
;

Chaldee, perhaps.) the eldest sister of the Hebrew, and the Sacred dialect of that interesting people, the Nestorians but it gives us the very best translation of the Bible, (especially of the New Testament) that has ever been made in any language."
;

FROM HIS PREDECESSOR, THE LATE B. B. EDWARDS, D. D. **Ihave been much pleased wdth Uhlemann's Syriac Grammar. the best for purposes of instruction with which I am acquainted."
"

It

is

FROM T. J, CONANT, D. D., OF ROCHESTER UNIVERSITY. Uhlemann's Syriac Grammar is an admirable work for its object, and is the best extant for school use. I should be glad to see it translated and furnished at a price which could be afforded by Theological students. If a Grammar could be obtained at a moderate price, I think the study would soon become pretty common among ministers. The privilege of reading the oldest version of the New Testament would richly reward all the trouble and expense of acquiring the language." " The Exercises and Chrestomathy have been very carefully prepared^ with good success. Both would be very serviceable to the learner."

"A
here."

FROM J. A. ALEXANDER, D. D., OF PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. good translation of Uhlemann would command a constant

sale;

SYRIAC GRAMMAR,
WITH

A COUESE OF EXERCISES, A CHRESTOMATHY, AND A BRIEF
LEXICON.

$(l±

UHLEMANN'S

SYRIA C GRAMMA E,
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN

BY ENOCH HUTCHINSON.
WITH
A

COURSE OF

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAfflAR,
AND A

CHRESTOMATHY AND BRIEF LEXICON
PREPARED BY THE TRANSLATOB,

NEW YORK:
D.

APPLETON & CO,
T.

346

&

348

BROADWAY.

EDINBURGH:
&
J.

CLARK,

38

GEORGE STREET.
5 5.

18

\^^5e,

Entered according to Act of Congress,

in the

year 1855,

By

E.

hutch in SOX,
of

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District

New

York,

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

The

following translation was undertaken in accordance with

the suggestion of several literary friends, and in view of an

increasing desire

among American students

to

become acquainted

with a language in which the earliest and best version of the

New

Testament
is

is

generally admitted to have been made, and which

essentially the language spoken

by our Saviour.
all to

Uhlemann's Grammar
of rare excellence
will
;

is
is

acknowledged by

be a manual
it

and

it

hoped

that, in

an English dress,

be found to be well adapted to promote the progress of

ori-

ental philology in this country.

Some

of our helps of this kind,

in the study of the Syriac, are too brief,

and others are too volumoderate lim-

minous.
its,

Uhlemann has aimed

to present, within

a work sufficiently extensive for ordinary purposes of instruc-

tion.

The

translator has endeavored to give as literal a transla-

tion as is compatible with perspicuity.

He

has added, where

it

seemed

to

be necessary, occasional explanatory notes.

After

having prepared an abridgment of the paradigms of verbs and
nouns, following Winer's arrangement in his Chaldee

Grammar,

he, on the whole, concluded to insert the full paradigms as they

stand in the original work, and not to

make

the attempt to im-

prove a grammar so nearly faultless.

^-i

TrvAXSLATOR'S PREFACE.

The

translation

is

followed by a course of Exercises in Syriac
carefully studied, will,
it

grammar, which,

if

is

believed, mate-

rially facilitate the progress of the learner in

an accurate know-

ledge of the elements of the language.
care, the introduction,

After having read, with

and cursorily examined other parts of the
at once,

grammar, the pupil may,

commence upon

the Exercises,

and merely consult the grammar
remarks
to the Exercises) as a

(as directed in the introductory

book of reference, in order to

enable him to solve the difficulties with which he
analyzing the
trusts that
first

may meet

in

page of the Chrestomathy.

The

translator

he shall not be considered as obtrusive in calling

special attention to a

method of analysis which he has found

to
in-

be of great advantage in teaching classes in Hebrew.
structors have probably adopted a similar one,

Some

and others may
to the con-

have devised

still

better methods.

This

is

submitted

sideration of those teachers
satisfactory one.

who have not already adopted a

A

brief Chrestomathy and

Lexicon, prepared by the translais

tor, follow the

Exercises.

The former

composed of selections

from that beautiful edition of the Peshito Bible published by the
British

and Foreign Bible Society
It

in

London, in 1816, and
for the use

reprinted in smaller type in 1826.

was executed

of the Syrian Christians in India.

It

was corrected for the press,

as far as the Acts of the Apostles, by Dr. Buchanan,

and com-

pleted by Rev. S. Lee, Professor of Arabic in the University of

Cambridge.
is

Several manuscripts were consulted, and the text

considered as very correct, though
errors.

we have discovered

in it

some typographical

In the Exercises, an extended analysis will be found of the

first

;

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

yii

page of the Chrestomatliy, and merely brief explanatory remarks
on the remaining pages.

The

basis of the Lexicon
to

is

that inserted by

Uhlemann

in his

grammar,

which the translator has made many additions, having

consulted the Syriac Lexicons of

M.

Trost, E. Castell, ^Egidius
is

Gutbier, and ^milius Rodiger.
to include those

The Lexicon
in the

intended merely

words which occur

Chrestomathy.
to

Some
and

errors, in the author's

numerous references

the Old

New

Testaments, have

been discovered and corrected.

There

are, probably, others

which were not observed.
received with

The

translator trusts that this effort will be

indulgence

by the

literary public.

Errors will doubtless be

found by teachers who

may

use the Manual, and he will be very

thankful to receive suggestions from any quarter, by which a
future edition, should
it

ever be called for,

may

be improved.

The

publication of the

work has been unexpectedly delayed,

most of the stereotype plates, when nearly completed, having been
destroyed by a disastrous
fire.

The

translator avails himself of this opportunity to express his

obligations to

Mr.

W. W. Turner,
T.
J.

late of the

Union Thelogical

Seminary of
sity,

this city,

Con ant, D. D.,

of Rochester Univer-

and

J.

G. Palfrey, D. D., formerly of the Theological School

connected with Harvard University, for valuable suggestions
also to

Mr. A. H. Guernsey,

of this city, for important aid in

the examination of the manuscript before going to press.

New

York, Jan. 1855.

O

I

54-2B

EXTEACTS FEOM THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

for

earlier sheets of this Text book, designed, principally, academical instruction, had been printed, and that part of the Manuscript which contains the elementary principles and paradigms had been for a considerable time out of my hands, when the more comprehensive work of Professor Hoffmann made its appearance. In the preparation of this work my plan had especially led me to present, with as much brevity as was consistent with clearness, what is most essential for understanding the language in its grammatical forms. 1 was of the opinion that the more extended treatment of separate phenomena of the language might be dispensed with, since the greater portion of the Syriac forms may be explained from those of the Hebrew language and in fact, a knowledge of the Hebrew implies an acquaintance with the principles of the Syriac. Upon a close examination of the above-mentioned work, I was convinced, that I had proceeded upon almost the same principles, had made a similar use of the older grammarians, such as Amira, Ludov. de Dieu, Buxtorf, Michaelis, and others, and had deviated only in the
;

The

collocation of separate rules. Although I might have approximated more nearly to the work of Hoffmann, by isolated alterations, yet I deemed it advisable, where deviations
existed, to follow

my own

views

;

as for example, in the ta-

bular arrangement of derivative nouns. Following the older grammarians, I have introduced a separate paradigm of the nouns placed under Declension HI.,"^ instead of classing them with the Segholate forms this w^as done because the vowel entering into the inflection of these nouns is not an original
;

one, as in the case of the Segholate forms, but is introduced on account of the difficulty of pronunciation. Real Segholate
* § 48, DecL IIL

8

X

EXTRACTS FROM THE AUTHOR's PREFACE.

forms, inonosyllabic nouns, namely, those derived from verbs 3 rad. Olapli quiescent, belong rather, according to their principal inflection, to the substantive-stems of Declension V., and, in only a few instances, coincide with the Segholate forms. In preparing the Syntax, I have, like Professor Hoffmann, followed the Lehrgebdude of Gesenius and like him, also* I have made use only of those passages of the Old Testament collected by Gesenius, in which the translator, unfettered by the Hebrew text, seems to have wrought more in accordance with the genius of his own language. In addition to this, I have frequently consulted the translation of the JSTew Testament, as the oldest Syriac writing known to us ;*
;

Ephraemi Opera

Barhebraei Chronicon Syr., ed. Kirsch. Lips. 1789 and Assemani Bibliotheca Orient. Clementino-Yuticana, Romse, 1719, tom. III., fob; so that a close and impartial examination will easily determine what has been added from my own not inconsiderSyr.,
174:3,
III., fol.
; ;

Romae,

tom.

able collections.!

******

Berlin, March, 1829.

* In point of time the Feshito version of the Old Testament is the most ancient in the Syriac language, though the New Testament was transMichaelis suplated into Syriac from the original Greek about the same time. poses, that the Syriac verfcion of both Testaments was made near the close of the first, or in the early part of the second century. Tr. t The remainder of the Author's Preface relates mainly to his Reading Lessons, which we have not inserted, they being, in our opinion, too difficult for beg'nners Tr.

document extant

11

CONTENTS.
PAGS

Introduction.

—Brief Historical

Yiew

of the Syriac Language

and Literature

17

PART FIRST.
BliCJ^IBNTS

OF THE LANGUAGE

.

CHAPTER L
WKITTEN CHARACTERS AND THEIR
§ § §
§
1.
2.

USE.
28

Consonants

Yowels

in general

(Yowel Letters and Yowel Signs)

.

.

30

3.

Yowel Signs
Points which supply the place of Yowels
.

30
,

4. Diacritical
5.
6. 7.

31

g §

Kushoi and Rukok
Ribui

32

§
^ g

Mehagyono and Marhetono
Linea Occultans

......
XL

33

34
35
35

8. 9.

Tone

1 10.

Marks

of Punctuation

35

CHAPTER
PECULIARITIES
^ 11.

AND CHANGES OF LETTERS.
36 36

General

Yiew

g 12.

Changes of the Consonants

XII

CONTENTS.
PAGB

1

13. Quiescent Letters

§ 14.
g

Yowel

Letters which are not sounded (Otiant)

...

39

40
41

15.

Changes in the Yowels

PART SECOND.
ETYMOL.OOY, OR PARTS OP SPEECH.

CHAPTER L
PRONOUNS.
§ 16.

Personal and Possessive Pronouns

44
45
48

Table of Pronouns and
§

Sufifixes

17. Other Pronouns

CHAPTER
THE VERB.
§ 18.

XL

General
I.

View
Regular Verbs.
Regular Yerbs in General

.49

§ 19.
I.

The

Inflection of

...
.
.

50
52 53

Table of Personal Inflection

II.

Table of the Temporal Inflection of Regular Yerbs
Inflections

A. Personal

54
55
.

B. Inflection of the Tenses and Moods
^

20. A. The Ground-form Peal

its

formation and signification

56

B. Derivative Conjugations.
g 21.

Ethpeel

58
59

§ 22. § 23. g 24.
g 25.

Pacl and Ethpaal

Aphel and Ethtaphal
Shaphel and Eshtaphal
Conjugations occasionally used and Quadriliteral Yerbs
-

60
61 62

§ 26.

Yerbs with Gutturals
II.

63

Irregvdar Verbs.

I 27.

General

Yiew

Table of Irregular Yerbs

...

...

63 65

CONTENTS.
A. Quiescent
1 28. 2 29. 2 30. § 31. § 32.

ZIII

PAGB

Verbs,
. .

Yerbs 1 Rad. Olaph Quiescent
Yerbs 1 Rad. Yud Quiescent Yerbs Med. Olaph Quiescent
Yerbs Med. Rad.

.

67
68 70

Yau

and

Yud

Quiescent
.

.

70
72

Yerbs 3 Rad. Olaph Quiescent
B. Defective Verbs.

§ 33. § 34, § 35.

Yerbs

1 Rad.

Nun

Yerbs Med. Rad. doubled

....
.

75 75
76

Doubly Irregular and Defective Yerbs
Paradigms of the Regular and Irregular Yerbs

80
97

§ 36.

Regular Yerb with Suffixes Table of the Same

102

^ 37.

Suffixes to

Yerbs 3 Rad. Olaph Quiescent

103

Table of the Same
2 38.

108
.

Auxiliary or Substantive Yerbs

110

CHAPTER
THE NOUN.
^39. Derivation of Nouns
§40. Nouns derived from Yerbs

in.

Ill
112

Tabular Yiew of Nouns derived from Regular and Irregular

Yerbs

113
122

HI-

Denominative Nouns
Composite and Exotic Nouna

H2§44. §45.

123

§43. Gender of Nouns

124

Number

of

Nouns

Diflferent Relations (states) of the

Noun

....
.

126
129

Table of the Same

132

§46. Nouns with Suffixes

§47. Declension of Nouns in general

....

136

139

XIV

CONTENTS,
PAGB

§ 48. I 49.

Exhibition of

Nouns according

to Declension

139
145

Anomalous Xouns
Paradigms of Xouns with
SufiBxes

g

50. Adjectives

and Numerals

....
IV.

148

150

CHAPTER
PARTICLES.
^ 51.

Adverbs

§ 52. Prepositions

....
PART THIRD.
SYNTAX.

152

153
155
156

Table of Prepositions with Suffixes
^ 53.

Conjunctions and Interjections

CHAPTER

I.

THE PHONOUN.
^ 54.

Use of Separable Personal Pronouns and
A. Separable Personal Pronouns
B. Suffixes
• .

Suffixes

157
157 159

.

^

.

g 55.

Pleonastic use of Pronouns

160
160

A. Separable Personal Pronouns
B. Suffixes

....
Pronoun

161 163

General Remarks on Personal Pronouns
§ 56.
§ 57. g 58.

Use
Use

of the Relative

164
166 166 166

of Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns
for

Pronouns

which the Syrians have no special forms

A. Reflexive Pronouns
B. Other Pronouns

167

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
THE VERB.
g

XV
PAGE

II.

59. General

Yiew

172 172

§ 60.

Use

of the Preterit of the Future of the Imperative

^ 61. § 62.

Use

175
178 179

Use

^63. Use of the Infinitive

A.

Infinitive

Absolute

179
180
182
all

B. Infinitive with
g 64.
§

^ or the Construct form

Use

of the Participle

....

65. General

Yiew

of the

Manner

of Designating

the different

Moods and
fect,
§ 66. §

Tenses, and particularly the Imperfect, Pluper-

and Optative
of the

188 190

The Persons

Yerb

67. Construction of Yerbs with the different Cases and with

Prepositions
I.

193
193
196
201

Yerbs with the Accusative

II.

Yerbs with Prepositions Yerbs and
their Construction

III. Passive

Mode
^ 68.

of expressing

Greek Composites
other peculiarities chiefly

203

The Substantive Yerb and some

relating to the Construction of

Yerbs

A. Useof]o01 Zu] and
B. Indirect Discourse
C. Ellipsis

Zu^

....
.

in General

204 204
205

—Zeugma—Paronomasia and Puns
CHAPTER
THE NOUN.
III.

206

§ 69. § 70.

Use

of the

Noun

in General

207

Gender of Nouns

210
212.

§71.

Number

of the

Noun

XVI

CONTENTS
PAGE

Apposition and Duplication of Nouns

212

§73. The Emphatic State

214
the Genitive

The Construct State and

215

§75. Designation and Use of the other Cases §76. The Case Absolute
.

218

220
.

§T7. Comparison of Adjectives

222 222 223

A. The Comparative
B. The Superlative

.

.

^8.

Construction of Numerals A. Cardinal Numbers

.

221 224

B. Ordinal Numbers

.

224

C. Other Eelations of

Numbers

226

Union of the Noun with Adjectives
§80. Union of the

227
229

Noun
to

with the Yerb
.

A. In Respect

Number

229
232

B. In respect to Gender
C. In respect to both Gender and

Number
is

234
a Compound

D. Construction of Sentences in which there
or

more than one Subject

.

234 237
237

^81. Peculiarities relating to Nouns

.

A.
B.

Ellipsis of the

Noun
Nouns
lY.

Zeugma and Ilendiadys
rendering of Composite Greek

238 238

The

CHAPTER
PARTICLES.
§ 82. § 83.
§

Construction and Union of Adverbs

240

Use of the

Particles of interrogation, affirmation

and negation

242

84. Prepositions

244
246

I 85.

Conjunctions

I 86. Interjections

249
.
.

Peculiarities in respect to the Position of "Words

.

250

1

IN

T

11

ODUCT

I

O N.

BRIEF'

HISTORICAL VIEW
OF
TIIE

SYKtAC LANGUAGE

A:^rD

LITERATURE.

1. The Sjriac language (sometimes called the Western Aramgean, to distinguish it from the Chald^ean or Eastern Aramgean, with which it constitutes the Aramgean dialect of the Semitic family of languages), formerly extended over the whole northern part of Aram, from the borders of Palestine to J^atolia, and from the Mediterranean to and beyond the Euphrates." It degenerated at an early period, and, during the continual changes of government, 23articularly by the reception of Persian and Greek words, lost much of its original purit}^ Of its pure state, no written monuments have come down to our times. But at the beginning of the fourth century after Christ, the language enjoyed a flourishing period, and kept its place for a long time at Edessa as a written language. As from the earliest period the Palmyrene dialect was recognized as the principal one, so this period has been designated by the name of the Edessene Period. Moreover, at various times, mention is made of the Damascene, the Chalnic or Ctesiphontic, the Acharic or IS^esibene, and the Maronite dialects. The essential difference between these consisted very likely in the pronunciation this may be asserted with still more confidence in respect to the J^abatgean dialect. The ancient written language of Antioch or Com;

magene

is still

used by various Christian

sects, in particular

* E. Rodiger says of the Aramasan language: "It was called Syriac in the form in which it appeared in the Christian Aramcean literature, and Chaldee when it appeared in the Jewish Aramaean writings." See Gesenius' Heb. Graram., 15th edit, by Rodiger, Leipz. 1848 Einleitung, §1.2. b. Tr.
;

18

IXTRODUCTIOX.

I^estorians, and Thomas-Christians of India, as their ecclesiastical language. So also the Zabians, or socalled St. John's Disciples, are said to make use of it, in their religious ceremonies. But as the language, as early as the eighth and ninth centuries, was greatly corrupted by the

bj the Maronites,

frequent use of the Arabic, and was driven by the Arabs cities in the tenth and eleventh, and from the villages in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it may be safely assumed that it is no longer in use as a vernacular Ian guage. Although several modern travelers of note, as

from the

Niebuhr and Brown, maintain that it is still spoken in some parts of Mesopotamia, about Baka, Edessa, and Damascus, as well as upon Lebanon, they are opposed by Ferrieres
and Yolney, while Chateaubriand, Seetzen, Clarke, Joliffe, and Buckingham pass the matter over in silence; and Burckliardt only remarks, that the Maronites in the convent of Kashia use the Syriac, at the ])resent day, as we do the Latin.SauveboBuf
Rem.

—The
II.
ii.

LXX,

even, use Syria, (2u^m, Sv^'oi, 2upio'Ti) in vhe

wider sense,
in

for the

Old Testament

la^i^

(^'1

comp. the

"Apijuioi

Horn. 783; Hesiod Theog. 304; Strabo Geog. i. 2. xi. 14; Stephanus Byzant. under "Api.aa, and Bochart Geogr. S. ii 5, 6); and the Greek and Roman Authors often confound Syria with Assyria (comp. Xenoph. Cyrop. Diod. Sic. ii. 13; Herodot. vii. 63; Strabo xvi. 2 Lucian de Dea Syr. § 1 Oppian, Kovriy III. 402 Horat vii. 5, 31 Od. II. 11, 16; III. 4, 32. Justin, i. 2; Animian Marcell. xxiii. 6.
; ; ;
;

f^-^J, as it la}^ at the left, when their faces were turned towards the east (comp. Abulfeda Tab. Syr. p. 5 Assemani In the earliest times this country Bibl. Orient. T. III. P, ii. p. 782.) was divided into several small nations, ruled by kings (comp. Jahn Bibl. Archaol. Thl. i. Bd. i. p. 51 seq.; Mannert Geogr. Bd. vi. p. 1 seq.; Vater Comraentar iiber den Pentat. Bd. I. p. 152 Winer Bibl. Realworterbuch, Bd. i. p. 51 seq.); of these, subsequently to the time of David, Zobah and Damascus are mentioned in the Scriptures, as the most powerful David conquered them both (2 Sam. viii. 3 sq.; x. 6 1 Chron. xix [xviii ] 3, 4. sq), and Solomon kept po.ssession of them

The Arabs

call

it

;

;

;

* Since Uhlemann prepared

his

grammar,

it

has been ascertained that the Nes-

Mr. Layard, in his admirable torians use the Syriac language at the present day. work on the ruins of Nineveh, says of the Nestorians (or ChaldiEans as he incor" Most of their church books are written in Syriac, them) which, like the Latin in the West, became the sacred language in the greater part Missionaries who are laboring See Layard's Nineveh, chap. viii. of the East," among the Nestorians, bear testimony to the same fact. Tr.
rectly denominates
:

;

INTRODUCTION.
until

19

(1 Kings

Reson Ben-Eliada, who had been general of the king of Zoba xi. 23 sq.), re-established at Damascus a government inde-

pendent of that of the Hebrews. Subsequently the Syrians were incorporated with the monarchies of the Assyrians (t38 b. c), tlie Persians (539 B. c), and the Macedonians (331 b. c). Though after the death of Alexander the Great, tliey arose again for a time under tlie Seleucidae (301 B. c), yet they again lost their independence by means of Pompey (64 b. c), and their kings reigned only at Edessa, till the third century after Christ, when this kingdom came also under the Roman sway. At the division of the Empire, under Theodosius (395), Syria fell to the Byzantine Empire, after Jovianus had (a. d. 363) already surrendered Nesibis* to Sapores II, king of Persia. Afterwards it was taken
possession of

Ommiades and

were, in Crusades, the Christians could maintain themselves there against the and in 1171, SakSeljooks but a short time (1091 and subsequently) In 1369, Syria became a prey to country from them. din wrested the the marauding inroads of the Mongols under Timur ; and it has now, for three centuries, sighed under the Turkish yoke (cf. Gatterer, Hand;

by the Arabs (636), and was subjected (660) to the several other Arabic royal famihes, whose dynasties brought to a close by the Seljooks.j* At the time of the 1086,

buch der Universalhist, Bd. I. p. 248 sq. Beck, Weltgeschichte, Bd, Heeren, Ideen iiber die Politik, u. s. w. Thl. I. p, I. p. 213 sq. 213 sq. Riihs, Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters, p. 152,
;
;

;

sq.).

transition into broadness of pronunciation (TrXarufrro^aov) seems not to have extended much beyond the time of the Babylonish and the Palmyrene Dialect, which is known to us by some captivity inscriptions found among the ruins of Palmyra or Tadmor, and deciphered by Barthelemy and Swinton, may have grown up soon after SoloIn the Edessene Period, during which mon, the founder of that city. flourished Ephraem (died 378), Jacob Yon Sarug, Isaac the Syrian, and Xenaias of Mabug, all of whom Jacob of Edessa, at the middle of
;

The

the seventh century, recognizes as classical writers, theological learning was zealously cultivated (cf. Assem. T. III. P. II. p. 994). The Maronites

on the Orontes and upon Lebanon, originally disciples and followers Pfeiffer, in his Auszuge, p. 166 sq. of St. Maro (cf. Assem. I. 496 sq. Gieseler, Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Bd. I. p. 675 Riihs, Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters, p. 37) approximate to the ancient Syriac dialect still more closely do the Nestorians (cf. Assem. T. III. P. II. p. 379), and the Thomas-Christians of India, who differ from the Xestorians only in name and place of residence (cf Assem. a. a. 0. pp. Pfeiffer, pp. 285, 484 Gieseler, Bd. I. pp. 417, 638), 413, 435. sq, all of whom make use of it only as an ecclesiastical language the two former si>eaking Arabic in common life, and the latter, the language
; ; ;

;

;

;

* A celebrated cit3'and military post inMesopotamia, generally written Nisibis.—TR. t Called, also, Seljuks, Seljouks, or Seljoukian Turks. Tr,

20
of Malabar.

IXTRODUCTIOX.
Different from this
is

Christians, Mandgeans, or Zabians

(who
;

the dialect of the so-called Johannesare not to be confounded with

sect of the same name, in Maraccii Coran. Sur. II. p. 33 Asscm. T. III. P. II. pp. 509-515 Pfeiffer, p.510 sq.; cf. Gieseler, Bd. I. p. 66 Xeander, Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen. Religion und Kirche, Bd. I. Abth. II. p. 421), whose religious books are written in a corrupted Syriac, and which appears, from the numerous Ghebric expressions which occur in them, to have been drawn up in the Persian Irak. By the Xabataean, according to Barhebraeus (in Assem. T. I. p. 476) is to be understood the former language of the Syrian countrypeople. On the question, whether the Syrian is still a vernacular language, compare Niebuhr, Reisebeschr von Arabien, Bd. II. p. 352 Brown, Biblioth. der neuesten Reisebeschr. Thl. I. p. 489 Ferrieres Sauveboeuf, Memoires historiques, etc., T. II. p. 169 Yolney, Voyage en Syrie, etc., T. I. p. 331 and 13urckhardt, Travels in Syria, etc., pp.

a

Mohammedan
; ;

sq.

;

;

;

;

22, 186.

Syriac literature, which extends over almost all branches of knowledge, and in a special manner over the department of Theology, and possesses valuable works upon Oriental and Ecclesiastical History, flourished principally in the period between the fourth and tenth centuries of the Christian era. The language itself, which gave proof of its versatility of expression by the translations of Aristotle and other Greek authors, and by its accurate representation of mathematical subjects, had found, at an earlier period, in its own country, zealous cultivators in the departments of Grammar and Lexicography. As the most ancient grammarians, whose works have been lost, history records the names of Achudemen (died 575), Joseph Huzita (died 580), Jacob of Edessa (died G98), who labored to restore the purity of the ancient language, Jesudenah (at the beginning of the eighth century), John Stylita (about 830), John, son of Chamis, Bishop of Themanum (850), and Honain, the physician (died The first accurate grammar, however, was written by John 876). Bar Zugbi, a Nestorian monk, at the beginning of the thirteenth century about which time, also, Joseph Bar Malcon seems to have composed his Rete Pundorum^ and Barhebraeus (died 1286) At the beginning to have made known his grammatical works. of the sixteenth century, the study of the Syriac language was transplanted to Europe. Theseus Ambrosius learned the Syriac language from Syrians at Rome, in 1514, and became, in 1529, teacher to Albert Widmansiadt, who subsequently pursued^ the study under Simeon, Bishop of the Syrians upon Lebanon. Through the labors of these men, and of Moses von Merdin, whom
2.
;

INTRODUCTION.

21

Ignatius, Patriarch of Antioch, had sent, in 1552, to Julius III. at Rome, and whose instructions were enjoyed by Andreas Dumas (Masius), the publication of the New Testament was effected in

At the close of the sixteenth century, the grammatical 1555. study of the Syriac language was much promoted at Rome itself, by the Maronites Amira and Abraham Ecchellensis, whose copious grammatical works had already been preceded by the attempts of Theseus Ambrosius,Widmanstadt, Tremellius, Dumas, and Waser. They were followed, about the middle of the seventeenth century, by Isaac Sciadrensis and Joshua Accurensis. From this period onwards, the Syriac language has been grammatically pursued in Germany; partly independently of other languages, most copiously by the two Michaelises and Hoffmann ; partly in connection with the Chaldee, as by Ludov. de Dieu and Jahn ; or with the other Semitic languages, as by Buxtorf, Hottinger, Schaaf, Vater, and others. The earliest attempts at Syriac lexicography were also made
and tenth centuries, in Syria, by Honain Isa or Joshua of Maruz, and Gabriel, the son of Bochtiesu. More important, however, are the contemporary works of Isa Bar-Ali (about 885), of Ananiesu Bar-Saru (about 900), and the most serviceable work of this kind by Abulhasan, Isa Bar-Bahlul (about 963,) which is still extant. The lexicons of Dumas, de la Boderie,
in the ninth

Schindler, Crines, Buxtorf, Trost, Hettinger, Gutbier, Nicolai, Schaaf, and Zanolini, which have appeared since the sixteenth century, are confined to the New Testament, with which the FerSyriac literature in 1555 made its appearance in Europe. rarius, and Edm. Castell, on the other hand, availed themselves of the above-mentioned Syriac works relating to the same subject, and John David Michaelis enriched the labors of the latter by valuable remarks and additions. The valuable work of Lorsbach, Arho compared all the Syriac works which had then been printed, besides a number of manuscripts, and collected the words and

wanting in Syriac lexicons, still remains uncomrecently, copious works have been promised by Bernstein and Quatremere, philologists of great merit in the department of Oriental literature. Glossaries are contained in the Chrestomathies of Michaelis, Kirsch, Tychsen, Grimm, Hahn, and Sieffert.
significations

pleted.

More

Jesus,

Rem. Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. I. 13) cites the letter of Abgarus to aud the answer to it, as among the most ancient Syriac writings (cf. Assem. I. 554 III. P. II. p. 8 Gieseler, Bd. I. p. U) and,
; ; ;

22
in like

IXTRODUCTION.
manner, John
is

said to have written his Gospel in the Syria

language.
city, is

But

the most ancient Sjriac

work

of

nndoubted authenti-

perhaps the translation of the Xew Testament,* which must have existed as early as the second century (cf. Hug:, Einleitung in die Schriften des X. T., Thl. I. p. 348 Gieseler, Bd. I. p. 123). That the Syrians considered their language to be richer than the Ara;

bic is attested by Asseman (III. P. I. p. 326 sq.) and its capacity for rendering Greek authors may be judged from Barhebraeus (Chron. p. 231. ed. Bruns), compared with Aristotle (Top. I. cap. 4). Aluilpharagius, in his Historia Dynast., ed. Pocock, p. 147, mentions Theophihis of Edessa as the author of a successful translation of two books of the Iliad (cf. Assem. I. p. 521). In addition to the larger work of Asseman (Assemani Bibliotheca Orientalis Clementino-Yaticana, Romse, 1729,) 3 vols, fol., and the abridgment of it by Pfeiffer, Erlangen, 1776, we possess a brief history of Syriac literature by Hoffmann, Bertholdt's kritischem Journal der neuesten theologischen Literatur, Thl. XIY., pp. 225-291.
;

m

I.

GRAM MA IIS.
linguae Syriac^, Parisiis, 1554.

Thesei Amhrosii, Introductio in Chald. linguam, Syriacam, etc., Papiae,

1539.

Aug. Caninii, Institutiones

Widmanstadii, Syriacae linguae prima ekmenta, Yiennae, 1555, 4to. ed. II. Antwerp, 1572. loh. Mercer i, Tabulae in grammaticen linguae Chald., quae et Syriaca Eiusd. grammatica Chald. et Sp*. Yitedicitur, Paris, 1560. 4 to. bergae, 1579, 8vo. Irnman. Tremellii, Grammatica Chald. et Syr. Genevae, 1569, 4to. Appended also to his edition of the Xew Testament. Andr. Masii, Grammatica linguae Syriacae (im Tom. YI. der Antweip, Polygl.) 1573, fol. Casp. Waseri, Institutio linguae Syrae ex optimis quibusque apud Syi'os scriptoribus collecta. Lugd. Bat. 1594. 4to. Ed. II. Leidae, 1619,
4to.

Georg. Amirce,

Chrisfopk. Crinesii,
To. Buxlorfii,

Grammatica Syr. Gymnasium

sive Chald. etc.

Komae, 1596,

4to.

Syr. h.

e.

linguae lesu Christo verna-

culae perfecta institutio, etc.

Yitebergae, 1611.
et Syr. libri III. Basil. 1615.

Grammaticae Chald.

Ed.

II.

1650, 8vo.

* Hng, in his Introduction to the New Testament, says that the Translation of the Testament was appended to that of the Old Testament, and that both were included under the same name, Pcshito. Tr.

Xew

INTRODUCTION.
To.

23

Genev. 1619, 4to, Aramagarum per comparationem etc, Idea liuguarr. Copenh. 162t, 8vo. Abrah. Ecchelknsis, Lingua? Syr. s. Chald. perbrevis institutio. Romae, 1628, 16100. Ludov. de Dieii, Grammatica linguarr. orientt. Hebrasorum, Chald. et Syr. inter se collaturum Lugd. Bat. 1628, ex recens. Clodii. Francof. ad M. 1683, 4to. Isaac Sciadrensis, Grammatica linguae Syr. Romae, 1636, 8vo. Fok. Michad. Dilherri, Rudimenta grammaticae Syr. Halis, 163Y. Ed. II., 1646, 12mo. Tosephi Acurensis, Grammatica linguae Syr. Romae, 1641, 8vo. [o. Ernst. Gerhardi, I,ma,y^a(pia, linguae SjTO-Chald. Hal. Sax. 1649. Andr. Scnnerti, Ebraimus, Clialdaismus, Syriasmus, Arabismus nee non Ra])))inismus, etc. Yiteb. 1666, 4to. Eiusd. Chaldaismus et SyriasTrhrni. Nicolai,

Casp. Myriad, Grammatica Syro-Clialdaea.

mus,
loh.

etc., 1666. Henr. Hottingeri, Grammatica Chald. Syr. et Rabbinica Turic. 1652, 8vo. Eiusd. Grammatica quatuor linguarr. Hebr. Chald. Syr. et Arab, harmonica Turici, 1659, 4to (the Syriac also printed

separately).

Briani Waltoni, Introductio ad lectionem linguarr. orientt, Hebr. Chald. Samarit. Syr. Arab. Pers. Armen. Copt. Lond. 1653, 12mo, lo. Leusdeni, Scholae Syriacae lib. III. etc. Ultraiect. 1658, 8vo. Guil. Beveridgii, Grammatica Syr. tribus libris tradita. Loud. 1658,
8vo.

Brevis et harmonica quontura fieri potuit grammaticae Hebr. Chald. Syr. ^thiop. Arab, et Pers. delineatio. Lond. 1669 (preceding his Lex. Heptagl.) Dav. Grafunderi, Grammatica Syriaca cum Syntaxi, etc. Yiteb, 1665. lo. Nicolai, Grammatica linguarr. Ebr, Chald. Syr. Arab, JEthiop. Pers.orientalium secundum prima praeccpta delineata harmonica. lenae, 1670. 4to. Ed. II. Critica Sacra Francof. et Hamb. 1686, lo. Altingi, Synopsis institutiouum Chald. et Syr. Francof. ad M. 1676. Ed. Yl. a Georg. Othone adornata, 1701, 8vo. Christ. Cellarii, Porta Syriaca. Cizae, 1677, 8vo. Eiusd. Porta Syriae
Castelli,

Edm.

linguarr.

patentior, etc., 1682.

Syriasmus facilitati et integritati suae restitutus, etc. Lips. et Francof. 1678. 4to. in compendium redactus a Christ. Liidovici Yiteb. 1669, 4to. Car. Schafii, Opius Aramaeum complectens grammaticam Chaldaico Syriacam, Lugd. Bat. 1686, 8vo. Ed. III. lo. Aug. Danzii, Aditus Syriae reclusus, etc. Tenae, 1689. 1715, 8vo. lo. Em. Gerhardi, Harmonia luiguae Chald. Syr. et JEthiop. lenae, 1693, 4to.
Opitii,

Henr.

24
Uerm. von der Hardt

INTEODUCTION.
Syriacse linguae fimdamenta.
orientt.

Helmst. 1694.

(Only Paradigms.) 8vo. Ge. Othonis Palsestra linguarr. etc. Francof. 1702. 4to.
lo.

Chald. Syr. Arab.

^th.

Pers.

Hebraicse, Chald. Svr. et Samarit. linfruarum Francof. ad M. 1707. 4to. harmonica. Sam. Frid. Bucheri Thesaurus orientalis s. compendiosa et facilis methodus hnguarr. orientt. etc. Francof. et Lips. 1725. 4to. Christ. Bened. Michaelis Syriasmus i. e. grammatica hnguae Syr. Halis, 1741. 4to. lo, David Michaelis Grammatica Syr. Halis, 1784. 4to. /. G. Kals Grammatica Hebraeo-harmonica cum Arab, et Aram.

Phil.

Hartmanni

institutio

Amstelod. 1758. 8vo.
lac.
Ge.
Christ, Adlerii

Brevis linguie Syr. institutio

etc.

Altona?,

1784.

W.
loh.

Hezel., Syrische Sprachlehre.

Gottfr.

Lemgo, 1788. 4to. Hasse Practlsches Handbuch der Aramaischen oder

Syrisch-Chaldaisch-Samaritanischen Sprache. lena, 1794. 8vo. Innoc. Fessleri Institutiones linguarr. orientt. Hebr. Chald. Syr. et Arab. Vratisl. Halis et lense, 1787 et 1789. (Ap01. Gerh. Tychseni Elementale Syr. Rostochi, 1793. 8vo.

Chrestomathy.) lo. lahn. Aramaische oder Chaldaische und Syrische Sprachlehre Wien 1793. 8vo. neu herausgegeben von Oberleitflir Anfiinger. ner Elementa Aramaicte s. Chaldaeo-Syriacie Hnguae etc. Yiennae, 1820. 8vo. loh. Sev. Vater Handbuch der Hebr. Syr. Chald. und Arab. Grammatik. Leipzig, 1802 u. 1817. 8vo. Thomas Yeates^ Syriac Grammar, principally adapted to the New Testament in that Language. Lond. 1819. 8vo. Hampus Tullherg Elementale Syr. P. I. et II. Lond. 1824. 8vo. Paul Ewald Lehrbuch der syr. Sprache. Erlangen, 1826. 8vo. Andr. Theoph. Hoffmanni Grammaticie Syriacse hbri HI. Halae,
to his

pended

1827. 4to.

II.

LEXICONS.

Andr. Masii Syrorum peculium. Antwerp, 1521. folio. Fahr. Boderiani Dictionarium Syro-Chald. Antw. 1572. (Tom. VI.
Val.

of the Antw. Polygl.) Schindleri Lexicon

pentagl.
fol.

Hanoviae,

1612.

1649.

Lond.

1635 Francof. 1653. 1695.

Viteb. 1612. 4to. Christoph. Crinesii Lexicon Syriacum. Romae, 1622. 4to. Bapt. Ferrarii Nomenclator Syriacus. loh. Basil. 1622. 4to. Buxtorjii iun. Lexicon Chald. et Syr. loh.

Martini Trostii Lexicon Syr.

etc.

Cothenis Anhalt. 1623. 4to.

)

SYKIAC CHKESTOMATIIIES.

gg

Thomas a Novaria Nomenclator Syr. Romse, 1636. 8vo. Andr, Sennerti Lexici Cbald. et Syr. compendium. Viteb. 1666, 4to. loh. Henr. Hottingeri Etymologicum orientt. s. Lexicon liormonicum
heptagl. etc. Francof. 1661.
Turici,

1664.

4to.

Dav. Grafunderi Compendium Grammar.)

Lexici, Syr.

(Appended

to his Syriac

Hamb. 1667. 8vo. (Appended to Lis Aegid. Guthirii Lexicon Syr. New Testament.) Edm. Castelli Lexicon heptagl. Lond. 1669. From this has been specially edited the Syriac, by J. G. Michaelis, under the title, Edmundi CastelH Lexicon Syr. Gotting. 1788. Tom. II. 4to. lo. Ft. Nicolai Hodogeticum orientale harmonicum etc. lense, 1670. 4to. Christoph. Cellarii Glossarium Syro-Latinum. Cizae, 1683. 4to. Car. Schafii Lexicon Syr. concordantiale. Lugd. Bat. 1708. (Appended to the New Testament Ant. Zanoiini Lexicon Syriacum. to the New Testament.)
Patav. 1742. 8vo.

(Appended

ni.

CHRESTOMATHIiS.

Dav. Michaelis Syrische Chrestomathie Thl. 1. Gottingen, Die II. Ausg. 1783. mit einem Glossar. u. Anm. 1768. 8vo. vervoUstandigt unter dem Titel loh. Dav. Michaelis Chrestomathia Syr. Ed. III. glossario adnotationibusque instructa a /. Ch. Dmplce. 1829. Hafn, 1784. /. C. G. Adleri Chrestomathia Syr. loh. Gottfr. Hasse Lectiones Syro-Arabico-Samaritano-^thiopicse Regiom. et Lipsise, 1788. 8vo. Hofye, 1789. 8^o. (Newly Georg. Guil. Kirschii Chrestomathia Syr.
loh.
:

edited by Bernstein.)

Rostochi, 1793. 8vo. Olai Gerh. Tychsen Elementale Syriacum etc. Henr. Ad. Grimm Neue Syrische Chrestomathie mit einem Glossarium Lemgo, 1795. 8vo. u. s. w. Gust. Knoes Chrestomathia Syr. maximam pai'tem e Codd. MSS. Gotting, 1807. 8vo. collecta. Aug. Hahn et Sleffert Chrestomathia Syr. s. S. Ephraemi carmina Lips, 1825. 8vo. (With a Lex. Syr.) selecta.

SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
ELEMENTS OF THE LANG- U A GE
TABLE OF CONSONANTS.
NAME.

PART FIRST.

.

SOUND

1

Olaph
Beth

1

\

1

1
..r:i

1

Sjnritus
B, Bh, V.

lenis.

1

2 3

o
Asr
m

a.

ui

2

Gomal
Dolath
r r

G.

3

4
5
6

D,

Dh

(i/tinthis).

4
5 6
7

He
Vau
Zaiii

01

01

01

01

H.

Q
1

Q
\
1

W or V.
Z,

\

?Gr,cFr.

8

Cheth
Teth
•X

kA>

Ch, or Hh.
T.

8

9

10
11

Jud
Coph
Lomacl
Mirn
•X

a

4 ^

4 4
%jk.

9

•hA

Y.

10

D

a

>*-

K, Ch.
L.

20 30

12 13

1
Ld
J

i
Sd 1

Ul

^
V
^£0

M.
N.
S.

40 50
60
70

14
15

Nun
Semcath

£0

m
1
2i.

^

16 Ee 17

U

1
2)

^m M
^£i

^

y Hebrew.
P, Ph, F.
Ts.

Phe

^

80 90

18 Tsode
19

Koph

a n

^

5

5
..a

^

^
>

K
R.
Sh.

gutturaljQ.

100

20 Rish
21 22

5

r

r
..I&

200 300
Greek.

Shin

A o2
Z

A
A

^S

Thau

A

2

Th. T.

400

28

CONSONANTS.

CHAPTER

I.

"Written Characters and their Use.

1.

Consonants.

The

Syriac, or

consisting, like that of the

West xlramsean Language, has an alphabet Hebrew and Chaldee, of twentyIn

with the Arabic, it connects together the several letters of a word by horizontal lines at the bottom from which arises a fourfold form, thouo-h essentially the same, according as a letter is initial, medial, or final, or is connected or unconnected with the preceding letter, as exhibited in the table on the j^i'cceding pao-e.
;

two consonants.

common

Rem.

1.

—The
and
is

character
said

exhibited
It
is

in

the

preceding alphabet,

is

called Feshito,
Jacobites,

i. e.

the simple.

the seventh century.

employed by the Maronites and to have been invented by Jacob of Edessa in Besides this, Amira mentions the Estrangelo^

not from C-rpoy^uXo^, round^ (see Asseman Biblioth. Orient. T. III. P. 11. p. 378.) which, according to Michaelis Gram. Syr., p. 15, means the Go'ipel character (scriptura evangelii). It was the basis of the Nestorian smaller character, to which the so-called double alphabet, used for inscriptions and titles of books,, bears a strong There is also the Palmyrene alphabet, found in inscripresemblance. tions on the ruins of Palmyra or Tadmor, and the Afandccan or Nabatoean alphabet. The latter, in consequence of the amalo-amation of the gutturals ( with 1 and Ol with >j consists of only twenty con,
,

with four different forms of each letter, viz., the simple consonant, and the consonant with the vowels a, «, or u. Rem. 2. The lettere |, j, Ol, Q, \, ^, \, A, connect only After one of these letters, therefore, > with the preceding letter. •
sonants.
It is w^ritten in a continuous line,

,

i,

Z, stand unconnected; and
beginning of a word.
is

also,

with the exception of

#

,

always
,

at the
f

The

final letters are
it

^ ^
,

,

-^

#

,

Vi

before -^

written

-^

;

and

after

U

or

}§. Double ^,

at the

end

of a

word

takes the form of

m.

The

letter

G, in words adopted from

CONSONANTS.
other languages,
is

29

written

\^

.

Several consonants, where they ter;

minate a word, are slightly inflected upward

e.g. %!D,

«JD, *2),

etc.

Rem.

3.

—The

gutturals express the several gradations of guttural
(

sounds from the weakest to the strongest.
with the

and Ol may be compared

Spiritus lenis and S'j)iritus as'per of the Greek language Deeper guttural sounds are *>*(== the German ch ) and ^ which the Greeks express, sometimes by the Spiritus asp)er^ and sometimes by y. The sound of *D is formed in the fore-part of the mouth that of %0 ffirther back towards the throat. ** == 'j2J sometimes stands for g at the end of Greek words, and is pronounced, according to Amira, p. 9, sc before e and i. The aspirated consonants Z^£iSp.^.O are, in some MSS., marked as such with a red
(§ 12. 5. b).
;

the removal point placed over them by the same sign beneath them (§5).
;

of the aspiration

is

indicated

Rem.

4.

—The

division
is

of consonants,

with reference

to

the

organs of speech,

the

same

as

in

Hebrew.

But the gutturals
as the

MkiCT I occasion

less

difficulty

than in Hebrew,

Sheva and

Daghesh forte
with
ij.

are wanting in Syriac.
it is

Of the
that
h)
(

gutturals, in connection

and Q,

to

be remarked

;

ci)

between two vowels has

the sound of y

;

e.g.

pO[^ ko-yem

;

that

O
e),

quiesces in

— and —
|

{== o and

?t),

and
c)

after

and

au and eu

;

that initial

— (= a and forms dipthongs a with — = h and even when
the
is

pre-

500L»( Ihudho
;

;

d) that initial

1

e.

g.

J

OH

ehadh.

Rem.

5.

—The
far as

letters of the

Alphabet

suffice for

designating the
sq).

numerals as
In

400 (Vid. Table of Consonants, Amira, p.l2.
larger stand
first
;

compound numbers, the

e.

g. \:iDL

441.

From
letter
;

500

— 900, the

tens of

50

— 90

are denoted

by a dot over the

e.g. *flD

600, *£) 800.

Thousands are

the units, ten thousand by ~=, ten

designated by — placed under thousand thousand by — The
.

numbers 20 and 50 are also expressed by double j^ and —J, tli<j final letters falling away where units are added. Fractional numbers are designated by a small line drawn obliquely downward, from left to right, over the letter which expresses the denominator of the
fraction
;

e.g. .JD

==^,

.•

=

J

&«•

80
§
2.

VOWEL LETTERS AND TOWEL
Voweh
in General {Vowel Letters

SIGNS.
Sigii^).

and Vowel

InSyriac, tlie vowel-letters |, o, and wt originally served to designate the vo^Ye]s, and, at the time of Mohammed, the Syrians were acquainted with only three vowel-signs, which sufficed for their language, and which the Arabs appear to have borrowed from them. Afterwards the Monophysites sought to express the Greek vowels, and increased their number to seven (v. Asseman T. I. pp. 477, 478 Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 34), and since the time of Theophilus of Edessa, in the eighth century,the Greek vowels appear to have been The Nestorians, on the other hand, make in common use. use of diacritical points (Asseman T. III. P. II. p. 378). The Monophj'sites or ^laronites commonly use them only in doubtful cases.
;

Rem.

—Even
•]

in the last century, the Maronite Gabriel

Heva
"V

era-

ployed the vowel-letters to designate the vowels,

making

==

a,

1=0,

=

e,

wi

=^

^,

and

=u

(v.

Michaelis. p. 29).

o

Voivel

Signs.

the vowels by diacritical points, or by characters formed from and in imitation of the Greek vowels, the latter mode being that now generally used. In ancient

The Syrians denote

manuscripts both modes occur together.
form.
Syriac.

name.
Greek.

sound.


— —

or

— —
,

or

or
or

— — —
7

Pethocho
Revotzo
Chevotzo
Zekofo

(

I-mAs)

)

a.

(

|

^>

)

e.

(

U*^m)
-K

i.

or

(]ii01

)

0.

Q— Q— Q—

Q—

Etzotzo

(|j^

)

"•

DIACRITICAL POINTS WHICH SUPPLY THE PLACE OF VOWELS. 81

Rem.

1.

— The names are derived from the form of the organ used
The Greek forms fiom which they

in

pronouncing the vowel.
are easily recognized.

are derived

also occurs

without

Q.

=u

m

^\o

and

(For |A-»^£10, Luke xvii. 29, stands more correctly f A^Ji^D ^^5^i. Psahn xi. G). The first three vowel-signs may also be written beneath
the consonanis.

Rem.
though

—As — was
2.

to pronunciation,

— seems
o

to

have denoted a and

ae,

Asseman
In

T. III. P. II. p. 3*79).

sometimes sounded by the Nestorians like a (Y. In foreign words it quiesces in Q.


•X

are contained both the
3.
is

German

and

ic.

Rem.
that

—As

to quantity

it

may

be assumed with some certainty
short
is
;


«^,

always long, and

with

— and — with Q

are

— always long —
;

according to others,

short, except in foreign words.

Amira, on the other hand, maintains that
others,

— = — ==
a,
;

o,

and the

Some grammarians also denote even with Q, are common. the quantity of the vowels by different signs, thus
LONG.


•X


—^
O
Rem.
with

SHORT.

Revotzo.

—7-

Chevotzo.
Etzotzo.

'O

O
are formed with

4.

—The dipthongs
with
.a

Q

and ^. With Vau
;

;

a)
g.
g.

— preceding
;

at the beginning or

middle of a word, au
(

e.

fZoiiD
-

6)

preceding, oi

nearly
of

the

German eu)\
after
-x
,

e,

•jiOICuAjiI;
I
7
;

c)
c?)

in

the

laiddle

a

word,
^

u,

iu\

e.

g.

wiGIQ^r^QJ
to

Vau

doubled, the

first

with —

on (according

Amira
with

u).

With Yud

(besides the combinations h
^

and
^

c above);
p

a)

a preceding
at the


7

^97
;

,

tii

e.

g.
e.

(1^1
g.

;

b)

with

in
»

the

middle and

end of a word,

oi

;

{AjklOpO.

§ 4. Diacritical Points

which supply

the place

of Yowels.

These were employed earlier than were the vowels, and

32

KUSHOI AND RUKOK.
after the invention of the

were used even
Nestorians.
fern,

vowels,

by the

The point which

designates the suffix 8 sing,
sj^stem.

cn

seems to have originated from that
to

Rem.

—According
;

Amira
.

p. 51,

001=001;

while

001=001;

•-i01=wk01

«-»01=*j01

Ludov. de Dieu has treated this subject
p.

more
point

definitely in his

Grammar,

35

seq.

;

according to him the

when above

the consonant denotes

a, o,

and

zi,

under

it e,

un-

The principal use of this point in der wi and I /, and under Q ?/. the verb, is to denote the different persons and tenses (v. Amira, Lud. de Dieu, p. 37). Throughout the preterite, with the p. 51 exception of the 1 sing., it stands under the radicals. In the parti;

ciple, it denotes,

over the
_f_.

first

in

Verbs med. Vau,

In the imperative

radical, in Peal, _L, in Aphel, _!., or and infinitive it may be

The future takes it only under the omitted or written underneath. not under the preformatives, with the exception of the 1 sing., where it stands above it (comp. Isenbiehl, Beobachtungen von dem Gebrauche des Syrischen Puncti diacritici bei den Verbis, Gottingen, 1773).
radicals,

Kushoi and Rukoh {%jL»Q£i j^OJ)* § 5. According to Lud. de Dieu and Norberg, the Syrians have in fact the Sheva, and pronounce a vowelless consonant
1.

pronounced n« kum. and the Zabians, use JL* Some Grammarians,as Amira, p.42, So too, according to Asseman, the doubling of consonants in pronunciation (Daghesh forte) occurs among the Oriental Syrians, and, according to the analogy of the Hebrew, in Pael
with a short half-sound of
e
;

e.g.

^QOJ

and Ethpaalof Verbs^aandMi.* But as the doubly written consonant falls away where analogy would require it to be retained (§ 8), this grammatical usage is still very doubtful. This duplication is retained only in foreign words. 2. Analogous withDaghesh lene is Kn.shoi,(^.e. hardenmg), red point inserted over the aspirates, in manuscripts, which a removes the aspiration. The retention of the aspiration is
indicated
wfienin<j!).
*
It

by a point placed underneath,

called

Rukoh

(i.

e.

Syriac, denoted

should be borne in mind that Sheva and Daghesh are not, in by any written characters, and appear only in pronunciation.

-Tr.

;

RIBUI.

33

Rem. Some consider Kusboi to be Daghesh forte, which is Lud. de Dieu, p. 25 sq., places denied by Ainira and Gabriel Sionita. it a) at the beginning of words, except where ^O^Q precede, or where O f in wliich case Rukok is the preceding word ends in .-*
;

,

,

,

retained;

e.g.
;

|, >

VJNZ, |rA^\A^;
;

b)

in

the
;

middle,
A^Jj^
;

after

a

quiescent letter

e.

g. CTfJ - ^V)

c) after

dipthongs

e. g.

iZoliO,

as. Rukok, on the contrary, occurs, besides with the exception of the cases noted under a above a) when one of the aspirates ends a syllable, but is in the same case hardened by a preceding vacant
;

^|
;

consonant

;

e. g.

^^Z|
Sheva
;

b)

when, according
(

to

Hebrew analogy, they
an open
syllable
;

follow a movable
1"
• •

e. g.

Ao>QQ

;

c) after

e.

g.

•?

H»l.

So

too these consonants are not pronounced as aspirates in
fallen

Pa

and Ethpa. of Verbs —2), when the J preceding them has
e.
;

away

g. . qNoZ from ^\qj and in verbs with the middle radical doubled, Furthermore, here belong where, in Hebrew, Daghesh forte stands. the letters in which one having fallen away before them, is to be com-

pensated

for, in

where Daghesh

the future and infinitive of verbs wa.2), or in general These points do forte euphonic stands in Hebrew.
^

not occur in printed works.

§ 6.
1.

Bihui (^QOj).

distinguish the plural of nouns and verbs from the singular written with the same consonants, the Sjriac makes use of Eihui^ i. e. two points placed horizontally over This sign is still retained, like the vowels, in the word.

To

printed books.
\'\

Thus, by means of these points |r^^V)

is

read

\V>

the Icings^
is

This sign

also

Olaph
guish

in all

and distinguished from |n\V), the Icing. used in the 3 plur. fem. pret. of Verbs 3 rad. the conjugations except Peal (§ 32), to distin•

••17

.1^

it

from 3

sing. masc.
«

;

e. g.

«*\,.tZ| they have jpraised

themselves ,from

i.\

..Zf

he has praised himself.

In like

pret. masc.

manner Ribui strengthens the distinction between the 3 plur. and fern., where the formatives Q and **. at the
fall

end sometimes

away from the 3
plurals,

sing, masc^; e. g. ^o..^^

=

Qi4^>

«

»

V^Q*

The

which are

easily recognized, re-

34

MEHAGYONO AND MAEHETONO.

main without this designation, though it is not omitted in plural forms with suffixes. In numerals the usage is arbitrary.
SoToe

mark with
;

this sign only the feminines, g.

and the forms

With suffixes
Rem.

e.

^LiU^^ .qOaj-Z.
omits Ribui,

—Amira,

p. 48,

when

the plural form

^

(§ 44)

has the signification tQJ| or tOQLkAal, i. e. they are, but adopts the above-mentioned use numerals, and uses it also with prepositions joined with plural suffixes (§ 16. c).

m

2.

Hibui also serves

to

denote collectives

;

e. g.

\\iO^ a heeve^

l^n^D a herd ofbeems. Rem. When Ribui stands over i (with the exception of the 1 sing, pret. and fut., and the participles Act. Pe., according to § 4. Rem.),

or coincides with a diacritical point representing
is

,

one of the points

omitted.

When

three points

come

together, one of

them

represents

Kushoi.

§ 7.

Mehagyono and MarTietono,
(lii^oilD

_ Woi-;Li)).

an accumulation of consonants without vowels, and .the Syrians wish to indicate that a monosyllabic word is to be pronounced as a dissyllable, or a dissyllabic word as a trisyllable, and so on, they place a line under the
occurs,

When

consonant to which a vowel (usually

— more rarely —
-n

7

) is

to

be supplied

;

e. g.

IAXmj. This

line is called

Mehagyono^ and

accumulation in utterance denotes a removal of this If, on the contrary, the voice is to hurry over (Diaeresis). these same consonants, a line is drawn above them, which is
called

Rem.

Marhetono\ e. g. lAojl. 1. Some Grammarians

place

Mebagyono
p. 41. sq.,

only

before

»M<^\

and before

**.

in

|A*j^j.

Amira,

compares the

two with Dicsresis and Si/nceresis, which may have been transferred (Vd. Chrestom. Syr. ed. Hahn et Sieffert, from prosody into prose. 1825. p. 11). Lips. Rem. 2. Sometimes a line is found over consonants a) in numerals ;

;

e.

g. «^-i

12

;

6) in abbreviations

1,

to distinguish

.... gfrom
;

e.

pO

for
"j^

\MUfO
'

;

c)

over the particle

*

it

Of.

LINEA OCCULTANS.
§ 8.

35

Linea Occultans.
;

This line placed under consonants denotes
letter

a) that the
;

under which

it

stands
at the

is

not pronounced

e.

g.

L\ii (§ 12. 1); h) that

1

beginning of a word, followed
like
(
;

by 01
§1.

is

to be
;

pronounced weaker, and

e.g.

jOll (vid.

Eem.4)

c)

that the letter quiesces,viz.,in the imperf. of
;

the pass. Ethpeel and Ethpaal
ethlmtl^

e. g.

^^y^^^lj

pronounced

and imp. from %4^'
first

;

which with the transposition
(comp. § 12.
1).

of the

two
;

radicals

is «-4501

Rem. Some have extended this also to the imperatives Ethtaphal and Eshtaphal but in the latter especially, it appears to be merely
a be regarded as coming under b and
§ 9.
diacritical designation of the imperat.
c

As such

it

may

in general

above.

Tone.

1.

ble,

The tone when the
;

stands regularly

upon the penultimate

sylla-

ultimate does not terminate in

a movable

consonant
Rem.

e. g.

]a \V^ Mdlco.
,

—In an accumulation
more
p.

of consonants,

where by Mehagyono

(§ 7) the penultimate syllable becomes the antepenultimate, the tone remains upon the stem-syllable.
It is
difficult to

determine whether words, which, according
'A

to

Amira,

462, have

Q

in the penultimate, follow the

same

rule

;

e. g.

(JQ>*|, and should be pronounced achuno or achuno.

2.

The tone
;

is

on the ultimate, when

it

ends in a movable
w^
final, *if

consonant

e. g.

t^A^

;

so too with
;

Q and

they

have arisen from Id and Ao. 469. vid. Amira, pp. 467

e.

g.

on\V) from ZorASo.

§ 10. Sig7is of Interpunction,
Syrians, who do not possess the accents, divide their periods, according to

The

Hebrew system
Amira,

of

p. 475, into

36
protasis

GENERAL YIEW.

and apodosis, which again are subdivided into smaller parts, and include the more precise designation of In this respect they designate ; a) subject and predicate. tlie separate members of the protasis with (:) h) the close of the protasis with (••), which is also the sign of interrogation separate members of the apodosis with (), c) the which also marks longer interrogations ; and d) the close of a period is marked by a point, which as it also occurs in the middle of a period, some consider to be the smallest mark of interpunction, and () or (::) the largest point. Rem. Amira, p. 479, mentions a point standing over a word which indicates a question, address, admiration, praise, command, and
; ;

the

like.

CHAPTER

U.

Peculiarities and Changes of the Letters.

§11. General View.
the changes in the different parts of speech are effected partly by consonants and partly by vowels, this chapter is naturally divided into two parts. In the first place, those changes which take place uniformly, in accordance with fixed laws, in pronouns, verbs, and nouns, must be accurately distinguished from those which occur only in individual forms. Though the former class of changes will be here principally treated, yet in order to afford a proper connection between them, that which occurs universally will be first treated of, and that which takes place in special and individual cases will be appended, either independently or in remarks.

As

§ 12.

Changes of the Consonants.

Of

grammarians

those changes in the radical consonants which Hebrew classify as Assimilation, Transposition, Falling

; ;

CHANGES OF THE CONSONANTS.

37

away, Exchange, and Addition, the first only is wanting in And this want is only in form, for in point of fact Syriac. this feature exists in those cases where a letter is dropped in pronunciation by the occurrence of Linea occultans (| 8. comp. Gesenius, Lehrgebaude, p. 132). Here should be noticed the following 1. Consonants are

dropped in pronunciation, by the of Linea occultans, as follows A) In General occurrence
:

a) in

nouns whose middle radical
b) J

is

doubled
;

;

e. g.

\\\\£>

mano ;

without a vowel before Z

e.

g

|Zr*^

;

c) 01 in

suffixes of the 3

masc.smg.
of the

wiCJl

,

.jOIO

,

«aC7U.,

%^0lQ-».

of

the verb, and

^G\a

noun phiral

(v.

Table to §

16); or
;

when Linea occultans has
e.g. ,->lDOOi) <:pw|X7)
mt>
t>

arisen from

theGreek Spiritus asper

;

d)

O

in derivatives of verbs
/?^ p)0.'i'i'^cula7'
is

»^^and ]a,
;

-x


:

as

)u)OQ» from (^
I

B)
,

this the case

a)

with

initial

in

^-i-^l

^•**l

,

**J|

>

^^d

m the pronoun
;

PI in connection with the participle,
particularly in the following cases
;

]j] ]\1a

b)

with

Ol,

a) in the

pronouns 001

and

*aOl

,

with the throwing back of the vowel upon the
;

preceding vacant consonant
falling

e. g.

001

AuA

;

or with the
;

away of

the letter with the preceding vowel
case,

e.

g.

001 \mO pronounced k^sheu; in which 001
,

however, before
;

— passes
38)

into
it


is

;

e. g.

OOl p( for p]
;

^)

m

jooi
vis^O

(v. §

when
killed
;

an auxiliary verb
j^GLk

e. g.

jOOl
c)

he

had

7) in .rDOLi for

to

give

;

with

^

in ^l]

to

go away^
1
;

when
e. g.

it

should have a vowel which
(v.

falls

back upon the

Allffor ASiT

§ 28)

;

d)

with

J in

the pronouns Aj|

masc. and
fem.,
>

wiAj*) fern.,

and

their plurals
;

tOAj| masc.

^Aj|
;

and

in

some other words
(v. § 8).
(

e.g.

(Al»

and

finally

e)

with

in
is

Z;s daughter ;
retained under

Rem.

—Linea occultans
;

in
,

nouns derived from

those adduced under a

e.g.

jZ oi

i

>tj

,

|Z;~k»|

|Zqaj]

,

and

many

88
others.
It

CHANGES OF THE CONSONANTS.
also
,
,

OGl and wiOl when they are used occurs in p| copula or substantive verb (comp. § 16. 1., § 54. A. 3. a and c). In these pronouns, even when they stand pleonastically (§ bo. A), the logical copula is fundamentally involved, as is confor the logical

firmed by the pleonastic use of (001 (§ 68. A), which verb loses Linea occultans only when it is used absolutely in the sense of to he, to become^ to come to jjass ; As to further inflection of

•^CTLi
2.

compare § 29.
is

1.

R^m.

Transposed

L before sibilants in Ethpe.^ Wipa..^ and
IJco
,

Es}iicx.\ e. g.

^L'Aco] from

^joA*1 from
1

^ufos.
;

Rem.
for

—Z

is

changed into t^

after •, into J after

e. g.

«.m..So^«1

k»A.!iD»Z|,
is

^X\\
as

for

^lZ(»

There

is

no transposition when

Z
(v.

doubled in Ethpe. of Verbs t.!^ and
I

Ql
from

;

e.

g.

^>Q.jSlLI\
;

§31. 2).

middle radical

is

sometimes transposed
•..^Ol) (v.

e.

g.

•.aO|Z| from «^(2* Also
3.

\ in the imperat.
.

§ 8).
7

Dropped are
P%

•i
;

.

a)

\

with Linea occultans
radical
in

;

e. g.

>«i;n

for

-ajI

^

7

and

as

first

the 1
;

sing, fut. Pe.
e. g.

intin.

and
;

part. Pa.

of

Yerbs l©
^s]
;

(g 28. 1)
h)

^Q^l

for

\iQo11

and

in

^] for ^
in
;

wi

and

J as first radical,

and

Q

as

middle radical
e.

Verbs

*^

(§ 29. 2),

^

(§ 33. 1),

and Ql

(§ 31. 1)

g.

%QaLo from^QSj.

Here belong such
is

nouns as

^onV>

for

^omV)
;

The same

true also in

respect to the middle radical of

nouns derived therefrom
standing between them
;

c)

Verbs Ml (§ 34. 1), and the one of two Z without a vowel
)Zr>* for ^11^*^.

e. g.

Also when

three Z stand together in the

fut.

pass.

;

e.

g.

\>J^LL

for

^'^alLL
ings
4.

Finally Z
Aa.
;

falls

away
the
_

at the

end of the fem. end-

Zq and
T .7

e. g.
;

on\V)
a)
b)

for

ZoqLSd.

Exchanged are
T
7

gutturals

1 and

(

before OT;
into

e. g. ;-»01|

for ^^Gll;

in transferring

Hebrew words

Syriac,
-)

y

passes into >,

^
)

into *4j XD i^^o Z,

sometimes
01
;

into

^

and

J

;

also

of verbs

n^?

into

e.

g

QUIESCENT LETTEKS.

39

laid
d)

=

"^^'y^.

5

^)

A when

transposed with sibilants, in the

passive, goes over into j
I

witli

and ^, according to Eem. 2. above; L in the construct state fern., and before sufhxes

(§§ 45, 46);
1

and
e. g.

in the Ethpe.

and

Eilijya.

of verbs

]^

(§ 28.

Kem.
Rem.

;

pA*2Z1 for r*^lZ)»

—This
e.g.

last

has been also applied to nouns derived from

|2)

Verbs
fill
;

;

\^*.lL

from vMjf^

In

many

cases this usage

is

doubt-

e.

g.

Uyi^ which may be derived from ;..Z
(L
is

or ;..]•

Hence

;..

found.

The

derivatives from

Aphel do not belong

here;
5.

e.

g.

(AajoZ from
are
;

•-*>0(»
|

Added

a)
,

sometimes
.

at the beginning, before a

^.

QS]

for

Zoo
;

;

w»As| for
e. g.

^Z^

;

also in
5-a(^»ov
;

Greek words beginning with 2
6) Ol to

denote the Spiritus
(§ 12. 1.
;

o.sper in
c);

^CLip^^l Greek* words

=
;

e. g.

^i.Soooi>

'Pw/xajoj

A.

even in compound
dxjvo^og
;

words in the
cases

later Syriac

e. g.

.iDOjOlJacD

and in
;

where

01

does not represent Spiritus asper
;

e. g.

^ODO'^GiZi Usrpog

c) J is

added where

it

supplies the place
10
7

V2AjV= ^^^.
§ 13.
Quiescent Letters.
, , ,

The
01
also,

and, according to some, wi vowel-letters 1 quiesce in the preceding vowel.
only
01
;

=^
1.

Rem.

— Here belongs
Hebrew.
final in
;

for

CFI

of the suf. 3 sing. fem.

of the

The following
f

letters
;

quiesce
e. g.
;

:

— and —
And
so

IJ..

,

IJ.*.J

;

1

medial in


g.

and
falls

e.g.

xyl^tSD, 'rLopsD

and

if it

have a vowel,
;

this
e.

back upon the preceding vacant consonant
for ^"(mj.
e. g.

^|aJ

in

words transferred from the

Hebrew;

«^p

= ^5^l3*

40
Rem.
words
I

VOWEL-LETTERS WHICH ARE XOT SOUNDED.

(

quiesces in
at are

in

]^i, H^,
(

1

1

1

and (|sZ(» In Greek
v-il

and

represented by
;

,

«»

sometimes by


|

;

e.g.

iZooliD
for

yi(3:,)rog
s.

jaD^jO

xajpo^.

In the later Syriac

stands

a and
2.

o quiesces in


P

;

e.g.

^Q£) and sometimes OQ
,
.

;

e.g.

]ljOQi
Rem.
«fiOQ
for
-r>

(§3. Eem.

4).
.

— In
og
;

Greek words O quiesces in
ax


^

. ,

in the termination

=
;

X

e.

g.

J]00^>\>*=^

=

^ikiit'n'Qg.

tJQDQ

is

also

used
find

a<^

e. g.

JSOO^I

^
;

«fX"'^-

•''^

^^® later language
ccpx«?-

we

also
8.

J2DQL*Z]
wi.,

=

'A^-/]vaij

JCDQOj|

=

medial and
..Zj^

final,

quiesces, in

and


a.

;

e.

g.

—1^,
and
7

«>\
1

^

initial

usually quiesces in

;

e. g.

\Jp»,
e. g.


;

falls

back upon the preceding vowelless prefix
jr

;

I

QLlr->o for

Ql,^o»

Also between two consonants

quiesces

m—

e. g.

lA^Jl for |A^1.
(Otiani).

§14. Vowel- Letters which are not sounded

In the following cases
1.
]

«-, O,

|,

are not sounded
,

in the pronouns

2 plur.masc. and fern. ^oAj]

^Aj")

conjoined with the participle to denote the present tense,
e, g.

toAj]

,^>\^ pronounced
is

Icotelitun^

in

which case the

^ of the
2.

participle
%u

not sounded.

o and

at the

end of words
sing.

;

a) in verbal endings
;

without any vowel preceding
masc. and fem.; imperat.
fat. sing,

(2 pret. sing. fem.

fem. and plur. masc.
, ;

;

3 plur. and 2

fem.)
ti

;

e. g.
,

%jA^4^ q!^^^
where
OOI
.

h)

in the suffixes
fol-

^
«

,

^jSi.

,

^

i

,

^01 Q
e.

.j*.

is

sounded only when
helcyu
;

lowed by Ooi

;

g.

i^n pronounced
and the
like,

c) in
Vi

\V) Z

I

yesterday^

%\\%
(

rest^

which form

in

the emphatic state

§ 46. 1).

'

CHANGES IN THE VOWELS.

41

§ 15. Changes in the Vowels. Altliough to a less extent than in Hebrew, the vowels in Syriac, undergo various changes and modifications in respect to formation and derivation, still they are exchanged^ transposed^ dropped or added. 1. They are exchanged partly in accordance with the genius of the language, and partly in transferring Hebrew and Chaldee words. The genius of the language requires the following exchanges of vowels a) in the preformatives
;

of the
wfcjS
,

fut.

and

infin, Pe. in

simple syllables,
;

in

Verbs

\si

,

(f^>* § 32),

— passes over into —
5 at

e. g.

;SdH)

but before gutturals and
j^B for jf3;
b)

the end of words, into
(
,


;

y'

Al^
;

e.g.

in the

femmine with

,

in the con-

struct state, passes over

mto

;

e.g.

f^4

construct state

A£l6

(§ 45. 2).

In transferring words from the Hebrew and

Chaldee, the following vowel changes

may

be noted
5

a) for
;

—the Syriac
T

= d1&^ exchanged in proper names mostly with — TT .umASI* = H^S^ Q£QaA = 1^3? — with — 9 with ^]3yC10 = tlJlp Q— P^^^ = (Chald.
prefers
;


.

e. g.

U..

V^

= nbt^ tt
^

^'
_

I

X

T

-:

b)

is

;

e. g.

;

;

e. g.

;

*"

T ^P

••

~

1

:

•>>

.

,

^

"it

/

;

e. g.

5

^^ ^^^^^

'

^' S-

^)2V) dr2.

Vowels are transposed

;

A)

in general; a)
is

Q

in the im-

perat. plur. masc. Pe.

when
;

a suf&x

added

;

e. g.

ol^Q^D,

with suffix -»cn cA^QO

b)

concerning the falling back of the
prefixes,

vowel over
§ 52.
1;
\

1, w», or Oil,
;

upon

compare §
a) in xsi]

13.
,

].

3;

ever ALiI

is

B) in Particular ; § 53.1. Eem. falls vacant, the vowel of the

vrhenit
;

^

back upon

e.g.

fc>^

^^ll (§12.1);
syllable
(§ 45. 3
;

^) in

some nouns of the form

-•o'^D,
state

when
U?a£)

a

is

appended and in the emphatic

§ 48.
;

A. Decl. IV)
c)
i^^

;

of the form

Xf^.
-1

emphatic
prefixed,

state

fir^

^c^on
In

and !>0>QlQ with

Q

is

placed before

O when a
,.1

and

j
it

retain their

;

e.

2:

_Loqq\

co-^itOaL*

when

enters into

4:2

CHANGES IN THE VOWELS.
moves forward upon r e. g. The vowel of a final mixed syllable is
;

^^-i^^l, ISOpl* dropped^ when an entire syllable is added at tlie end, especially when the last radical begins the new syllable e. g. in the verb
3.
;

composition,

^^4^ masc.
Kem.
letter,

—This vowel remains unchanged
;

AX^O

fem.; in the

nouns
;

>^i\V),

p^Lo*
formative
;

a)

when merely a

a syllable

without a vowel, is added e.g. Q^^D from ^\4^ 6) is added, if the stem-syllable remain a mixed one
;

when
e.

g.

tOA^^O

from

^^^^

;

and moreover

;

c)
;

becomes a simple one,

in the following cases

w^hen the stem-syllable a) in the second form

of the 3 fem.plur.pret.and 2 fem. plur. imperat.; /3)

where inHebrew
"^725^)
?

Daghesh

forte stands

;

e.

g.

^Ol

emphatic state

ISOl (t^,

7)in words ofDeclension I.masc. (comp. § 48.A).
state
(l iS; emphatic state reappears (comp. 48. A. Decl. IV).

In ^^jbl emphatic

^Q^

pDQj,
1,

the original vowel only

4.

Vowels are added;
;

a) with

^, and

1,

at the begin;

ning of words
(imp.), jOll
:

]

and 1 usually take
wA

— and —
;

e.g.
;

^QOf
of two

but

usually takes

e. g.

*^Aa

b)

vacant consonants at the beginning of a word, the

first

takes


for

;

e. g.

[iV)«n

for

(>Vn^«"^

;

so also

when two vacant

consonants in the middle of a word follow
lAja'pTli
e.
;

;

e. g.

|Aj^'f£i

or

when

in

Hebrew, the
fi'om

first

has Daghesh

f )rte

;

g.

U'ryil for l^'rytl

ill^i^

;

ot finally
in the

when

three vacant consonants
of a
is

would come together
for

middle

word

;

e. g.

Al^^ZJ
;

AS^dZI.
(pret. Pe.)

This assumed vowel
;

sometimes

before a,

(v.

from ^^Jy^X) § 13.3), excepting in the emphatic
e.g.

AS^O

or

state of

the participle fem.
Eshta.,

pass,

of Verbs

]]

in
it

Pa.,

Aph., and
the.^active

where

is

added to distinguish

from

participle (comp. § 48. B. Decl.IV. Eem.). sumed in the emphatic stato sing, of some

Finally

Q
;

is ase.

words

g.

VA^Qa^

c) a vowel is assumed from \li2k\D for lALsik) this vowel is JL with Q between two vacant consonants e. g. v/'hen it stands at the beginning of a mixed syllable
; :

;

CHANGES IN THE VOWELS.

43
;

^QDLOf^
.

;

but

— when

it

stands in a simple syllable

e. g.

KOpM d) The assumption of a vowel is arbitrary, when there are two vacant consonants, of which the first can be attached to the preceding, and the second to the following
syllable
;

e.

g.

^1^2^^ and Im^o^I^;

if

the second consonant
]

be ], must be assumed, for ^, Q and without a vowel between two consonants.

cannot stand

PART SECOND.
ETYMOLOGY,
OR,

PARTS OF SPEECH.

CHAPTER

I.

PRONOUNS.

§ 16.

Personal and Possessive Pronouns.
:

The Personal Pronouns are divided into two classes Separate Pronouns^ which stand as separate words, and and Suffixes^ consisting of mark the nominative case formed from the separate pronouns, which are syllables appended to other parts of speech appended to Yerbs, they appended to nouns, the jDossessive mark the accusative pronoun, or the relation of the genitive ; and, with prepositions, they form the remaining cases.
; ; ;

..

TABLE OF PRONOUNS AND SUFFIXES.

45

TABLE OF PRONOUNS AND SUFFIXES.

SEPARATE.

SUFFIXED TO VERBS.
a.
6. e.

SUFFIXED TO NOUNS.
In Sing.
1

In Plural.

Sing.
1.
2.
7

1

c.

m
AjV
^

7

P

7

,1

1

*Jk
P

2

m.

*
^^r^

7

>*7

2 f

OCT
3
ra.

7

t-iOl

p

01001
X
r
.

01«^G1Qa.

«^01Q

«^01Q
%
.

*^oi
3
f.

OU—
di
74

.

I

p

Ol

01

ou.

OLi-.
Plur.
7
7 7
p

p

7

1

c.
•X

^
^ll]'
1\

2 m. 2 f

*

•X

•X

•X

7

*

p

7

V
•X
-n

SEPARATE FROM THE
•X

VJERB.
»>

^QJOl
3 m.
•X

^-n

7

iOOLa.
«T.

7\

T\ 1>
T>

^JOI
3
f.
i

7

^Ol.Ai

^1

1

46 EE MARES AND EXPLANATIONS CONCERNINa THE TABLE.
Remarks and Explanations concerning the Table.
I.

Tlie

Personal Pronoun.

The second and
first

third persons have

person is of the sing., is denoted bj
7

common
«u.

two genders, while the gender. The fern, of the 2 appended to the masc. In the 3
fem.,

smg. 001 masc. and

.-iOl

are used rather in a

demon-

strative sense, while OOl masc. and wiOl fem., are used in connectionwith adjectives and participles rather to designate the present tense. And so in the plur., the first forms given above are used rather substantively as nominatives, and the second as accusatives (comp. § 36). Concerning Linea occultans under 1 and Ol of the 1 and 3 sing., see § 12.1.
II.

Suffix

Pronouns.
of the Verb.

A.

Suffixes

In the suffixes, or abbreviated forms of the separate pronouns, an ancient obsolete form whose characteristic was not L but D, lies at the basis of the 2 sing, and plur. (comp. Gesen. Lehrgeb. 203).

Of the

suffixes to verbs, given in the Table, tliose

marked

of which are attached to consonants (with the exception of ^ ) in the forms of the regular
a, fall into

two

classes

;

the

first

verb

;

and the second mainly
part to the

to the

same forms of Verbs

|J,

and

in

imperat. and

fut.

of the regular verb.

The forms placed between 1 and 2, are common to both. The suffixes marked h are appended to forms with Q and
and _L. Where this form is •j.^ which then quiesce in _1 wanting under h it is comprehended under a. Finally the suffixes under c are attached to the forms with ^, and also to The forms wanting the t* sing. masc. and 3 plur. fem. pret. under c are comprised under a. On their mode of union, 3omp. §§36, and 37, and the accompanying Tables.
B.

Suffixes of Nouns or Possessive Pronouns.

The
.n

suffixes of the

noun

nouns masc.

sing.,

(possessive pronouns) are attached, to the emphatic state (§ 45,) with the

,

SUFFIXES TO PARTICLES.
falling

47
state

away, of I-

;

e. g.

^^S^

,

emphatic

]^^k>

with

suff.

*.i^\V)» In the plural they coalesce with the end«-k,

ing of the construct state

so that they

may
;

be considered
e.g.

as attached to the final consonant of the
state
«

noun

construct

>

nSV), with

suff.

y n\V)»
i

Only in the 8

sing. masc.

does

«A.

pass into Q, and in the 3 sing. fern. _1

is

the union
is

vowel.

In the noun

fern,

the suffix with a union vowel
state,

attached to the emphatic

with the falling away of
state

|_,

e.

g.

OiALoAo from emphatic
to

IAXoAo*
e.

In

the remaining persons (1 sing. 2 and 3 plur.) suffixes sing.
are attached

the construct state

(v.

§46. 2);

g.

*^A^oA^ from
from construct
Rem.
§§ 46
48,

the construct state
state

A^oAo,

plur. ^^jdLj^oL^

A^oAo*
and
suffixes,

—For the complete union of nouns — and the accompanying Tables.
y

compare
in a

Besides, the possessive

pronoun may be expressed

separate form from the noun,

by means of some form of ^\^>
and

(from

= '^i^^
Plural,
COMM.
.

chald. n^

^

)

with a

suffix,

thus

;

Singular.
MASa
our.
FEM,
«

FEM.
1.
2.
3.

COMM.

MASC.

Ni)

>\a> mv.

^^I'^Ni)

^r>^\>% your.

nXji>
\

y^y
her.

thy.
his.

^aiAa>

^001^9

their.

Ol^>

CTL^)

Rem.

—This form, which corresponds with the German der meinige
;

(mine)etc. occurring- after a suffix to the noun, indicates an emphasis
e. g.

y^^} »^pa.Sb^Zo,
e. g.

hut thy scholars.
to us.

Sometimes

it signifies

relating to;

^OoNo
C.

Suffixes to Particles.

The

Prepositions^

take suffixes sing,

which were in part originally nouns, and plur. Singular suffixes are attached

48
to
.jQ

OTHER PRONOUNS.
w,

L

the sign of the dative,
after,

lo\

to,

jAfiQO and St£^
2.
i

^ nooS

^

from,

towards, against, comp. § 15.

Plural suffixes are
ivithoiit,

attached to

>Q»\n
Lq^L

aside,

only
,

NN*^

)r** or %a9pM a^ow^, >'^\»»yQ/',
after,

^\i

over,

>1»

or

pi.

towards,

^r^
i

before,

{Lk.j^l before

nouns) under.

The
e.

suffix plural

fern,

occurs with

VC^^

on account of;
*il 1*^

g.

^A^^^

with both plural suffixes

and 6±xJ^

between.
suffixes,

Rem.

—For the

complete union with

compare the Table

belonging to § 52.

§ 17.
1.

Other Pronouns.
is

The Demonstrative Pronoun

declined as follows
Singular.
F.

:

R

CM.
^a^OT^

Plural.

M.

f

Uhese.
(V?ai) [

^^^'-

^^^'*-

IjOI [

Rem.
10

—Sometimes,
^

in the sing., the fem. |>01
*v

is

united with the
7

I
X
m.0
•>.

personal pronoun 3 sing. masc. 001 and fem. »j01, forming QJGl and
-X

JQ1» Sometimes 001 and %-»01 precede;

e.g.

poi 0G\ just

this,

(jOl ^(Jljiist this.

The Chaldee ^^i\i|
or

is

only used in compari-

sons;
2.

e.

g.

-

^-j ^|>,

^iNoi ^|>

£i«c^.

The

Relative for all

numbers and genders
c.

is

j, ^^;Ac>,

which,

that,

and with the pronouns ^!iD
it

M-»

|

m. f^j / ^i\i]

pi. corn,

preceding,

becomes interrogative.
it, is

Rem. \Lk\ having a relative signification with > following an exception to the general rule.
3.

The

Interrogative
7

;

a) for persons of
It

both genders and
*>

numbers

is

^J^ who.

unites with

ooi following, and

THE VERB
forms OllD and
^liD
i^^A^fi^?^,

GENERAL VIEW.

49

(la|

masc.
(

who?
jlLD,

|r*( fern,

who?

h) (lo

and

refer to tilings

iQ^

)

;

c)

^^^A

refers to

both persons and things.
4.

partly

The ReciproGal and Reflexive Pronouns are formed by passives (§ 21. 2. g 22. 2. § 24. 2), or by the nouns
soul^

\msn

and

fSDOlD person^ with

suffixes

appended

(comp. the Syntax).

CHAPTER
THE VERB.
§ 18.

II.

General View,

1. The Yerb is, as in Hebrew, the most important of the parts of speech, since it lies at the basis of the formation of Yerbs may be divided into the three following the others. classes, in so far as new verbal forms are derived from them in accordance with definite laws, or as a noun is to be

considered as
write^

their stem:
;

a)

Primitwes\

e.

g. iIdAd to
;

VH^

to hill

h)

Yerl)al Derivatives {Conjugations)
;

e. g. •iDjl to justify^

from *D>1
;

c)
7

Denominatives^ subsequent"
7

formations from nouns

e.

g. ;nil to tithe^

7^

from ;rai ten

;

«M«<^|

to celebrate

Easter^ from

pa.^

Easter.

2. The Stem-form in the 3 sing. masc. pret. consists usually of three radicals (verbum triliterum), and is j^ronoim-

ced as a monosyllable, by the help of


7

placed over the

middle radical in

transitive,

and

in intransitive verbs.

3. From this are formed the Derivatives or Conjugations, which agree closely with the ground-form in the inflection of persons, and the principal characteristics of mood and tense. Modern grammarians have added a third conjugation, Shaphel, to the two originally derived from the ground-form.

The passive

formed by prefixing 2^, and has not only a passive but also a reciprocal and reflexive signification.
is

50

THE REGULAK VERB.
are
as

The Conjugations
Active.
1.

follows

;

Passive.
to
to

Peal
Pael

^\^
^^^4^

kill;*

Ethpeel
; ;

^^^L'f*
^^Js^^Z]*

2.

murder

Ethpaal
Ethtaplial

3.

Aphel
Shaphel

4

^"4^V to cause to kill ^^.Om to cause to kill

%^L1^*
V^4^A«1»
;

(mre) Eshtaphal

Rem.

All verbs do not have the whole of the conjugations
is

and

wherePael andAphel are found together, there
in their signification;
e.

usually a difference
to be

g. ;^ji to honor,

r^Oj

burdensome.

like the other Semitic dialects, has a Preterit and Future. It has, moreover, an Imperative in the passive, and two Participles, an active and a passive, in the
4.

The

Syriac,

active.

The Hebrew

Infinitive absolute

and Infinitive con-

struct are in Syriac united in

one form

Rem, manner

—The
;

(v. § 19.B.?)).

other

relations of
is

the Present
;

time are supplied in the follo\ving expressed by the participle with the personal

pronoun followmg

the Imperfect and Pluperfect

by

(OOl

(

tT^n)»
T T

the former joined with the participle, the latter with the preterite. The Optative and Subjunctive^ are contained in the future, to denote which more explicitly, f 001 is also frequently used (v.Syntax).
5. Verbs, finally, are divided into two principal classes, Regular and Irregular. In regular verbs the radical letters remain unchanged, while in irregular verbs, one of the rad-

icals

either falls

away

{Defective Verhs)^ or quiesces {Quies-

cent Yerhs) V. § 27,

1.

REGULAK VERBS.
Regular Verbs in General.

§ 19.

The

Inflection of

The mood

formation of Verbs, in respect to person, tense, and
is

effected,

in general,

by uniform

laws.

The

irre-

gular verbs are formed in a different manner, in particular
*Literally, A«? killed, etc. The infinitive being considered in English the is uniformly used to ground-form of the verb, and for the sake of brevity, Tr. represent the Sj'riac ground form 3 masc, sing.

REGULAR VERBS.

51

It will therefore cases only, according to their special laws. be most convenient to treat, under the regular verb, of whatever belongs to the universal analogy of the verb.

In the following Tables of the Inflection of Regular and irregular Yerbs, the following signs are used The radical The vowels which stand immeletters are denoted by *. diately over the *, belong to the inflection of transitive and those vowels which are separated from the verbs * by ... belong to intransitive or guttural verbs, or denote other forms in equal use. Radical letters which have fallen away, are denoted in the Table of Irregular Yerbs, § 27 by °. Those which take their place, stand over this sign.
:

;

.

52

TABLE OF PERSONAL INFLECTIONS.

Singular.
•5f

a
CO
5f

*

:

*
CO

*
1

o
H ^ ^
^1
* *
1
:

^4

*

*
*

H

*
1

g^

1

*

O c»
Ph

c3

^-4

.d
I*
I

:

^

u

r a

I.

*

:

f

o
CO

* *

d 1
<=

H

pq <^
CO

*

* *
1 *

't

-

^
^d
*

*

d
* *

'V
*

'1
'1
<

O
*

1

\

TABLE OF THE TEMPOliAL INFLECTION OF REGULAR VERBS. 53
•^ ti
Parti

J^

5^ V.

IS

•*o
•<«i

*&
.•

^

.

OS

Act

1
f-

1^
« *
:

Parti

Pas

n
* *
tK

""•o

«
!>-

.51
: :
«^

B
^
f

^
o,

B
,>—

^

^'^—

PP

^

§

* *

:

f

^a
#

<a
#

* * *

>
P^

# # *

# # #^^

<

^^
?^ -^^
f

'^
«=

'^^
0.
t

'1
c.

'1
*

t^

* #

* * #

# # *

*

p^
^

p^

* #

1
#

9
>-

51

*

5J
f

5i
(••

o

"^

*

o —I H O
l-H

^d

* * c

* * ^

:

'-.i

e

*^^
»-

'-3
tK >-

'^
».
1

'1
tK

'1
^

*

# * *

* * *

*

* *
:

^d
^51

f^ <1 P^

t>^

N •n

-^

i^^a
!5j

o

f

* *

*

^5J
IK

^d

*

:

* *

:

#^^

g^^

'1
c

*
^
-?(

H-

H O H

i^i

-

->5-

^
>

O)

c>

* *
tK

^

*

'"'
•X-

* *

^d
CO

^

3f

^
-5f

^^
X-

^^
"^

f

-5^

P

X-

* *

P.,

f

-x-

^ *

»—

^d

^

:

*.

:

:i
-5f

:j
•X-K'

® '5

H|
X•^

X-

^d

* ^

.

e.

:

1

<^""

54 A.

PERSONAL

INFLECTIOXS.
1).

Personal Inflections (comp. Table

The

inflection of persons is

found in

its

most simple form

and imperative, where formative syllables In the future are appended only to the stem {Afformatives). the form is more complex, additions being received at the beginning (^Preformatives)^ and at the end. The inflection
in the preterit
is

as

follows

;

In the 3 sing. pret. the simple verbal stem suffices for the masc; but in the fem., Z, preceded by _!_ (= n~^)> is appended and considered as a sign of that gender. The 3 plur., which has a two-fold gender, is distinguished in the masc. by the addition of the plural-sign a, from which the fem. in its simple form is distinguished only by a silent «^ instead In the same person of the fut. the inquiry into the of Q^ origin of the preformative J in the sing. masc. and the plur. The opinion that the J masc. and fem., is a difficult one. had its origin in «ji is opposed by the fact that among the Zabians this preformative exists, while there is no similarity between tliose two letters. More consideration is probably

due

to the derivation

irom

(JOT

and ^QJOT (comp.

§ 17).

In

the plur., the masc, in addition to the preformative J, is distinguished as in the pret, by the plural-sign Q with ^ paragogic, which causes the vowel of the last radical syllable And thus the ^ in the fem. reminds one of to fall away. the paragogic final syllable HD i^^ Hebrew. The abbreviated

form of the personal pronoun evidently appears in the 2 Thus in the pret. sing., L masc. and %a2 sing, and plur.
fem. are related
r
>

^y'\

masc. and wiAj] fem..

as

fOZ masc.
plur.

and _iZ fem. are

to tOAj| masc.

and ^Aj| fem. in the

The same is true of the preformative Z in the same person of the fut. sing, and plur. where the fem. sing., in order to final and designate the gender, takes ^ paragogic, with a like influence upon the vowel of the preceding radical syllable. In the plur. the 2 pers. shares with the 3 pers., In the 1 sing. pret. the orithis same character at the end. preceding, has not been ginal form of the Z with _1 "171

^

^

shown.

Bat

in the plur.

^ and

^J,

as well as

|

before the

INFLECTION OF THE TENSES
1 sing,

AND MOODS.
more

55
defi-

and

J

before the 1 plur. fut. refer us the

Here too it should be noticed nitely back to \A and ^j^» that the 1 plur. fut. is distinguished from the 3 sing. masc.
which has the same form, by Kibui.
except in The preformatives of the fut. uniformly take Pael and Shaphel, where (with the exception of the 1. sing.)

they are vacant, and in Aphel, where they take The imperative coincides with the future in respect to formatives at the end, except that the paragogic ^ in the 2 sing. fem. and 2 plur. masc. falls away, the former person ending in the feminine sign ^, and the latter in the plural
•X

_

sign

Q

.

In both cases in Peal,

Q

is

retained as the vowel

of the radical syllable. Finally the fem. plur. ends with and the vowel of the final syllable is retained.

^

B. Inflection of the Tenses
1.

and Moods {comp. Table
characteristics

11).

"With the preterit

(the

more

specifically given in Table 11.

of which are and the section following),

the imperative most nearly coincides.
receives, in
radicals,

The imperat. Peal Verbs Med. A, between the second and third

Q

quiescing in

;

but in Verbs Med. E. and 3

All the remaining Gutt. the middle radical takes imperatives are like preterits, except that in Etlipe. and Ethpa., Linea occultans stands under the middle radical

r

with preceding. Rem. The same holds good in respect to the imperatives Ethta. and Eshta., if Linea occultans be admitted in them 2. The future is formed from the imperative by prefixing In Aphel the characteristic falls away, and in passives J»


7

]

In Ethpe. and Etlipa. after of the formative syllable 2| the rejection of Linea occultans, the vowels of the preterite re-appear.
.

gerund

which the simple form denotes the do or the absolute state, but with L prefixed denotes the construct state) are formed from the preterites by prefixing !sD» They end (excepting in the Peal, where they
3.

The

infinitives (of

in

•X

coincide precisely with the preterit)

in

Q and
,

in the apoco-

56

THE GROUXD FORM PEAL.

pate feminine form, in
syllable of the preterit
4.

2q

,

changing the vowel of the

last

into

The
;

in lows the second

participles are
peal,
_ZL
;

formed from the preterit as folactive form, the first radical takes -2-, and in the passive form a.^ is inserted between

the last two radicals. In the other conjugations Lo is prefixed, and _:l, in the second syllable of the active form, is changed, in passives, into _! But this distinction appears only in the absolute state of the masc, and even here is lost in verbs 3 Grutt., >, and CI, the active form of which likewise takes _!_
5. The preformatives of the fut., infin., and part., mostly take JL; but in Aphel they take _L, rejecting the 1 accorand in Fael and Shaphel they are without ding to No. 2 a vowel.
;

Rem. For the reciprocal use of these twoTables, which suffice for the complete formation of the regular verb, it is to be remarked ; The forms in that Table I. contains the personal inflection of Peal.
Table
II. in

teristic vowels,

the inflection according to Table L, retain their characand merely take from Table I. the aftbrmatives with

stem
this

the vowels thereto belonging. Where, in pret. Peal, the vowel of the also lose the vowel of the falls away, the remaining preterits but Ethpe. take's _L over the first radical, where last radical syllable
;

has JL in

Peal.*

In the
•X

fut.

the vowel of the last radical

syllable is uniformly lost
this case also in

where
first

Q

falls

away

in Peal, except that in

Ethpe.the

radical takes _L* In imperatives the

vowel of the
imperat.

last radical syllable is retained, as

Q

is

retained in the

Peal.

§

20.

A.

The ground form Peal
of Peal

its

Formation and

Signification.
1.

The usual form

is

^vh^

{transitive verb

mcd. A).

Besides this the form with Ji
*The
in

{med.

E)

is

always used
should be noticed

inflection of the different persons in the ])reterit Tr. order to perceive the verification of this remark.

ITS
for intransitives
class also
first

FORMATION AND SiaNIFICATION.
;

57

e.

g.

,^A^
jl,

^o sit^ %£i\Ci to

he near.

To

this

belong Verbs
;

which throw back

— upon the
Hebrew

radical
"^^^
;

e. g.

*^p

tofeelpain^ or derivatives of

Ycrbs

pears in

Rem.
Cn
;

'^'^^ ^^^^ Med. O. still ap.^f^ inltDthe Verb jQSlo to shudder. With the inflection of Verbs Med.A. agree those with 3 rad.
e. g.

=

e. g.

01SQ»
in

to

name^

Cl^L

to

admire.

Verbs Med. E. retain
In


.

,

when

Verbs Med. A.


the

stands in the radical syllable.
i

respect to the forms of the 3 plur. fern. pret.

lNJ^,

,^

i

Nfc£) and

Nfi^ adduced by

Biixtorf,

first is

found only in Verbs p
affix
7

and

the second seems to have originated from crasis with the

^G1«
placed

There are instances to be found, though
over the third radical in the 1 plur.

rare, in

which


e.g.

is

the infinitive

... Q with
*

^^4^» The
in

apocopate form of
;

is

also

sometimes found

Peal

Luke

ix.

33. QSr*=^V)\»
.

In the imperat.plur.masc. with
-X

paragogic,
^

Q
It

final
^

'^

-X

.

^

quiesces in
(p.

_

;

e.g.

tO\0()Q» Besides the
:

2 plur.fem.with

^, Amira
Q
is

300) adduces another form,viz

^-^Q^Q* The

imperat.ofVerbs

Med. E.takes
also

instead of
•X

Q

;

though the
«

transitive

form with

found
;

;

e.g.
e. g.

Q^I^O;^ from «JD^* Sometimes another form with

— occurs
imperat.

Rom.

xiii. 3.

r^l*
fut.

More

rarely the vowel of the

diffei-s

from that of the

as in the
fut.

Verb ^l1,
7
;

fut.

^1 p,
and

imperat.^1* Not only the imperat. but the

of Verbs Med.E.
-n

fut. 3 sing.

of those having the third rad. a guttural, take fem. the form with «^ attached is

7

e.g.

;»»*^1> In the

more

frequent.

Also

a form of the

fat.

with

;

e. g.

««n.^l together with >>*^^J»
noun of the form^o^^O,
act.

Instead of the part. act. M.^^?

^^^^ participial

emphatic

state

P—4^5

is

often used.

In the part.
;

the emphatic

state masc.

and the

absol. fem. are alike

e.

g.

jJ_4^*

The

active

. (Mark xiv. 67), in immediate connection with ^^mwA I »»• (verse 54), is perhaps to be regarded as an error in transcribing. The passive form is always fully written ; in intransitive verbs, the first

form

radical sometimes takes

7

Passsive intransitives occasionally occur in

58
an active
bearing,
sense,

DERIVATIVE COXJUGATIOXS.
sometimes derived from transitives
;

e. g.

^\a.OA

r^-J^\ holding.

To
by

tlie

inflection of tlie participle belongs also the

idiom
per-

Avliicli

the present tense

is

exjDressed

by abbreviated

sonal pronouns, appended, like afformatives, to the participle. But this formation occurs only in the 2 sing, and the 1 and 2. plur. masc. and fern., and is as follo\A s
:

Partic'qyle Passive,
FEM.

Particijyle Active.
MASC.

COMM.

I

FEM,

COMM.

MASa
2 Sing.
1

^aAla^O
^1

AIa^D -*iivL4£>
iNifc^
^1 i\f)^

Ai4c
^oAjlIi^^

Plur.

^[RK.^r^
2.

^6^i^,^^A!L4Q

2

Plur

the preceding remarks it appears that the signifi Sometimes cation of Peal may be transitive or intransitive. we find both forms in the same verb. In some cases there
is

From

tms\ and .rf>s\ to e. g. difference of signification chew ; and in other cases there is a difference in signification;
no
;

e.g. vyJiiS to divide^

^^^^

^^ ^^

divided.

B.

Derivative Conjugations.
§ 21.

Ethpeel
as in the other

1.

The

characteristic of this conjugation,

passives, is the formative syllable l\

and the vowel

— or in

Amira, The passive conjugations are distinguished from p. 278). each other generally by the vowels over the radical letters, or by the addition of 2 {Ethta.) or by the insertion of •

Verbs 3 Rad. Gutt.

_L,

in the last syllable

(vid.

{Eshta.).

Rem. Upon the transposition of the sibilants with Z The first radical takes _L in the 3 sing. fem. and 1 sing,

see § 12. 2. pret., in all

of the imperat., in the 2 sing. fem. and 2 and 3 plur. masc. and fem.

^

DERIVATIVE

CONJUGATIONS.

59

of the future, and finally in the part,

excepting the absolute state

masc.

According

to others
;

is

used,

but only in Verbs

\L,

even

e. g. Acts. xx. 27. Al^l^V; ASi\aT» This when 1 falls away usage however is confirmed neither by examples nor by Araira. The 3 sing. fern, and 1 sing. pret. the imperatives, 2 sing. fem. and 2 and 3 plur. masc. and fem. of the fut. and the part, excepting the absolute masc. cannot be distinguished, according to Lud. de Dieu p. 217, from the same persons of Ethpa. excepting w^hen the first radical is an aspirate, which, in Ethpa. becomes hardened. The passive form

^*^,4^21

is

not mentioned by Amira.

In the

Verb

*flQ2L^, in Ethpe.,

wk-

is

inserted between the
is

two

final radical letters.

The

infinitive

however
2.

excepted

;

e.g. pret.

*?f\h^(^L\

;

infinit.

QTfi^ Ak)»
;

The
;

signification oi Ethpe. is;
h) reflexive;
c)
e. g.

a) passive of Peal
to

e.g.

^^4^2*1

«*^«»*21

reflect
;

hy or upon

ones self;

= Peal
d)
to

in intransitive verbs

e. g.

lis and
;

wiJ.£)Z1 to return;
e.g.

sometimes Ethpe,

is

passive oi Aph.

^a«.tA»(

be emharrassed^

from

^O^^l*

§ 22.
1.

Pael and Ethpaal.

Both of these conjugations are characterized by _L in the jDcnultimate, and _2_, in Pa., in the ultimate syllable. The vowel is changed into _I_ in Yerbs 3 Ead. Gutt. or i,
,

( of the 1 sing.fut. Pa. alone takes JL (comp. § 19. A. and B. 5). The imperat. Ethpa. with Linea. occultans and the part. fem. Ethpa. are like the same forms in Ethpe.

as

it is

in the passive.

The preformative

Rem.

—The

passive form

v^j^Z) does not occur

in

Amira.

It is

rejected also

by Buxtorf.
''

Amira remarks,
. .

p.

339, that in ^Q.ka9Z|,
ix.

the second radical takes

— only
and
X
7

in

the imperat. (vid. Matt.

27).

Concerning the
I
7

part. act.

pass, in Pa. vid. § 19. B.4.

The form

y^\^
mode

(Mark.

x.

16

)

in pret. Pa.

must be considered
is

as

an incorrect

of writing, since ^^QjipO (verse 32)

a participial noun.

60
2.

APHEL AND ETHTAPHAL.
The
to

signification
to

of Pa.

is

;

a)
to

causative
h)

;

e.

g.

^jsjj
e.g.

cause
^^

he afraid^

from ^\jaj

fear ;
c)

intensive ;
e.g. g.

M^i^
.^jlJ

overwhelm from
d)
to

Mo^ to press;
to

= Pe.;
;

«AaJ
•^Jl

and
to

to ^2,55 ;

hold forth^

declare
is

e.

pronounce just.
;

The

signification of Ethpa.
to

;

a) passive
e.

of Pael
7 7 « ^'^

e. g.

^iv^^Z")

he

murdered ;
c)

h) reciprocal;
e.

g.

;SojZ|
^0 5e

to

ivonder loithin oneh self ;
to blush,
i.

= Peal;

7 7 • ***

g.

t^iluZ]

made

e. to ^^i^^A

= «*^m»

§ 23.
1.

Aphel and Ethtaphal,

Aphel is characterized by 1 placed before the stem, which quiesces in _L* After the preformatives of the fut., falls away, and its vowel falls back upon infinit. and part.,
|

the preformative.
in

JL occurs in the second syllable, and, only
>
,

Yerbs 3 Kad. Gutt. and

is

_L found in that syllable.
loss of the characteris-

In the passive, to compensate for the
tic 1

of Aph., Z mit J^

is

inserted between the stem

and the

formative syllable of
able takes

tlie

passive Z]*

The

final radical syll-

;

e.g.

^\4^ZZV
|

Rem.

—The

characteristic

of

Aph.

is

retained after the prefore.g.

mative, in verbs, which lose a radical letter

;

^AumJSd from
;

]jLJa*

Under the same
*^[jQJ«

rule shoukl be placed

Verbs |l

e.

g.
to

tAOp
drink,

or

But the Verbs %mJ^»|
_2_

to he able,

and waAs|

do

not belong here, since

already re-appears over
as
is

( They

are rather

forms of Pe. with

f

prosthetic,

also

shown by

their further for-

mation

;

e.g. fut.

«»i>T1,

infinit.

0»»n«V) (comp.

§ 20.Rem.), part.

P. >»» kn9, and the passive .iW^Asl^ In respect to the participles of

Aphel the same
§10. B. 4.

de Dieu

p.

rule holds good as in § 22. 1. Rem. compared with ^wa^tor/ and others do not recognize the passive. Lud. 238, approves of the abridged imperat. with Lin. occult.

;

SHAPHEL AND ESHTAPHAL.
^Jw^oiZ].
this

61

Later Grammarians however doubt the correctness of
8.

form (Comp. §

Rem.).
;

2.
e. g.

The

siguification of Apliel is
to

a) causative as in Pael
it

»jZu I

bring forward ;
;

and then
to

frequently takes

two accusatives

e. g.

•iAO-^

cause

to

put on (something
e.

upon some one)
to suffer to

;

h)

imperative or permissive ;
c) intransitive
;

g.

JDD^

\

mount a

horse ;

e. g. to

^

»»Vf> | to he

weak ;

d)

= Pael

;

e. g. ^^*jsaJ

and

^^wkijI

frighten.

The
co-

passive has either the passive signification of
incides with. Pe.; e.g.

Aphel or
to

%^La

to

dwellj

J^LOLL]

keep hou^e.

§ 24.
1.

Shaphel and Eshlaphal.

Shaphel

is

one of the conjugations, admitted into the
Its characteristic is
last syllable.

paradigm
with.

at a later period (§ 18. 3).

»
In

JL prefixed to the stem, and JL in the
it

inflection

coincides with. Aphel.

In the passive (Eshtaappears
like that

phal) occurs the transposition of
in the last syllable.

m and L and _L
fat.

The preformative of Shapbel,

of Pael, takes _l only in the 1 sing.

Rem.

—In verbs which
^V)am
new

lose a radical letter, this conjugation
;

some-

times furnishes a

new stem

e.

g.
is

!^Qm.9

to he hlack,

from ^QajA,
7 7.,^ Thus ;js»oA»|

Shaph. of

The same

true in Eshtaphal.

furnishes the
2.

quadrihteral (^^.i^AaI^

tbat
still

The signification of these two conjugations is similar to of Aph. and Etbtaphal. Sliapliel is, in the examples
extant;
;

a) causative;
to

e. g.

^y«p»

to let

fall;

b)

inten-

sive

e. g.

^^\%\.^

exchange^ from «*^N»j

to

change. Eshta-

phal has sometimes a passive and sometimes a reciprocal
signification
<o
;

or

it

forms intransitives

;

e.g.

^..>A»]

to err^

sin.

62
§

OTHER CONJUGATIONS AND QUADRILITERALS.
Conjugations occasionally used

25.

and

Quadriliteral Verbs.

The
28
sq.)

occasional conjugations (vid. Agrell in Otiolis Syr. p.
are similar to

Pa. and Aph. and take, for

tlie

most

part, their signification.

They

are also to be considered as
initial,

quadriliterals.
letters

To
,

verbs,
are,

which take the

prosthetic

Lo

,

CO

Z,

and

A. similar to Aphel, belong
poor^ pass.

;

a)
;

Maphel, ,^*^mV)
b)

io

make
io to

^nmV>Z|
and

io

become j^oor

Saphel,

,^oi;flD

permit

io

hasten
;

io

hasten

=

.^Olj")
,

pass. v^.^ioAfio]

persecute

c)

Thaphel, ,V>\Z

to teach.

Rem.

—For —SDaGI
;,

(t-iA*! vid. § 23.

Rem.) no

special

form can

be assumed, as similar examples do not occur.

B. Similar to Pael are those conjugations which insert

X, Sq,

Q,

after
;

the

first

radical viz.;
io

a)

Panel

= Poel,
io

usually transitive
io

e. g.

"Cl..

chew

the cud,
;

pass. J}ClOl\

become divided

;
ft

b) Paiel, transitive
7
^

e. g.
;

^^-rn
t<

suffer ;

*

''

c)

Pamel

;

e.g.
to

^mV)A>
be cid

to

remain

:

d) Parel

^yi'A

^ dance,

pass.

^>;.iZ|

off.

C.
iteral

Not very

different

from the

last are also
^, viz.
;

the quadrila)
to

verbs Avith prosthetic *^ and final
e. g.

Pali

=

Pael

;

^-lA^i
b)

to

domesticate,
to

pass. ^uZusZ*)
pass.

converse
io

with one ;

Palen, ^^aS

be master,

^au^Z]

malce

one a master.

D. Here belong quadriliterals with a radical doubled
Pilel

=
to

and Pilpel
;

;

a) Palel

= Pael

*
;

7

e. g.

?r^^
to

to

reduce

slavery
finally
7
;

b)
c)

Pealel with

its pass.

I^O-LSqjLmZI
e. g.

dream,
to heal,

and
pass.

Palpel (in Yerbs Mi);
broken.
verbs,
;

J>amLQflo

7 j»1»

VS;^9Z|

to be

Rem.
also

—Those

which are compounded of two ground forms,
7
7
.^'i

7

7

belong here

e.

g.

;S^o »1

to blush,
(e.g.

from Mk) • and ;l •

In

quadriliterals

formed from the Greek

.i^Ao

to elect

a Bishop),

;

VERBS WITH GUTTURALS.
a letter of the ground form frequently y*r^^
to

63
falls

away

;

e. g.

appoint a^ Patriarch.

§ 26. Verbs with Gutturals.

Since the peculiarities of Guttural Verbs, are not

marked

in Syriac, as in Hebrew, either by Daghesh forte or Sheva, the irregularities in verbs of which the first and second radicals are gutturals are entirely

wanting

;

and those only, of
deviate,

which the third

radical

is

a guttural or

i,

and those
(Con-

in but very few cases from the regular verb, in connection

with which these deviations have already been cited.
cerning Verbs
|2), |l,

and U compare §§
1)
7
;

28, 80, 82).

For

more convenient
brought together.
7

reference, these cases of deviation are here

These verbs take
-X

;

inthefut. and im*
;

perat.Peal,

— instead of Q
'^]; 77,77,
fut. j^aJj
I,

7

e. g., fut.

j^tu

imperat. Jp»; 2)

in like

manner

in the other conjugations,

and in the

part,

act. Peal,
e. g.

they exchange the _i of the
pret.
^ f V

last syllable for
fut.

_L

part. act. Peal,

Ethpe. ^Softf,

'^]Li;
,'''
j,.mSD;

Pa. pret. >p»,

imperat. j,^, part. act.

& pass.

Aph.
pass.

^> VI* ^*
Pret.
7
7

fut.

Msp,

imperat.

^)(,

part. act.

and

Rem.

—In the
;

same manner
to console,

in

Pa. and Ethpa. are formed the
to soily
| f

following
to be

]jLq

]SQ^

to defile^

and 1(^21

adorned

(comp. § 13. 1.

Rem).

II.

Irregular Verbs.
General
View,

§ 27.
1.

Under

Irregular Verbs, are to be comprehended, those
is

in which there

a change in respect to one of the three letters

of the ground form.
(

Such

letter either quiesces or falls

Quiescent

and

Defective Verbs).

A

verb iu

away which two let-

64:

IRREGCJLAR VERBS.

ters of tlie

ground form are changed

is

said to be doubly an-

omalous
2.

(

Verbum

dupliciter imperfecium).

The
Olaph

Quiescent Verbs

are the following

;

verbs witb

1.

rad.
(1l),

(l©), ^i^l; 1. rad.

Jud

(*.»^), r-^;

med.rad. Olapb
(VOOD), Zui^;

^li; med. rad.Yau and Jud (pL,^jS)
rad.

J<1£)

and 3

Olaph

(U)

U'yt

To

defective

verbs

belong

those

with

1.

rad.

Nun

(_a); e.g. *Q2LJ, and med. rad. doubled (^); e.g. *QOj»

Rem.

—Here, and

frequently in subsequent sections, the designa-

tions of classes of

verbs are taken from the position of the radicals,

of the

Verb mJLS

(=

i^/^),

by which the

variations affecting the

radical letters of irregular verbs are kept in view.

TABLE OF IRREG
"

p
;

Verbs V
Part. Pe.
f>
|

U^.
1

§ 32.
Put. Pe.
i

Verbs \^
Pret. Pe.
p

;

Imperat. Pa.
7

Pret.

Aph.

1

Imp. Pe.
7

|

9

** *
Part. P. Pa.
|

** *
Imperat. Pe.
Infin.
0.

* * *
Aph.
P

1

^
•1.

3ft

3(C

Pret. Ethpe.

Part. Pass,

j

Imperat.
7

^7

7

**•

7

*

O * * *
Tl

***Z|
3f.

3Pi.frpu7per 2Pl.f.Imp.Pe.

3f.S.Pr.Pa.

S.Pr.Pe.

2.A.

Fut.Ethpa.
7

1

Pr. Ethpe.

0-^

-

*-^P
_,A O
:|:

7

T.

^

^

o *

*

Lo %^
1 S.

a.

**H<

Aj

*

**Z|
«.>J^;

2S.f.Pr.Pa.

2Pl.f.Pr.Pe.

2m.S.Pr.Pe.

Pr. Pe.

--*

Verbs Qland
7

Zo
SPl.m.Fu.Pe
I

* *

b.

Par.Act.Pe.

|

Pret. Pa.

2S.

f.

Put. Pa.

3 m.Pl.Pr.Pe. |3f. S.Pr.Pe.
7

.*-7
2.B.

^0 o**J

*

o*
|

O * *

S.

A.

a.

Pr. Ethta.
-*-x

2 S.m.Put.

*o *ZZ
Part. Pass.
p
|

Infinit.
•X

p

Verbs
Par.Act.Pe.

^
*

Pr. Ethta.

'1.
if-

(*)77

O ^

* *ZZ|
|

Pr.Ethpa.

Pret. Pa.

* 7

*

*Zf

***

1

ULAR VERBS .—Vid.
30.
Fut. Pe.
r
-x
1

pp. 51, 63.

Verbs
| |

]£i
1

;

^1*
*.

§
|

28.
Pret. Pe.
7
-n
|

Pret. Pe.

Pret. Ethpe.

|

Fut. Pa.
«
7

Imperat. Pe.
7

* * *J
Future.
1

** *
Pr. Ethpe.
|

1.

*

**
"

Z|
|

* * *
Fut. Pa.
|

1.

Infin.
,.

Pa.
y

(2m.Fu.Pe.)
**

|

l.S.Fut.Pe.

1

j

*

**

* Aj

2.

(*Q*oZ)
7

2.

I
|

7

I
|

Fut. Pa.
i>

1

Pret. Pa.
»>

|

|

Pret. Esht.

|

Pret.Shaph.
7

|

Pret. Ethtap.

Pret.Aph.

y

7
3.

** *

yO

7

f.

7© y * * O ZZ] *

'0
3.

* * O

1

^XUD,

^

mJDD* § 31.
1

Verbs w»3
3f. S.

;

y^^
|

g

29.
|

Part. P.Pe.

Pret. Pe.

Pr. Pe.

1

Pret. Ethpe.

Imperat. Pe.
7

Pret. Pe.

*O*

1.

;' ^***
Imperat. Pe.

^

I

X
1.

***Z|
|

*

**
Pe.
|

* * *
7

1^
Future.
1

Pr. Ethpe.

|

|

1 S.

Fut. Pe.

|

Infin.

Fut. Pe.

L
2.

2.

.1.
S. I.
Pret. Esht.

4to*ZAj
Put. Aph.

*o*
Pret.

ZZ

Aph.
3.

Pret.Shaph.

Pret. Ethta.

|

Pret.Aph.

.;!'i.i
g

yO 7 ^ * * O ZZ (

*0

7

a

34.
Pret. Pe.
|

Verbs
|

^
.

;

»QaJ»
Infin.

g

33.
1

Pret.Aph.
|

Fut. Aph.

|

Pret.

Aph.
.7
1

Pe.

Fut. Pe.
7

1

!

* *

1

(*). * *
Part. P. Pe.

7

»

1.

* * OJ

* * O

Pr.Ethpe.
|

X

***Z|

2.
1

VERBS.
A. § 28.

67

Quiescent Verbs.
to eat.

Verbs 1 rad. Olaph quiescent (jb) ^\o1

The following
1.

are the irregularities of these verbs.

In the Pret. Peal, where, in the regular verb, the iir'st takes Jl, but in the imperat. and radical has no vowel,
|

part, pass., it takes

;

e. g.

^Qol
|

,

\y-»:Dl»

If the preform-

ative or characteristic consonant of the conjugation be with-

out a vowel, the vowel of
Pa.

falls

back upon

it

;

e.

g.

fut.

^|i;

pret.
fut.

Ethpe. ^"{1^.
and
infinit.Pe. the preformative takes _!_, in the

Rem.

—In the
is

verbs r^X. ^Jyif,

But
e. g.

used

Ui;^, 'M'^^l rA^'r^.^-g^ ^Qb^^K in the verbs ^X> ^ll" *s2L" ^X, r^l!^ ^-'I^
Both of these forms
are found
in

^M,

;lo]iD*

(Z|»

It

should further be remarked that the
above, form the
fut.

first class

of verbs mentioned

and imperat. Pe. like transitives with Q, excep), and the second class form them like Lud. de Dieu (p. 265). rightly doubts the intransitives with _L» correctness of the double form of the infinit. and fut. Pe. with JH.
ting Verbs 3 rad. Gutt. or

and
the
••

^,
fut.
7..T\
I

although the form
of
it is

^llSO^

is

found in I Cor.

x.

27

;

but

not found with Q»
is

Also the correctness of

•Q^2|Z

in 1 Cor. x. 28,
#7
*
II

suspected.

The forms of the 3

plur. fem. pret.
7

is sometimes found in the part. pass. Pe. of the regular verb (§20.1. Rem.). In
.

No

•• 7..-"

and

i

\o|

are not approved.

The vowel

the passives Ethpe. and Ethpa. of the the preceding Z;
e.

Verb

pjaf,
is

|

is

assimilated to

g.

^mZZi* This formation
from regular verbs
;

also found in
e.

some

other verbs varying

little

g.

^oiZZ] and

2.
e. g.

The

radical

\

usually
'^'\

falls

away

in the 1 sing. fut. Pe.;

fall

ists

I will speak. \ does not so often away in the other persons. The same peculiarity exin the infinit. fut. and part. Pa., and the vowel is thrown
eat^

^Qol I will

back,

upon

the

preformative

;

e.

g.

«<^\i

and %£kLp*

68

QUIESCENT VERBS.

Rem.

—The Verbs ^1|
and form
;

to

go away and

fZf to come^

lose

(

in the

imperat.,

^f,
^12,
3.

oil,

^f,

^f

oZ, JZ,

XL
1 is

In Aphel and Shaphel with their passives,
O, and,

change. g.

ed into

with the preceding _L

,

forms au ;

Rem.

—In two verbs
fut.

f

is

changed into
infinit.

ti^,

viz

:

(Z|

,

Aph.

*JkAA|,

imperat. l^uf,

]iluj

,

QL»2Lio

,

part.

lA^.

Aph. ^SQaGI
learn^ are

= p?3J»<n )

(^1
<o

-^^^

^^^^ reason

*2l^ and «^L^

sometimes found together.

General Remarlcs,

The Verb
ticed

^'it (according, to § 12.1

;

§ 15.2) should be no-

in the

following persons

;

pret. 3 fern,

and

1 sing.

AllX ALif;

flit.

2 fem.sing. and 2 and 3 plur.

^-AIH^qXiU,
,

etc.; part. fern. sing. |Jl]

and plur.masc. and
he

fern, ^-i-^ll
it is

^11*

In the signification,
larly.

to

of

use, to profit,

formed regu-

Verbs which commence with on,
it

like
,

Yerbs

(s, as-

sume the vowel and throw
those, reject or

back upon L but do

not, like

change

it,

although this latter occurs in

the Galilean dialect, which the two gutturals (comp. §

had but a single character 1. Eem. 1).
't

for

•« X

§ 29.

Verbs

luith

1 Rad.

Yud
it

%^2))

^\a

to

bring forth.
:

In respect to these verbs
1.

should be observed

That

in the pret. Pe. even

when

transitive,

they take

JL

in the ultimate syllable (excepting

Verbs 3 Bad. Gutt.)

VERBS
e. g.

1 RAD. JUD, ETC.

69

jdLa

(^r»)*

If"*)

t^®

firs* radical,

be without a vowel,
it

as

is

usually the case (in pret., imperat., part. pass. Pe.),

quiesces in J.* In the fut. and infinit. Pe. the vowel JL falls

back upon the vowelless preformative

;

e. g. e. g.

r^\i

,

r^]^*

So too

in Ethpe.,

falls

back upon Z
first
;

;

r-^-*M»

But

where, in the regular verb, the

radical takes a vowel,

these verbs are regularly inflected

e.g.

LJ^*

Rem.

—In the
;

part. pass. Pe., besides

the regular form, one with
takes

appears

e. g.

*^'^'

Only

*SOU

;

but where the

regular verb takes

— over the
;

first radical,

,

with Linea occultans

under

01, falls

away

e.g.

AoOLi*

Lin. occultans with
;

— appears
OiZ^OIa
7

in the 3 fern,

and

1 sing. pret.

with a suffix attached

e.g.

she has given
ilar

him
9v

(Z\SCrL»)»

In 3 plur. masc. and fem. under sim•X

circumstances, Lin. occult,
7

falls

away

;

e.

g.

wkGIOOGlA

they

have given him (QOGLi)*
2.

In the fut.and imperat.Pe.the second syllable takes l_*
fut.

In the

and

infinit.

Pe. this class of verbs
|

is

similar to

Verbs

i©,

and changes a into
in the
1

which quiesces in
falls

;

(vid. 1.

above).

But

sing. fut. a

away

;

e. g.

,SV

The

imperat. on the contrary retains

e. g.

r^*

Rem.
e.

—^r^ and
In
like

«iDAji follow the inflection of
fut.

Verbs

^
is

(§ 33)

;

g.

imperat.

^J and i^Z,

^^J and «^Aj,

infinit.

^^ and
changed

•i^ALO^

manner JD01 imperat. from t^GLk

follows the

same
3.

rule.

In Aph. and Shaph. with their passives a

into

O

(vid.

Verbs

]si, §

28. 8)

;

e.g.

jSoV, ^joi.
;

Rem.

lA

is

retained in \uji( and %r\\ >|

still

it

should scarcely

7

be considered as an irregularity, since from

^^

appear Pa.

^JLO,

Ethpa. r^oZl^

70

VERBS MED. RAD. VAU AND YUD QUIESCENT.
§ 30.

Verbs Med. Olaph quiescent ()l) ^"ji

to

ash.

The

irregularities of these verbs occur
its

only iiiPe.,Ethpe.,

and Pa. with
1.

passive.

Peal. In the pret.
1

|

quiesces in JL and the latter falls back
;

from

upon the
it

first

radical

e. g.

^1*

;

but when
1
;

»u is

the

third radical,

quiesces in

— standing before
;

e.

g. %a|J«

The vowel
and
2. fut.

— appears in Aph. quiesces in — Pe.
|
;
;

e.g.

^(*1»
,

In the imperat.

e.g.

^j* ^mU»
%s'i£>Zl
,

In Ethpe., besides the regular form
e. g.

is

some

times inserted after Z

*»V^Z]»
|

Rem.
of
it
;

—In both cases metathesis of

takes place

;

also a duplication

e.g.

^X ^V^
Both forms

and ^tofZ
1 is

;

Ethpe. ^A^ill^'and

^]bl2l*
jl
;

3.

In Pa. and Ethpa.

generally changed into
retain 1

( ( (..^
;

e.g.,

«*^> ^

and .^U-^ZV

The other verbs
are found from
( (

e. g.

^lA»l*
(^

Rem.

(

and

!)

§ 31.

Yerhs Med. Mad.

Vau and Yud
to

quiescent

(Ql and

*jbl)

5>aO

(^QD)

stand up^
is

A.Vn

to die.

The verbs whose middle
ular verb, differ from the
1.

radical letter

Q

or

a.,

and whose

grammatical structure generally agrees with that of the reg-

same

in the following cases

:

In the pret.and

infinit.Pe. of
is

Yerbs Ql, the vowel
;

— apIn

pears in place of Q, which

droj^ped

e. g.

J>aD,

^an!^^

the part. pass. Pe., and in the other conjugations generally,

Q

is

changed into

a.,

and quiesces
e.

in 1_ in the part. P., Pe.,

Ethpe.,

Aph. and Ethtaph.;

g.

^^QaO, ^<Li^ZZ|,

^^>^ ]

;

VERBS MED. RAD. VAU AND YUD QUIESCENT.

71
;

On
Eem.

the coutrarj,

a.

is

movable

in Pa.

and Ethpa
(=j,

e. g.

^CLi^, ^QjudZi* In the part.act. masc. of Pe.,|
4),

vid. §1.

which has
into
jl
;

arisen
e.

from Q, goes over in the other

inflections

g.

^(o
Q
as

masc, lV)in

fern.

Only
;

in
e.g.

the imperat. and

f ut.

Pe.

remains and quiesces in Jl

^onj,
•-»A),

in

which

cases,

well as in the pret. (in Verbs

A

appears and quiesces in


fut.

;

e.g.

AaIo, ^j.£QJ*

Finally the preformatives of the
cept the 1 sing., which takes

Pe. have no vowel, ex|
;

— over
as «-»^0f,

e. g.

Voqo1»
this class,

Rem.

—In

Pe., Ethpe., Aph.,
(J

and Eshta., verbs of

which

are at the

same time

(§ 32), as |Q-ik
species,

and some others which can be

referred to

no particular

IQO,

retain

Q

movable.
;

Some
e.

are inflected in both ways, but with a different signification

g.

>01

to take

a handful^ Aph.

\j\

\

to deviate
X
.a.

from

the

way,

TheVerb
But

^QflO, contrary to the rule, takes

in the fut.
;

and imperat.

A^

follows the inflection of Ql'

Verbs

e.g. fut.

ZoSOJ* The

imperat. of %CDQja to spare, takes (*£CLm), with the signification, far be it. In some manuscripts Jl is found in the preformatives of the fut. and in the infinit. Pe., which manner of writing was received by the ancient grammarians, and which, as is testified by Amira, p. 311, the Mandaeans used on account of metre (vid. Lud.de Dieu p. 292).
2.
e. g.

In Ethpe. ^ of the formative syllable 21
^OLi^ZZ]*
;

is

doubled

By

this,

the transposition of the sibilants

does not occur e.g. M^lZZl* When three Z come together in the 3 sing. fem. and 2 sing, and plur. masc. and fem. fut.,

one Z

omitted e. g. ^Q-i-dZZ. The occurrence of three L together is unavoidable only when the verb itself begins with Z, in which case four 2 would properly come in succesis
;

sion

;

e. g.

^oloZZl

Ps.

Ixii.

10,

from

^Z»
;

Ethtaph.
^<Li>ZZl

differs

from Ethpe. merely in
to

signification
to he

e. g.

Ethpe.
Rem.

raise one!s

self^

Ethtaph.

token away.

— ifni g^ZZ]

to

he convinced,

Ethtaph..

from

«£CLi^|

,

is

usually written «IXLk.£L^Z]*

72
3.

VERBS 3 RAD. OLAPH QUIESCENT.
In Aph. the preformatives of the
characteristic _L
,

fat.,infinit.,and part.,
fut.
;

lose the

excepting the 1 sing.

e. g.

y>iol»

The

part, pass., contrary to the

analogy of other

part, passives,
it

changes

a.

into
X


*

;

e.g.

^oak), to distinguish

from the active form y)>nV)
Rem.

—No example

is

found of Shaphel.

§ 32.

Verbs 3 rod. Olaph Quiescent

(]j) jj_.. to disclose.

These verbs, which include the Hebrew js^^ ^^^ nb^^rbs, are different from the regular verbs in the following cases.
1.

The

third radical

]

either quiesces or

is

changed into
ends in
(-;

^* Here
e. g.

it

should be remarked that the
the other preterits

pret. Pe.

U-yi

,

in %^; e.g. Ethpe.
;

vJ^LyiZ]*
e. g.

The

futures of all the conjugations end in |«
,

re.

|J..^j
in

the imperat. Pe. in ^x;

;

e.g. «-&.^..

,

imperat. Ethpe.
e.g.
;

wi.-

e.g. .-i^.iZl

;

the other conjugations in )—;
infinit.

Pa.
e.g

«...

The termination of the

Pe.

is

the same

(J-.».-l^*
e. g.

The other conjugations in the
,

infinit.

end with

Ql*«;

Aph. a*^.|^Lo

the participles generally with (.
pass, of Pa., Aph.,

«..— Only the part.
ends with
Rem.

and Shaph.,

%.

;

e. g.

Pa. %.k.^.^SD*
•Jb.

—Some verbs with
X
;

(«-^)

in the pret. Pe. are inflected
intransitives, or

like the other preterits.

Here belong mostly
to be great. to

Verbs

Med. E.
Verbs

e.

g.

«^.^£D
-

Both forms

are found in the

(SHi and
7

-^^^

swear.

The imperatives

of this kind of

verbs, take

«.kM
;

at the end.
7

Some

verbs with 3 rad. He., seem to

belong here

e.g.

OlSOS

to

17 name, Pa. wi-SOs*

Some grammarians,

;

VERBS 8 RAD. OLAPH QUIESCENT.

73

without proof, derive from the imperat. Ethpe. the forms |J...Z( and
|J...Z|*

The

Verb (OOl has two forms of the future;

e.

g.

(OOU

and JOQIJ*
the pronoun,

In the formation of the present tense in connection with
the part, takes «.««
Z\J|

quiescent,

instead of

(—

;

e.

g.

Lu\Oy]liD for

nO)llO«
;

From

(iQD to hate appears a double
|

form of the

part, pass.

e.

g.

\1£0 and

i

IfD*

The former

refers

more
2.

particularly to things,

and the

latter to persons.
is

When
^
or

a letter or syllable
entirely away.
is

added,

] is

either

changed

into

falls

A. In the
fern,

first case, a.

a) movable in the pret. 3 sing.

of
e.g.

all

the conjugations excepting Pe. of verbs ending in.
AjL-i..Z*|
(

1-

;

Ethpe.
;

Pe.
iS..

^yt
;

)

;

in the second

form of
all

3 plur. fern.
imperatives
all

e. g.

Pa.
Pe.

,^b
^^i

in the 2 plur. fern,
;

of

the

;

e. g.

iNyi

in the 2
;

and 3
in

plur. fem. of

the futures

;

e. g.

Ethpe. ^-aAyi Aj
;

the fem. sing.
;

and

plur. of all the participles

e. g.

Pe. (-^y*
;

in all the infinitives except that of Pe.
(Pe. IJ-yu-k))
;

e. g.

Aph. Gu^.^lo

^

and
-X

finally
to
7

6)

A

is

quiescent in the 1

and 2 masc. and fem.

of both numbers of
that
e.g.

all

the preterits,

and in such a manner
)

^

in Pe. (excepting
,

the 1 sing. Aa^..
a.

quiesces in


e.g.

Aa^..

.oAjA..»

In other cases

quiesces in

;

Ethpe. Aa.S..ZT,

yOL^yM*
in

B.

1 falls ]-.

away
with

the

3

sing. fem. pret. Pe. of
;

Yerbs

ending in

— retained

e. g.

A^v<

;

in the 3 plur.

masc. and fem. pret. Pe., and in the 3

plur. fem. (in the
«jk«

8 plur. masc. Pe. of Yerbs «-k^ and of other preterits, remains) of
all

the preterits

;

e. g.

Pe.

cu^it

;

in the fat.

throughout in the 2 sing, fem., while the regular form

^

is

changed into

^

;

e. g.

Pa. ^-».^yiZ,

and in the 2

74

VERBS 3 RAD. OLAPH QUIESCENT.
plur. masc.
;

and 3

e.g.

Pe. lO^.^-J

;

also in the 2 sing. fern,

imperat.,

where «^ quiesces

m—
Q

;

e.g.

Pa.

^^y«

;

also in the
e. g.

2 plur. masc. imperat., where
O^yil
;

quiesces in

;

Aph.

finally in the plur. masc. of the part.,
is

where the reg.

ular form ^.k.

exchanged with

^.k.

;

e. g.

Pe. ^^>^

Rem.

—Instead
occurs,

of Pa.

and Ethpa.,sometimes the
plur. masc. pret.
|
.

quadriliteral

form

«-kQ^.i appears.

The 3

Q^yi (with paragog. Nun
;

^OQ^..)
*
»?
\^

sometimes with
1*'

retained

e.

g.

Acts

xxviii. 2.

^001;jD»

But the form Q^.i which Buxtorf adduces,
In
all

is

neither

confirmed by examples nor found in Amira.
excepting Pe., the
3 plur. fern. pret.
6), for
diflfers

the conjugations
sing.

from the 3
(p.

masc.

only by taking Ribui (vid. §

which Amira

266) in verbs

ending with «jl-, and in Pa. of verbs ending with (-, writes a
double a
;

e. g.

«

i

»^y*»

In the imperat. Ethpe., besides the form
i

given in the paradigm, occurs the 2 plur. fem. ^i

i^.«Z|»

General Remark.
|l (comp. § 30.

—Verbs

|J

or «.iA,

which are
(J
;

at the

same time

1), are inflected like

Verbs

e. g.

pret. Pe. •^|J.

Zuli, AalJ, *^Aa1], plur. Oil], etc., infinit. lUSO, imperat.
etc.,

JG,

Jji,
pret.

fut. l]]j,

plur.

tOpJ,

etc.,

part. act.

||J,

pass. lU,

Aph.

wi]]]

and wi^l,

infinit. Qu|J!Ld,

imperat.

^Ul,

fut. wkiJj, part.

%^|JSO*

APPENDIX TO

8 32.

Inflection of the Verb (jLm io live.

In the Verb
first

Pi-m with

^

movable,

^

is

rejected

when
;

the
e.

radical

and the preformative are without a vowel
for

g.
1

infinit.

Pe.

Im^

]'»»^*

Sometimes

this

verb takes
e.

between the preformatives and the

first

radical;

g.

——

;

DEFECTIVE
\jJ\!^

VERBS.
fut. ]iiJ for |
> »» l

75

(better

perhaps ^mV^),

and with

]

inserted tCU»(j, Apli. pret.
fut.
a.

«-i-M|,

innnit.

Oi»V)

or Qa^aPiO,

ImJ and jjap,
falls

imperat.

jj^],

part, (^^k)

and p^po*

also

away when no preformative
first

precedes,
;

and

its

vowel
Pe. *>

falls
»»

back upon the

vacant radical
for \a a»i»

e.g.

imperat.

for wi-h-ja, part. fern.
is

(.»-**

The form ^(x*

(Matt. XV. 27)

found in the

part. plur. masc.

B. Defective Verbs.
w

7

§ 33.

Verbs with the first radical

Nun (^) *n£U

to

go
:

out.

The

irregularities of these verbs are the following
fut.,

In the
IN

imperat.,

and

infinit. Pe.,
;

and in
•X

all

forms of
•>

*

7

-n

Aph., the
»7

first rad. J falls
.

away

e. g.

*£5Qaj, *£:Q2), «n<^V>,

»oa|»
e. g.

The

fut.

and imperat. Pe. sometimes take

— and —
7

*

>nmi, >\2U»

Rem.

— The
;

exceptions
7

to this rule
h)

are

;

a)

Verbs Med. Rad.
p
;

doubled (§ 34)
c)

e. g.

,J
;

;

Verbs Med. Rad. Quiescent

e.

g.

«£U

;

Verbs Med. Rad. Ol
is

e.

g.

JOU,

fut.

>cniJ»

Those verbs whose

third radical
e.g.

or Z, are not changed
believed^
its

by

assimilation, as in

Hebrew;

^ASQaGI we have
to

.oZAaiJ ye have descended.
pret.

TheVerb
(vid.

tOmi
35.2).

mount up^ takes

and

part. Pe.

from -r^Vcp

§

Upon retaining the
1.

characteristic 1 in Aph.; e.g.

\^\L

for ]qJ.

Comp., § 23.

Rem.

34.

Verbs with Med. Rad. doubled
it

(Ml) *mCD5

to

sprinhh.

In respect to these verbs
1.

should be remarked
falls

:

That the middle radical

away

in the pret.,

infinit.,

70

DOUBLY IKEEGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS.

imperat., and fut. (having
e.

uvt^r the
,

preformative) Pe.
,

g. pret.

*fiD9

,

infinit.

J3D;iD

fut.

•£DO;J

imperat., %S00j*
e.

Also Aph. and Shaph. ^ith their passives;
jaDjZZf*

g.

J3Dj1,

The

part.

act.

Pe.

takes

1

in

place
*Qd|)
;

of
;

the
|

falls

middle radical, which has fallen away e. g. away again when a syllable is added
;

but

e.

g.

plur.

lizM.

— Those verbs
fat.

whose 2 and 3

rad.
7

is

(

,

aiv
*

exceptions, and
1. d). e.

are inflected according to the rules for quiescent verbs (§ 35.

In the
*

and imperat. Pe. forms with

(not—) appear;
in the
plur.

g.

>»1

,

^*

The
go
in.

part.

act.

Pe. has

^^a^R

from the

Verb

\>»1 to

appears again, but

it is

In the part. Aph. sometimes the middle radical marked by Linea occultans e. g. Heb. ix. 5,
;

^i NN()V)»
preformative
;

In Aph. the characteristic
e.

(

sometimes remains
1.

after the

g.

Q^aj|^^

from -^*^-^ (Comp. § 23.

Rem.).
;

2.

The part. pass. Pe. im»fTO> Ethpe., Pa. and Ethpa.
, , ,

e. g.

jnoo>Z( J2QflD> are regularly inflected, with the retention of the middle radical. Instead of the last two forms, however, Palpel. and Ethpalp. (§ 25. D) are more in use ; e. g.

Rem. The last remark holds good more rarely (Comp. 1. above).

also of Shaphel,

which occurs

§ 35.

Doubly Irregular and Defective

Yerhs.

1. By Doubly Irregular Verbs are imderstood those in which occur two of those letters which usually give rise to In the inflection of these verbs, either one irregularities.

This or both of those letters may retain their peculiarities. class of verbs consistsof (vid. Lud. de Dieu, p. 340, sq.) ; a)

Verbs Verbs

^
]2>
,

and
(j

]]

;

e.

g.

liu

,

Aph.

wi-CdI

to

approve /
,

b)

and

;

e. g.

]l] to corne^

Aph. ^Lt]
;

]SC)\ to

heal,
JJ,

Pa. >i«)|

\Si\ to boilj

Ethpe. **^|Z|

c)

Verbs ^j^ and

,

DOUBLY IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS.
ISo* to swear imperat. «>V>>
^

77
"jio]^

e. g.

,

fut.

]iDp

,

infinit.

Aph.
and
•-»t

..xlkJOl
;

;

pLi

^0

sprout^ imperat.
;

i-aJLa,

Aph. ^AiO|
imperat.

«aJLi]
,

d)

Verbs \^ and U
;

e. g.

infinit. ll^lk)

^

1p

^^ cA^6Z(?,

to he displeased^

Aph. ^1!^*

To Defective verbs (see Lud. de Dieu, p. 344:) belong 2. the following, in so far as they occur in the language, either in individual forms only, or have borrowed their defective forms from synonymous verbs, or, finally, vary from the regular verb in inflection and interpunction. a) Impersonal
7

Verbs.

From
hefits.

^ojl

to he hit^

occurs only the

part.

act.

^jl
AjpD

it

From

t]iD

appear the 3 sing. fem. pret.

it is

disagreeahle^ the part. act. fem. ppsO

and the 3
act.

sing. fem. fut.

^^\L

;

and from

|lo

and

It*

appear the

part. IJo

and 1|*

it is suitahle.

b)

The following defective verbs are completed from
synonymous
:

others which are
act. tiONfT)
;

«nNm
infinit.

to

mount up^

part,

the other tenses of this verb are formed from
,

*aCQJ
part.

found

^7
,
'^

imperat. *nQD
7
^

fut.

.OCQJ
7 7
-»»

,

«nmV) Aph.
,

>r>mVr»
in

Ethpa. ^r\t\rc^.

A
,

similar

%QOl-a
,

to give (see § 29. 1.

Rem.), imperat. *QOl

^7
complement
^Z] to
is

*aOD*|

,

is

infinit.

\^

fut.

\E1

from

\L
to

Ethpe.

^OuZV*
come

c)

Those which

differ in
;

form and
go

inflection are t^OI),

to

run^ imperat. •^901
28. 2. 3.

^l]

away and

(see §

Rem.);

also looi to he (see § 32. 1.
also
,

Rem.

OOU and loou;
fut.

from |001
etc.,

found a
signi-

apocopate lou

,

loiZ

,

plur.

.OOU
46)
,

having the
usual

fication of the conjunctive as well

as
;

of the
to
,

future

(comp. Agrell. Otiola Syr.
prosthet.

p.

1A»
(A»

drinh^

with
,

]

^Lm\

,

imperat. *aA»|

part.

fut.

|Aaj

infinit.

IAaSd
]Sn4

;

to live.
,

^7^1, Aph. ^SOiOi to helieve ; ]jLm (see App. to § 32), Finally, in four verbs 3 rad. Olaph. ; e. g. l*^
11 1
,

l^Z)

(IjZ),

which merely occur

in Pa.

and

its

78

DOUBLY IRREGULAR AXD DEFECTIVE VERBS.
the second syllable qiiiesces in _L, as in Yerbs 3
1.

passive,

Gutt. (see § 13.
tenses

Kem.), and
its
;

]

is

retained in all of the
falls

and moods, while

vowel
e. g.

back upon the
fern. pret.

preceding vacant consonant

3 sing.

I\^jo^

The formation
infinit.

is

as follows

;

pret. Pa. VijO
.

,

part.

VnV>

o]i,nV)

,

imperat. Xjid

fut.

X^cxi

,

Ethpa. U-^^1

part. il£3

Ai

,

infinit.

o}liAk),

fut. "JlluAj*

80
f

PARADIGM
<?
*o
cr.

I.

il

5^ .<i

-^
OO

like
^^"^h

Ethtaphal.

•^

^

V

u

like

Aphel.

«:

<
I,

•-vl

"^
.rvl

<^^ •^^
.rvl

^

*=

f

'

P^^

f

g^^
»vj

f

cTvl

Q

q

Q

^ q

•^

"^
.TvJ

'Vl
.!^v|

"^
.^nI

"^

"^

,rv|

tTvJ

^^

Q

Q
•^

^ i '°^

4 ^ V
i

Q

f1
^51

I

-1 '^
'^^
'

a

I
^q

1

'4
-q

-^n.

"q

"Q
-^

'I

'3
"^

'O^

'i

-3 't
g f

I
•^
-s4
«-n4

-Q

.^

-vj

•^

"^

"^vl

I

q ^g

1/

M.

"^

*^»

'J

'^
'9 <^ t^
<*
1

'i -^

i
t<^
j

^ ^ 'i
..-^

^^ y]

q

^g

q
^<j)

^ a

^ A ^
N-d)
CO

g

^^
y\
•/I

d

'i
g
<M
i-H

Q^

00

<N

CJ

f-i

Rtgular,

Verb.

81

«=:^i

^•^

<
,^-4

c^xl

H/f

4

n

.rvi

-^

cT-vl

^-i:i)

<J

^ ^ ^ ^1 ^
^

a

'"^

g

^'^

^^-vl

9

a ^
PI

1
s/

''^

11.
I

1
^rvj

1/

^ ^^
'^

^d

ii:
^-1/
c:|
c:!

r^
»
I

'^

'^

'i

1
-d
<^

^#

3
-Q
<i)

'I

'I

^i

-q
-cj)

^a '^^

51

-a

^
-a
c
I

r^
1
'I

'^

">j

-3

r^

^

f-vi

w-

"^
"J"

^'
./I

^

,"^'

'f^

^9

f

d

^!?
1

T.. «^^

#
•^

#
«—

Q

-Q

Jq

g

,«^

^•i
^1

:^

vj

^
a
c

'1

'"^

'3

3-

Q
H.<::|)
H.<

^
1
CN
!rr

I.
^1 J"

'4

i
r-<

^

g;

(N

W

CO

C<J

C^

Q~ CO

CO

(M

<M

la.

ft.

82

PARADIGM

II.

Si

O

-a

O

5 o
^3

-<

f

^3

:-3

55

O

O

O

o

o

^^

•^

"^
.rvi

"^
tTvj

O

O
°/

O

'I O

O O

I-

o •1

't
00 CM
'o'
'"o

o -4

o

o
'ri
•^

%
<s>

^
,!rv4

:!

--a

'^

^
"-a

3
p

o

o

«o

f

f

n
•^

"^

t!^

.•^

t!^

^^ -^ i^
'-3 ^-3
*

.rvi

^^

;3

^^

\
/S-I"^

'iO J

1

tK

t^

^"q

''^^

-^ -^

'-a

--I

••§

?[

^ ^ ^
'I
:-a
f*^

^:f-(
/^

"^

a

/vT

^

tfvT

/vT

/^

trvT

/^ ^^

/vT

-2^ --^ ^S^

1/
p

p^

1
f p
f-

^

f^

f-

p

1^

,

"o

q

--o

'^Q

a

-^0

^q

^^
p
f

p

-^q

'1

m.

f.

Q^ CO

CO

CI

CI

'"'

^

Infin.
'^'^
*^'"

^'

^'

""^

2 2
\I'mp.

1

Verbs First Ead.Olaph.

83

J o

'^
f*v|
tT-i

^-VJ

.-sj

n
O O
»r^
^tnI
»

o

o

r>4

o

r-i

•^
^•^

<i
t!^

o

r^

<i

>>j

•>!

O

O -^
o

<i

'51

'S

^"^'^li-li-^-l
O
':?
•:?.

o

o -^

-^

-r^

i
QJ a

^ ^ | 4-:5
=i^
^;2.

9

o 9

^1

^^

^^^
i

:^

^

-;:d

^^

-vj -;<

:^ 'J '3 ;s .^ ^^

:^'^'?i

'?i

'?i

U
5^

';£

'^ :^ j^'^
*-.-vj

^<i

>
V2.

H-J

h;::L

h-j

>

;2.

"-4

h'-'

"^
^
r»-

f!^

(^
^0

^"^

"hr

*^ ^^

r-4

r^ fi
1/

^0
1/

^y

^

y y ^

*6

1
^(MCMf^CO
CO CM
C-l

rH^COOO

<M

<Mi-H
ft.

§

84

PAKADiaM

III.

'9

'3

•a
^0*

n.
«=

1

VI. /v.

^OOOOOOOOQO H. H. A. n.
-d
.r^

',m-

<=

.

\m

^f^~

^tmm~
.Tvi

',— *r—
tj^

^ t^"

^«—
,r-i

p

p

r^

0?*^

rJ^

tT^

trv4

'1

•^.

^^.

'-4.

VI.
^0

n.
-4'

^^.

V

'^'^oooo'o^ooo
"^
t>. fc>

t^^^^

ti>

6.

»>

P-

P-

^•3

'•4.

/I.

'-l. '-4.

rl.

'-4.

VI. ti.

'•!.

i4.

c

r4. r1.

^0*

1

f_
J-o

P ^ !-Zj

f ^

f

P

P

P

f

,

i^

io

J>o

^7

jCj

"^

^T

P^^

P

p

"^

"^

A
to
t^

A^

A A
1
"^i
L*

A^

A A
"^i
L*

'-4. ^-4.

H..
<

p} ^°^
""I
f

V
'''1 '-^

k.

^-v
*"*
'-^

^
L*

^1
».

"^1

''I
'-^
k.

''I
'-^
k.

H
«o

y\ k*

A A A H
k.

^1
k.
i

^1
..

k*

n. V
1

^0*

r^!

^

H*^

H-^

^M

H*^

r^

'A.

A. n.

'-4.

1

4. n. n. h. n. o 1 1 ^1 n. i

'

1/

Hi
'A.

P^

Hi

^-i

*=i

H-

Hi

Hi

H^


'-4.

A. A.

t}- rd.

A. A. A. n.

% ^

H

i

M

i

A. A.

2
ft^

c
r-i
;:r^

CO

CO

CO

CO

(M

01

(^5

<M

Verbs First Rad. Jud.

85

o

n.
51

n.-4.
:3

9 o

I

n.
'^•^^

d d

^.-4.

o

o

'1*1
O O

o

o

n.
V
6.

H.
1

O

•4 A. G ^5

•^-

o

4.4.

1^

^

Ha.
•"

o

'o'

^a '^.

o
'-4.

H. A. H.
1/

o

^*^

^:%

'3 ^3

^"^

^^'3
c

4^4 Ayl.

'-4-4

1

i

«-

1

^
-l.

'::i

'^ r? :^ :^ '^ '^ '^

H. 4. a. 4. 4. 4. A. Aj^a
«
'^

4 '4. •4. 4. H. .4. n. 4. A 4.
o^

t^

Si
<4

"^

T

"^

^

1

<j
«-

Vj
4^-

^-^

1

*^-sj

H*^

<i

•Cj

^•vj

<j

A. J\ iA

A
V

'A

^ A ^ «o ^
°-'

'^

H

^

H

,

•^i

H*^

H*^

H*^

r<Tr

"^

tj^

H*^

H*^ *;il

H

1

H

i

n.

^:4.

^^. /I.

•^-

A. 4,

f^.

?in.

AA.

°
?r <N (M
CO CO <M

S
CO
CO

(M

<M

<N

8(3

PARADIGM
J^ -^
-^
.r-vi

IV.
f
p

'vj -vi

i^
^^j^

-vj
,;-v|

--vl

--^4

-^
:rv4

"^
^-^
^^o.

tTvj

^-v|

r^

"^

'1
-a

a =^ci '^ ^^

-Q

-CI

^a
^'I

.a

^a
:'l

^a

1
^
^

'^

1
tK

I
e.

.^

t
B.

1
u
». e.

6-

D.

|>.

'S 'S '^

%
«—
-v.

•'a

''o

'"cr
.'ri

•'o

'^ %- ^— ^ -vj
u-Vl)
P

1
P

A 1 1 S 'a
P

<'a

'"cf

^r—

P/—
""^

P

^g

"^
)

f-S^)

1.^1)

c-V

"^
t--Vp

t.-si)
.

J^ J^ ""^
IxJ

'--vl)

^-^
t.^

^ ^

F

,

p

p

u-Vp

'1
T,
»
'

C.^

o CO
p

q ^

^d
<j
p

g <
p ^

c

<i
'

^g
P
P

3

-1
1/
e
P

c

ad
'-J

g d

^
1

^ V ^
»

cj i^ j^
';£

p

5^r

ta
to

^cL
!

11

^ ^ ^ ^ '^ '^ '^ la 1^.^ \ 3 1^1
P

;g.

'ii

^ii

-ii

;i
^"3

'<2

,S'°^
«-**4>

•*-vp
p

t-'vp

'^
(^

"^ )
p
«

1..-VP

'•"S*

"Vp

*-"vp

t«vp

^

A
^

,

ft-

c

a

d

c

^g

a

.c

age

51

-'^
'c

a

la

'il

:^

^iL

pil

:^ :^ :^ ^S .^

**—

^«—

*—

'

1
!

I

'3.

4-vj

%
'J^

r

f

il

'^I
1

'^ :£
'

^ ^ ^ :a
p

p

f

p

c^

^
*

p.,

r^

:£ 's

4

9

^

^ 9
'ii

d

4

'4
'

'3.

^4

^ ^

%
1
CM

'ii

'^
3

%
:^

'^

'ii

'5)

a

,0

'^

^ .4 V .-^--V^T,
<N
C<>

1

Rococo

C<J

'"'r'COOC

4
1-H
1

^

1

Verbs Mid. Bad.

Olai^h

Quiesceid.

87

^-^

31
1

4 4

^-^

^^ ^^

^

^^-^
1

vi

'i
1 1

'iL

il '^

'il

'iL

%S
1'^
r^ .<3_ 't^^t

1

1

Ci

'CT

'^

<3

•^
^"t

l*!^^

^^
5

^^I

:7 ^7 TS ^7 ^t

f"^

-^ ^

<i

^ ^^
x'^p

"3
^il

"-i

^il

CJ -^

r~J
--4

'^

^

:£^^

'I 'I

31
1
t^xcb
>,<:|)

CK-vp

t,«vp

'I'l

11
^ci

"d

^
"-^

31 31
3-1
1

-a 1 1
^r:^

'^ "^
^ .3

^^
^3

^C1 fC[

51

1

"'5

°r
'^

't

^

a:!

'A

%
1

=7 '^
^3
"^

Ci

cj'^
'fl

'A '^ '^

\
1

1

"1
1/

a

^3

"!'

'J.

w^

'"ci

1'

1

S
'

ia ii

3

':^'l

3'1

'V^'V*^*
«4-;
^
~

5

^
•^
CO CO

o

5^

.

5^

^

b:<moi

i^

PARAlJlGM

V.

I

Verbs Mid. Rad.
**—
•vj
'i

Vau and Jud.

89 'I 'I

'-vl

hC
t

hC
<

^ ^

'^ '^
"9 -q

•::^

-q

H
-^

'-3
^-^

'^ '^ '^ '^
.-^

"q

'^^

S
<

v

^
hQ
-I

Q

^'q"

""a

>^3

'^a

h'q

Jq h3

Si

Si

3 c

1/

'3

Q
5{
1/

r^ •^ ^Q

/^
-^
"^d

^t^-

^q

'^

fi

-Q

<5

-Q Q

.q

^

':::J'^

'^1

i

^^ "4 ^^

i

4

I

•^

-vj

1^1 ^
1/

1

r{i
^
Qi cj
'::j

•1;
*-3

'^

cr

'^

C:j

c^'^

1

l
'5

11
1

1

ill III]
rv|

•I 'I hQ hc

-sg

%
'^
•^ *^
>--

I
"^

.8-3

3
;^

8 '8

^

.8 .8 1 "^^ 4'"- 4'^

1
2^ Q^ O^
l-^ CO

CO

a

<M

CO

o:)

c<j

(M

I—

90

PARADIGM

VI.
'Si •
j

'^

V
1

^4^
1

^^•i^ "•1

!=i.

<o
'51
>

V
•^
I

1

^V V
<

c

V

1

;=3.

zy

zy

1
">

-1

^ 1 ^ 1
1

'1

'J •!, "»^

a

1. V-l,

CM CO
050

n
I

-^ -z^ --^ --z^ '^ -x?^ -^ --^ -^ -^
--3

^

=3

^ 1

n2
'I
:1

"^r?

'"^

:ii.
1/

1

1^

Ii1
^
i_

.1

^ ^

"1

1

y
"1

.1

%
1^'

''^"'^^

5^- -^-

-^>- -5^^

r^"

-5^" -5^" -5^-

^
CO

H
^
-1

-1 '1

^

'^

1 H

a

"i

h ^"^ -^ '^ :>['='
Q

"V.^:^
^-a

> "V ~V 1^ "V ->
'^

1^- ^t^ 'I

i i i
-J

^

'i

a
:^

'-%

^^^ ^

1 i
'-^

-^

-I

'^ f^
-^

S3-

"J 'd

-^

^
o

H
CO

d
CI

--i

a
I

a
?? CO

g

V a

^

a^ CO

CO

(N

Verbs Third Bad. Olapk.

91

*

V
1

ad
•Vi
5=^
.-1

V

'I
S3.

'I
"

H

a

a

3

'-|

au
'

'^

%f*^
'-^

ri^^ .t
^z>

4
r^

':=i

/^^^liV
j

fn

r^
'si

r^

err

^^
'

r^

J^

"V^:^

51

a

a

a

^^.4444

S3.

Sa

S3.

^ a
C^

«4^

a
r^ CO
CO 05

o

S a
Q* CO

^CO

a
CM

<M

92

PABADIGM Vn.

I
61

'Si

q

\

i

-S.

§<

q
1:7
'-vj

->^

.^

r^
.61

-•^
61

--^ -61

r^
.61

^
r^

•"Vl

"^
j>4 .61

•>s|

"^
rvi -6]

"^
cT^

->4

^'vj

;^
.61

Q

-61

-g

'I

1
CO CO

,/ ^°^

'V
r.
.'^61 ^61
^61

V^x
^61

^61

§1

^61

C

3
1

'i
j^
6 C

i
:.«n '-61

1
9
."^ "^n "61

^ ^ ^

j^

^

5^ ^n
«^6

^

j^ .n .9

'I

^

J I
'Q

M/

61

fd
:

^6J

M
a
^

<3
!

'^

9

q

q
1

\i
^s 6
<^

'Q

'6
c

u

'1

.

<o

-6

n
c

T3

"6l

g

-d

n

^
'd

d

q

^t

V^T

is

Verbs First Bad.

Nun.

93

3
1

'^ d d
^c

'PJ

':::i

c:j

'cr

'^ '^

c:j

ci '^

1
^r-sj

tTvi

i^

i^

.T^

"^

g-

V
c:j

,
'^^

-^
'^
"^y
c:j

c:i

^:^

'^
<3

cj :^
"d

n
"^H

q

q

"d

q

d

9

^

^vj
'>-»-i

-^
"^-'l

•vi
o-fn

*i^
'^•^

111 Ji hlVi;
'-^
K

uH

'I
^"-1

•^ ^M

^•.»-

-^

l^'"^ r
<

iT*

,

A

'^
*2

'^

'=^
'^'2 ""!!]

''^

n
•1

^ ,H

'-^ "^ "tl

-^
"^^3

^

'^
'^'2 ""H

'^'^
i-n-^ "l
N*-!

C

a

^C
1/

q "^

4 ^i
f fn

^i
<=n

I\q
;r^
p*^
6l
6]

61

61

a .d

f
'^^ ri

f< f^

^d ^d

1

4
1
s
*-•

r^ ^§

r^ f*^

>Tr^*Tr

i
•^

I

J
^'
CO

h61

'^

e

g
1/

d .d 9

I a
CO

(M C?

r-T

CO

CO

(M

(M

i-H

94

PARADIGM

VIII.

I-

4

'5J

^4

:i

a

•^
a.

^^

'vl

r^

"^

•-vl

•^
^rv|

*~>4

"^
tTvl
»-«es

"^
t.«xs|

"^
tTxJ
'^•es

"vl
^^v4
CK*e>

^>|
CK.es

•^

tTvl

•^

"^.es

'I
• •-»

^ -I

I I

'I

'i

:^

I J ^

?
I

1

CO

g ^1
4?^

I I
"^
tK*^

'I

i
't
'"q

•^
c«^

"VJ
»~*e«

^
°-^

j:t
<-.rs

„••^

^

^^
i

<j
fl
1

Q

I

=

1

't
^
a ^ a
'a

V^T
C--*^

^•^

^(^

a
1
f

^a

'B

I I I

H
^
I

'^

^

'vi
t-«es

-^

a^

•^
•^

"^
.es

"^
•rs

a
*o
%es

'I 3'

a

^

't
•^.e*

V
^e^

'1/
%es
*'

p.es

^es

^*^

f•!^

^es

"-.rs

^

I I I

'J

i

:^

I

'I

^

.•^

t^
(M

O

4;0

1

!Q^ CO

CO

<N

C<J

rH

g^ CO

CO

<M

(N

i-l

Verbs Middle Bad. Doubled.

95

4i
^:::j

':::!

-^^

%^

'^ '^ '^ ?J
.--^
.--4
.r-l

.rs

ii
i
'^ '1

O!

z:^

'a

-n.

^7;;

"I
1

^

^i
'^
^'^

^^

:|
v^ ci r^ LP

3

-r::!

,^ ^a

ci

':::i

,.*;

^'^

^

^

'^ -.
^'^

J^

a

a

'I 'I a a

I
f
K.?>

'i

•^ -- 7S ^ I

'2- '2-

"^ I 'I §

^^^ l.al-a.a

i
'I 'I

!
r^ >vj 'a .a
f-^
-vi

W
"^

'^
<i

*'!3

<4

^"^

V4

a

^

f
•=1

o

3'1

r^ ^o

%;!

C;!

t;:

^n.

^n.

r;;

%#>

«^'

g

1
coco
<M
C<l

I—

lli^^COCC

C<J

<Nr-l

96

PARADIGM OF THE VERB WITH DIACRITICAL POINTS.

PARADIGM OF THE VERB WITH DIACRITICAL
POINTS.
(

Compare

§ 4.

Rem.

).

3 w.
Preter. Sing.

3 /.

2 m.

1

c.

1

Vy^^

1

Ai^o A\6o

AV^o

Plur.

q14^ q14^
* *

Fut. Sing.

^Q^OJ

"v^c4£)Z

^o^oZ
Plur.

^q4oZ ^q4oZ ^q4oZ
^q!^4£)Z

,q14^U ^Q^OJ

i

*

^Q4aj ^qI^oZ ^a4cu
^g^fe^Z

Imper.Sing. m.

\o^

^Q^^

Plur. m.

qLq^O qLq^O

Infin.

^4^Sd VV^nVo
^^y-fexi

\\.4nV) VV^nk)
f.

ol^n^
^*5^-»4^

etc.

1

Part. Act.

m. U^-o"

Passive

^Jy-*^

^^u-^

^4£)ALD ^^J^DAk) ^Jy^oASD
Rem.

—The forms of the verb which
marked with

are omitted in the foregoing

fable^ are not

diacritical points, since

they

may

easily

De recognized from their formation.

VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.

97

§ 36.

Verbs with Suffixes.

The union of verbal forms with suflBxes is much more It should be remarked simple in Syriac than in Hebrew. in general that the vowel of the first or second syllable
either falls

away

;

e.

g.

in the 3 fern,

and

1 sing. pret.
falls

and Q in the fut. or the vowel of the second syllable back upon the preceding consonant e. g. in the same
;
;

per-

sons of pret. Fe. in which

— of the
tOD

first

syllable falls away.

The verbal endings
forms,
unless

%ji

and O quiesce

in

and

*

Verbal
,

they terminate with
sufiixes
,

«-il-

and Q-

remain

unchanged before the
istic

^-^* Also the character-

vowel of the first syllable ol* Pa. and Aph. remains unchanged, and the suflSxes of the 3 plur. are attached to verbs in the form of separate pronouns. In respect to the particular persons the following should be remarked (see Table of the pronouns, § 16. and table of the verbs, with
suffixes, § 36).

A.

Preterit

with Suffixes.

3 sing. masc. ^^^4^ before the suffixes tOD 2 plur.
suff.
a.

,

^JjD in the

masc.
1.

and fem.

The other persons ^^.4^ with
^jtO*

3 sing. fem.

AS^^
A\4^

before ^QO

,

The

others

Al^

with

sutf.

a.

1.

2 sing. masc.

unchanged, and by way of exception

with
2

suff.

c.

sing. fem.

•jiA^^^

is

changed

into

^aAa^^ with
suff.

suff.

b.

1 sing, com,

Ai^4^ forms Aii^^ with

a.

1.

3 plm\ masc. 0^*4^ becomes oii^^ with
parag., excepting before
..

suff. b.

or with

.

iQD

,

^^a^«
..7

y

3 plur. fem.
parag.
^^ >

oS^Q

eitiier

^o*4o w^ith

suff.

c.

or with

|

V^Q*

98
2
plur.

FUTURE WITH SUFFIXES
masc.
,

.

and

fern,

and 1 com. retain the forms
suff. c.
in

.oANfco, ^AlZjJD
Rkm.
suffixes

,A4o
2

with

— The
are

3 fern.

masc. and

only

distinguished
the
first

1 com. sing, from each other

some forms with by the diacritical

point,

which, in

person, stands over
sufF.

§

4).

Verbs Med. E. with

follow the

the consonant (vid. form of Verbs Med. A.,
g. 3

and
with

retain

— where

the latter retain

;

e.

sing. fem.

Al^^

Yet the form OiASQaj) occurs in Ps. cxviii. sufF. OlAl4s» 16V, instead of which, since no similar example occurs, the punctua-

tion should perhaps be

.—

The same

is

the case even in Verbs
to

Med. Olaph. Quies.
into

So the vowel -. belonging
;

^|«
;

is

changed

over

01^]^

but in the 1
]

sing.,

— remains
it

e. g.

^A^|s*
f

In respect to verbs

1 rad.

and a

quiescent,
fir>t

should be remarked,

that where, in the regular verb, the
retains its

radical is without a vowel,

— and a —
its
;

;

e.

g.

OlA^O|»

But where,

in the regular
it

verb,


7
'

stands over the
e.

firet

radical, this class
suff.

of verbs retains
,

in

the
1

same manner

g jlo] with

Gl^^f

|\
*

.

i

with

suff.

\ ^

'-

Defective verbs, or those with Med. Rad. doubled,

retain

in the pret.
yt

unchanged,
7

like the
7

form
with

^\4^*
i>

'^^^ ^ fem.
7
;

and

1

sing,

change

»
suff.

into

—-

;

e. g.

Ao>
;

01 Aoj

but they remain

unchanged before tOO and
the vowel of the
first

^j^

e. g.

.QOAoj*

Pa. and Aph. retain

syllable
''>e

unchanged.

In respect to

second syllable,
retains

it

should

observed that where Pe. retains

— —
7

of the
,

Pa.

;

but where

falls

away

or

falls

back upon the

first sylla-

ble

,

is lost.

The 3

sing.

and Pa. with

sufi'.,

are hence

all similar,

masc. and 3 plur. masc. and fem. in Pe. and can only be distinguished
e. g.

from each other by their signification in the context;
(from

01X40

M.4^

^^

^\4^)*
before

I^^t these forms are exceptions to this rule

when standing

tQ2 and

i*^»

B.

Future with Suffixes.

Throughout the
inserted, remains

sing,

and in the

1 plai\,

Q which
,

has been

unchanged before the

suffixes

#00 and

1

IMPERATIVE WITH SUFFIXES.
^-k2*

99

Before the other suffixes

it falls

away, and the form

^4^^ takes the suff. a. 1. ; but if the suff. is in the 3 person, only the suffix, a. 2. is used. The other persons are treated according to the rule laid down. In the plur. the 2 and 3 niasc. and fern, remain unchanged with suff. c.
Rem.— *^
with the
also true in
syllable,
suff.

parag. of the 3 sing. fem.

falls

away, and
is

is

connected

suff. after

the form ^^^IdZ*

What
away of

true of

Q

in Pe.

is

Pa

in respect to the falling

the vowel of the last

excepting before
;

^QD and ^-^^^
e.

In the 3 sing. masc. with
,

of 3 person masc.

g.

«^G10i\5oi
is

appears sometimes

over


and

by

Sionita.

But The

this

form

neither

mentioned

by Amira
;

nor

2 sing, sometimes takes

sing,
«

plur.
(J

The same
put me not
*
.

is

before the suff. of the 1 true in respect to the imperat. e. g.

^

1 1

iZoioZ

to

shame.

In Verbs Med. E. the middle

radical retains .—.
p.

,

and in Verbs 3 Gutt.,


'
,

.

.

.

.

»

389, refers exclusively to quadriUterals
;

i.

This pecuharity, Amira, e. to Aph. but examples
;

7

-X

"^

P |j
^

are also found in Pe.
ed. Paris.

e. g.

Ps. Ixxi.

9. ed.

Erpen.

.

»i

>

r\n^m/

'nSL* Amira in Pa. Ps. cxviii. 1V2, « 1 1 found particularly in prohibitory negations, which remark is likewise confirmed by the examples given. The persons of the fut. with ^ remain unchanged. But it should be

«.aJ.Q^sZ and
,

adds that

this

form

is

remarked that
masc.
25,
;

if

the form

^oN^Hl
,

takes the suff. of the 3 per. sing.

e* g.

«,>CTljU0\f^O1

sometimes

falls

away

;

e. g.

Matt.

viii.

^^OlO^JLJn
C.

Imperative with Suffixes.

The 2
2.

sing. masc.

^q4^

remains unchanged with

suff. a.

of the 1 per. sing, and plur., and of the 3 sing. fem. When the suff. is in the 3 sing. masc. the form of suff. c. is used.

In the 2 sing. fem. of the form
quiesces in -.*

«jAq4o

with

suff. b. ^i

In the 2 plm\ masc.
8uff. b.

Q^q4o

passes into

o^^oo

with

100

INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES.
plur. fern,
is

The 2
Rem.

rare,

and omits

t

before the suffix.
in Pe.

—The

imperative with
its

and .—
;

and
7
1 1
i

in
7

the other

conjugations, retains
*jkCl
I

vowel unchanged

e.

g.

.

SV)> hear me,

Nno
«

receive

him.

The forms

of the iraperat pass., with an
;

active signification, also remain

unchanged

e.

g.

^'M

^^

reminded,

with
plur.

suff.
it

1 1

i^?Z|»

In respect to the transposition of
(

Q

in the

should be remarked that
7

of Verbs

|2)

(§ 28. 1) loses its

vowel

_*
vowel

But
is

in

those

"i

"

\£i

Verbs whose imperat. does not take
first

r

Q,

this

inserted after the

radical;

e. g.

0^(

with

suff.

^OlO^O]*
as the

Yet
7

this transposition of

Q
-x

does not always take place,

form «jiJo\nt)^ soinetiraes occurs.
7
,

In Pa. and Aph.
suff.

_,
*>

in
r

Verbs 3 Gutt.,
pruise him,

falls

away;
suff.

e. g.

Om.*^* with

•^OIOm^^A
Verbs

o\oo|

with

*->CTlQNno| lead him hither.

ll

are an exception, as they retain
.

_

;

e.

g.
;

^^Q^l^f
e. g.

do me good.
suff.

Also a form with
1

parag. sometimes occurs

tONofjuQ with
is

iCH

t

^n\f^nn*
;

In the fem. plur. the paragogic form

the more

usu.il

but

in Pa.

and Aph. both forms occur together.
D.
Infinitive with Suffixes.
y
»»

with siifF. a. Pe. changed before the suff. of the 2 per. plur.

The

infinitive

^4^^

1.

remains unsuffixes of

The

the other persons are attached to the form

^4^Ld.

But

the infinitives of the remaining conjugations with a ai-e treated as feminine substantives, the feminine suffixes of which (those of the 3 plur. excepted, which are attached

separately to the form with Q) they take, attached to the

termination lol (Compare § 45. declension 1).

2.

and

§ 48. B. femiaines,

Rem.

In Pe., where

of the second syllable

falls

away, some
Buxtorf adds
;

grammarians

insert, in its place,

;

e.

g. Ol

N^nSOV

yet two other forms

mth Q a Q

inserted after the third radical

e. g.

^y

8T. MICHAEL'8

A

r-

PAHTICIJ^LES

WITH SUFFIXES.
If the
,

101

.

»mo\^r>Vr> and ^Olo\()n^*
,

vowel be

,

as in

Verbs

GLl

it

remains unchanged

;

e.

g.

gi SnnSO\ »
with Suffixes.

E.

Participle

Participles,
suffixes.

which are considered as nouns, take their This occurs, however, more rarely in the part, act.,
;

where either prepositions are used seek thee^ or a noun formed from the
the suffix;
^

e.

g.

v^

,

participle

is

,^>SO who joined with

OljOpl his helper. e. g. >rl sujpjporUng On the contrary participles with separate pronouns (vid. § IS. 4. Rem.), or with alformatives (§ 20) form the present tense.

102

EEGTJLAK VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.

Proper Form.

Sing.

]

c.

2 m.

2

f

Sing. 3 m.) 3
f.

^^\
AX^^I

^
^ujZ(^^
«jj2\L4^

*/^6^

. »

n

V^

^'a^^

^^AI:^

2 m.

Al4^
^aL^^I

2f.
1
c.

»jj-iAl4^

AV^
m.

Plur. 3

q1^

2 m.
2f.

.o"AX^ «jJLJ0Al^

^Al^
^:^^
^^y-^aLo!

^jjjI'AI^
»

1

c.

^*li^
.^.KfcnV^

«inl\(^
.inKt^nSo

Infinit.

.>iV^r^V/^

Imp. 2
2f.

sing.)

m.)
m.

V5^Q^^

^

«i1

iSo^Q

%^a4o
q1ci4^

.all

Vq4o

Plur. 2

oS^no

2f.

^^O^X)

1^'ut.sing.)

3

m.)

VJ^^^
^^
*o\(^ni

.ilSfcoi

»^i^4^

>>nSf^ni

Plur. 3 m.

Pret. Pa.

^^
o\f^nV) ^Zo\fcnV)

Infm.Pa.

.

REGULAR VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.
3 m.
3f.

103

Plur. 1

c.

2 m.

2 f

aiS^
aii\l4^
;

GlS^O

^^
(t:4n ^5\1^

.QQ^k^
.QDAS40
*
•X-

,

inVAo

GiA^4^
oi2M|!o

^-^Ali4^
*

^Guti^J^
^oiaki\L4^
C71i\l^

ou'Al^
Ullt^^

^^Al^
1

•jt

*

.02

A^^
.

^Al^
.'^qVAo

^01 ol^^
1

•X

c -Xt

y

tO^S^^
p...-h
7

.

kn\t>n

^^olJoAL^

GuoAli^^
GiLA^^4^

^oi^l^

¥r

^
*
p.
7

^'M^
•X

ik:

^aiai\^
oiS^jciKo di^L^aiiD

*
•X

V

.7
fs
fl

t-

.

7

T>

,^S4ciSd
,

^aOuJiQ^O

ou.Sq4o

»\oAo

•X-

*
*

^oiaJ^(i4o
^(TloX^oo

oL^o^o
oioL^Qo

^-A^Q^^

¥r

.qI^qd

X-

4f

««

*
-x
.

^

oijLl^4^j

44oi

^quIq^oj
•X

^-iJq1q4^
»
P -x*
.

^oi^Q^nj
oi!i4^

P -xt

.

*

-»>

^jqI^oj .onjoX^ns

oiS^o

T^^i^
^"Za^^nVo

^onl^

^»n\go

mlnkl^AKn cfi2o^5'^^

.ooZal^k) ^ZolL^^o!^

104 SUFFIXES TO VERBS WITH THIRD RADICAL OLAPH QUIESCENT

§ 37.

Suffixes to

Verbs with third Radical Olaph

Quiescent (]])

Verbs
with

]] (§ 32) differ so widely in their suffixes, from regular verbs, as to

mode of connection demand a separate
,

treatment.

It

may be remarked

in general
(

as in the 3 sing, 1. That the termination ^either loses masc. pret. Pe., or in the sing. masc. of the imperat. Pa., Aph., Shaph. with suff. c or 1 is changed into w*. movable,
;

as in the infinit. Pe. with suff. a. 1, excepting before

^QO

,

_A-b

,

where the

which has arisen from

f

also

falls

away,
)is

according to some.

So the termination of the
sufF. b.
I X

fut.

changed
2.

into

j^ with

Forms which end
suff. a. 1,

in

^a.

either omit

entirely,

and

connect the

with

^

movable, as 3 sing. masc. pret.

Pa. and Aph. (and sometimes Pe. with ^a. final), or remains with suff. b, as 2 sing. masc. imperat. Pe., and,
without exception

,

_
,

remains also in the
ot

first

case before

OD
-

,

'^

^

The terminations

the imperat. fem. %i^_
suff.

^>

are changed into .^- (or ^|_) with
suff. c.

b,

and

into

JU— with
3.

The forms which end with Q
;

otiant.,

take for

Q

the

OQ (and o]„) and for Qa- the form a» unchanged in e. g. 3 plur. masc. the preceding cases with suff. b pret. of all the conjugations excepting Peal. In respect to individual persons of this class of verbs with suffixes, the following should be remarked
forms
all
;
:

A.

Preter. with Suffixes.
If

(Comp. Table of Verbs U with

Suffixes,

The
Buff.

3 sing. masc. Uyt

loses 1

and appends
form ^y»*

suff

b,

and

%aOU of the 3

sing. masc. to the

,

FUTUUE WITH SUFFIXES.

105
a. 1.

The

3 sing. fern. AL.« takes, unchanged, suff.

The

same

is

true of the 1 sing.

^"yi»
c.

2 sing. masc.
2 sing. fern.

^^yt

takes, unchanged, suff.

^A^..

attaches

suff. b. to

the form .^aAa.^..*
.

3 plur. masc. Q^vi
suff. b.

^

is

changed into

oo^

(and o(^.t)with
\.
suff. c. suff. c.

\^

3 phir. fem.

^^yi remains unchanged with
rad. w^

2 masc. and fem. and 1 plur. take, unchanged,
Remfi.

Yerbs 3

,

as they are mostly intransitives,

take no suffixes in Peal.

But Pa. and Aph. of these verbs
Ij

with a transitive signification, as well as of Yerbs

with the

same ending, take

suff.
,

a. 1,
,

with the falling away of
remains.


The

X

excepting before ^jlD

tOD

where

The

3 sing.

fem. remains unchanged in Pa. Ajl\.. and Aph. Al-^yo1»

same is true also of the 1 sing, in both conjugations. The 3 plur. masc. occurs mostly before the suff., with o doubled
{see

Amira,

p. 372);

e.g. Ps.

liv.

3,

ed. Erjpen,^
1

they have sought them.
before both 00;
thee.
e. g.

Sometimes the original

OIOQIID appears

Ps. Ixxvii. 16, *^oo1]-m they ha/ve seen

In Pa. ^^"vt ^iid Aph. a*-^..l,


Q

falls

away

before
;

the

suff.,

and

^ becomes movable
;

;

but

quiesces in


wi

e. g.

a»^

with

suff. »^cLjjL

oTZul with

suff.

^ODqIZLiII

The 3
suff.
e. g.

plur. fem. in

Pa. and Aph. in the simple form, takes the

given in the tab. with the falling
%-iClji-kj^..|*

away

of

— over

;

The paragogic form of these two conjugations
given in the table, without change.
B.

takes

suff. c.

Future with Suffixes.

The
With
(

3 sing. masc. (JoJ and Ml the persons
,

which terminate
3 plur.

afiix to the

form -»\jJ

suff. b.

The 2 and

masc. and fem. remain unchanged, and are connected, as in the regular verb, with suff. c.

106

IMPERATIVE AND INFmiTIVE WITH SUFFIXES.
This

Rem.
Apb.

mode

of formation also occurs in Pa. and
takes the place of .. in the
i.

Sometimes
;

also

suflf.

3 sing. fem.

e. g.
;

Matt.

19,

Cu;aj that he should dismiss
18, 20,
»-»;

her^ or in Pa.
tt.

e. g.

Luke

xiii.

oui^jf
e.

And

with the falling away of

g.

I shall liken tQ2Qj^| I will
p. 398,

show you, the correctness of which Zud. de Dieu,
doubts.
C.

Imperative with Suffixes.

2 sing. masc.

^^-^yi is
p •

unchanged with
It

sutf. b.

\i

2 sing. fem. •-"v* 2 plur. masc. Q^..
suff. b.
ft

is is

changed

into

.»-^y»

with

sufF. b.

^

changed into OQ^.. (and oP..) with

^

\.
•*•

mO

2 plur. fem. ^i i\..

affixes suff. c. to
|Jyi

the form

J->-^y«*

Rem. The
-J oiflD*!

imperat. Pa.

and Aph. UyJ take the
;

sufe. g.

fixes of the pret. in

connection with the 3 or 1 person

heal her. The same is true in the plur. masc. of the same conjugations. In the fem., the paragogic form with suff. c. is the usual one. (Compare 2, above.)
D.
Infinitive with Suffixes.
IJ-vv^? in

In the
is

infinit.

Pe.

place of

J—., %j

without a vowel

inserted with

suff. a. 1.

In respect to the falling away

of a. before y^^, ^-*^ (see 1. above,) Lud. de Dieu, p. 395, doubts. The infinitives of the other conjugations are treated as in the regular verb. (Compare § 36, D.)
»

E.

Participle with Suffixes.
(Compare § 20 and §
36. E.)

Passive.
Plur.

Active,

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

,oA-iS/,

AaX.I

)

m.

, ,

PARTICIPLE WITH SUFIIXES.

107

a

participles of the other conjugations are inflected in similar manner, retaining the characteristic vowels ; e. g.
act.

The

Pa.
^1

.oA-L-1^ ye

ask^

Aph.

^jqSd we

thank^ Ethpe.

i 1

<^ASo

we turn

about.

General RemarTc.

Verbs of the form of llo to console.^ never lose the third radical letter 1 when taking a suffix, but throw back its
vowel upon the middle
ally stands vacant
;

radical, which, according to § 36, usupret. 3 sing. masc. %ju1(jlQ
,

e. g.

j^pLo
fiit.

3

pi.

masc. %..kJO(jJD,

«^o|.a.2, fern. %..«j|.kJD, ^<J\^\i^a^

3

sing. masc. %Aj|i,01,
^crLi|jL.o
,

*^ 1 1

*^
,

l,

imperat. 2 sing. masc. ^aXkIo^,
,

fem. wiJUf^jD

wtGiCLkViJS

2 plm\ masc.

t0|.ftjo

0..7 ..7 7 fem. ^jJM-o, •jiOU|a^*

108

VERBS

J]

WITH SUFFIXES.
Verb

)]

Proper Form.

Sing. 1

c.

2

m.

2

f.

Pret. Sing.

Pe
r
7

7

7

P

7

*

7

3 m.

Pa
Pe.

1
Pfp
7 7 7

2-0
i

3/
1
c.

P^7

7

Pa.

A^^
Peal.

*
•X

^A^-iD
7

wI^Aj-^

o\o

0Q\O
•X

7

•X^7
•X

Plur. 3 m.
7

Pael.

n^mi
..p 7

..p 7

3

/.
»

P

'K7

> 1 1

1'fO

p

«

Tnfin.

llcik)

;nk)

;nV>

Imp.
2

j

Pe.

wi. 1

Pa.

P 7

2

I

/.

IP

ill! .g'pO

j

wiJOO'fO

Plur. 2 m.

O'pO
p
-^

• p

2/
Futur. 3 w.

vv

\V

oula'jTLJ

^.^nj

«in*;m

VERBS P WITH SUFFIXES.
m.
Plur. 1

luy

3

3f.

C.

2 m.
•X

„.
1

p

Gilo
t

-n

7

.

7

».

X

7

-n

I 7

1

cruQ>A
7,P
-R

.p

oiZ'pO

oiZ'^o
""

A

''

^*

GlLtl^i

diiL^
01 00*^

*
•X

.QSZu^
7
•X -X

^o^Aa*^

7

-X

7

•aOlbo'rO
^CFlol'pD
•X

.QJDOO'rD
•X
-X

^7

•»>

•X*7

6io1-D
01

.QOOf'rO
>)^

7

cum
.

7

-R

X

7

1

..

P 7

t>7.

0.

p?.

-rpT.

0T-ji,,O
.

O-r.7.

p*T.

•X

p

-n ?.

R

P

-A ^.

OULifO
•X

P

-R

R

p

-R

1

cyu;nV)

OU'rOSD

^.^
P 7

•X

P

T>

-R

P

T,

1

^ 1 n i;.fiV)

6u^
7
.

7

*

^

oi;o
Ip

10

.

IP

OU'pO

lip

^«-

4^

.

-X

7

•X

7

^Gioo;^

OlOO'rO
.

.X^7

*

*

p

-^

•p

*
•X
-R
-n

*

^Giaa;ni

OU'rOJ

110

AUXILIAKY VERBS, OB VEEBS SUBSTANTIVE.
§ 38.

Auxiliary VerhSy or Verbs Substantive.

1.

There are in Sjriac two auxiliary verbs (verbs sub-

If 001 to be^ which, in Hebrew, exists as Yau conversive, is used to form the moods and The other, tenses which are wanting (see § 18. 4. Rem^.

which
tia)^

is

properly a noun, A^ being substance., essence {essen^

with Olaph prosthetic A^]

,

takes the place of the aux-

001, belongs to

Yerbs
it is

]J

,

like

which

it

is

inflected, but in respect to

which

to be particularly observed, that, the participle, preter.or future, the Ol (with
is

when connected with
Linea
occultans)

not pronounced

;

this

is

also the case

when the verb is 7 19 001 ^\M he
3C

has begun.

Upon

the double formation of the
c.

fut.

(oou

and looiJ

,

see § 35, 2,
Plur.

The

inflection of A^l

is

as follows

Sinor.

R
_jl1L»A-»1

a
-^A^l {we
{ye are)
{the?/ are)

M.
are)

F.

C.

M.
1.

^^L^ {lam)
Jbj^ {thou
art)
is)

•Oa^Aal
.0OLȣLi|

*^A^V

2

__iOU£u|

auL^{he,she
is

^cyioLtXs.
is inflect-

2.

In connection with U
A^l"; e. g.

formed /u.1, which

ed similarly to

^^^

/ am

not.

M

in connec-

tion with looi forms the imperfect;

e. g.

looi Lj] or looi

^cjiohJfhe was.
looi.

The same

tense

is

also expressed
e. g.

by looi

looi doubled marks the pluperfect
been.

;

Zuooi Zuooi

/ had

.

DERIVATION OF NOUNS.

HI

CHAPTEK
The
ISTouN.

III

§ 89.
1.

Derivation of Nouns,

Nouns, as in Hebrew and Chaldee, are primitive, To primitives and sometimes compounded. belong nouns of one and two syllables, which indicate animals, plants, metals, numbers, members of the bodies of
derivative,

animals, etc. (See Gesemus, Lehrgeb. p. 478, sq.). Inasmuch as they coincide with simple verbal forms, they are always recognized as nouns by the nature of the object which they
7 7
•^

designate; e.g.
derivatives,

\nx^ fleshy

JDOlj

^oZo?,

%£i£LD

silver.

The

which are by far the most numerous, are form ed partly from verbs (verbals), and partly from nouns
(denominatives)
2.

The

derivation of nouns
;

is

effected
e.

;

a)

without any

change of the original word
*,

g.

«,i«XSg> counsel^
to

from
;

\V)

to

counsel

;

v^

|

mourning^ from ^\fil
;

mourn

or

by

a mere change
;

of the vowel

e.

g.

«^^SSo king^
;

^P-n
fAls

\£Q\ fetter

h)

by the
;

falling away of the radical letter (kP""
|

sleep^

from ^Aj
;

Aa •

7i_p»i<
.-j
;

e. g.

care,

from
c)

*£)

poli

the

hearty

from ^fH^Q^
are
I
,

but especially Z

by the addition
Those
letters,

of
if
;

formative letters or of entire syllables.
initial,
1
,

Lo

,

a,

,

s

;

if

medial, they are

^ and Q

final,

,

Z*

Several of these formative letters are somethe same

times found in

noun

;

e.

g.

j^a^d^Z scholar^

\1^^QJB dominion^ (ZqiSDaj^So compassion, |Aj^Oi\s fame.

112

NOUNS DERIVED FKOM VERBS.
§ 40.

Nouns

derived

from

Verbs.
participles,

Verbal nouns are kindred either to
they are kindred to the

and

de-

note the subject or object of the action (Concrete Kouns), or
infinitive,

and receive the

significa-

tion of the action or quality itself (Abstract Nouns).

But

frequently in the formation of these nouns, rare or obsolete

forms of the infinitives and participles are chosen.
following tables present a collective view of the
formation.

The

modes of

TABULAR VIEW

OFDERIVATIVE NOUNS.

113

TABULAR VIEW
OF

NOUNS DERIVED FROM REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS.
I.

PARTICIPIAL FORMS.
A.

Of peal.

a.

The simple hut unusual Participial Forms, ivMch are mostly Adjectives.

Absolute

state,

f

^^O
IJ^^
1

H^

Emphat. state.,
7

(

m
sick.

;jQ..

a man.

foolish,

r^LM

an

associate.
7 7

rural, quiet.

Ql and
m
p

wiJ^
^£>

7

7

IrOJ

pure.

U'

Iqs,

^QA

equal.

hard.
r

-1

I 7

PQ4

iff^pf^fc ;

tjL.y^IS

much.

From
1^0,

these

-X^

17

are derived

Abstract Nouns

;

e.

g.

\LQ.aJlO hardness;

multitude.

114

TABULAR VIEW OF DERIYATIVE NOUNS.

b.

Usual Participial Forms of Peal.
-A^

a.

Active.

(3.

Passive.

Absolute

state, j
state,
^

^O
IJ^

j
(

^\^jl^
IJIT^^
kO^'l righteous,

Emphat.

>Gl£D a witness.

^ i\»> sound.
pQ^Gl-^A given.
CLL

^QO)

6/ac^.

^.1

a hireling.

•-1^

and

«.k^

psAa an
U

9X7
» P

inhabitant.

•PI
^Ql

«^^aA cursed.
X
7

IfiQJ

a herdsman,

6Z?!>?,c?.

I^^ilJ long-suffering.

Ql
I4^J^

and

«.k.l

Ml
P

17
i\>

Ml
beloved.

reviling.

1^1*^.4 renowned,
\y\j^free,

(^^inn
\1

IT

rare.

|aA9 a herdsman.

POI

»i

a landlord.
]2)

(£02 concealed.

U'and
|ii{y)|

U'and |i
lls) ni.

a j^hysician.
|]"and

iZulSD

f.

beautiful.

U
|J

jl* beautiful.

and

^

pL^J 2yrophet,

fA>*^1 prophetess.

Here belong
publication,
\

also

AbstractNouns, as |ZQjLflD|

AewZ/ziy,

|ZqlQxjQ^

LO J [j^ freedom, QO-k>l and |LCLQa)l

righteousness^

I^QAjl^-^

dryness.

TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.

115

c.

With Immutable Vowels,

Ab.

Stat., j

Vy^i

^q4^ ^q4^
,

^Q^ ^OD & with
a
*

[

(ni\<^ a plough-

JQll small.

\Si0^y% a bias- |nV)QflD

rec?

Man.
|^^^-^> ?^ea^.

^i^hemer.

{color).

fto\n

<x mo&, llO)l a sower. a rabble,

tAS^lM) a friend,

^
|J-(bJ

\2i

(£)

merer.]

\zi

a carpenter, \iCLSi\a preacher, [»0y\ a ham- (SO20| black,
t^JL

Q^ and

^2)

Ql

and

«jli1

[2 fjsiO\a possessor.

9Qa« a spendthrift.

pQ^J damp,

pQ-tl a ^i^er.

QL and

a-A^

Ql and

*.LL

(1.^9 a judge. (aQu> a destroyer. \L0 k^mortal. [l!^^.^ fortutiate.

Mi Ml Ml Mi' divorce, •ppy ••? ^ ^ ^p x p yx 7 fjjj a combatant. \iQ^y\ a youth. \\0\y% a barber. |J.J^O> a bill of
.

^J^^ an

orator.

^Qjn.* a

spy.

P t'

^

cleft,

*P?|7
i

|J and «^^ |J and <»i2^ U and «a^ *P-X(» ^PP7 l^'^'f" creator. ^Vk» a seer. y^O^iO mournful.
*

( N»
* P
P

*P'XP

UO^

^i^t'e^.

1^0? t ^ mocker,

U'and
»7

]2>

l-k^l a baker.

From
(Zo>Qll

these are formed
littleness,

Abstract Nouns,

like

(ZqaXm
etc.

rejection,

]lClmOj\ division, (ZqjQaI giving,

116

TABULAE VIEW OF DERIVATIVE
B.

NOITNS.

PARTICIPIAL FORMS,
the other Active

a.

Of

Conjugations.

Pael.
It takes

Aphel.
usual ^

Shaphel.

the

form,
v^ith

and the form
|

Usual

form

and

"j

Usual

form

and

pL. and the

form ]]^Q!^

p;^^

r

r

a leader.

.

naV>

a dwelling.
pincers.
offense.

\LL\M^
7

rich.

|ib;rnV) poor.

]^n\V>

IP

pCLiLDlD an

("^NtK^ changing,

(I'^NV) a
m

teacher.
r r

VtigiVQ
torturer.

/rue.

(I^IO*
\\

a deliverer,

PrvJLlO a

and «.A^

QL
L.OpO

^^QiD
and
«-aJL

c^f.s

spairing.

P

P

7

1 1

\\«V> proud.
Part. pass.
•7

united.

Is'^r^
]V)>;V> high.
|j

injurious. i
>

7

I

W^«V> completed.

Ql
X

and

«.k^

and

«-k-^

|JU;.<^10 seditious.
•.0
y

|J

and «-k^

p_fcjaiSiD a leader.

|1m>V> a watch-tower,

P

and

la

«P

-X

7

poUiJLo a
|J

sickle.

|1 ifir>|lO

a physician.
aT)d
7

li

and li
comforter.

wL^
confessor.

%P

P

PI i^V) a

P^>q1d a

From

these are derived Abstract Nouns, as
doctrine,

|Zqj^^

direction,

(Zoi'^NV)

\L0\ atinpiD healing, &c.

TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.
b.

117

Of

the Passive

Conjugations.

Ethpeel.

Ethpaal.
\

Eshtaphal.

Usual

form and
#
,

Usual form and
those with
#
,

Usual form
)

and
»tl>0

\

/

those with

Jl

)

\1

those with
)]

#

,

\1
'

Ql
,0 P
i:

and ^.^
entreat'

llln/.A^
.0

lim^ZAlD
mg.

^
Ml

curdled.

and

*x2il

]\[\^£m:^

full

7

.

-^

flilr-'^^ renowned.

]i^\V)ALo

eloquent.

C.

PARTICIPIAL FORMS OF LESS FREQUENT CONJUGATIONS.

Palel.

Pealel.

Paiel

Usual form and
j

Usual form and
)

Usual form and
)

iHbQ^^^ ^
treasurer.

church-

|V)\V)\» unhurt.

|;^u»-2)

a farrier.

Parel.

Taphel.

Qu ad ri literals.
}

Usual form and
^

Usual form and

Ni 4^^^

^7%

accuser.

IJy.^j^A

a pitcher.

\^Qy%yL an interpreter,
|,

:3QljjCQVD sudden.

iV)\Z a pupil.

118

TABULAE VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.

n.

INFINITIVE FOEMS.
A.

OF PEAL.
Forms

a.

Simjple Infinitive

SegTiolates,

Absolute

state, J
state,
^

^^^^

j 1

^J>.^

j
^

\a^
U^Q^
fAe Arncc.

Emphat.

»»7
(a2U

]]^
^^V^
F^^?

]]^

*0'X

the soul.

rain.

\M'iClO holiness,

|V)>»N bread.
.

Wj?

morning.

pios

>g^

^
li^l «
"

^
/awi6.

tJ.^A sea-grass.
»
P

K<*'Ol «

zf;ay.

7

(iD;^ herbage.

%a^
|A2)»
cZz"%e?ice, (for
*|

(p-^ a

child.

As ^«j).
Q1
and «jA
goodness,

Ql
(ZqId

and

t-i^

Ql

and

«.a^

death.

V^-*^ inace.
y^'i a dwelling.

1^^

L.Ol a yoke.
|J

(OCO an end,

and

ftjJjk

U and

«-ft-^

(]...

a treasure.

(^^

^^-^^

Aear^.

pQC

coldness.
^Jti)

V

and

K
all

IJ'and ^1

U'and

]Zf2) countenujice.
It is

\lo\1 labor,

\L£iO\ anguish.

seldom that
g.

three forms are found derived from one orig;

inal

;

e.

fJ^ja a rope^ (JiOuM a pestilence^ tJ^Qjsj guilt
as Pl

oftener

two forms,

an oah^

\i\

a storm (from ml).

TABULAR VIEW OF DEEIVATIVE NOUNS.
b.

119

Infinitive

Forms with Immutable

Vowels.

Abs.stat.

(

^"i^

1

^QO
y^lcia

(

^^^040

(

oi^^^

Em.

Stat.

(

U^

(

\

U^q4o

(

T^ol^^
folly*

'\\\^a herd.
Ir,^^ a work.

y^Oy
ture.

apunc-

t^^onN seizure.

o\*^C0
dam.

|u?nnV) affiance.^Lo^L^i^ a
gleaning.
'\si

king-

^
l-flol

(^Q2

a girdle.
.

\zi (and ]])

U'^^V a/^^^^^-

»g^

(AjAof a howling.

«jc p

^^

Ij^^ij renown.

^

w.
^aA
„ , .^

.X

QLandwLl
»
p
-x

ft

n

UpO

Ql
talkative

and «^^
7
i
(j

a

vessel.

K
»^'^
^

(.A •

O•

on
|J

•X

favor.

CLl and

ness.

]llsi nature.

^ question.

and «-i^

]£x1j a floioing.
fl

and

^

^^ ^"^

"^

IZQjlJI indecency.
^Oj
-x

7

WoQ2);?er>me.

|Z.QaOVM appearance.
*J>j
-x

7

>
iL-a
^0
p

]]

and

^
confi-

]Zoo,i
sion.

O

posses-

««A-fiy.

^°^

«'•"'"''•

P andli
|ZQa|£)
ment.
orna-

|i\oV>/M llness.

(nnoN
]]
I

and -'g^
(2

rf^wce.

iSi

sprout.

^
P P

U and —£)
-x

^JlQJ

error.

'1^

TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.

B.

USUAL INFINITIVE FORMS OF PEAL AND OF THE OTHER CONJUGATIONS.
^
,

/

Peal

Pael.

Aphel.

Shapliel.

Usual form and

Usual form and

Usual form and

^4aiD,^\^^, Vu^2 or ^q4^2 ^Q^oSb
)^!iDpLD a bed. \r\\\'^L flattery.
l;^rSjO a desert.

^^nSD
lAnat»V>
thought.

V4^QS
]^S»>Qs
change.

fZo,nS»

slavery.

\\^^L

help.

(jiAqILd a concussion.

]]qa^^ a thrust. jsoZoZ
]ki

combat.
Isi

yfj^OQ^

delay.

Izi


de

V^li « speech.
1/

]lhay»]l7nerchandlse.
e/

IZaJpOQlO
struction.

^,iD

insight. lAXiaoZf/espair.

fAsaioSba
^2)
f;rnV)
ri

^«/if.

j^lOQS

deliveraTice.

^
^^Q2lji
belloios.
i-fc-i

Ql and

«jLL

]io<y^Vn departure.

saw'.
/ioe.
|J

]L»Q^L U

rubbish.
JJ

Vr^SO a
(and )a)

Ql

and

and wi2k
??ia?itie.

and wk^

j'ZIsd harken- IAjuCQoZ a

^
]]

1Zq-»AxSD

«?z as-

(iSV)Q>
|J

con-

ing.

sembly.

elusion.

and ulS

V'and ^^^
doctrine.
*

P and «-ua
^Zoi >'^QiD
elusion.
co^i-

and

«a^
misc.

3'^

a drawing l^UjoZ

VijOO* a joro-

'o/' (of water).

1]"and "la
jA^Zlsi) arrival.

TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.
C.

121

INFINITIVE FORMS OF

THE LESS FREQUENT

CONJUGATIONS.

>
r

Palel
•4

and Palpel.

Pealel.

Pavel and Paiel.

*

?

V

(;aJ011

splendor.
'<

VASnlk^Kji
nocence.

in-

JlXoZ a worm.
|J

oil and %jbL

and (.i^

^*.^Qy.

motion.
Pali.

^
ination.
-*I

fACn^QS

astonish-

ment.

r

Parel.
*
9

Pamel.

Taphel.

P

,

«^

I^ODQCO

swiftness.

l^llOO* shame.

122

DENOMINATIVE NOUNS.
§ 41.

Denominative Nouns.

Here belong
1.

:

JSToans

;

a)

without any formative additions, derived

from some other nouns, which
derivatives of verbs
;

may

be either jDrimitives or

e. g.

liiyi

a garj£ner^ from ^JQl.. a
salt ; h)

garden

;

]»»\V) a seaman^

from ]»»\V)

with the

formative syllables
Gentile ISTouns)
;

U-

masc.,

lA_i.- fem.,

(Patronymics or

e.g.

with

the
;

falling
e. g.

Vi^09^> Roman^ \Ljl^'^ai^Israelitess away of the syllable .lOQ in names
an Ephesian^ from .icoma]
;

of towns

|>rn«^|

or
e.g.

Feminine Abstract Nouns, terminating in lia and ]Aa-l;

Vqi\^
ness,
Aeac?,

youthfulness^

from 111^ a youth

;

IZo^uQl

blind^A<?

from ;aQl blind;
principal
;

iLkM^h beginning^ from «a^9

c)

diminutives with tQ or *C0Q masc. and
e.

(A^Q
tie

fem. attached to the noun;
;

g.

po*^
;

a

Utile son,

from Vr^

"IjQ>*1

a

?i^/!?e

brother^

from

"U*]

lA^oZ'^
dog,

a

Zi^

daughter from 12;^

;

|flonn\n a young
;

from

)*^^*^,

Sometimes we find both forms in use
(CDO;^.. a manikin,

e. g.

"^JO*^..

and

from
;

Ir^yt*
e. g.

Diminutives from com;

pound nouns

also occur
;

pOAJ'^i from |Aj;rb

also

a double formation
(A-iJqAjoZ'pO a very

e.

g.

pocoo'^.. a very

little

man,

little

daughter.

Rem,
letter

— Amira

(p.

145)

mentions a form with the third radical

doubled, and

Q

inserted between

them

;

e.g.

^4^6^^
a)

«

little

assembly, from |4^i^»
2.

Adjectives belong here, which are formed

;

by

affix-

ing the terminations

p

masc. and fZuJ fem.

;

e. g.

p^09
affixing

masc. (AjJ-mO> fem.,
the terminations

spiritual,

from
;

(a*0)

;

b)

by

m

niasc.

|Ax- fem.

e. g.

(.ilQ^Qyt masc.

COMPOSITE AND EXOTIC NOUNS.
lA.felQsQyi
fern, corporeal
;

128

from lSQ»Qy.
the third,

;

ordinal numerals

(see § 50. 8)

e. g.

|lLiZ

from

Y^l

;

c)

by

affix-

ing

tlie

terminations \xJ masc., IAjJ
fern.

fern.; e.g. ^J.'»^09

masc.,

(AjXmO)
Rem.
marks

In respect to

the cases under
is

a.

and

c.

above,

Amira

re-

(p.

106) that the latter

rather used in metaphorical lan-

guage, yet he also admits the interchange of the two forms.

§ 42.
1.

Comjoosite

and Exotic Nouns.

The formation of words by composition is more frequent
other Semitic dialects, (see Michaelis,
78, 74).

m Syriac than in the
p.

151

;

Lud. de Dieu, pp.

The words most
\!^

fre-

quently used in forming compounds are

son

;

e. g.

|m;n

man,
e. g.

lloL'fdvoice;

\tl^

sir; e.g. |0*^,

NVO enemy; ^^ymuch;
;
e. g.

(A-i^ JD> householder;

^muj principal

(A^^Ia^j

firstling;

\b^k^house ;
;

e.g.

AjlO

(m^S

corn-house; sometimes

\^\

eating

e.g.

l^'^O^:^] adversary.

In

changing the
last part of the
hostility,

Concrete idea into the Abstract, either the

compound word only

is

regarded

;

e.g.

fZonnr^i::)
;

or both parts are changed into the feminine

e. g.

IZoAa^

L^j
2.

house-holding.

Upon

the plural inflection see § 44.

The Syrians have introduced many Greek words into their language, and given them either Syriac terminations or permitted them to retain, more or less, the Greek forms.
The
following are examples
;

v^\\\ ^7«ot,

.nA^y^Oj

svayysXiov,

P0V).i^Cyi
*flOOV>rn
I

-Jjysjxwv,

.Q^k^iiO

|xaXXov,

|^iD|ALD

fxaSrTjfjiara,

.»0\OfY)

tfuXXo^jCfjt-o^.

There are some peculiarities

124

GENDER OF NOUNS.
which
see § 12. 5.

in the formation of these words, for

and

§ 44.

Rem.
the

8.

At

the time of the Crusades,

the Syrians
;

introduced words also from the western languages
lI_iLj*2)

e. g.

Franks^
%ji)901

/l^V] Germany,
Henry,
etc.

SIZuIXmJI England^

p.i;<=^ Prince,

§ 43.

Gender of Xouns.

The Sjriac language has but two genders, masculine and The latter is distinguished partly by the signififeminine. cation and partly by the form.
1.

In respect to the

signification, the

gender

is

fixed

by

the same rules as in Hebrew.

Masculines are the names of

men, masculine ofiices, nations, mountains, months and Feminines are the names of female persons and anirivers. mals, countries, cities, and members of human and animal bodies, which are found double although they have masculine endings in the plural;
2.
e. g.

^^j^^ feet from
is

vv...?,

etc.

In respect to form, the feminine
(

characterized
first

by
of

(^

),

*-!.-.

,

Q-

,

But the

those final syllables, which

is

particularly used for the for(e. g.

mation of feminines from masculines
7

\\C1j^ female

com-

panion from

\d^

masc), must not be confounded with a

similar sounding termination of masculines (the emphatic
state, § 45, 3)

usually given in the lexicons, as the only mas-

culine form in use.

To

distinguish this fem. form from the

masculines
e. g.

it

is

usually given with the termination ]Z

l^^NV)

the queen.

The forms with Q« and
\L\
e. g.

«-i—

have

arisen

by apocope from

on»

(j

goodness, *^\0 beam.
is

The
e. g.

last

of the above mentioned endings Z

seldom used

;

^^1^ part.

GENDER OF NOUNS.
Rem.
tives
;

125
in adjeo
|
,

1.

The feminine ending
«JQ^ masc. \OL^ fem.
a.
,

[^

is

generally found

e. g.

If the (^
;

word ends with

this

letter is

changed into
»p
P
;

and forms
-X

e. g.

(OJ masc. ^.QJ fem.
change that termina-

Gentile nouns and numerals ending with wk-.
p

I

^

p p

-X

I
.

•j"?

tion into
final are

(.j..

e.g.

«a)OGLk masc.

(u)OGLa fem.

Nouns with \l
;

masculine

when Z

is

a radical letter of the noun
olive.

e. g.

(AaO

boiv,

\Ld •

ornament, (A^l

Rem.

2.

Many nouns

with a masculine ending are feminine

or
;

common.
e. g.
P,

They
ij

are usually given in the emphatic state

(§ 45. 3)

]a-Ss. ship,
T
zt'e//,
P

\Lj6\ way, ll2^
7

rib,

|li| earth,
^
P

y^\%\ jntcher,
^

«P
A^?'6?,

-X

p^Ii

|;0*^

I?^y; ^^^^ <^ battle,

Jl^l com. ^me,
(j-^O talent,

^

\SD\ leather bottle,

(2^
6e^/y,

sword, com.,

|J^qLd burden,

|£)p

5to7ie,

1^0^

|la\ com.

to7igue, |jlZL3 5o?i^,

(>QJ ^re,

jOlflO
|£o;JL
me?z^,
s^«?^,

com. moon,
|ij»0)
-X

|;nflO shield,

pQ£D com. mo^A,
com.
^
p 7

(22J.1 branch,

6t'(;/,

com.

i^mf/, (A-fcZ>
-X

terror,

|SaO> com. firma*
P
»<

tt

»P.

v>Q.4^ hades, \Lj^Qm rust, |> V)» com. heaven, (aSQa com.
-JpQJi
///y.

Names

of animals also are of the

common

gen-

bers

from 20 to
.\

100..

Greek nouns retain «I-C^7I
(.OuZLb)
OiOL^r^xri.

their

gender

;

e.

g.

•n)OrJQ£0

tfuvoOog-,

In general,

those nouns are

considered as

feminine which come

from the feminine of the He-

brew, ending in
state,

Ht,

and

all

of those nouns which, in the emphatic

end in (Z

(§ 45. 3).

J

26

NUMBER OF NOUNS.

§ 44.

Number of Nouns,

There are two numbers in Syriac, the singular and plural. There are, indeed, four dual forms, taken from the Hebrew,
ending in ^-»_ (^iZ masc. two^
hundred,, and

^UiL

fern,

tv^o,^

^^1^

two

but they cannot be considered Pairs are usually exas a special form of the language. pressed by the plural, and duality by the numeral two. Tlie plural of masculines is formed by annexing the

^j ^So

Egypt)

;

syllable

^.&-.

to the

noun

sing.

;

e. g.

^'Q^

mountains^ from
(

>Q^

;

that of the feminine

by ^

(instead of

)

;

e. g.

poAo

virgin^ plur.

^oAi3«
Plural masculines of derivatives from Yerbs U,
,

Rem.

1.

ending with ]- and *a••

terminate in ^-*«
T.

;

e.

g.

Jj^ hoy^

-n

7
;

7

^

plur.

^iN(^

wi;jfcSD

dwelling^

plur.
g.

_»,^lD»

Feminines

ending

m
:

q and l

take tQ

;

e.

onNV)

kingdom.^ plur.

•QnW)

those ending in wi— take

^
;

;

e. g.

•j;^ creature^

Nouns derived from Yerbs VLL, if the doubled plur. ^;^* <jonsonant appear again in the jDlural, take Linea occultans
X
..7

wnder the

first

of the similar

lettei*s

ap7
^^Djk sea., ,^1

I..

V^

e.

g. ,^j V?V)i

from

m.

p

y

V>V)V from psQl people.

Rem.
manner
*QCd1
• ''l^''
;

2.

Some masculines form

the plural in the
(cd| p>liysician.^

same
plur.
;

as feminines.

Here belong:
;

\iSo\

crib.,

plur. IZqjjoI

\jS\ Hon., plur. IZq-^j]
"S"*

>Z( place,,
-mi^Z^,

plur.

P5'«»5'»P'»> ^ tOjZ] ; |acu» snake,, plur.
;

^
;

»

P

-X

|Zoq>j

pjOD
;

plur.
plur.

iZojjQO
P

IrDioD throne^ plur. .ccDJco
PX \lQ.a
P

( »

N^
.-^;

7

7
;

P."

-X

m^A^,

»o\i\
\
(as

member.^
-np

plur.
y
;

|ZqAQ£:
"^

;

^^>

herdsman,

plur.
,

a part, ^-i^j)

.Qi^j

]o*

cup-bearer^

(Compare Agrell, Comment, de varietate and upon the absolute and emgeneris et numeri., p. 68 phatic states, th.-'- form and use, see § 45. 1. 3.)
plur. VZoQji

&c.

;

;

NUMBER OF NOUNS.
Rem.
lines
;

127

3.

The following

feininines

form the plural like mascu-

a) \)y rejecting the feminine

ending of the emphatic singular
;

(§ 45. 3), \!^yell,

^ji^V; ((ltj( woma7i^ \mJ)
;

1AcdV?^;«7/, ]ai]]

lAl.. garden^ |l..

IZjOSDy.

coal^

|;lDQ..
thorn,
<//6,

;

'\L^i^y
;

fiff -basket,

^A.iD>
|4*^;
;

;

|Alk>>

<ear,

tl^J

;

\^^^^^r**

L^
;

|il\4>*

wheat,

TZaO

w>mc?0M;,

loD

;

lA*2i^

"(irA

lA.

A Sasm
UJ^
;

US 1^\^ ^< (o/ paper), V'^
l^^ScL^iD
sieve,

;

12\\^
;

s^c^^e,

VqaaID
;

;

l^^l^So wo/'J, llLo
l*!lflD

XLUjD

hair,

U^l

VZ'ri^D cave, Ipkk)

TZpio 6ar%,
;

;

VAlj.£flD

^/i^^,

|£j.£flO;

lAntS

duster (of grapes), ^TlLl

lAo'^l thong, "^D*^
;

;

1Z>Q.|^
Irvv'
etc.

90.1^
I'Ali y^ar,
b)

;

|A£1^0
;

bark,

\2l^O

KrVh* almond,
;

^j^
tZpa

X^La
e.

hour, ^-k^'

VAjI'Z fy, "tSfZ,
;

by retaining Z;
;

g.

Uvo

Sooi^y,

Ul^
|Z]^
; ;

lAl^cry, lAly.
lZ|
»

\l\j>^ sight,

(Z]Ji noxious means,

w^Zmes^, (Z(
rust,

li\2)^ care,

VAs^

;

Xtlo

calling,

X^^

l^O*

lAjaOS

(see Agrell, passim, p. 70. sg.)

Rem.

4.

Some nouns form
I M»k.>j

a double plural

(the feminine form
17

father,
(?»7

I

1^7

P

J>

^7
;

••

•!

y

7
;

_aGIO( and tOlO|

army,

^i\>
.

»*

and ^0Ni,»i

«P7
l^fAj breast,

•»>

^p^

P7
and ^O^j^
; ;

—^1

7_
^^me,

17
1*^1

(77_
and .1*^1
(times,

turns in repetition)
•X

^a hand,

VOQ^
»-«? (;iO

daij,

^k)Q-» and ^lOQ-i

17

P7
;

^rk( and
^''C
;

t01r^| (gripe of the hand)',
heart,
^V" ^^^^ x^7
P 7 •T»

\^1^

and .Q^lll

Zorc?,

^;l0

XP

l?7p,y
and ^0;l0
;

ikPX
Ir-LL/eas/,

XI

P^x^P7

JOU

stream,

17

—a^QlJ and
1

P,77
^OJCJIJ
;

P7
iS (foun-

^rJ^l and ^>fl
heel,

(I-aA eye, ^i.l iS and

^am)

\l'' (SQ9 ^;0 (corner)
;

P7

;

(OOS

^t^n\
?ia7^e,

and ,^nnS

X!)

;

p;jO horn,

—jCJISDs and ^GlSO*

PP

^J^ and
Soiue

,

etc.

128

NUMBER OF NOUNS. Q
or Ol between

masculines as in some of the above examples, take
the plural ending and the last radical.
take

Also some feminities in |2
;

Q

and 01 before the plural ending

e.g.

\ti^6] j^^ojyle, ]ZqLd1;

XLi!^ part,

]lin^

;

"jAlLl

o/mX^, *|2q^; tSoVmo^A^r, VZoiSd]^
Sometimes
^a.

(AL0( handmaid, (ZoTiD| (compare § 49).
serted
;

is

in-

e.

g.

|Z.jQO>
|AjJQDQ£0,

hee,

|£u?as>

;

(AOOj

^^^ace,

(A-i^Oj

;

lAfiOQCD

7?iar^,

etc.

Rem.

5.

The composites
;

(§42.1) form the plural in such a man;

ner that either

a) the last part of the composite is inflected
;

e.g.

|m^O Aa^
kind,
or
;

granary, or

h)
e.g.

the

first

part

;

e.g.

|

•i

> i

«^

man-

c)

both parts

;

U-oZlO

tattling.
e.g. f-kSo

Rem.

6.

— Some words only occur
\Si\face,
(oii^) ivorth.

in the plural

;

water^

(jLJs4 Zi/e,

Rem.
Jtiihui
(p.

7.

—Some singular names
;

{collectives^

take the plural mark,

(§ 6)

e.

g.

\mDy

horses,

fr^^
and
|

ca^^/e,
,

p.1 sheep.

Amira

95) also places here \r^i birds

>

%*^ draft-cattle.

Rem.

8.

Greek nouns, without regard to gender, take the Syriac
;

e. g.

|<y^r>orfs »<y^|

g^iCxo'jroi,

Lw^2)

(poCkcLyysg,

tSQ..Oj 5oyixara.

Less frequently do they take
;

the plural terminations of feminines in \L

e.g.

\LQlDy^

fX7]p^ava/,

(ZojAcoI
• -H
e.
-X

droL^ioL.

Letters

which constitute the Greek singular
;

terminations are
9

commonly omitted
from
vo.ao^.

but in some instances retained;
plural terminations
(^

g.

^CDQSQJ
J

vo.aoi

The
by

hg and

rsg,

from from

J

and

ctg,

are represented
av^Piav-re^

and ^^

;

e.

g.

|,

iNo

xKti^sg

xXsij;

(^^'r^l

from

kvS^iOig.

The Syriac

often re-

tains the termination of the Greek plural

and of the
•SQ, J2D|,

cases, represent-

ing the accusative aj
7

(first

declension)
•• 7 7
T

by

J]DO and «£00|;
7

I.»

7

e.

g.

*£QJ01

Jwva^,
01

tlDtl-^^-S)

(piaXag,

»J2DQ1jZ|

'A&>)va^,

;nir) Ks^p^^faj;

and

ouj

(second declension) by

Q

and

DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN
«I]DO;
e.

129
and

g.

r>r^^ r)^m| y.Tr.uym^
;

.fr>r><y>

»

x><y^

dy.'ki^rfr^ur'

e. g.

I

U£LD

x£(paXaia

;

the genitive

by .Of

;

e.g.

tOl-.i^9|

a^x^t(Ajv

;

sj

and ag of the third declension
%flDO
;

are represented

by JXLa.,

•!©, .X»|

and

;

e.g.

*£D;£ao KaiCa^a^,
15

.nr>|o\<y>^-Xr/v^r
is

,£DQ1a.^01 'EXXrivag
;

£»j

from the singular in
;

represented by *I£u.

e.*.

g.

«£CLkXD9

(

ai^scfsj^

and the neuters
g-

ending in ara,

are represented

by |4

^^^^ l-bl

i

®-

w^yiOj

and

^pD..O>
nouns
;

^oyjxara.

Some

of these plural endings occur in Latin
;
e.

e. g.

«IlDpQJ| annonoe

^CDj^^COpD
g.
«IX> p...
'

castra.

The same

is

true in respect to Syriac words

;

garden^ for |i-« from

]Al '. (comp. Agrell

Otiol. Syr. p.

46—49),

§ 45.

Different Relations (States) of the

Noun,

1.

Besides the absolute and construct state of the Hebrew,
there
is

of wbich. the latter marks the genitive,

in

Sjriac
the

and Chaldee, an

emjjJiatic state.

It

originally

marked

noun with the

definite article.

It also

occurs where

we

should not expect to find the definite
Rem.
or

article.

—The
one.

indefinite article

is

expressed by the

absolute state,

by pM

There are

many nouns which
;

never, or very seldom

occur in the absolute state

e.

g.

J^Ql*

heat^

tLDQO

situatio?i

l^oZ
2.
diflPer

bull,

tZolb

death,

etc.

The

construct state

;

a) of
;

nouns masc.

sing.,

does not

from the absolute

state

e. g.

^s^ good ;

but in the

130
plural, the

DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN.
ending

^^

is

changed into «^.

;

e.

g. ^^-i^i

con-

struct state
i>

from ^^'^L*

IS'ouns

masc, which form the plural
. .
.

^

by ^^*j-»rQ
state is

44.Rem.l), change that termination into

%jla

;

e.g.

from

^r^;

^)
;

in the fem. sing., }e. g.

of the absolute

changed into 2

As2

from \^i*
;

To

the ter-

minations

Q and
e.g.

.^1—

only 2

is

added

e. g.

2o^\V) from
is

onW)

,

A^;^ from ^yo*
^
;

In the plural; Z
i^^i^*

appended

instead of
S.

A^^J from

The

characteristic of the
is final 1

emphatic
the

state,

for

both genThis

ders and numbers,
is
;

(= ^

Hebrew

article).
_i-

a) attached to the sing,
»

of nouns masc. with

preceding;

07

7

e.g.

JSOI from i<ll people.

In the plural the noun masc. takes
the falling

the
1*..

termination
7

[^ with

away of
y..

•-»-.

;

e. g.
7

7

f^yy
b)

the

men,

(from the constr. state w»p^yi
state fem. sing,

)

from J^yt
attached
before Z
;

in the

emphatic

and
i_

plur. (- is
falls

to the construct state.
e. g.

In the

sing.^

away

lALoAci from

constr. state
e. g.

i^oLd*

In the plural,

is

retained before Z;

]ASoAo from A-LoAo^
plur.

Rem.

1.

—The emphatic

state

masc. ends in
;

(^-

in

nouns
from

which take ^a-

in the phiral,

(§ 44.

Rem.l)

e.

g.
;

MrA^O
viz.

_u ,aSd»
6o?/.9,

Only three nouns take
and

(.&.-

instead of \m^

t«i

N^

|-ij^/ra^me/i^5,
,

(-a pw Jreas^, from the emphat. sing.

^.\^
]

1^

^

,

HH^*

The emphatic forms
Buxtorf
26.
l-'i.

^jJbD water, and
a third form, with
ii.

>^«
;

heaven, belong here.
g.

cites yet

]1I

e.

Rom.

ix.

24. ]1'^;

in

;

Ephes.

11. ]-!il^lI
ip.. 7

Hut these forms are not recognized by Amira, and the form
should perhaps be restored in these cases, as more correct.

in

[^^
fol-

The
:

lowing should be noted as irregular emphatic plural forms

(l*^*^ |

DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN.
from (o|//'Mt7,
(JL»A^>

131

from Uj^a) odor,
etc.

ji-JOV** from \Q\^sigkt^

(Ao

from (Aujb house,
2.

Rem.

—Feminiries with masculine endings
state |iL>
I
;

(§ 43.

Rem. 2), form
J-.;

the emphatic state like masculines by attaching the termination
e.g.

^>| mr^A, emphat.

^0;jD

^/lee,

empliat. state
is

fOjQ^»
quiesces in
(A.t.«*

Before the ending (. of the fem. absol.,

Q Q

inserted and
.


•X

«P«
;

-X

7

^

..07^

"i"

^

e.g.

I^^O^js*

from |0,»Myoy.

Forms with

(.k^

take

Some words
e.g.

in the

emphatic form take

before the last

radical;

(Ai^QO pD from PopD/ooc?.

Feminines which are
r^yi,

formed from masculines, like
adjectives,

(Z^^. from
state fem.,

and especially
the
syllable

form the emphatic
;

by

affixing
in^^'^sc).

\L to the masc. absol.
in \m

e.

g.

(AiQ^ (from
;

tiQnb

Adjectives
jJ.^

change
in

this

termination into t^a.

e.g.

(Au.^^ from

dull.

Those

^
into

take

^
e.

after

1

;

e.

g.

|AalV?»i;V) from ^^V>»h;V>
plur.,

compassionate.
before
e. g.
f

In the
;

emphat.

state

some words change
sheep.

Q

g.

(IQOJ from (*nT

Some
e. g.

take

m Q
;

(LQILd from

da^ part.

Others insert jb;

|A^^(Lo

from 1Z;iDPiD bundle.

Rem.
which
(vid.
is

3.

—The emphatic form
>
;

is

found even before the genitive,
the

formed by

e. g.

(n\V)> (r^Hl servant of

king

Syntax, § 73).

182

TABLE OF EELATIOXS OF XOUNS.

Tdbh of the

Different Relations (States) of the
(§§ 45 and 48).

Noun,

MASCULINES.
A. Nouns of one and

two
(Decl.

syllables
1.

with

immutable

vowels.

§

48).

Plural.
emphat.
constr.
absol.
'

Singular.
emphat.
^
5
''

constr.

and

absol.

Head.
Vessel.

•7» 7»

f P

"'^"i

..7 p 7

--x

£>

7

^

P P 7

7

Thief

•7-X

7

..T-x

7

^''*>

^

•X

7

Herb.
Nazarite.
»
-^

••

7

-7
..

7

X..

7

»P7
Nation.

^

B.

Nouns

in

which

— and —

of the ultimate syllable
is

fall

away,

but the vowel of the penultimate
^..
t
»f>

retained
»
P

(Decl. II).
7 7

7

7..

7

r^lO ..p
...t

%^ r^lO
7..
7
p

^ ^no
I.,
p

I..

7

naiCD
^07

^JOICD
...X

^Pp
fXJlCD
1
^

]

pa
lr»l

7

"rTlD
''>P

Talent.

_-»>01CD
i..»x

>aifiD
'

Witness.

^^

Vif-if

^r-^l

^r»|

^a«f7.
Altar,

r

U^AO
*

.ujL^^
»

^jJ^^ V^^)
-R

^^

»>

;

DECLENSION OF NOLANS.
C.

133

Nouns
falls

in

winch

(in gutturals
7

)

of the ultimate syllable

away,

and the vowel
(Decl

— appears

over the antepenultimate

radical consonant.

III).

)]'4£)'ALd

wiX^oASd ^-i!!L^Aii

1]'4^ASd

^\^ALd

(O^e dead).

D. Segholate forms, which begin with

a vacant

consonant,
or

over

which the original assumed in
«'T\..-

— —
or
..

reappears in

inflection,

Q

is

their stead.

(Decl. IV).

7

••7 •

7

X

7

H\vi
|;2iCD
»«•.
-X

._,.Kvi
•,F1S0

King,
Beck.

••

7

-X

••

I
•••

-x

(s)ao
*«-n..

^.AjB^on
•••7
7

^-i^joo
X
7
..

l»?ao
Ul^.

^0,0

Holmess.
Master.

7

»

..1»

7

..7
••

^Q
2>oa>

7

X
..X

7

JSOOa
_
-^

^jySOCU
7

^^AiOOk
7

lk)Ql

Day.
Eye.

..

7

7

U^'
DiS^

r-^

-ty

^]^

lls^

^4.

Impure.

E.

Nouns
f

derived from Verbs
into
wi

|J

ending with |-

,

^

,

•->»

,

in

which

passes

and

is

movable as in both the other forms

(Decl. V).

\jlL J

«i

iS

9

IIOIJ
7 »Pt7 [>\rr>Vr>
.

Zq1>
7t
>
,

^r^' ^Q1>
!'".''

H^'
[jJL^
"^^1
|

^^' tl>
1^
^ »
''

^^^^^

grazes.

Herdsman.

XonVn
*
7

7

^>\mV)
*
f*

\m V)

^

\mVr> Abandoned.

*
m^

7
<

7

U^
m.

>A«
»-n

Rest.

(in*

I

in»

^in«

7

|i*^<

(0«

Prisoner.

184

DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN.

FEMINIZES.
A. Nouns with immutable vowels (Q, ^A-,etc.) before the ending

U
BoAsi
Plural.
Virc/in,

(Decl.

I).

]lo Bride,

iLi^

Cify.

Singular.
absol.

emphat.

constr.

emphat.

constr.

absol.

lAl^oAi'

AKoAq

^oAo V^o^
Xt^
lAL^rk)

tS^otci

]]oAo

12^ A%D 4^'
AL-krlD

Aili
Aj->r^

Vd
M->r^

Alu

r^

r-^r^

B. Nouns, whose

final

syllable begins with

two consonants, which,
between them

in the emphat. state

sing. ha\ e -I- or JIL inserted

(Decl. II).

VLojf Widow,
i2^LsD-,r

U'^'

Chariot,

]£i{]

Alms.

AisD,T

^iv
^^1
^>i

i^^>r Av^iV
lAi^^^
(Aoji

w^n'
u;^^
jbji

12^1^:
1Ad>i

AS^
Atdji

AS^^
Aoji

C. Nouns, in whose emphat. state, the vowel of the

first

syllable
).

is

moved forward

to the

second vacant consonant

(

Decl. Ill

I'r^AA Partner,
^Pj?

]]Ll Cow.
^7a
7

••7

•?

••

7

P

••

7

.7

7

IZ'rTija

Z*r£lx.

^'pilLM

U*pCl>^

Z'pClAj

7 »P I'r^lM

lis^-

^^-

^^

lii^

iS

;

«:^-

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
D. Derivatives of Verbs
fl

185
whose 4^ and
Decl.

ending in

f.-^

and (O
and _^

,

O

in the

emphat. state

sing, quiesce in jl

(

IV

).

^*-mO

i?/ame,

|0>

»t

Animal,

'"

C ^*^^'

^P«

P-« 7

«>

••

7

"

7

»C«

•X7

TAi^

Aii^

^
|j

•77
^:ja

«P7
1114

IAA4

E. Derivatives of Verbs

ending in

Q

and
%jk

*.il- (

Z

),

beginning

with two consonants, and having

O

i^nd

movable in the plural

(Decl. V).

Q-fD* Thing, O »»>0 Plague, ^^'r-d Creature,

Q.J^* Request,

Alio Par^, 0;Sd Dominion.
p
.. -n

XL^l
»p,
p
..

r^-5
Zqj^
p..
-^

Zoa^
ZomId

(k,^

7

p

..

7

^Pa

-X

(ZglmId

QmID

0'-

-n

VaI-^
P
t

IL^
rzai,
l&lVi

Zu*^

J^
ol,
Aivn
•X

7..

rzos^

Zoi.p y
..

zai.
Alio

-x

p 7

..

l2oi^
120-;^

Zqi2j3

Zo3^

.0^

p.. 7

rzo-A^

Zo;k)

0*^

P

136

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES.
§ 46. Nouns- iviih Suffixes,

The noun,
suffixes, § 16),
1.

m taking
;

suffixes (see § 16. 2. B.

and table of
:

undergoes the following changes
a) the suff. in the sing.,

In masculines

is

attached to
e. g.

the emphatic state, with the falling

away

of j—

;

|^N^

with the suffix >>n\^> In decl. I. Ill, lY. Y. the radical vowels are not changed. In nouns of decl. II., the final vowel of the absolute state Jl or _^, reappears before the suffix of the 1 sing, and 2 and 3 plural
(from

y^^\
A)

(§ 48.

e. g.

^-Ns, emphat.
jaiCD
,

|V)Ns,

with suffix

.

>Vr>\v
;

jOL-flO,

nouns, which again before the suffix of the 1 sing, and 2 and 3 plur.
^>Cl»
,

with suffix ^OljOlflO* So also monosyllabic lose Jl or _!_ ii^ the emphatic state, take it
;

e.g.

emphat. jSO—•

,

with suffix ^a.^»

,

y^
(J

% (^r^ from

;^), etc.

In nouns,

derived from Yerbs
«ji

ending in \1
of the 1
,

emphat. state Vi (Decl. Y),
smg., 2 and 3 plar., quiesces

before the
;

suffix
•^
5'

m _^
;

e. g.

-

>

>

\^

n^.\^
•-»

-X

.

X

7

from

(j.^

,

emphat.
;

X^^-^i
»?*-«^-^

:

but before the other suffixes

is

movable
e.g.
a >

e.

g.

grammarians,
»

%j is

( and according to Syriac movable even before the suffix 1 sing
,

OuX^

\.^).

The same

is

true also of nouns ending with

«.k^

(passive participles of Pa.

Aph. and Shaph. of Yerbs Uj'
•X

§32.1,
X
7

I

7

7

7

§48 masculines, Decl.Y);
7.

e.g.

^oouAaLo,

.._>

AaVn

(. . >

A^Vr>
)

7

from ^AaSd drink.
sing, are

These nouns with suffixes of the
like the absol. state
;

1,

pronounced

e. g.

-» A>Vr>

ri-^iy

drink, (^aIDjQD

my

throne

from IffljQD

is

an exception).
\a
,

Here belong

all

the emphatic forms ending with

having

a vacant consonant preceding, excepting l-i^iD master^

which

with a suffix

is

as follows

:

^;Sd

,

y*^

,

oi;iD
X^,

,

.ooi;iD, etc.

Finally, in emphatic nouns ending in

having a vowel

preceding, the general rule

is

followed

;

e.g.

Kyi 01

reflection^

;;, ;

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES.
with suffix
•jLAytOl
,

13'/

or ykO\Ci creator^ with
is

suflf.

.-k-iO^
;

^0\^*
^11*ao»
stand for

The same
suff.

true of nouns with
,

11 for la

e. g.

iViQ^ with

»a(aQO ^|-»QO, wa^JaO^,
in cases
1

etc.,

plur. .^f^ao,

But
1-i
,

where the termination
1

H

does not

as in

pxD
;

takes Lin.
-x

,

occul. in suff. 1 sing.
,

and 2 and 3
other
suff.,

pkir.

e. g.

*apxo

,

^QDp.£0
suff.,

etc.

In

the
1 is
e. g.

and in the

phir.

with

the

vowel of
;

thrown back upon
t-t^P-CD
h)
,

the preceding vacant consonant
,

^(l£D ,phu\ wipXD

^pj2D

,

etc.

Plural suffixes in the masc. are attached to the construct
(§ 45. 2.

form
e. g.

a)

with which the
sing,

suff. 1 sing,

forms a crasis
passes into
oi,

«an\So»

In the

masc, however,

wk.

Q

;

e. g.

wtOionW)

(also «-a01Q-

= Germ, au (Engl,
p. 160,

nearly)^

according to Lucl.

de Dieu^

but not according to
-,
;

Amira)

;

and

in the 3 fern.

before wi passes into
,

e. g.

OiinVn
suff.

(§ 16. B).

Plural nouns with ^-»—

attach the suf-

fix to the construct

form ending

m

wi-a

;

e. g. ^^^-^yi

with

y\ *^v<
^ 07
\i
;

1

•-nOiQa.^..*
"

So
..-7

also in the

emphatic ending

#7
,

V,

with

M-

e.g.

;7*^^y((
;

wiOiQ^yt (see Lud. de Dieu, p. 163).

Also plurals with J^- e.g. m«^, with suff. %,i ,\ l and and those plurals which, with the suffix of 1 sing.,
from the
e.g,

»

^^j,
differ
;

sing,

with the same
suff.
''

suff.

only by taking Eibui
;

(uAmlD drink^ with
..7
7

w»4*^
''

plur.

emphat. J-^AmlsD

with

suff.

^^AaSd and wi^Aftk)

A

"

my

drinks.

Rem.
e.g.

1

.

Collective nouns sing, with Ribiii, take the suff. sing.
suff.

Illwith

oul

,

j^ll*
p.

Only

jjij]

takes

the

suff.

plur.

e.g.

,-itG1QAJ(*

Amira

213, supposes that |Lji9QO with both

suffixes belongs here.

138
Rem.
2.

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES.
\^\ father, paf
brother, \^hj^ father-in-law, are
suff.

formed

anomalously.

The
e.

first

two, with the

of the 1 sing.,
;

change
Final
(

into


m.7
,

;

g.

wk.2|*
is

The
»7
,

last

takes

e.g.

^aSOh.
,

before the other suffixes
•X -X

changed into Q;
etc.

e.

g.

^QOf

«.a^QO|

,

»7
,

-X

wuoiool
2.

aiaa] ^qo(

In Feminines

;

a)

the suffix in the sing,
state

is

attached

to the

form of the emphat.

with a union vow el preced-

ing

;

e.g.

OlALk)j1 from U^h] widow, emphat. state lAVvn;1,

The

suffixes of the 1

smg. and of the 2 and 3 phir. are

attached to the construct state without the union vowel,
to avoid the concurrence of three vacant consonants
;

e. g.

^l \n^^ from
Rem.
»P«

1;^i>j

,

constr. state 2;*^»t»

—From
7

|Z^

(emphat. state) mistress^
state,

is

found
of the
;

•OOlZ^*
1

In iL'fd daughter, constr.

L*^^ with the

J

^

suff.

^7
(p.

sing.,_

moves forward from the
It
is

first

to the second consonant

e.

g.

«^Z;2 *

should be remarked that the letter marked with Linea occultans
to

be pronounced,

if

the above suffix occur
suff.

;

e. g.

fAl a,V) with

suff.

.obAl^^,

IZpl with

%a2rl»

Amira
,

asserts

190)

that the laterSyrians have the form.tOOlAl^fLD

etc.

b)

In the plural, feminines take singular suffixes
, ,

;

e.

g.

^l^oLci s/l^oLci
Rem.

etc.

—In
;

respect to the cardinal

numbers
and

(§ 50. 2),
plur.

it

should be

remarked that they take both the
with the
first,

sing,

suffixes,

forming

possessive pronouns, and with the

last,

demonstrative
those

pronouns
twOy

e.g.

OlZ;rQl

his ten,

^OCLkJL

those two,

^GLkLJL.

tOGLkA^Z

those three.

, , ;

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
§ 47. Declension of Nouns in Oeneral.

139

Nouns are varied in respect to inflection (§§44.46) according to their form, either with or without any vowel changes. Thus they are divided into two principal classes, viz. those with immutable and with mutable vowels. The latter class, on account of its diversities, may be arranged under several paradigms, and together with the former class, takes the place of the declensions of the western languages (comp. § 48).
;

§ 48.

Exhibition of Nouns according

to

Declension.

A. Masculines.
Decl.
X I.

—This includes
more
-X

all

monosyllabic nouns as well as

those having
p
,

syllables than one, with
I
e. g.

immutable vow-X

7

els

(jb,

Q, Q,)

**-»> heacl^ p^D master^

j^d^^J^

lean,

Q.t midst, •..|.^Qa partition,

*^lOl native. To the
,

latter class
is

belong likewise those nouns whose penult. syllable
•X

either
P

7

a close one
e. g.

;

e.

g.

^Q^V* herbage,
or such as
7

(gentile

nouns with »^_

^'rf-^ Nazarite),
if
tlie
;

syllable,

would have a close penult Syrians employed duplication of letters
e. g.

(=

Dagh. forte)

*^^i« thief
Avith

Rem.
which
first
7

— Here
the
^

also

belong nouns derived from >iL Verbs
double the
final


g. X

in the plural,

radical letter,

and mark the
;

of

two
,^>

17
state,

doubled

letters

with
^

Lin.

occult.
_

e.
-X

^Q^nation, plur.

V)V)S» But monosyllabic nouns having

Q and ^
belong to
7
;

and

in the

emphat.

which change
•X

— and —
'^
.

into


«P

,

I

segholate forms(Decl.IV);
eye,

e.g.

pOQa

day, emphat.state |10Q^

^.i^

emphat.

state
•X

* P |l

7

iS

;

as

do those also in which under the same
;

circumstances

Q
i

^

is

transposed

e.

g.

v»0pO

holiness,

emphat. state

pi)QD* In
J^
ai
falls
;

^

\\ young man, M-»1Q1
inflection

kid,

and

•£CLi);2) 2^<^radise,

away

in the
state

and
,

^

with

_z. preceding,

forms

e. g.

emphat.

|V)i\\

etc.

140

DECLEXSIOX OF NOUN'S.
with _1 and JL, which have
or

Decl. 11. This includes nouns,
It

two consonants

;

e.g.

^Q« name^
mixed one
;

two

syllables, of

which

the penult. is either a

as in

W^oVn

(part. pass.

Aph.),

>K»

^iiV) mighty
e.g.
;

or

whose middle
;a . sparroiu
;

radical

must be

doubled
table

;

po
e.g.

a

talent ;

or has an

immu-

vowel

i»aSl eternity

; jcfico loitness ;

^J-^-yi wheel.

In these nouns, the vowel of the
excepting in the sing, before the
fore the 2

final
suff.

syllable fallsaway,

of the 1 sing, and be-

and 8

plur.

;

e. g.

emphat. state

]^\s

with

suff.

OlSoll
Rem.
etc.

,

,iV^^S, and ynnxKrKK.
also
^-i

—Here belongs
also

hand^ emphat.state l^*]
aZtor,
_;;_

;

plur.,_-ipil,

Forms

Hke t»»n,V)
syllable with

and

(M^^Lb belong
first

here,

which take a new

over

the

radical letter in

consequence of an accumulation of consonants
V

;

e. g.

|mCO^
*

(see
7

§ 15.

4).

The following
etc.

are examples

:

%mJ^

7

7

morning^

>.,>A<y^Vn

opening,
]'l I

From ,^iVV>

fountain, appears the

emphat. state

SV)

,

plur. I'Li'sV)^

Dcd. HI. To

this

belong those nouns, which, throughout
;

their inflection, lose JL (before gutt. _L) of the final syllable

but take _L as a helping vowel over the antepenultimate
radical

consonant,

viz.

;

in

participles Ethpe.

;

e.

g.

^^J^^Ak) dead, emphat. state ]]4oASd»
Decl.

IV. Here are to be enumerated

all

nouns which corLehrgeb.

respond with Hebrew segholate forms
p.

(see Gesen.

568

sq).

Such

for the

most part in Syriac, are monosyl-

labic nouns which begin with a vacant consonant, and have for their characteristic vowel _L or _!, which appears first

in the emphat. state over the

first radical.
its

In

this

form the

noun remains unchanged throughout

formations.

They

may

as in

Hebrew, be divided into derivati
*

" of verbs

with and without gutturals, and derivatives

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.

141

A) To
phat. state

the
;

first class

belong forms like -^-^^ Mng^ emphat.
emphat. state Ir^iCD; ,X-I
suff.'

state ]:3i\ So

\2^£D hooh^
;

child^

em-

1,JLi

with

oioIld

,

^C5\\Sin>

,

^^^

To

the form with

Hholem

in

Hebrew corresponds *ao^ holiness^
state

emphat.

state
2.

(comp. § 15.

l»>ao; '^0\a hnee^ emphat. B. b). The same applies
:
;

pioo

B) In forms with gutturals
jrdl; \y.lQ master^ emphat.
emphat. forms like

e.g. ,;Q1 slave^

emphat. state
also

state (JlO.

Here belong

y^j] earth, \\j\ cedar, \l^o\food, ps*>0| luay.
«.xl

C) Finally, derivatives of Yerbs

and Ql

lose

or

belonging to the middle quiescent radicals
nection with Jl,
'<^ eye,

^

or Q»

In con;
e.g..

JL

and Q form the dipthongs ai and au
|T

emphat. state

iN; wOQ>j guilt, emphat.state

I^Qaa

(AaQ

constr. state, liouse,

emphat. |Aj-Q).

Rem.

—The

following forms take

,

viz.

:

;mo flesh,

\^S^

side,
sea,

i^j^

counsel,

and the emphat. forms ]jd\ mourning,
shij:),

[^
etc.

1 1

1>>1 threshing floor, \<ny\

|j2iD|

lamh; from M^l,

Some
;

words which would in Hebrew, take Pattah, in Syriac, take
Vw..i/oo^, emphat.state |Jy.J
at the
constr.
,

_;;_

e.g.

etc.

f

is

considered as a guttural

when

end of

pd^
,

impure, emphat. state (pQL^, phir. absol.
*,

^|LQ^,
plur.

^lSc4 emphat. fiSO^
(

and

in the

emphat. form ]1)2,

—a()Z

also

^^l^ )

fi'oni

the absolute form ]jZ grass.

Bed.

Y.

Here belong derivatives (mostly
U (comp. §
40.)
is,

participles
I—, «^

and

infinitives) of Yerbs

ending in
that
1 is

and w»-_»

The distinguishing characteristic
and
is

changed into ^^

movable

as well as

both the other endings in the

emphat. state sing, and before the suffixes with the union
.•

emphat. state M^y«

,

with

suff.

OLiJi
f

. But

before the

suff.

of the 1 sing, and 2 and 3 plur.

quiesces in

142

DECLENSION OF XOUNS.
e. g.

;

.00UJiy.»

The same
Kem.
1)

is

true in the plur.

which
]
;

ends with
^^aJ^..*

^

(§ 44.

with the falling away of

e.g.

The

suffix is attached to the

emphatic

state

ending

with \1^ as well as to the constr. state ending with
respect to the changes of the vowels,
it

i.i^*

In

should be remarked
state,
if it
;

that the form with (. takes

— in the emphatic
e. g.

be

a monosyllable
]I.^..

and begin with a vacant consonant

e. g.

from

p.. revealed.

In words of two or more syllables
;

the preceding

vowel remains imchanged
from
|J..iMl5«

"pVwJk)

from

|V**iD, pt!l»iASD
«A.

Monosyllabic nouns with
;

mute likewise

retain their vowels

e.g.

(inn from

-

"^^
and
e.

wine.

Finally nouns ending with
see
§ 82.
1),

«jk. (part.

pass, of Pa.
;

Aph.
]
>

lose _L in the emphat. state sing.

g.

xmVn from

^iNffiV) abandoned ;
;

but -. appears again in

the emphat. state plur.

e. g.

|iNmV>»
ending with from ]£Q2*

Rem.
with

—From monosyllabic nouns
;

(_ we

find forms


>
I

e.

g.

f-*^*^ (Matt.

vi.

4)

Also from (J^ we

have the plur. emphat. 1^.^.^ as though from %\\(j*
also

Here belongs

V^« from

the obsolete form pio*, constr. state plur. *iV)»^

The part Pe.

act. differs

from the noun of the same form

by being

inflected as usual, while thenoun,in the plur.takes the

form of feminines

of

dexjl.

IV.,

and

|

is

changed into

Q

movable with J_ preceding
«

e.g.

(l) ^^as^wrm^, plur.

^j^'

,

constr.

i

i\>

,

emphat.

hA)

;

Jl)

herdsman, on the contrary, becomes in the plur. ^Ql9, ZqJLj, (Zq19*

From

I^Sd master, both forms of the plur. cccur

;

the latter form in

|fiD9Q2 throne.

The noun |'*^^
i*^1
;

2^^^P^^^j ^^ ^^^^ plur., contracts a.
>

and

I

into

.*.,

|

while the adjective

.i

ro takes yet another],
•»•'<

^»P

17
P^^i^"-

emphat.

!m->^j

-1X7 ^7 17 ^k^v^, rr'^^^

I

7

!m-vj^»

,

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
B. Feminines.

143

Bed. I. This includes all the Feminines ending with (which have an immutable vowel in the penult syllable. In this case the penult syllable has either a vowel with a letter
quiescing in
it
;

e. g.

lJoAQ^;^V^m, or the noun

is

a derivative

of Yerbs ^, in which case in the plural, the first of the duplicate radicals reappears, and takes Linea occultans
;

e.g. |J1 (also IJlin) pretense

from

ml

;

\io hride^ plur.

^^^So*

The

sulf.

of the l.sing.
;

is

appended

to the constr.state with-

«-iA^oAf3» out the union vowel The suff. in other e. g. persons is joined with the form of the emphat. state e. g.
;

^'t^ot^
Rem.
from

,

etc.

(comp. § 46.

2).

—From |ijiZqO

ivaistcoat,

appears the plur.

.

1 1

iZqD

as if

l^luZoO

or .-iJ-*ZqD»

Some forms with
;

final (j
c^7^/,

take Linea

occult, in the
|AjLji,1o
;

emphat. state under J

e.g.

fl^^^
p^j^f

emphat. state

or J falls entirely

away

as in

another^

emphatic

state

|Z^|«
11.

Bed.

Here belong

all

nouns

fern,

whose

final syllable

begins with two consonants. They have the peculiarity, ^hat between these two consonants, in the emphat. sing.,

— or — —

This vowel is determined by the vowel is inserted. belonging to corresponding masculine terminations e. g.
;

USdjI widoio^ (from

^^^isDj]

masc),

emphat.

state
;

j

AVvn ;^

114^ (from ^^4^ masc), emphat. state IAL^jd
rals
is

before guttu-

always the vowel inserted between the two conso;

e.g. \^\2i foivl^ emphat. state \L^\Zi^ nants in the emphat. In the reception of suffixes this declension agrees with deck

I

;

e. g.

^A^^DjV, OlAlSDjf;, ^Ail^D and OlAl|i)*
insert

Rem.
too

—Some
III.

Q

;

e. g.

PaSo/aZZ, emphat. lA^OSkSo*

So

l^i^'Z wonder^

|j!*jQ»Z love.

Bed.
the
first

This includes those nouns fem. whose vowel of
is

syllable

moved

forward, in the emphat. state to

144

DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
e. g.

the second vacant consonant
empliat. 12;ix»
class,
;

;

I^TLm female companion,

flyjJL

cow^ empliat. lAi^.Il*

Nouns

of this

taking a

sufF.

in the sing.,

are treated like nouns in

decl. I.

and II. Rem. Some nouns have

_

several
;

emphatic
g.

forms.

Thus
|AO)l*
terror

\0'i\ cdms^

has three emphatic forms

e.

|Ao>l

,

|AO)l

,

In the same manner also are inflected

pi^>

offering^

(AOIO

|*^m

looman,

(Jjs») fictr,

etc.

The
:

following contractions in the
\i-r^ for \LLfj^ new,

emphat. state should be mentioned
for

l^^yi
brick.

(Aia.. from P^yt

vine^

\tf^
fern,

for

|Al^\

from |1*^N

Bed
ing in

IV. This includes

derivatives of Yerbs U end-

M

and

(0»

It

should be remarked in reference to
syllable is

them

that the

immutable vowel of the penult
,

retained,

and
;

m and Q
e. g.
(

in

the emphat. state sing., quiesce

in

— and—
first

Aa-kjO

from y^^o • reproach^

\/n^

»>

from

lou-j^ animal.

If the masc. be monosyllabic the vowel

of the
(jii^

syllable falls

away

;

e. g.

lA^jL^ from ]!^^

girl,

masc).

But

in the constr. state,
;

and

in all the plurals,
,

a.

and Q are movable
,

e.

g. A.i«m»o

,

Zqj-kj

A-iA^

,

plur.,

^1 Mpf
Rem.

etc.

—Here belongs
^a.
,

also the participle act. of Pa.

and Aph.

;

but

the fem. participle pass, in the same conjugations, ending, in the

masc, with

takes


.7

instead

of

in
;

the
e.

emphat.
g.

state.

With

this
1".

vowel
#7
7

^

forms the dipthong ai
7

t>N.i V)

^

Decl. V.

To

this

belong mostly monosyllabic derivatives

ending with

Q and
;

«u.

(some end in Z ), which
a»*lo calamity,
*^'ff^

begin with two consonants
ture.

e. g.

crea-

Also

dissyllabic

nouns belong here with immutable

ANOMALOUS NOUNS.
vowels in the penult syllable
;

145
•ujoZ thanks^

e.g.

qD]

victory^

whose O and
plur.

w* qniesce,
*ji

throughout in the sing.

But

in the

where o and
take

are movable,

some nouns
letter
;

(derivatives

of Pa.)

after the
,

second radical
,

e.g.

Q^«

entreaty^ plur.

.Q^»

Zoji^.

|Zq^«»

Nouns ending with

2 belong

here,

which

in the plur. take
plur.

Q with

the falling

away of Z;

e.g.

D^ offering,

#0^1,

Zo^, 1Zq^»
ZqLdj, |ZqSoj;

Other nouns (derivatives of Pe.) take
ical letter
;

— —

after the first rad,

e.g. qIsDj resemblance^ plur. tOS^Dj
;

or with gutturals following, they take
P

e. g.

a»Aio

5?oi^,

7

plur. tOKKSo, etc.

Rem.
^

—The same
_

peculiarity of taking a
••7

new vowel
s^e^/),

is

found also
7

^O
,

-n

in 0;SiD authority/, plur.

lOjiO

etc.
if

;

(aOl

plur.

.OOJ and
So
also in

\^0 a hundred,
P

plur.

(ZopD
P

as

from

Q£1JI
|j
;

and OpD»
e. g.
P

some nouns which
#7
9
;

are not derivatives of
testimony/,

Q-i\^ 2^^^^^^^^''^^
^
ir\

-X

^P •

plur.

^Oy^j^
,

OjOlQD
,

plur.
,

|Zo>Gl£D,
others.

and even

onW)

»onNV)

besides

•O'^W)

and some

§ 49.

Anomalous Nouns.

Some nouns

of very frequent occurrence are inflected in
less

a manner varying more or

from the above mentioned
from an attempt

paradigms

(§ § 47, 48).

This

arises either

to unite different ground- forms, or

from the simple ground

form conforming

less closely to

the general laws of inflection.
:

These nouns are the following

146

PARADIGMS OF NOUNS.

MASCULINES.
Plural.
emphat.
constr.
absol.
I p\r

Singular.
emphat.
constr.
absol.

(oiof

*jC7ii:i|

^oic^l
^oiof

\L'i

.^V
7

-^T

Father,

(Zoi^f

Zoio]
..

7

^iio
..X
p

l-o

•fli

5on.

T£o
«K

r^.n

A^o
7>

7

••*

P

]^9
I'ZaiSoft

ioiio*
p

i2o,7r

zo,7r

"7 ,^y

]ur

i'zr

FEMININES.

p ••

Aiib
P

..*7

rA>i
••

— _
Ak)V
Al£)0l

..^^Daughter.
Sister.

PD] Maiden.
7

.V

^.. I

i^7

IAsdI'

Zq1£>V
2p
..
-ft

l^ol
VAl»
p ..
-^

V^o]

People,

AiA

|ZQ21£D
ikP.

.Q£iJCD
p ••
-x

l^sui

——
Idoj

Ztp.
P/ace.

P

••

-x

|A^0)

Ali)0)

148

NOCJNS

T\^ITH

SUFFIXES.

Paradigms of Nouns
A. Masculine Nouns.

Singular.
Stat, absol.

Decl.
ft

II.

Decl. TV.

Decl. V.

90120
Witness.
-ffzw^.

^oy.

Drink.

Suflf.Sing. 1 c.

i-i)Gl£0
P

2 m. 2 3
3
f.

Y^>

)au]o

*jlO)01£D
OljOlflO

m.
f.

oin\V)

olLL^

ouAaIo ouAaIo

OlJOlCD
r)C71£0

oinSV)

6l^^

Suflf.plur. 1 c.

2 m.

.QOJOlflD
,-a£)>012D

2

f.

3 m. ^OOljOlCD

3f.

_.! 01)0120

^6oin\^ ^oialk)

OOUJ^ .oouAaSo ^ouJ^ ^ouAaSd
A"*"

•X

.x

5',

*v

^

(To
.

tlie suff. 1 sing,

of the forms

V^

and .-lAak) add
,

.

i

i\(^ and
^

>

>A^Vn compare a^AaSD
^

§ 46.

1. a).

^,

Plural.
SufF.sing. 1 c.

^JOIQO
7
P

7

^)01CD
7

P

7 •

7

2 2

m.
f.

^)OlfiO
^ija-ijoicb
7
,

i^inNV)
7 • 7

3 m.«aO10>Ol£0 3
f.

%u010nW)
oi>n\v>

v^oiq!i4

«^oiq1X^

ouioicD

OL1X4

ouJi.^

Suff.plm-. 1 c.

^joim
•X

~in\V)
.

P

7

2 m. tO^ji^OlCD

N-ny

p

^-^

2

f.

-jLlLklOlTD

^>^>'^\^^
.001
1

7«7

3 m..OOUjOl£D
3
f.

n\V)

^OOLiJ^

^^OUJOICD

^-jOIi^W)

^O

l i

^i

\^ ^Oli >\^
^001
i I

NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES.

149

with Suffixes,
B.

Feminine Nouns.
Decl. IV.

Comp. §

49.

Table.

Decl.

1.

Decl V.

]]oAo
Son.
?>

Father

Maiden.

Petition.

-or
•X

-Alii

^7
^7
..7

•X

•X

oii\LbZo
7

Ol

di'Zo^.
X
-n

.7
.H?

•X

•X

-X

^qdA114
^
•X
1\
-»>

.qoZqI .

-X

^7
»7

^aH^
Ao ^ooiAIX^ ^ooiZolk. .-aCTiASoAr:^ ^GlAlL^ ^oiZqL*
.

•X

-X

-n

-n

.001 Q^ I ^ « T »
-X -x

OCT! Alio

^oAa
Flood
^

^li4

p

#7

••

Waters.
..

7

wiASoAiD
••

7

j^ASoAo
^j^'ASoAo
•^cnoio

'tLKi

^^a1!i4
-^»

P t

7^^

oiASoAri
oi'AlLoAs

ctTaH.^

oiZo^.
aiZoj^.

oilk)

ctAH^
.QoAiX^
^ooiAlL^
j>'S>

.^oAo
oa^^
V^
9>

.qoASo^A^
^-xoAlLoAo

.obZoii^

••

7

-X

.. y

.ooiAloAo
7^

.ooiZoS^
^oiZoji-

OGLii^O,

tOCTii i^T)

r>

.

•)

-x

^Ol ASoAts ^01 A

I

*

150

ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS.
§ 60. Adjectives

and Numerals.

Adjectives being derivatives of verbs (see § 40. and tables) and having the same form as nouns^ are inflected according to the same laws (see §§ 44, 45, 48). In respect to
1.

denominative adjectives, see
Rem.

§ 41. 2.

—The Syriac

superlative.

has no special forms for the comparative and For the manner in which these are expressed, see

Syntax § 77.
either cardinal or ordinal. In the former we should notice the peculiarity, that masculines from 3 to but feminines, on 10, as in Hebrew, have feminine endings the contrary, have masculine endings. From 20 to 100 there is only one form for both genders.
2.
;

Numerals are

The numbers from C
Fem.
Masc.
7

1 to 10 are the following

:

A.RDIN ALS.
Fem.
1.

Masc.

r^
^tii
til
Xtll

A.'

Xt^
1"
^

6. 7.

2.

^o*
liioZ

3. 4. 5.

11l<:)Z

8.

MiiV

]ioir

^l
\mL

K.r
with

9.

10.
suffixes,

Rem.

—Upon
2. b.

the union of these numerical words

see § 46.

Rem.

The

tens from 30 to 90 -are expressed
;

by
30,

the plural of
^^ i

the cardinals from 3 to 9
^^ » 11

e.

g. 70,

^SLl

sn>f

40,

V) » > 50,

^A»

60,

^i\n9

^^>1V)2 80, ^-*A»2 90.

The
the
or

plural of 10 (^^^201) represents 20.

All plurals are of

common gender. Itb signifies 100, ^^ti) 200, 1]SdAL2 12o]!iD A^Z 300, etc., with the preceding unit in the fem*2il^
signifies
1

imne.
phat.

000 (instead of «J^!^ or -'^^^ em,

lalS.

,

plur.

^^i^\s.

|alL )

;

^j^!L ^>Z

significfl

:

)

APJECTIVES AND NUMERALS.

151

2000, ^i'^^ TA!^Z 3000. etc. (with the preceding unit in the masculine). The intermediate numbers from 11 to 19 are formed by the union of units with 10 in one word, in the following

manner
Fern.

Masc.

Fern.

Masc.

T^li'l
,£QiMZ

-MU
*,£aiAlZ
7

12.
18.
1

-^22^
,msn»
^ ^
7

i

!«•
iy.

^mv'^i
7
P

7?
15.

1

1'^"

«

r

1

«

I

tfnsaV>M

V 7 V/h «mvA>vr>.>

....
I

.y, jcqiaZ

7

;ms»Z

7,

19.

The intermediate numbers from 21 to 29, 31 to 89, etc., are formed by the numeral representing the number of tens, followed by the numeral under ten preceded by o e. g.
;

lA^Zo
the

^A^Z

masc. 33,
;

^mlOjaO

^A*

fem. 65.

Sometimes

number
li£i»o
3.

precede e. g. ^;£Q10 ]Ldh\ 24, etc. So if the of numerical words combined be large, the greater numerals are always placed before the smaller e. g.
units
;

^pCOio ipmloZo -^^ 1827. The ordinal numbers, from 3 to 10,
fem.,

are formed from

the cardinal numbers

by adding the terminations

U

masc,

]A^-

and inserting

the first^

a particular

differing

somewhat

Foi before the ultimate radical. used, and for the second^ a form from the form of the cardinal for 2.

^

word

is

ORDINALS.
Fem.
VAjlLd^^
(A.iJLk)Z

Masc.

Fem.
the first.

Masc.

l^rJ^

l^U^u^
|

X^L^Ea
iSiOft

the sixth. the seventh.
the eighth
/A<'

[lujL the second. (Z\iSi*^t>

XLk'LkS.l
|A><>*-^%

X^k^l
(^S,n?

the third.
the fourth.
;/^6

l2ulaii)Z

)li^Z
]l{iifrS

\LLL^JtL |aS»i»Z

nm.'A.

(7l.«.<^>> ]'>,a,Vn>i

//^A.

liLfimS

the tenth

152

PARTICLES

—ADVERBS.
Hebrew,
»i >;rftv
f

The
either

tens of ordinals from 20 are expressed, as in

by

cardinal

numbers or by the addition thereto of the
|Ajl

termmations (.^ masc.,
> 1 >
I

fem.
are

;

e. g.

l^l^Ai^Z,

<^r^;
I
^

etc.

The

units

put after

;

e. g.

]^A^Z
formed
.>

The intermediate numbers from 11 to by uniting the ordinal number 10 with
nals,

19, etc., are

a unit of the cardi;

into one word, the unit

preceding

e. g.

jA.»,fr>k^

fem.,Pi*piXai,-M masc. the eleventh, ]Lk\

nwLjL fem., (>;.mv;/

Sometimes the ordinal 10 is united with a cardinal number and the word is preceded by j e.g.
masc.
7

the twelfth, etc.

;

7

7
,

^

,'^jy
,

•,£Cllr>*?

\aiLylJ

etc.

Rem.

— The Syrians, hke the Hebrews, express the idea of a part,
and the insertion of
,

by a feminine form
letter
;

Q

after

the
etc.

first

radical

e.g.

lA^oZ

]loo>

,

mIlSdOx* third part,

Upon

the

other relations of numbers comp. Syntax § 78.

CHAPTEK FOUETH.

PARTICLES.
Particles belong adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions In respect to their origin they may be considered as primitive, derivative, or transferred from other The last are by far the most numerous. parts of speech.

To

and

interjections.

§ 51.

Adverbs.

1.

The
|j
,

following

may

be considered as primitive adverbs:
there,

_»1

so,

Q^

not,

^^Z

]b

here.

2.

Those derived from nouns and adjectives with the
Al
,

characteristic endings

Zo- and A^l

,

are the following

;

,

PREPOSITIONS.
Alk)f£) at first, ZqIojZ again, Li!\gi!^
Aji|;iQl Hehraically, (liDQji today.

153
godly,

Aa'rj^l at last,

Aj|;a^
8.

m

5/io?'^,

As

transferred from
:

other parts of speech are to be
a

considered those
a)

from substantives

;

)

with a preposition
fil^l^
j3)

;

e.

g.

(Z>k£:) finally,
,

p;a2
^

^r2</?/,

o?2ce,

^h^
,

inwardly^

.

\^

1

Knin-trmpdiaiphj

ui^>^Sd aneiv ;

without a preposition;
^^JD wholly,
en-

e. g.

'^*^ (want)

not,

(Amk) enough, oiXo
;

foVeZy,

also in the plural |Alol sometimes
e.
tt^

h)

from

adjectives,

numerals and pronouns;
^

g.
o?zce,

%jq4, ^-^otD very,

^Om\,
as the

0>Ao

o?2^?/,

r*A^l
,

,

ir»*^l

lr»^^ immediately, |Sqo

how much ? fiSo^
infinitive,

CLlk)

i^'/^y

.^

c)

from verbal forms,
,

%^6L again ;
adverbs

or participles ,^m»»V)\
are
transferred
|xaX»tf<ra,

^<^vk^
;

Vo

almost.

Rem.

— Some
ixaXXov,
is
:

from the Greek
shr].

e.

g.

.oWV)
guage
lowing
•.uAIdIj

^m>\V)
in

\£^

The Syriac
Such are the

lanfol-

especially rich

-compound adverbs.

la^l lohere? P-i|j

P^A

wherefore?

(J

^^ulO,.! not yet,
z^w^zY nozz;,

liOA ^^^
to he
all,

l^''W ^

1*^
may

^^<5^^')

H^ A 1*01^

etc.

Among compound
Aa.L not
(see

adverbs
§ 38).

also be placed

the circumlocutory
is

The simple
of

interrogation
7
:

either not

expressed at

or

by the addition
,

»->JD

the negative interrogasyllable
;

tion, is expressed

by p

and (ai P*

The

wi*)

prefixed

to pronouns

and adverbs expresses an interrogation

e.

g.

pZU |

—Lo

whence

?

(la |

who

?

§ 52. Prepositions.
1.

To

y (gen.),

noun

the original Prepositions belong the prefixes *Q (dat. and ace.) which are always joined with a or pronoun, and are vacant when the noun or pronoun

^

^\vr>\ begins with a regular consonant e. g. JjQaid Prefix prepositions take the vowel, which is usually _L, when
; .
,

(

154

PREPOSITIONS.

]»vn*^ the following consonant is vacant e. g. or when the vowel falls back from the quiescents
;
^

)>V^^
]

or 01;

e.g.

]]^o from

l]So for

] ]Lo

;

wiIdooi^
1,

for
,

-

>^ A^«^,

Before vrords which begin with

^

or oil

the vowels, in

which these
prefix
li> I
,

letters

qniesce, fall
,

back upon the precedino"
,

;

e. g.

"jlj^s

^jIjo^
and

,

1r»]J

l.iNiK joiiS
,

from

etc.

Rem.

—Before
and

|A»

6,

^As, these

prepositions take

,

pro-

bably because they were also written lA»^

and _ftAAl«

In
falls

>\oaD
y>rOQ^
which

>0>ao
2.

the preposition i^ quiesces in

Q

,

* which

back (comp. § 15.
,

B.

c.

and the tables following);

e.g.

^^^J^Oq\
in

except

when

suffixes are

appended with a union vowel,

case the _J_ of the second syllable falls
;

away and the

original

form reappears
tions

e.g.

01Aa on\

etc.

Among

the original preposiwitk^

may
to.

also

be reckoned the monosyllables

^Ql

Zq21^

6y,

2q1
2.

Most of the other prepositions are considered as transferred from other parts of speech a) substantives in the
;

constr.state

;

e. g.

^^O
ir**

be/ore,

tPOy

instead, *'^\nfor^

.

.^

.^

and Al in between,
^k? (fromAllD
prefixes
before
;
;

^^^ *^>r^

about,
;

Lo^L and Lko^Limder,
b)

jjari)

from,

>Aq

after
to,

substantives with

e.g.
c)

>AcDlQ according
;

^^ss^ocl^ against,

compounds

e. g.

-^

I^A

'^'-ritil

to,

^^Cl^ ^^^ over,

,^^*^ —IsD without, Jjjsj ^Ld around, about, Vi^ClOO^ _S^ against, 3. Several of the prepositions seem to have been originally plural nouns, on which account they are united with
plural
suffixes.
.p

Here belong >o^

over,

j

|

gainst, ^SL^t^for,

^^^

y^

%

. O

,

^O
.

after ^ a2.

before,

ZOj^Z under (comp. § 16.

C.

and the following paradigms).
^Instead of saying that -^ quiesces in
said that

Q

the author should have
it,

^ takes

the vowel

_

with

Q

quiescing in

as ]^

is

not a

quiescent (see § 13).

Tr.

PREPOSITIONS WITH SUFFIXES.

155

Prepositions with. Suffixes.

(

§ 16. II. C.

and § 52

).

A.

With

Suff. of the Sino.

B.

Of the Plur.
>

Masc.

Fern.

2q1
in.
io.

after.

against.

over,

on oxcount

of.

Sing.
1
C.

wfc.£

2 m.

y^

26^

Plur.
1
c.

^2q1

^Ao

y,

^-Soonl

to

.-x

•«

^i\s

V

A!i4k5

2

f.

^»nn ,-ujdZq^^-»^)Ao ^inNoncL^ ^i^nNs ^-l^AI^4^

3
3

m..ooio ^oGiLa^ ^G\jt£i ^ooi^>r:LDCL^^ai i \s ^ooiA^^^^
f.

^Gi2 ^oiZoIi^ai^'Aa^ai^noQ^ ^OTulIi^cnAl^^

Rem.

—The following
^\lL
except.

take no

suffixes

:

La^

in,

;^\
until

ivithout,
to,

Q.i^

within,

oi^er,

AjaAi^ under,

\^t^

and

^ID ^^^

166

CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
§ 53.

Conjunctions

and

Interjections.

1.

The

original Conjunctions are the copulative

O

,

j tliat^
lience^

because (^before infinit.),

Aif^^

as^ since^

o\ or^ *jk^
§ 51. 3.

^Qj^ (for this preposition in questions see

Kem.)

namely.

^J

lest.

Rem.

— O and

J

,

like

«^ and

^

,

are prefixed (see §52. 1).

2.

Compound
tlo — ^]o

Conjunctions are

;

a)

with

^1

;

e. g.

Q-L

if,

^

U] and IJo-^ unless^
he
it

but^

^\
it ;

although^

^j
;
'

ooul and
lest,

^rA

if

he

b)

with

j

e.g. IJj
?

especially

after prepositions
because, >
e. g.

;

e. g, >

^]

as, j ^^:^-4^

^^

^^^ ? *^^-»
;

_!^

lest,

j

liSOA until ;

c)

with other conjunctions
tQ.i

^^aSOI
7

he7ice,

m i^V)

?2oii;,

p

there/ore,
(J
(

Jii^

p

although.
-^

From

the Greek are borrowed

ctXXa, ;a.. yag^

^

3.
e.

Interjections as primitives are mostly onomatopoetic

;

g.

oj

,

^0(

/

^o
i/

luo I

(01 behold !

^OU
I

7«e?/

/

Aa

/
;

They
e.g.

are sometimes
,

borrowed from other parts of speech
y<^^
•'

%SoA»(

%jtQ^

o^*^*^

I 'pray you

;

PART THIRD.
SYNTAX.
CHAPTER
FIRST.

THE PRONOUN.
^ 54.

Use of

the Sepo.rable

Personal Pronouns and Suffixes.

A. Separable Personal Pronouns.
1.

These pronouns

at the

beginning of a sentencp,denote

a certain emphasis, and stand in various relations to the verb

which follows in the same person. This
a)

relation
e.

is

not only

;

that of the
Aj|
.

nominative absolute
piiD —ij
iv. 20.,

;

g.

Rom.

xiv. 10.
tliou thy

^Q>j|J

(>

Aj|

hut thou,
15.,

why

judgest
iv.

brother !
it

Eph.

Acts xix.
;

II Tim.

5
;

;

but
e.g. a)

may be
7
9

also represented
;

h)
iii.

by
11.

the oblique cases

by the

genitive

e.g.

Matt.

n\o«V)^
to

V^l -

1^* V? O^n
,

t-kCIOJCOLo ivhose shoes
11.,

I am.
/^ )

not luorthy

unloose,
e. g.

John

xix.
ii.

Ephes.

vi.

20

;

by the

dative

;

Kirsh.

2.

*AJ|
7)

ii\ j^\£^ P pjo
;

hut no one. comes
e.g.

to

me,

Luke xxni.41
^oAj|>

by the accusative

Kirsh.iv.7.-9.

^i\n

pD 001
find in

OiA»»t]
the

lohat
time^

you

seek to

find in
not.

the night,

I seeh

to

day

and find

it

158
Rem.

THE PROxoux.

—They
I

are

also

emphatic

after the

verb;
?

e.g.

Luke

iii.

14.
> <
|

—Ijsj

^2)

,*^M plD

ivhat then shall

we do

Upon

^QJf and
table.

as accusatives,

comp. § 16.

Rem.

1.

and the preceding

2.

United with substantives, adjectives or adverbs they
the Present
\^\» she
;

mark

a) of the substantive
is true-^

verb looi

(see §38);
is

Matt. xxiv. 26. 001 t^)QMjo he

in the desert

;

verse 23. OOl
participle;
64).

pjOl
e. g.

he

is

here

;

h)

of the finite
tS\

verb with

its

\i\

'^'\

I say^

r^—
of the

thou art horn

Rem.

(comp. § (Upon | and 01
7

see § 12.

1.

B).

—The contraction
is

pronoun with the participle or adjective into one word
«
9

found in the
It is

7

I

I

7

1

pers. plur.

;

e. g.

—la;iD
*.

ive

read

^

.

1 i

jipO we are holy.
e.

also

found sometimes in other persons

;

g.

Eph.

iii.

13.

Of
;

ii-^M*

T beseech
3.

;

Gal.v.3. Orii>>> he is guilty

iii.

11 (comp. §20.and§37.E).

Farther in these cases

;

a) the

pronoun of the same

person

may be

doubled, so that the former will denote the
;

subject and the latter the substantive verb

e, g.

John

i.

20.

PI PI

/ o.m
;

;

xiv. 20.

lOAj | .„i^

i

oAj

|

ye are in
is

me

;

Matt,

xxvi. 73

or the part, present of the finite verb

placed bexxvii. 4;

tween

;

e.g.

Matt.
;

iii.

11. fj(
;

^^Ik)

\l\

I

baptize;

John
h) the

xiii.

13

Barh. 68, 16

105, 14

;

148, 15.

In the simple pronoun

may be
;

contained

both
4.

subject
t;-^*

and substantive verb

e.

g.

Gen.
?

xxix.

^1»t

^Ld

— fO^I
I.

pV>M
;

whence are ye

we are from

Haran
c
•the
)

;

Assem.

83

12. 13.
,

The pronoun OOl
1

as substantive verb,

may

follow
8.
tf

and 2 person
001 pI

as
;

subject

;

e.

g.
f»»
;

Acts

xxii.

^Q.mjk

I am

Jesus
;

Luke

xxii. 67.

iaV> ooi Aj|
Ephr.
I.

if thou art the

Messiah

verse 70; xxiv. 18

214. E;

Bnrh. 173, 18-20.

Also ^Qjf and ^jY, follow the 1 and 2

PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.
pers. as subject
;

159

e. g.

Matt. v. 13.
I.

1lj]> oLkL^Ld .qjI toAj]
17;

ye

are. the salt

of the earth;

Cor.

iii.

Barh. 183.

1.

Rp:m.

—Instead of the pronouns, thePhiloxenian version
suff.; e. g.

of the N.T.

uses Ai*! with

^^OloZuf
B.

|j(

lQm\ ^Q2uAji1

.oAj]?/*? are.

Suffixes

1.

The pronominal
;

suffixes of the verb denote the accusa-

tive

rarely,

and

for

the most part in translations from
;

the Hebrew, the dative

e. g.

.-i-jA^ou for

v^ Aoou

thou

hast given to one. Rem. This imitation of the Heb. is neglected in passages of the e. g. Zach. vii. 5. comp. with Ephr. II. 296. B. and Isa. xxiv. O. T. comp. with II. 65. C. 4,

;

2.

In tbe relation ox genitive, the suffixes are attached to
to the genitive proper; e.g. Ez. xvi. 18.

the

nomen rectum or

wi-OAo»>

p

jSo

thy

embroidered
;

garments,

literally

of

thine embroidery

or ornament

vii. 20; xi.

15

;

xxvii. 16, 27;

Matt. vi. 11. ^mJQCDj |V)»»N our necessary bread, literally of our need. Rem. The suffix is seldom found with the nomen regens ; e.g. Ez.

^p«

-x

"

*.

P

••

-x^

xvi. 27.

(LQ^JI) wkSZlM)0| ^LO of thy lewd

tvays, usually in coniii.

nection with
f1 i

p i V)>

the right,

and pSOfiO

the left ; e.g. Acts.

7.

V)-ji> G1r-ft(^ on his right hand', Matt.v.29; Rev.i.I7.
;

Sometimes
>^;D,\

a double suffix occurs thy first born.
3.

e.g.

Ephr.

I.

204. B. and C.

^;^QO

The noun taking
it
;

a suffix

stands before an
1.

adjective

connected with
good

e. g.

Ps. Ixxxvii.

(a^i^ OIjQ^^

m /m Ao??/ mountain'',
his
4.
e. g.

Ez.

vi. 9;

Epbr.

I.

284.

A. \cl^ Oii.oj

treasure.

The

suffix to tbe

noun

is

often understood objectively;

Exod. XX.
^?^

20.

OTAl^K^jyear before

him

;

I Cor.
10.

xi. 25.

•jlJ^OjA
Rem.
B)
;

love to' him',
1.

remembrance of Barh. 218, 14.

me

;

Jobn xv.

C\CiO^
sufF. (§
;

—Possessives
Barh. 49.
7.

are also expressed

by ^\aj with

16.

e. g.

Gu^)

|Ja.MJiu) his

commander

146, 10.

160

PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS.

This manner of expression is used particularly when a stronger emphasis is required than is indicated by the mere suflBx e. g. Matt.
;

vi.

13.

(ZoQ^ilO w*Ql yt\

i>

thine is the

kingdom

;

Barh. 146,

1.

to the

;m.O) ^~^? |AOj JLpl our great church in Haran. If the suff. noun be also repe'ated, it indicates (emphatically) the Greek
Sjuio^
;

possessives
gfjiov

Co^,

&c.
xv. 9

;

e.
;

g.

John
3.7.
;

iv.

/3^wjxa

vii.

6

;

Rom.

iN>> «^A^Cl2pD 34. The same repetition of the
>

•7

17

suffix occurs also
^v
Tjfjurv
;

in
ii.

prepositions

e. g.

II Cor. v. 19.

^-^>
e.g.

I

John

^^
7

2,

and in certain forms of expression;
y)}hoig
;

Matt.

xxvii. 4.

—^ pD ^>
2.

r/ itfog

John

xxi. 22.

Rem.
for the

—We should mention the use
in

of the

suff.

in «^;iO
,

,

t

J^,

pronoun of the second, and
of the
;

^^£11, j^^^l
the
16.

^^r^i^j^or

the pronoun
to

first

person,

when
xliv.

discourse

is

addressed
7

*x

»0

superiors

e.

g.

Genesis

«^;V)

N !^H

M^

P

what shall we say
servants'') iniquity ;

to thee

{my

lord) ?
St)

^,*^s\
ii'i

verse 32.

kings

Ioi^a* our (thy speaking of themselves
write

use
in
is

]n\V)
{my)

;

e.

g.

Esth.

viii. 8.

]'^\V)>
in

]Sn«n QOo'Ao
to

the
e.

hinges

name ;
v. 1.
;

and

reference

God,

<7T»,-Ss

used

;

g.

Gen.

Also
e.

w>^iO stands connected with the

second
he calls

and third persons

g.

Mark
differs

xii.

37.
7

t^^lO
,

CTL^

\\0

him
the

his

{my) Lord^ and
is
i.

from

^pD

in that the for-

mer

is

common form
e.

of salutation, while the latter

marks the

pluralis majestatis, and

used of Christ in the version of the
1
;

New

Testament

;

g.

Acts

Rom.

xiv. 8.

be considered as an imitation of a Hebrew idiom, when the suffix relates to a noun which does not occur till later in the discourse (comp. Gesenius Lehrgeb. p. 739) or when the noun itself is repeated instead of the pronoun e.g. Gen. xvi. 16.

Rem.

3.

It is rather to

;

;

§ 55. Pleonastic

Use of Pronouns.

A. Separable Personal Pronouns.

Here belongs
(comp, § 12.
sing,
1.

tlie

pronoun of the

third,
all
is

person ooi

(Ol)

B) united with nearly

persons of the
is

and

plur.,

by which an emphasis

denoted, which
still

disregarded in the later language.

It is

found

in such

PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS.
passages as
thai (exactly)

161

John

viii.

26.

]k^\\n XA \\\^V) ooi ^.i^oi
verse 28
;

I
;

speak he/ore the world ;
Ileb. ix. 17.
It is

xv. 16

;

Kom.
as

iii.

31

to

be considered merely
ooi ^^m|J
;

pleonastic

in

Luke

vii. 19.

^i .'^rr\^^
;

o(

or shall we wait for a,nother ? Eom, xiv. 8 Heb. xiii. 22 I Tim. i.4; v. 9; Barli. 133, 3 Assem. I. 221,A.5, especially where it occurs with a feminine noun e. g. Kom. iii. 28.
;
;

fai;n *£)j>11d
is
•X

OCJl

IZqiSOaOIO hy faith
;

is

a

man justified,
Ephr.
I.

001

sometimes connected with a plural
"7
7
>,

e. g.

214, D.

-X

..

7

-n

"^

tOOUJ^O
children.

OOI

tOOl.*.jfcJ

Z\\\0 on account of

%J

his ivives

and

Rem.
found
;

— Sometimes
e.

also

the

fem.

vaOI

(still

more emphatic),
•X
•«

is

g.
(it)

Rev.

xxi. 2.

A^fja __

I'Aaj^ ^Ol
and the
-X

lAla^kiilo
tOJOl Assem.I.
>•

and I saw

the holy city ; xxii. 1 9,
•X

plur.

7

77, A. 20, 21.

OOI and 001
^
P

are sometimes united together without
7 7

emphasis
3.

;

e.g.

John
;

v.9. ^SoQji
e.g.

OOI 0010 and
•X

this

day
..7

;

Barh.148,
'^
•>

_ft

Also in the plur.

Matt.

iii.

1.

tOJOl

JAiOO>n

^5

lO^^^

but in these days. The pleonastic use of OOI is confirmed from the fact that the Philoxenian version omits it altogether.
B.
1.

Suffixes.

The

suffix is often

when

the object with
e. g.
{it)

^
;

as

used pleonastically with the verb, though by way of explanation

follows;
shall bless

Matt.

i.

21.

OlV>sN %jiOiaa^
verse 24;
ii.

;-il..

ooi /or he
xiv. 47.
{it

his people

6,

11

;

Mark

Without
thy
talent
1.

^
;

in

^'iCi.D Matt. xxv. 25. xxvii. 5 I Tim. vi. 14.
;

cnLt.M^
with

I buried

Rem.

—The

suffix also occurs pleonastically
<fec.
;

^

after verbs
;

of motion, going, coming,
viii.37.

e.g.

Gen.

xxvii. 43. ^^2^
;

^i yo

Luke

OlS \AU}

therewith he departed; Matt.x.6
;

John

xi.31; iv.3.

•^oZ Ol^
he went out

iZjO and he came again
;

Assem. 1.44, A. 17. OlJi -<^^i

186,A.30. ]iV)?]

L^^\

OlS looi AIo

he had gone

162
to the

PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS.
Aramceans
Matt.
is
iii.

;

Eplir.

I.

226, B.

(^QJiO

Ol^ ^£) Moses
the

stood

up

;

2.
;

]iV)»> IZooSV) Ol^ thi\£i
the

kingdom of
(^

heaven

near

same
e.

is

true

frequently,
14.
;

after

AolO

=
7

to

depart from this
is

life) ;

g.

John

xi.

OW^ AiV) ^^s\ Lazarus
Ephr.l.204,A
;

dead

;

Mark

ix.

26

;

Assem.I. 367, 9

;

sometimes
e. g.

with verbs which have not the signification of motion
to believe ;

'^aSO

John
i.

xi.

31

;

,.^1

to

make, Barh. 217, 10

;

lAii to be

foolish,

Rom.

22

;

and even

after

fOOl John

i.

15.

falls

Rem. 2. On the contrary, the sufRx in active verbs, sometimes, away when it can either be easily supplied from the context, or the same object has already preceded e. g. Barh. 424. 9.
;

^GIQLD^ \»d6 all

IfoiO

p-ij
[it)

Vn^

JZl£p[ he

brought

out

of the silver coin and heaped

up

before

him

;

particularly the

neuter; e. g. Gen. xxiv. 49. w».JO(Qaa inform me thereof In many verbs following each other the suffix which is to be repeated falls away e.g. Matt. xiv. 19 I Cor. xi. 23, 24. Where two follow each other the suffix is usually added to the latter verb e.g. Barh. 419,5.
;
;

•?

Ol^ —la;.O.i.SiD0 — T i*^?QSo we
2.

7X77

71^

;

7

esteem

and honor

it.

The

suffix

is

also pleonastic in the

nomen
iii.

regens
18.

which

precedes the genitive
{jipA.Mui)

with

j

;

e. g.

John

otSdaS

in the

name of the
;

only hfgotten; xii.3.
;

^QJu>
I.

w»01Q-^.i j

the feet

of Jesus

verse 31
also
1)

Acts
the
after

v.

2

;

Ephr.
of

87, B.
suff.

Rem.
^\^J
it;

— Here
Matt.

belongs

repetition

the

before

(§ 54. B. 4.

Rem.

and

V.O
the

=

all,

without J following
ii.

e.g.

xiii. 2.

\mXD OIjO

whole multitude;

3,

4

;

Kirsh, 114, 10.

\bX^^ ^(Jl^
noun
;

all cities.

Sometimes Vs^ with
t^
-X

suffix occurs after the

e.g.

Barh. 71,6.

Ol^O
•"
f

—»J

* ^

O

7

pQl

but

-x
.

the lohole people

;

Matt.

vi.

33.

^Ol^O

iNoi
e.

all these things.

Without the
iJSD every
3.

suffix

^\0

signifies each, every
xviii. 4.

;

g. Matt. iv. 4.

v^

word ; Acts

Finally, a pleonastic suffix
;

is

attached to prepositions
is

thus

«

)

> is

placed before the accompanying noun and

PERSONAL PKONOUNS.
considered either as a sign of the pfenitive
relative
the
;

168
(§ 52. 2)

or as a
to {it)

e. g.

I
i.

Tim.

i.

8.

|cdqSQJ> OlZoDj according
to

law

;

John
V.

42. V^QAjj OljAiD
;

{him) Jesus
;

;

xviii. 15;

jfj^

Rev.

11

lo^ Luke
{it)

xxiii. 7

'|i\a4jaj
xiii.6
;

01^1^4^ for

sin

;

^
;

^Ld
iii.

Rom.
;

Acts

6

^

viii. 8.

Rom.

Barh. 74,18. "nOp^? •-»C71Cl^ against {him)
;

tJie

tyrant;

^CLL 76, ll

io^ Luke
is
{it) the.

v.

19

h)

or the preceding preposi;

tion with the suffix
ii.8.

repeated before the noun
field; Barh.192,7;
ii.

e. g.

Luke
1,

IjZIo aiQ in
;

Assem.l. 27,
to
{it

29; Ephr.L87,B
feast;

^

John
35
;

2.

yZoA«V)\ dlS
ix. 21, etc.

to) the

^So Acts

viii.

^^

Acts

General

Remark on Personal Pronouns.
pronouns enallage ;
a)

In Syriac, we
of number in La]

also find in personal
;

e.g.

Barh. 166,

6.

^'r^O^ .OCJlS «-»OloAa]
tl-em

Ir^s

(^flCliiO

|aJ there were
in

among

twenty
is

women and
;

ten children

;

words whose plural only

used

e.g.

Luke
is

xxiii. 45.

CTlAl^k) ^k> ]]aa01>

U>2

J^zP(

^li^O

the vail

of

the temple ivas rent
;

{in its midst)

in twain.

The same

true in the dual

e. g.

Hebrews

xi. 26.

^9 J^)
;

diA^aro
;

the treasures {of it)

Egypt ; Barh.
9,

108, 2

h) of gender

e. g.

Michael. Chr. 20,

10.

^OUD

— VZoiZV^OCJlLo ad
if

places
colleccities,,

in these

;

c

)

of gender and number together,

by

tives

sing. fern, are signified

names of countries and

men

or inhabitants
O'r^?

;

e.g.

Barh. 565, 18, 19.

IZqajI awji»|
they

1Zq\u^
U'o/nl

many men,
580,

— and
1,

lOOl^

^|o

(Z(j.^
they
5,

found a great
captivity
;

these

also

led
;

into

2

;

fAia^D 591,

6

w^cL-^Vl50,

11, 12..

164
§ 56.
1.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
Use of the Relative Pronoun (§ 17.
>

2).

The Relative
etc.,

gives to adverbs of interrogation, place,
e. g.

time,

a relative signification;

ti»l where f

j
^

P-i|

^Aere, w;/«ere,

John
;

i.

28.

-J^Oa looi
;

,V^SLo>
;

p^j

there

where
]iu]i

f/o/m baptized
thither,

verse 40

Barh.82,2
xiii.

1a.i]] ivhither ? }

where: e.g. John
;

86. |j1 ^llj
2.3. v.

]^Xi

ivhiihei'

/go

Barh. 198, 18
just
>
a.^:

Assem.I. 27;
iii.

E

;

]x:L'(

how

?

?

Uif

e. g.

John

14

;

v.

26

;

xiii.

33

;

^Z\SDJ ivhen ?

*aASD| wheiij as
;
7 «

; e.

g. v. 25.
>

•QlSomJj ^A!iD| vjhen they shall
?/«ic/i ;
e.

hear
7

]Sn3 Aoz^
P

much?

^ioo 5o

g.

John

vi. 11.

QUi .J

p^O
iii.

as

much as

they would.

J
;

gives the
j

same meanwhere;
e.g.

ing sometimes to nouns;

e.g. )^( ^/flce

jZf

John
2.

8.

case the suffix

The oblique followed by a

are formed by some mark of the suffix a ) the genitive is indicated by added to the nomen r eg ens ; e. g. John ix. 11.
cases
;

^QAa
p|
*.

OlSosj whose name is Jesus ; Assem.I. 165, A. 14; the dative, according to the following example Rom. i.
;

h)
9.

ftV)ftV)
;

01^ J

^f;/^o?7^

I serve ;

verse 31
^-"-^r*

;

c)

the accusative,

thus

e. g.

John

i.

26.

01^ .oAj]
is

know

not.

The

accusative
;

also

U t^M? lohom ye expressed by the suffix at-

tached to the verb
sent
;

e. g. iii.84.

01 >,^ loTjLj ichom

God hath
IS

d) the ablative

by J^

;

e.g.

John
is

In a similar manner the relative
tion
;

i.48; by Rom.i.6. united with the preposiis

^^

e.g. 5>Q1,

John iii.2. OlSOL IcrCkj with whom
suffix of the 1

God,

etc.

Rem.

—In connection with the
it

and 2 person, added
a

to the verb,

(the relative) forms, with reference to

preceding
like

subject of the

same person, the oblique
;
e.

cases

ivho, /,

whom^ me,
\l\ ]j1

the Lat. qui

g.

Gen.

xlv. 4.
;

*jJJoAio1j ..arDQu

I am
(Ephr.

Joseph

whom

[me) ye have sold
Aj")

Num.

xxii.

30

;

Isa. xli. 8

11.88. Y.)

j^A^Ijaj

^^'rCQa thou art Israel

whom

(thee)

I have

;

KELATIVE PRONOUNS.
made
strong.

165
;

The same occurs
>

witli prepositions.

e.

g.

Num.

xxii.

30. thy she ass

i\s Aj| ^^jLDSj upomohom

(me) thou hast ridden.

The

relative alone

sometimes marks the accusative, particularl)

the neuter;
lative is

e. g. Gen. i. 31. r^^} \^ all that he made, The re sometimes used before' the mark of the case e.g. Barh. 43,
;

12.
to

OU^V^'
the

to

which time

;

137,

5.

jOOl

|>

i

(}^> ivhich belonged

Arabians.

3.

The Syrians express the
Ae,

relative with a demonstrative

preceding
>

or
J

this^ ivho^ that^

which^
,

etc.,

as follows
fern.,

;

a)

bj

001
7

,

J

001
7

,

pOl masc,
>

? *-»0l
;

? jjoi
e. g.

and
vii.

in the
16.
jj(

plur.

J
7

^QjOl masc,

^oJOl fem.
sent

John

wk.J)r*)
ii.6.

OOlj hut

his,

who has

me; Eom.iv.

5; vii. 6; Phil.

«-»010Aj|j (joi that, which was;

John
;

i.21:.

05jA»(j #0301

those

who were
fem.,

sent; Barh. 17, 2
j
to

;

170,5
Matt.

b)

hj

J

^Sd masc.
A-»l?

and

and

^^k)
7wm
;

neut.

;

e.

g.

xiii. 12.
;

^Sq\
34
;

•TiOL-aAj

01^

t<;Ao

hath, shall he given

John

iv.

v.30

;

vii.17,
;

18
i.

Matt.xiii.17. ^o'^AjV^v*^? :>o3^ that zvhich
;

ye see

Kom.

28

viii.
;

25

;

c)

by

j \lu\

masc,
ooi
;

) (raj

fem.

and
he
mf

plnr. y

^>\i} com.

e. g.

Eom.
;

ii.29.

V^-fioarDj )la1
iv.

who is inwardly /John ix. 8 Rom. ii. 2, 3 Barh. 85, 3 d) frequently b}^ the participle
;

;

e.g.

7 v. 14 Rom.vii.l.
;

-X

P

..7

(qdqLqj ^^Ap^

^7/056

tvho

know

the law.
is

Rem.

If a particular

emphasis

to be indicated the demonstraP
-J!

10
one
is

7

7

001 •.oAjJ 001 QJOl
the
iv.

this

very
the
fjilo

he

who
is

sat.

Sometimes,
e. g.
;

like

Greek

attraction,

demonstrative
rou
v. 2.

wanting;
6u)(f(A)

John

14.
is

01^

\>l\
;

plj
e. g.

u^aroj
7

ou zyCi
-ft

auTw

or the relative

wanting

Heb.

*

p

»

?

->»^>tV>

wanting,
,

-ft»

pufO and he (or this) who according to Hebrew usage
; -r

can; less frequently are both
e. g.

Job

xxiv. 19.

Finally
vi. 1.

the relative occurs pleonastically before participles; e.g.
P

Amos

Q^OI ^1^ —jL^-a^r^

^

P

•-»Q

woe

to those

who depiseZion ; Ephr.II.2V4.D,

166

DEMOXSTEATIYE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
Use of Demonstrative and. Interrogative Pronouns.
deraonstrative
is

§ 57.

for the relative^ nor emphasis to particles and numerals (comp. Gesen. Lehrgeb. p. 750 sq.). It is used only in its proper signification.

The

neither "ased
special

does

it

give,

as in

Hebrew, a

Rem.

*•

^

It is

emphatic in connection with

001 and wiOl

(§ lY. 1.

SOI
hicce ;
2.
e. g.

may

be translated by

John

xix. 19.

The
«^
-ft

interrogative

pronoun
I
7

(

§ 17. 3
;

)

is

united with
xii.

nouns of both genders and numbers
..V

e.

g.

Matt.

48.

7

7

-n

,jljS\

tQJ|

^^O »^{
-

wiOl

-SD

li'ho is

my

mother and who are

my
e. g.

hrethren f

The

oblique
.7

cases
7 •

that, in the genitive, the

noun

are either so expressed in the constr. state precedes
7

Gen. xxiv. 23.

*-»Aj| ^IsD

Z*^ vAose daughter
"
;

art thou ?
xii. 3.

or so that

^
7
;

follows with
^/•/io.se

>

preceding

e. g.

I

Sam.

^1d) Ir—"I rr^/^*^^^^

handf or QllD> stands before

the noun 0lV)> \^tOQ poi e. g. Matt. xxii. 20. whose iraage and writing is this ? The other cases are formed by the special case-signs preceding, or by prepositions
;

P^t

e.g.

Assem.

1. 34, 6.

^2*1

^^^

to

whom

shall

I give ? Matt
relative

xii. 27.

pJ^O

ivhereby f
(l-i|

Rem.

—Sometimes
question,
\l\

occurs
>

instead
it
;

of the
e.

in

the

indirect

-without

following

g.

Matt.
will

xxiv. 42.

^Q2;So

]Ai^ IhV^
|001
;

^t

what hour your lord
XN-iii.

come? and
is

OlV)
truth /

includes
vii.

e.g. John

38.

\j\M

OlV) what

20.

§ 58.

Pronouns for which

the

Syrians have no special forms.

A. Reflexive Pronouns. The Syrians express the reflexive pronoun (§ 17. 4) as fol. fows a) by the passive (comp. § 21. 2. § 22. 2. § 24. 2); h) often, particularly in the third person, by the personal pro;

;

OTHER PRONOUNS.
nonn
77,
e. g.

167

;

Barh. 54, 15.
i

^^^4^ Oil OOl he hilled himself;

5.

talk) ^OOll oV^

Ol
;

they chose

themselves a king

;

83, 16;

by

prepositioDS

;

e.g.Barh. 164,12. .ooIjlXi QII.4I0
c)

and

they lead hy themselves
is

by (a£U and
;

|!iDQlXD.

The

former

used in reference to persons

e.g.

Matt, xxiii. 12.

Olmsn J>aip>
15
;

\l^^he who excdleth himself;
less frequently,

Barh. 56, 2
;

;

84,

144, 12
xi. 17.
is

;

in reference to things

e. g.

Luke
lohich

dlaSU

^^
.

-.^^ZZj oalliD
.

^^ every Idngdo-^u
used in reference

P

-x

divided against

itself
;

}Ldqio
II Cor.

is

to

both persons and things
myself;
is

e.g.

xii. 15. ^"2"!

^SOQIO

I give

Luke

xi. 17.

-.w^AJiD OliOQlO ^*^> lAa.S
itself

a house ivhich
Rem.

divided against
frequently

— Less
; e.g.

occur

in
;

a

reflexive

signification,
e.g.

\*\\ heart
iv. 5,

Lukeii

.51

;

utA^ head

ps^O)

sioirit ;

Dan.

9

;

(a.ja life; Ps. vii. 6.

The pronouns Ja2L3 and {LdQIjO by
pronouns
;
;

way

of periphrasis for other

e. g.

Rom.
;

x. 3.

(Zopo
;

•OGUl.2L3> their
ix. 3.
,

own

righteousness

1 Cor.vi.l9
i.

Phil.ii.4,5

Rom.

>V)Q1£)

|jV/??z?/6^e{/*;

Heb.

3

;

ix.

28.

B.

Other Pronouns.
:

The
1. 2.
I'rTi.I

other pronouns are thus expressed
see § 56. 3.

This, that,

Each,

every,
xl.
is

are

expressed
iii.

;

a)
;

as substantives,

by

Gen.

5

;

^aj] I Cor.

8
ii.

vii. 2,

3

;

Gal. vi. 4
vii.

the latter
xi.

doubled in Acts
;

38,

45

;

I Cor.

17

21

;

II Cor. v. 10

I Thess. iv. 4.

Sometimes they are
;

expressed by •a2L3

33

;

^

-ajl

^
;

\y.D

Rom.

xni. 1
;

r*^

r^

\0

Eph.

v.

Luke

xiv. 33

^aJ'^jQ^ or oftJ;i

Vo
17
;

Eom.
1

xii. iv.

18
3
;

h)

as adjectives; a)
I.

by V.D Matt.
A. 19
;
;

vii.

John

^k? ^jsi^s Assem.

11,

/3)

by

a re-

petition of the

noun defined by

each, every

e. g.

II King?

168
y 7

OTHER PRONOUNS.
J>ai Jxil every nation
e.g.
;

xvii. 29.

Matt. xx. 10

;

7 ) by the

plural

;

Amos

iv. 4.
is

by the singular which
e. g.

Ir^ J^ every morning ; sometimes to be considered as a distributive ;

Jer. xxxvii. 21.

(iDQxO each day.
iv. 25.
is

The neuter

is

ex-

pressed by
3.

^^Ld \0 John

Whosoever, (quicunque),

expressed by ou]
j

^O

or

.a'iIo
?

John
I

i.

7;
iii.

1 Cor.

iii.

|Lf ^o

John

3

;

j ? '

^ Mark
;

13;

^o
16
; ;

Matt.

xiii.

19
;

vii.

Barh. 195, 3

198,12. The neuter Matt. X. 27.
4.

by

\in\D Acts

iii.22

iv.

23

;

>
'

io^D

Somebody^ anybody

{aliquis)^ in interrogative

and con-

ditional clauses, are expressed
iv.

a) hj *mj| and Vt^xy John

33.

^tal
i/" fl/??/

io'^Lo ollT J^A-»V
to eat 1 vii.
;

^j1
;

]^\
&)

hath

any one
.
(

brought him aught
.^i^kjj
vii.

48

1 Tim. vi.3.
;

Uki\ Lm\
j

one teach

Eev. xxii. 18

by

^lo

Mark

16.
iii.

OTji A^Ij ^ii) hath
3.

any one
;

?

c) sometimes
xii.

by

^^
v.
1,

Rom.

^OOllk)

•(

si

tjvs^

Mark

5

;

or

more
iv.

in ac;

cordance Avith the
2,

Hebrew
-ft

idiom,
is

by Ia£U Lev.
;

2
*

4

;

vii.

27.
J

The neuter
*

expressed

a)

by

^^ Acts
;

V.

36
;

;

^y
I

x

OOl
u.

^r^J
15
;

that he loas something (great)

John
^io

vii.4

John
the)

b)

sometimes by

^
)
; ;

Lev.v.9.

PsD>

some {of
5.

blood; or
;

fZoo. (== i^rj

Gen. xviii.l4.
expressed by

Nobody, no one
1]

a) as substantives, are
i.l8
;

^mS\

Matt.ix.l6;
;

John

James i. 13

]J

^mS\ Acts xviii.

10 flCor.ii.ll
w«j| Aa.^
>

'rC)..

]]'Num.xxxi.49

^1

\L iJjer.li.43;
xv.l3;
fol-

John

vii.4

;

sometimes by ^•Jfj
v/ith

Aa^ John

Aa^

or simply
e.g.

by Aa-^

an adjective or participle
no one
;

lowing;

Matt.xix.l7.

\^l Aj^
Phil.
ii.

is good. vi.

The neuter,
7;

by

^r^ U'or U'^Jio

3

I Tim.

A^^

fol-

OTHER PRONOUNS.
lowed by ^^Lo Matt.
vi.

169
preceding, II Cor.
as adjectives,

x.

26

;

with

^^
;

10

;

without

^^^ James iv. 2

6)
ii.9.

by

|J

after the noun,

with the verb, I Cor.

2vm U
89.

|ijl1

no eye
fj

hath seen
creature
;

it ;

before the noun,

Eom.

viii.

lA^;^

no

by Aa.^ with the noun following, Luke
;

iv. 24.

|**Sl A-I.S no prophet

Heb.iv.13

;

with the noun preceding,

Eph.

V.

5

;

with the words standing between, John xv. 22.

(Aa.4^ tOOl^ Zoai Aa^^ they would have had no sin.
6.

Some, any^ are expressed
;

;

a)
;

by
Avith

j

Lk\ Matt. xvi. 14.

^^SdIj A^I some say
vii. 12.

John

ix. 9

words interposed,
;

^'r^l?
viii.

>.y,

0001 Au) for some said
iii.

j

]jU( Aa]
uaj]

I Cor.
Phil.
cally,
i.

7
;

;

xv.

34; II Thes.
;

15

I Tim, iv. 1

^
;
,

11

;

h)
ix.

by
16
;

oLi]
c)

jaij)

John
32
;

elipti-

by

,-Sl5,
;

Matt, xxiii. 34.

coAj"!

^aJ!i4^ tOOUlD some
;

shall ye kill

Mark

xii.

5

Acts

xvii.

Eom.

iii.

3

;

d)

sometimes by the plural of the noun
(ALDQa some days
expressed by
in
?
;

e. g.

Dan.

viii.

27.
is

pOll
,

Gen. xxix. 20.
^Jy^aJj

The neuter
;

A^l

Matt.

xiii. 4.

A^l some fell

also

verse
7.

8.

Some,

others, are

expressed

;

a)

by

\^'r^\


i.

^*fi,J|

,

Acts

xxviii.
Ij',!1»1
~

24

;

or

by

.mil

-^\
;

— -aj] .aj] Phil.
John
1, vii.

15

;

Z>)

by
Ajf
-n

? Au")

Matt. xvi. 14
I.

12

;

or

with
-x

>

-X

repeated,

Assem.
32
;

10.

Kem.

2

;

c)

by ,ooiiio

.oouLo

Acts

xvii.

Barh. 105, 10

;

with the sign of the case

prefixed, 114,14. *0C7i*ii\

ioi ^oouioLo
;

Q^4^
by

^oouSri^o
-So,

some they

killed, others he

blinded

finally

JJr»^l

Barh. 93, 18.
Rem.

—When some

signifies the

greoiter part^

it is

expressed by

170
JpAjf

OTHER PRONOUNS.

— ^Sd
The

K^iuCO
Acts

,

Jolin

vii.

40.

Some

this

others that,

by

|AaJ;>*l
8.
y

Jj^js*!

XIX. 32.

one, the other, (alter) are expressed
,.0*

;

a) of persons,

7

7

by ;n.. masc. JLyd^
iii.

fern.,

repeated; or

by

;^yt

— |;^1m
a^t>

7

Isa.

5

;

r^\\
xii.

— U*\ Gen.
it

xiii.

11

;

also of inanimate objects,

Matt.

13.

(Jll'rCi^ y^'(

LLdIo cnr^Y^^M£i
.Aj]]

he stretched

forth his hand and
Col.
iii.

became sound as

13. "ISnioj Gllcij^

^
;

the other; I Cor. xiv.7;

A^V^r
ii.

if
;

one hath an

accusation against another
repeated, Kom.xii.lO; j.*^^

Phil.

3,

4

&)

by

,jsj

or jjOl

^m one
;

to the other

{=each other,
;

comp- Remark)
tj>*1 _

;

Matt. xxiv. 10
^'r*^!

John
^''rJ^l

xiii. 2>6

also

by
c)

r** ^^'^tt. vi. 24.

John

iv.

37
xxi.

;

by

the

repetition

of
one

the

same

noun,
;

Acts

34,

^pSD

Vo^p!iD

IjliI

this,

another that
^^^'''

or by ])h^ Gal.vi.2.

1VJ**> T;^Q-» Cll^-4® ^^^ o'^^
I^EM.

another's burden.
7
7

— One

another

is

represented by ^a* ^aa, with a preposition
xiii.

interposed between,

John

14

;

xxii.

34, 36

;

sometimes by the
one another ;

simple preposition with

suffix,

Rom.i.24.
xvi.

^OOIO among
;

jpAj

Jolm

19

Barh. 41, 18.

9.

The same,
«

himself, herself,

itself,
7

are expressed

;

a)
;

by

a personal pronoun doubled, with
..«
-x
"'i

p placed between
srtme sacrifice
;

e. g.

Heb.x.ll.

U»^?

iQJCJl

p

7

-X

-n

tOJOl

^/^e

Phil.iii.l.

^JOl

p ^JOl

^/le 5<5^me;

also without
the

p ;e.g.Assem.I.44,13.
;

(Ak)CLi

.QJOlQ ^ooio at

same time

o

)

by
1.

a compound1.

ing of the demonstrative pronoun (§

l7.

Rem.; § 57.

Rem.)
i.

;

c)

by the

pleonastic suffix before the noun; e.g.Mark
;

42.

lAlAC) OIO at the same hour

Heb.

ii.

14;

ix. ix.

24. 21.

"U-Sa*^ OlS into heaven itself ; Matt. xxvi. 44; Heb.

1

OTHER PROKOUNS.
|Sd> ^Sd

17

ouk)
;

with the same blood

;

witli

^J and

tlie

noun
;

following
4l6,
1
;

e.g.

Assem.

1.415; 3.

|Al») olX^J the same year

d)

sometimes by |a£U and liDQliD with
iv.

suffix (§ 58.

A), Matt.

6;

John

v. 26, 43.
7 7
,

Rem.

—More
J.

definite are
i.

0C71 QJC71
;

equivalent to just the same^

exactly the

same yJolin

15

vii.

25

;

Barh. 26,

2.

10.

certain [one)
l^^^klo

;

a) by

r»^

masc. (^m fem.
],-m

;

John

iv.

46.

pM
;

a certain king;
;

v. 2.

(Aooj a

cer^r/zVi

place
I.

Barh.l 16,10

117,3
;

;

with

^isD following; e.g. Assem.

33; 22,

27

;

Barh. 93, 6
3.
'

h)hy

5>ojiD relating to things

;

e.g.

Barh. 1/0,
;

^>0^

;

K'A ^^

r^

when he had entered

into a house

l78, 2

194, 3.
it is

Rem.
tion,

—In proper nouns
g.

sometimes expressed, by circumlocu;

by OILQSJ •Ajl;e.

Assem. 350, 18

351,

2.

11.
e.g.

As great

— as {tantus quantus)
this day.

is

expressed byv*Ji|;
^aw;

Barh. 190, 16. 001 ]SdqJj

p^o] »^V— OW U'^e?/
Of which
nature

no need so great as on

— of such,
;

or so as (talis-qualis), are expressed by llDOi
;

j

\^Od]

e.g.

Assem. 139 17,18. ^oio/ufliioi - IjoSoil Ajf Iv^j ]<Dd\
as the statue which thou hast seen, so
.7

is he.

This

latter idea
;

alone

is

also expressed

by

^\

and a pronoun following
;

e.g.

John

iv.

23;

^^ScTl y^]\ such; Barh. 55, 13

70, 18.

CHAPTEE SECOND
THE VERB.
§ 59.

General

View,

brew,

of the Preterit and of the Future^ as iix ihe Heso comprehensive, that by them almost all tne other relations of time are designated, in accordance with definite rules (comp. § 65). This, however, is usually in such a manner that the preterite designates those tenses which
is

The use

stand in connection with past time, while the future has the same influence u^on future time.

§ 60.
1.

Use of the Preterit
designates
;

In the Past

it

;

a) the absolutely past tense

e.g. Matt.ii.2.

Clf^OQD r^V^
to

we have
ship
h)

seen his star

;

01-^

-j^mSn^ ^Z"!
I.
;

u>e

are come
;

wor-

liirii ;

John

iii.

16; Assem.

861, 26, 27
«
)

the Narrative tense
e.g.
;

[Aorisi)

mostly

hefore the subto

ject

;

Mark
John

xi. 11.
ii.22.

5>qS»jo]3

^Qa^ ^\l Jesus came
his disciples
is

Je-

rusalem
bared;
e. g.

>u010f>V)\Z OpjZl

remem-

(3)

after particles

(when sornethmg actual

denoted),

r^, Barh. 68,12.
>
*

Cll^o
;

]]

p since they did not receive;
i.

line 4.

]io
;

A until that
I.

Matt.
;

25.

Z,Xij liopl wn/i7 5^6

brought forth
18
;

Barh. 24, 6

Aj^j t^^
;

i<??^i7

Ae died
;

;

213,

217, 3

;

Assem.

3i,l7

Ephr.

1.

196,

F

;

USE OF THE PRETERIT
c)

178

the Pluperfect ; a) in relative clauses which define the principal action, and in point of time, precede it; e.g. Matt.
i.

24.
the

"U'r^?

OTdOSd

Olii

r^? 1^1 r^
xi.

he did as the angel
b) after particles

of

Lord had commanded ; Mark
;

6

;

e.g.

p ivhen, after
;

Matt.
;

ii.

1.
ii.

^Q«l* A-iZ]

p
;

tt?Aen

Jesws
;

vjas 'born

verse 9
?

John

22

;

vi. 23,

24

Barh. 90, 9

Assem.

84, B. 6.

>Ai3 o/ier

^/^a^;

Barh. 89,7.
164,8. j

^5>^j

jA-S

,£DQa9rL
Assern.
I.

after that he

had slain Darius;
?

)As

_lo, ibid;

213,

A.

25;

Rem.

1r**^

so ^ooy^ as ;
for the

Barh. 79, 12.
stands the

More

frequently, however,

pluperfect,
(

periphrastic form of the preterite with
2.
It

1001

§ 65

).

denotes the Present Tense ; in verbs of quality and condition ; a)
\a^Ci%

e. g.

Matt. xvi.

2, 8.

AoSdcd

^Ae

5%

Z5

red;

John

iv. 85.

oSOm) ^LLy^ the
7,

jields ichich

are white ; Isa. i. 8 ; Ephr. II. 1 1 general designations of time, denoting simply

A

;

b)
is

in

what

usual
looks
;

and customary ; down : xxv. 2
;

e. g.

Ps. xiv. 2.
it

^Ojij | t»*,iD the

Lord

c)

when

denotes a state or condition

e.g.

^sliZ] ]lSb\ z^Ay art thou angry f 3. It marks the Future Tense ; a) in prophecies, asseverations, and the like, (for themost part, however, only in translations from the Hebrew) which are viewed as already fulfilled and accomplished e.g.
Gen.
iv. 6.
;

^^

Isa. ix. 2. xvii.

20

;

pD> pOIQJ 01-M they shall see a great light Gem sometimes after verbs in which is involved the

idea of a future action

;

e. g.

Barh. 80,

1.

»cou> \^X

he

promised

that he

would give
;

; b)

the completed future ifuturum
xii.25.

exactum) after
t(;Ae7i

> ]2i?

e.g.

Mark

lAilo ^ii nVr>o % ]vn
iv. 25.

^Aey s/ia?^ rise from the

dead ; John
in clauses

4.

In exhortations,

and

which contain condi-

tions

or conclusions, the preterite
;

also expresses the rela-

tion of the subjunctive
participle or adjective)

a) of the present tense, (]ooi with a
e. g.
;

;

I Thess. v.
ii.

6.

^;.^ ^ooi
ii.

let

us be ivatchfal; verse 8

Eph,

11

;

Tit.

9,

10

;

b) of

174
the imperfect
lA.1,4*^

USE OF THE PKETERIT.
e. g.

:

John

ix. 41.

A*.^ ^oA-»ooi l^aVXT)

Q-^

tOa^ Zooi
;

if ye were Mind, then would ye have had

no sin; xv. 19
%jljS\

c) of the pluperfect
|]

;

e. g.

John

xi.

21.

Iooi Zpi)

AaOOl
;

^Z

al^
;

hadst thou been here

my

brother

had not died

Barh. 93, lO

Ephr.
001

I.

225, E.

is

sometimes want-

ing; e. g. Matt. ix. 17.

[OI\
i.

^\^f^
;

|Jj the bottles
;

do not thereby
the imperfect
;

burst

;

xxv. 24
is

;

Mark

44

ii.

21,22

Luke

v.

36

;

subjunctive

more frequently expressed by the
wiQ^^ oh,
^t>

future (§ 61)

and

sometimes the preterite with
7

that,

denotes the ojytative
that thou wert

I

7

(§ 65); e.g. Rev.

iii.

15.

AjOOI
Oil

cold

;

Ephr.

III.

284.

^^

^

1;^^^ .-iQJ^ oA,

A^OOl

U'^oL

would that

I

were not of her children.
cases

This idea seems also involved in the

under

c.

5.

Finally,

the preterit

also stands

for

the Imperative

and the

Infinitive ;

10 OOl
tion

occurs as an Imperative
;

m connecv. 34.
9, 10.
xii.

with an adjective or participle
*jiAji001
><.n>>%
'/t^j
ly\'f\£
;

e. g.

Mark

]<j^>V>.

II

Tim.

iv.

5

;

Rom.
;

n«^>
iv.

>>|l

.oA^OOl

love

your brethren
;

I Pet.

ii.

13

;

9

;

after

preceding imperatives
llOOl
;

e. g.
,

Luke
(fb
'jrolsi

x.

37.
;

^*^v

AjiOOI
iii.

Aj"!

*£i\

^ol

-TropSjn

xai

ojaoiwj

I Pet.
b)

15

the preterit
to

stands as an Infinitive after verbs signify-

ing

come,

to go,

Barh. 415,2.

QOl

^
;

to send,

etc.,

without the copula
to besiege

;

e.

g.

]{» ]1] he came

Acco

;

402,

8;
7

with the copula, Barh. 403,
especially after
1.7
t,

16,
I 7

17.
;

Qiso-0>|»
Barh. 68,
to offer
1.

Ihe^ sent to entreat

^\»

e. g.

w*xO,^0

y cjvjAa

^\M he began

to

open

— and

up.

;

USE OF THE FUTURE.
Rem.

175
;

—But

this

union frequently denotes merely the aorist
0Z.|

e.

g.

Astern, I, 288, 2.

0V)O

they arose to go

i.

e.

they went.

§61. Use of the Future,
1.

The Future stands
the
Absolute

;

a) for

Future

;

e.

g.

Matt.

xxiv.

35.

t;n2J U

>iW)0 lOViQU

ll>lo |»V)» Heaven
shall not
;

and
;

earth shall
i.

pass awayj but

my

word

pass away

21,

23

;

Luke

xviii.

8

;

John

xiv. 13

b) for

the

Complete Future in

conditional clauses, (with
;

the future in the conclusion of the sentence)

Jolm

v. 43.

^qLtidZ OctI^ aiMSLi ^QjlD ]l]I ^'r^l .f if another shall have come in his own name^ him will ye receive ; viii. 28.
XV.
2.
7,

10.

Furthermore, it denotes, the following relations of time;

a) the Present although

more

rarely than in

Hebrew
jAaJ
#]
p

;

e.g.
\SI)

01^
•n'a^
6

*£iOZ

f'^ ^»\ m
6i-]^y](iz\

^
;
''>

>

<rivwv
p

ix

rou

v^arog rovrov^

ifcikiv
t^
«''^

with
j

verse 48,

after
^7ie

j

^j£) Luke
croi(;5- /

)ip

p

xxii. 61.

|J«..-J>Z
;

y^OJ
)

^^o

5^ore

coc^
;

b
I.
;

)

the Imperfect

a
>
»

after

such verbs as
to

>

«^;a

Assem.
speak)

27, 20.

OT^ ;lDp

*^;* Ae spahe
p7
.

him
^

{began
before
;

to

P)
ii.

after particles

e. g.

Luke

»(>7
21.

flb^IlO

^4^^
v. 8.

(^r^ until; " a"***
j

?

^r^
;

?

^r^
xi.

before he

was conceived in

his

mothers
;

womb ; Barh.

15

c)

more

rarely the Perfect

e. g.

Jud.

IotlL V^i»-3 God
after

hath chosen;
(J,^,
3. >

Isa. xliii. 17,

19;
Jer.
i.

d) the Pluperfect:
5.

^^

before

;

e. g.

It
)

serves to express the following
;

Moods
;

;

A

the Subjunctive

a

)

of the Present

a

)

in general

176
Jolin

USE OF THE FUTdKE.
vii.
;

37.

]A«JO

^La^

]2)j

let

him come
let

to

me and
after

drink
>
,

Barli. 79, 1.

2qSqj

^i^iiiio

now

him die; ^)
;

Jj J

with a preceding present or imperative

e. g.

John

V. 10.

j^pT ^aa»Z> »A
carry thy bed;

4^^-i^
vi. 12.
;

P

it is

not lawful that thou

should' St

5>0*^

^"p
;

]]j

«_

nm\n

gather
11,13

that nothing he lost

Matt.xxvi.41

Assem.I.377,10,
;

;

b)

of the Imperfect
f

;

a) in conditional clauses

John

IX. 22.

OIQ jQJ
;

.AJl

^f

z/ ariy

man

should confess concern;

ing him

/3)

after a

preceding imperfect
zV

e. g.

John

ii.

25.

JOICQJ «^J|)

(OOl «O>ir0 U

i6a5 710^ needful that

any one
CJl^^l
;

should testify; after a preterite; v.27. U-»?
he
i.

r^l^^^?
after

gave him authority
31
;
;

that he
I.

should execute judgment
;

Barh. 80, 3
e. g.

;

Assem.
8.

359, 5

the

pluper-

feet

Johii iv.

tOl^p)
y)

— OOOl O^ they were gone
e.g.
;

that they

might buy
223, C.

;

sometimes with fOOl appended;

Ephr.
sem.

I.

looi cnlrilJ ]i^'i how he would do

As-

I.

297, B. 3. V.

E

;

c)

of the Perfect sometimes, in con^| |J|
;

ditional clauses, after
vii.

J and

{in case that)

;

e.g.

John more

51

;

Ephr.

I.

237, B.

and

E

d) of the Pluperfect^
;

rarely,

and only with (OOl appended
^ri4?

e. g.

Ephr.

I.

40, B.

OOl

|Zuj

U^=^?

f?cn£:)

jooi

(oou
it

p'^fiooM

p.^

what harm luould have arisen because

had brought forth

good ears
Rem.

1

—May^ mighty
;

can^ should^ must,
e. g.

and the

like,

are

also ex-

pressed by the future

Ephr.
40.

I.

203, F.

IvmJO ^iV?

that

he might go and
they entreated

see ;

John

iv.

tOGlZOJ^ |00U> GliiD
P

QIO
;

him

that he

would remain with them ; verse 47
7

v.

1*7 QOJ r^p
continue? Gen.
ii.

^T

^P

p^

what shall we
xviii. 7
;

say, shall
vi.

we

16, 30, 31

;

Luke

John

28

;

Heb.

^

USE OF THE FUTURE.
6

177
every one
49.

i.

;

Barh. 63, 19.
not should
|'^>V^^*^
;

ZqSQJ ^^xd^i Wj ^^^
die;
every
'^^^^

who

fered

68,

18;

Mark

ix.

lA**Sj

^
; ; ;

of-

->>\Vn //
Prov. XX. 9

sacrifice

should be salted

with salt

i^W ^^

^^^ ^^V^
>

^7
<**>i

^^^y ^^ circumlocution,
P 7

raay

and should are expressed by

m
;

;

e.

g. T Cor. xi. 7

O with a
Tim.
iii.

future

following

e. g.

John

iv.

24

I

2.
;

B) The Imperative.

a)

in Prohibitions
iii.

;

e.g.

Matt.

i.

20.
34.

^\L{1 \ifear not

;

John
b)

7

;

vi.

20

;

I Cor. xv.

^?^,

^Oi^L U sm
John
i.

710^

;

after a

preceding imperative
Usts, verse 47;

;

e. g.

40.

^OVmZo o2

spxso'^s xai

viii.

11.
is

Rem.

—The

third person of the imperative,

which

is
*.

wanting,

*

•».

If 901QJ
there
be
light.

(OOU
which

let

marks the Infinitive volve the intention of some action
C)
future
;

The

after verbs
e. g.

in-

Barh. 34,

4, 5.

^. J")

]1q

/ie

5ow^Ai

^0 A:i7Z

;

90,7,8.
ii.
7

^aOlQ-JS^njj ^'mLI^

he thought

to kill
1.
;

him

;

Matt.
^«»7

22. ^iIj?
•.

7X7

\Uj> he feared

to

go; Assem.

33, 25.
iii.

U^O ^Owl>
>

^\m
11

he began to fast

and

to

pray
4,

John

3.

1UjJ> >.»»^«V)

he cannot see
viii. 28).
;

;

verses
like
viii.

5

;

xv. 4 (without

following, Matt.

In

manner occur
55
;

\l\ Matt.

v.l7

;

^r-» ^vi. 3

r^QS

Luke

Acts

i.

4

;

and many
with

others.
also

Rem.
pare
4.

—The
(

infinitive

^
is

follows

these verbs.

Com-

§ 63.

B.

Finally,
to be

the future
/A5XXe<v )

also expressed

by ^Al ready
;

about

=

and a following
he

infinitive
;

e.g.Matt.
iii.

xi. 14.

(Z)s2l^

r->Al>

who

is

to

come

John

14.

(jul >
1*5

C1^

Qk})ZAkl^ r^Al |l201
up
;

ei^en so the

Son of
;

Man
xxi.

to be lifted

vi.

6

;

vii 35

;

in the plural

Luke

178

USE OF THE IMPERATIVE.
ooiSa^ ^^J^ai
^jlJ|

^h"^
89.

^^i-^

iM come
is

to

pass; verse36.
ap-

The implied
pended
;

idea of the imperfect

expressed by locFl

e. g.

John

vii.

o\nnV^\

oooi

^^Alj

paOj

the spirit

which they were
J

to receive.
e.

Rem.

—Also occurs
197,
is

r^Al with a following future

;

g.
;

Assem.

1.481,22.
Ephr.
I.

Vr*J? IjOIO

h>^?
;

the priest

shall hegin

37,17;

D

;

in the plural

John

vi.

15.
)

The idea
>

of willing^
fol-

purposing,

also expressed

bv

y^t

\

ci

with

and a future

lowing;

especially

Matt.

xvi.
v.

24.

*^jAQ
;

I^JJJ

^^?
;

^r^
e.

whoso

will follow after

me

;

40; Barh. 68,6

or without J

g.

Luke

xviii. 13.

^Q^p .

fOOl
;

\d»\l
i.44.

he would not

lift

up

;

b)

with an infinitive following

John

tO'^V^N yi^t he would

go forth.

§ 62.
1.

Use of the Iraperative,
either a
arise^

The Imperative expresses
»^^010
:

command ;
take
;

e.g.

John

V. 8.

*,*C0*^

^QO* ^QO
;

up thy bed and

walk

or encouragement

and permission

e. g.

Mark

i.

38.

|jyr>o\
Rem.
tive

n^Vm

go

into the city

John

xi. 15.

—In the same
l2f
\L
e.

signification the Syriac

appends the impera-

of

(vid. § 28.

l.Rem.
%jZ

;

2.

Rem.)

to th« future of the finite

verb, especially of

and

in the singular,
i

when
let

two, are intis

tended

;

g.

Gen. xxxi. 44.

|V)

O V) >ni
when
go.-

\L

make a
meant

covenant
e.g.

;

xix.
xi. 7.

32

;

and

oZ

in the plural,
let

several are

John

^l|j

o2

us

2.

The imperative standing

after
;

the
e. g.

future,

some-

times acquires a future signification

Gen. xlv. 18.
shall eat;

q\oo|0

iO^N \2^ I

ivill

give

to

you

—and ye

USE OF THE INFINITIVE.

179

or the latter of two imperatives, following each other with-

out a copula,
*-i;£5 .-*Jil

denotes the infinitive
;

;

e.

g.

John
;

iv. 16.

go

to call

verse 29.

0]-m

oZ come
Oi
»iO

to see

Ephr.

I.

201, E; or

with the copula they stand in the relation of
;

cause and
this

effect
i.

e. g.

Gen.

xlii. 18.

0,^1

(>oi

do

and

live,

e.,

if ye

would

Hue.
;

Rem.

— In

this latter case the future also follows the imperative

e. g. Lsa. viii.lO.

«>V)io2Z

(jO

|A^So

oWV)

speak a

word,

it

shall not he fulfilled.
3.

Of two successive imperatives, when one
(§ 61. 8.

is

negative,
viii.

it

is

expressed by the future

B)

;

e. g.

John

11.

^JL^^L P *So2 \MG\ ^iDO wi^l go and henceforth more ; Rom. xi. 20 Eph. iv. 26.
;

sin no

Rem.

— Concerning
see § 60. 5.

the

third

person of the imperative,

comthis

10 001
person,
a.

to

designate

§ 63.

Use of

the Infinitive,

The
form
latter

Syriac,

which has

not,

like the

Hebrew, a double

for the infinitive

absolute and construct, denotes the
8).

by

^

prefixed (compare § 19. B.

A.

Infinitive Absolute.

The
and
denotes

infinitive

without

^

is

mostly used adverbially,

in connection with its finite verb,
;

which
;

it

precedes,

a)

a strenthening of the action
..

e. g.

Hebr.vi. 14.

^^i^i^fiol

o\

m!:00 j^'r^l QO'rOl^ / Will hhss thee exceed;

imrhj and multiply thee greatly

I
is

Sam. xx. 6

;

xxiii.
;

22

;

John

ix. 9.

QL^ pDj pOr^

lie

very like him

Acts

v.

180
28
;

USE OF THE INFINITIVE.
Philem. verse 9
;

b) certainty^

confirmation

;

e. g.

Barh.

15, 13.

^jZ ^(Id thou

shall

know with
verb
it is

certainty.

Negto,

atively with

U before the

finite

equivalent

by

no means
went in
e.g. Isa.
;

;

e.g.

John
ix. 6.

xx. 5.
;

Rom.

c) it

U ^ii^ he by no means sometimes denotes continuance ;
(n*^V) ye shall not always weep

^^

XXX. 19.
7.

.oaoZ p

Exod. xxxiv.
Rem.
ever
after the

—By the
;

infinitive absolute

are also expressed, rather

how-

idiom of the Hebrew,

other minute
Jer. xxii. 10.
),

points of the

language; e.g.
weep
»

much, much more;
somewhat, indeed
(

Ono foo!^
Gen. xxxvii.
8.

much
Aj|

Germ, etwa
7

N^

A^^
xliii.7.
;

O^
7

^V)V)
X

ivilt
p

thou indeed rule over us ?
*

then, truly;

^001
vii.

^->-^r*

^fiO could we then know
|1m>V)

?

per-

haps, indeed

Acts

34.

A^V^
;

I have
i.

indeed seen.

More
29
;

frequently

it is
;

merely pleonastic
it is

e. g.

Luke

22
;

;

John
e. g.

xiii.

Acts

vii.

45

and

appended to the imperative
ye.

Isa. vi. 9.

l^Vp^Vn QvVna
it
;

Jiear
4.

The negative sometimes
ASbSo
JJ

stands before

e.g.

Gen.

iii.

^L^DL

ye

surely shall not die.

The

case a, in translations of passages from the01dTestament,is also
;

expressed by the noun formed from the finite verb

e.

g.

Gen.

ii.l7.

ZqSdZ IZoSb
Ephr.
I.

fl^^ri
T

tl1)2

^^^^ ^^«^^ surely die

(compare

24, A),

which
;

is

closely connected with the ordinary Syriac

mode
ingly

of expression
;

as
c.

•J^^

(AO) fZo^A*

|,j^

rejoice

exceed-

see § 67. 1.

B.

Infinitive with

^

or the Construct form.
;

The

Infinitive

with

^

stands

a) after verbs
tiont
i>

which denote a purpose,

wish,

determina-

capacity,
f

command,

etc.

;

e. g.

Luke

xi. 54.

^^*^

^rSo pMpol

• *

t

they sought to catch something; Matt, xxi, 46;

; ;

THE INFINITIVE.
John
V. 16;
vii. 1.

181

cr^cnk)^ looi
Barh.
|J

^.
83,

]]

^c would not
Matt.
;

go;

Matt. xiv. 5;

14,
110

18;

6

;

vi.
ii.

24.

<M>\<^V)N i»»n«V) ^mS\

man

can serve

Mark

7

Johnm.2; x.21;
he sent him

Barh.192,20.
;

^Asol ^ ioZf ^2 W^t
Luke
xv. 15.

Aere a/^o could he not remain
to

(v;<^\ 019^*

feed
;

;

John
I.

iv. 33.

^i^lSoL

^La\

he.

brought— to
shall take

eat

Ephr.
;

230, D.

oicrUioL

_ ^onmj they
\i\\

to kindle

John

xi. 31.

]nnV)L
to be

];^oV%
h)
;

that she goeth unto the grave to
after verbs signifying to begin,
e.

weep; Barh. 12,20;

to cease,

accustomed
to

g.

Matt.
;

iv.

17.
I,
1,

0l;nV)\ ^'fM he began
2
;

preach
;

xvi. 21
V. 42.

Barh.

6,

2

;

Assem.
(J

I.

513, B. 20

Acts
;

o*=^\Sn\ 0001 ^^iS»
i.

they

ceased not to teach

Eph.

16; Barh.
to

5. 10.

0'^^»»aV)\

^^i^

they were ac-

customed
Rem.
1.

changes.
infinitive

—The
Gen.

with

^

(which can sometimes,

viz.

in

passages translated from the

Hebrew, be rendered by

while^

or

when

;

e.g.

ii.

3.

i^SSoN |0l-^ Ir^? which God
piAl
(§ 61. 4)

created,
cir-

when he made
cumlocution
tJie

it);

forms, after
;

and

after

looi, a

for the future

e.g.

sun shall go down.

But

of

Gen. xv.l2. -*^;^^V |aSD« ]ooI the Hebrew idiom, by which the
is

infinitive,

joined with a preposition or conjunction,
there occurs in Syriac,
;

explained by

the finite verb,
>

only

the construction with
^l£>
in

^iO

before

^

e.g.

Assem.
to

1.

42,8.

0*^\V)\>
negatively,

]ool )]« ]]o
iv.
i.

and

he

ceased

not

teach ;

Hebr.
entering,

1.
e.,

\\ vVn\%

Vq «^f^> "^ho should refrain from
not enter
;

who should

or comparatively, without

>

;

Gen.

iv.

13.

«n*^aV>\ ^Lo

%jkLn

N^cm

«.a01

\^y

my

crime

is greater,

than

can be forgiven me.

Rem.

2.

—In

the poets

we sometimes meet with

a transition

182
from the
infinitive

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE.
to

the

finite

verb

;

e. g.

Ephr.

III.

129, F.

|las ^£iXm
I^Q^S^D

(Jo

]A«Vn\

|j^SD UcTI.
it,

rUD ^fHi
to

0C71

wKkOZ)

W »*^i

yar

better is

in

time of thirst

drink water

than, instead of drinking to ineasure fountains will not measure) ;

(literally,

and we

and likewise conversely
(compare
the
also

;

which seems to be
et
Siefi".

done

for the

sake of the metre

Hahn
)

Chr.

p. 7^

Anm.).

The Syriac
3.

expresses
(

infinitive

by

the

future,

with or without > prefixed
( § 64.

§ 61. 3.

C

or

by the

participle

B

).

§ 64.
1.

Use of

the Participle.

Participles
:

may be

considered either as Adjectives or

as Substantives

A) As

Adjectives^

they assume the number and gender

and take their object in the case or with the preposition of the verb from which they are a ) the Active Participle ; e. g. John ii. 14. formed thus
of their subject;
; ;

(jQ-aO i^r^O

poZ

^jiloySiD? ,^>\01 those
;

who

sold oxen^ sheep,
4,

and

doves

;

verse 16

viii.

44

;

Barh. 52,

5

;

74, 20.
I.

IcrilL ^^y-wj

]nl^
Acts

a king who fears God; Assem.
vi. 3.
;

270,
the

A. Kem. 9

;

U'r^? 0ll»0j ^iSV) full of
iii.lo.
;

Holy Ghost ; Eom. i. 29 John every one who believes on hira

Ol£) ^iilioisoj

.alSn
ix. 2.

b) the Passive
;

Participle^

with the case or the preposition of its active
Vf

e.

g.

Ez.
;

ao

.AjiTil clothed in Byssus

;

Barh. 32, 14
the

;

108, 6

l70,
4.

19.

\rA
,^

•if-^*^
\i<^
t

maimed

in

hand

;

Lev.
;

ii.

}aaSliO

^^rv« cakes anointed with oil

I

Sam.

ii.l8.

p'r^D^ yui>!D

blessed

of the Lord.
participles

B)

As

Substantives

stand,

in a genitive re;

lation, in the construct state, before the

noun

thus

a) the

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE.
Active Participle
e.g.
;

]83

;

Gen.

xxiii. 10.
vii.
1
.

Iij2 ^jjiji those who
wiA^i
-^

went in at

the

gate

Rom.

fCDOSQJ

those

who
1

know
11.

the

law
I

(literally,

the hnoivers

of the law)
the

Barli. 195,

|<=^»<y>

i^V)» ivho had drawn

sivord;
>.
y.

214,
..?

;

To.

who

denij

(i.e.

refuse to

acknowledge) favors; I Tim.

i.

10.

1ASjDQ2^ \\1
Participle
\

^r^m

breaker

of their oath

;

h

)

the Passive

Gen. xxiv. 81.

hP^?

OlQ-ijO

blessed

of God;

xxvi.

29.

2. Participles

mark

the following relations of time

:

A) The
Aj|

present,

in connection
(

with the separable pro)
;

noun denoting the subject

§ 54. 2

e.

g.

John

iv. 9.
I.

^|i

ihou prayesi
^!£)

(art pra.ying)]
,

xv. 15;

Assem.

84, 9.

.;Sd

p(

nn^

p

/

have no

commandfrom our

Lord.

Rem.
definite

—In
;

the third

person which

is

usually

already

rendered
is

by a preceding noun or pronoun, the separable pronoun
e.

omitted

g.

Luke
.

xv. 5.

01^ ^\Q4iO and
(;£)0

he

heareth

it

(the

sheep) ; verse 6.
into his house
vii.

»mr>0->...«\
calleth

C\t^*l\ \L\0 and cometh
;

and
;

his friends
\kll\

John

iii.

18,

20;

iv.

36

;

17

;

viii.

47

iv.

23.

lAla

P
;

1

hut the time cometh.

B) The past
|OOl
e. g.

;

a) the Imperfect

a

)

in connection with

(§ 65)

;

/3)

without looi after a preceding imperfect;
,V)SV)0
baptized
;

John.

iii.

22.

^OOlSni looi j^cnAji he
iv. 27,

tar-

ried with them

and

81

;

vi.
;

2
e.

;

y)
g.

after the
vi. 5.

preterite in a relative parenthetical clause

John

OlZo^ j2|j ]] I .. ffl yilD pany ivho came to him ;
joined with o copulative
;

Iv^aO

and
;

he

saiv

a great comI
.

verse 11
e. g.

Assem.
4, 3.

75,

A.36

;

Barh.

lia^

onScY>

184

THE PARTICIPLE.
they vjent
vii.
see^

^|>jO ^Q^;ja>
h
)

up on Mount Hermon and abode ;
Wli^ii

the Perfect

;

Jolm

52.

^ U^?"
the

•.^WO *^^Q
arisen no

^(d
Rem.

U search and

that out of Galilee hath

projphet.

It

is

to

be regarded as a mere imitation, and not as a

constant idiom

of the language,
"r^X^^

when

Hebrew

infinitive
finite

^l^n
verb,
is is

or the participle

(by which, coming before the

indicated the continuance or gradual progress of an action),
of

expressed in Syriac by the participle

^1

1

;

e.

g.

Gen.

viii. 5.

^•tqLo 0001
and
the

^iV X^o
decreased
rtiore

(

-i^on-1

"ijibn
;

vr\
Sam.

tr]7^yr\
ii.

waters

and

more

I

26.

the hoy

grew from day

to

day.

C
shall

)

The Future ;
;

a) the Absolute Future

;

a

)

in general
^/ly

propositions
rise

e. g.
;

John
/3 )

xi. 23.

i-kJDakil

^p3
;

brother

again

after

a

present
rise
1.

John
again
jA*Dj
;

xi.
iv.

24.

^)o>
7)

Pl |lr»

/

Z:?20w;

^Aa^ he shall

25

;

after a preterite,
IjI
mm

Barh. 80, 20; 81,

olL '^f
him
;

]^^V>S OlS ^

^^aV)

-ISDO* IALZ
the city
;

he said to
iv.

that in
)

three

days he would surrender
;

John
.

25

^

after
^.^^^
I.
ii
e

a future

John

xiv. 23.

^-l-iZ(

OlZo^o

>mo><j->>.»i

my

Father will love him^ and we will come
8.

862, 5,

W

looi

]t

>fcm»p

^

j

shall be granted
after

me

that
;

^ ^ouAj
loi,
;

to

him

;

Assem.
/|"

if

then will
xi. 24.
;
?"

I become

a christian ;

)

an imperative
that

Mark

\pbS\ ^>*^rfM% oiSOiOi
afler

believe

ye shall receive
(01

)

John
Gen.

xvi. 82.
vi.

}Ll» V*Z|
xlviii.4
;

behold the
ix.

hour shall come
)

17

;

Exod.

18

;

>)

in direct

and

indirect questions

;

;

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE.
e. g.

185
shall the
;

Jolin

vii.

41.

|»MiiV)

\l\

U-^yt
31

^ P^?
;

Messiah come out of Galilee
Ajf r^l>

? verse
;

viii.

22

xiii.

27.

^pSo

?^/^«^ ^/ioz^
;

^^7^ do
vii.

h) the fuiurum exactum
27.

a

)

after particles

e. g.

John

121?
2.

%aA!i1
*^tS\

luhen

he

shall have

come ; verse 81. Barh. 133,
;
/3 )

U^?

t^
;

05 50071 as thou shalt have heard
e.g.

in conditional clauses

Ephr.

I.

218, F.

X^

^ooil

]S\

^0U> UV

unless

I

shall have given
3.

him

water.

In like manner, participles indicate various Moods
)

;

A
|OOl

The

Subjunctive
§

;
)

viz.

a
;

)

of the Imperfect
e.

(

with
10.

,

compare
|J

65

after ^(

g.

Barh.

38,

;£:)ZASd
the

ground

— woidd
|>i> »

()Z| ;r:)ZASo fov*^ ^| even though the vessel broken

not

break

;

Assem.

I.

379,

2.

Z]Sd B'Io
should ht

\LL

m^ar^ \ZiD

^
;

if he denied
after ?

Christ then

live^

ifnot^ he should die
jjj

U

],

Barh. 56, 12.
sac-

QMwOrlQj^ ^^.t^.
rifice ;
(

y

I

besides

that

they

would not

in

relative

clauses
)
;

depending
e.

= imperfect

subjunctive

^.fe^pi)

^

g.

upon a future Assem. I. 362, 19.
,jD2)

^a oom

i

g^
l

.001^ .ilSauAjj

Ae

ordered

that he should be given

them as Bishop^

ivhom they should

ask

;

b) of the Pluperfect^ with
§ 60. 4. c)
;

locJl in conditional clauses

(compare

e. g.

Gal. iv. 15.

2oai I^OJii) oi^
it

•JL^ ^jkOGl.kO

tOA^OOl —I

^ Oa
t

J

1 *

S had

been possible

ye would have plucked out your

own
19.

eyes^

and given them to me;

Heb.

X.

2

;

xi. 15;

I

John
after

ii.

B
to
I

)

The
P

Infinitive^
to

verbs signifying
etc.
;

to

begin^ to ccase^

permit^

command^

to be able, to pluck ;

e. g.
i.

Matt.
;

xii. 1.

^ i ^\V>

IV Q^'f» they began

Mark

45

Luke

v.

21

186
XV. 14 I
;

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE.

;

John

ii.

8.
I.

JVmASo ^'^ |)01QJ they began
37,15.
'\io
;

to see
;

the light

Assem.
;

^\M
7

he began
;

to call
;

50,

5

;

Barh. 96, 7

108,

19

160,

180,

5
;

83,

12

;

KA ^^^ ^^ ^^4^ h^ ceased to build churches
30.
xi.

Matt.
16
;

xiii.

^->^>

ODCLQ*
;

suffer to
x. 40.

grow ; Luke x viii.

44

;

xviii. 8
;

Luke
ii.

^ T>r^ 0^
,**]

John

'^'\ bid her
it

help

me

Mark
;

2.

^Oj]
v.

o^n*!
43
;

|]

could not
;

hold them
vi. 37.

vii.

15

;

John
also

19

;

viii.

Acts x.47

Mark
e.

,^>ms\ .OOlL ^Aj we

will give them to eat.

Rem.

—Sometimes
cominr/
;

>

stands before

such a participle

;

g.

Matt. xxiv.30.

TZ1> jijlj a\\C;iL ^OVwJ tlmj shall

see the

Son

of

man

John

v.

19

;

Acts

xxi. 32.

»

>><.n%

Vn

Q^OIQ

.^n\no^\ 0001
4.

sVajCavro

rC'rrTQVTSg

rdv

Ila-JXov.

The
it
;

Absolute Participle
e.g.

is

distinguished

bj

a)

p

preIZ*)

ceding
\j1d

Matt.xiv.25.
to

»^Ol!iD

p

^q«l» .OOiZol^
;

\^

Jesus came
1.**

them walking upon the sea
he

xv. 32;
6.

p p
;

\l\o

came seeing

;

Barh. 62,
;

A^Jk) t^'rOO
|SlJi

^-^ASd

P
e.

disquieted by

war

he died

73,4.

p
J

]]V5>o]i

P not standing, but boived
g.

to the earth;

6) by

preceding

Mark

ii.

14.
xi. 2,

]mnV) A^^
4
;

JO^tlj
;

sitting at the

receipt

of custom

;

Matt. xiv. 26

xxvi. 64.

Rem.

If

to such

a participle,

a noun be appended, this con;

struction

sometimes expresses the Latin ablative absolute

e.

g.
;

Matt. XV. 20.

^GlOpkl
5
;

— ^^aio
44.

U

^

ivith

unleashed

hands

Mark

vii. 2,

John

xi.

^01q1^^)0 ^010,^1 ^'h^V

P

hound hand and
the participle
finite
is

foot.

Tn the translation of the

New
O^l

Testament,

sometimes to be understood as
it
;

in the person of the

verb following
,

e. g.

Matt.

ii.

8.

O^nS

cropsu^gyrg^

f^eratfars

verses 9, 10, 11, 13.

;

USE OF THE rARTICIPLE.
6.

187
active

The

passive participles frequently have an
;

signification
viii.

a

)

those

from transitive verbs

;

e. g.

Matt,
vii.

18.

14.

Ol^ ^p»r^> those surrounding him 01^ OOOl ^oAjlOs) those hearing him ;
]oai Mji^lo troubling the water
:

;

Luke
John
;

v.

4.

|'^\
I.

Actsxxi.16

Assem.
;

30, 4.
2.
;

U^^^^uil»
b
)

jD bearing the child; 84,9
I'^i.r^l

37,8;
the

377,

Ol^l^ oil 2ooi

she

drew him by
;

hand

those from intransitive verbs

e. g.
;

Matt. v. 4.

^.oP .OOLfcjOQ^ blessed are those who mourn

Mark
;

vii.

SO

;

y^JSk

^

John

xi. 19.

OOOl ^V*Z| they were come

xii. 15.

,rij.Dj rz(//w^ w/?o/i
sitting

a/o«/

;

Barh. 170, 2

;

223,

1.

|£C>)

^\l «2uA^ pO

upon a

bed.

Rem.

Participles

sometimes
;
e. g.

have the signification of
Barh. 128,
)

the

Latin participle in

-ndus
(

2.

^\a-Mj timendus.
constructions
«jl-^

Here

also

belong
T
>

compare No. 5
have forsaken all
.^7

such

as

^\d
thee ;

wi.1 «CLft.CLS

/
, 7

;

y^

.er,^

I deny

wa^ >0

V^

»>>>

^|

a$

/ ?(^i7/.
;

6.

Finally participles are also used impersonally thus
;

a) the Masculine
becometh saints
j^l ^Djl w»;^
;

Rom.

xvi. 2.

|a >,n\
;

*£)>!>

j^j ay
I.

if

Heb.

viii.
it

3

;

Philem. 8
thee

Assem.
;

33,20.
24,

m?/

son^

behoveth

455,

A.

4L

loilLj t.o^V lla

B

?'^

behoveth not a servant of the
JJo

Lord
;

John
ix. 4.

iii.

30.

|^*<^\ |ooi

001 Q(yi^ he must increase
; ;

4

;

Uo w»^ / must ; Acts xxv. 27 xxvi. 1 ^i Mark iv. 38. \u4^ IJ oj »,*^lr

Rom.
Coi,

xiv.
bVi

^
;

fjLs'Xsi

dt'jroXXi^jxs&a

;

6

)

the

Feminine

especially to denote the

neuter

;

e. g.

Gal. vi.9.
;

^1 l^Uo

2oai U
l?01

let it

not be bur-

densome

to

us

Barh. 45, 13.

U^}

^Ai5 is

probable;

188

MOODS AND TENSES.
it

Assem. Ll79,B.22. Zooi 1^-^
Jo>10 I^Qs
Rem.
it is

was necessary;
;

482,24.
,

honorable
also

and

right

5 19, A.

4,

—Here belongs
hands
;
i.

Rom.
;

\\v. 4.

•^010pft)£)

t4^

^^

comes
39.

into his
r>«^>^

e.
|J

he can

and

in the feminine, Acts v.

»]A ]>

^<^r>

ye cannot.

§ Qb.

View of the manner of designating all the Tenses and Moods ; of the Imperfect^ Pluperfect^ and Optative in
'particular*

1.

The

Indicative

;

A
2)
;

)

of the Present

is

expressed

;

a)

by

the preterit
;

(§60.

h)

sometimes by the future (§61.
(§ 54. 2. b,

2. a)

c)

usually

by

the participle

and §64.

2.

A);
the participle joined

B

)

of the Imperfect
(§ 18.4.

;

a) usually
;

by

10 001

Kem., and § 88
/3 )
;

also without the substanii.9.

tive verb, § 64. 2.B.

e.g.

Matt.

Vooi ^if he went;

verse 20.
child's life

f

i\(^)
iii.

oia^j oooi

^>*'*^^ ^OJOi

who sought

the

;

5.

JOOU olSo Zooi

]n<^l all Judea went

.X
out
rite
2.
;

V

John

xvii. 12.

AaOOI

\^ I
;

kept;
)

h)'hj the pretethe future
(

(§ 60. 1. b),
)
;

and rarely

c

by

§ 61.

b

C)
flf)

of the

Perfect^

besides cases noted in
2.

(

§ 60.

1 )

rarely

by the
;

future (§61.

c);

h) by the participle

(§ 64. 2. B. b)

10 001
person and number added to the preterit
;

in the

same
v.

e. g.

Luke

9

;

;

MOODS AND TENSES.
(ooi Oir'^1
fcnlS^Z

189

terror

had
;

seized
v. 13.

him

;

Jonn

iv.

8.

OOOl a\l they had gone
hidden himself;
the preterit
2.
(

into

fOOl t-U-yiZ] he

had

x. 22.
1.

fOOl
c
)
;

|oai

he

had been

;

h)
(

by

§ 60.

c)

rarely

by the future

§ 61.

d);

E

)

of the Future besides cases noted in §61.
;

1.,

some-

times

a)

by the
;

Preterit

(§ 60. 3. a)

;

h)

by the impera-

tive (§ 62. 2)

c)

by the

participle (§ 64. 2. C);

Futurum exactum ; a) by the preterit (§ 60. 8. b), more frequently h) by the future (^ 61. 1. b), sometimes c) by the participle (§ 64. 2. C. b).
)

F

of the

;

;

//.

The
)

Subjunctive

;

A
looi
3.

of the
(§ 60.
)
;

Present
a
),

is

given
;

;

a)
b)

4.

very often

by the preterit of by the future (§ 61.

A. a

B

)

of the Imperfect

;

a) usually like the indicative of

the same tense,
clauses
;

by

the participle with (OOl in conditional
viii.

e. g.

John

19.

^'\ ^oA^OOl

^->-lrJ>

»j^ o2L

^oAaOOl
father
;

^^>-^r*

*^^V
A.
b),

if y^
;

knew me, ye would
36
c)
;

also
;

know my
b)

verses 39, 42

xviii. 30,
;

xxi.

25

by the

future (§ 61. 3.
(§ 64. 3.

sometimes

by the

participle alone

A.

a)

C ) of A.c);

the Perfect; sometimes

by the

future

(§61.

3..

D
b)

)

of the Pluperfect
future (§61.
3.

by the

by the preterit (§ 60. 4. c) A. d), more frequently c) by the
;

a)

;

participle with- foai

(§ 64. 3.
is

A.

b).

in. The Optative

expressed

;

«

)

by the

interrogative

190

THE PERSONS OF THE VERB.
preterit

pronoun with a
ix. 29.

or future following

;

e. g.

Judges

«Jr->l^

P^ ]^\\
to

cnSr\w]
in

^j

^
e.g.

oh that
!

I had
;

{who will give over
lv.7; h)
terit

me)

Hvis people,

my power
thai,

Ps. iv. 7

by

the particles waQl^ and .^oA»1 oh

with a pre-

following (§ 60. 4.1lem.);the Future;

Gen. xvii.18.

ImP %aoA»|
loGi
;

oh that he might

live

;

or the participle with

e. g.

II Cor. xi.l.

«xS ^oA^ooi
!

^;nimV> ^oAsf
#1 or

m,ay ye yet hear vnth

me
is
7

Rem

—The
to

optative
J
«

sometimes also expressed by
7
>

Q-^

;

«^tO

e.g. Ps.lxxxi.l3.

i1VV)»

i

V)\ CuS^ would thai

my people would
j
;

hearken
e.g.

me ;
XVI. 3.

by verbs that denote a wish with a following

Exod.

tA^lD)

^001

^^lO. would
it

that
is

we were dead
omitted
;

When
Luke.
the

the substantive
ii.l4.

verb

denotes a wish,

e.

g.

|01^]j
njT|n

|AajQOaZ

glory toGod. Sometimes instead of
7

7
;

Hebrew
Job

1)3

occurs the almost correspondent J ^2^1 ^lyO

e. g.

xxiii.

3

;

but

it is

literally

translated

in

Cant.

viii. 1.

kA-^ p^l

^^Aj —So

oh that thou wert

my

brother,

IV. The Imperative^ besides the cases under § 62,
pressed
;

is

ex-

o)

by the

preterit

of (001 (§ 60. 5. a)

;

b)

by the

future, especially negatively (§61. 8. B).

Y. The
expressed
ture

Infinitive, finally,
;

besides the cases under § 63,
(§ 60. 5. b)
; ;

i3

a)

by
,

the preterit

h)

by the

fu-

(§ 61. 3.

C)

and more frequently

c)

by the

partici-

ple

(§ 64. 3, B).

§ QQ. The Persons of the Verb,
1.

The

third singular masc.
is

and

fern,

of the active and
:

passive conjugations

sometimes used impersonally thus

;

THE PERSONS OF THE VERB.
a

191
llrb. x. 34.

)

the masculine
it

;

«)

of the preterit
;

;

e. g.

Q^ *£i\D
it

pained you

Luke
of

x.34.

%a01QSl OlX ^^rsZ]
Deut.
vi.

he

cared for

him;

/3)

the
;

future,

24.

-ik »Ok6j
it

tvould he
;

good for us
b)

Jer. vii.6,
;

tO^

%«]^^
,

would harm you
001

the feminine

a)

of the preterit

Ps. xcv.lO.

fj^
;

^^ Ajpx)
Aa'^O
it

it

shames me, {I

am ashamme

ed) of this generation

Ps. xxxi.9.

%^ Am
;

it

grieves

Luke

xviii. 23.
9.

OI^

pained him

(3)

of the future,
;

Gal. vi.

^ tf^K
Oui Ijsij
a)
;

H

it

will not be grievous to us
it

Ps.

Ixix. 20.
2.

^^^ whom

grieved,
is

In like manner in Syriac, the neuter
;

usually ex-

pressed
verb,
OLjlJ

by
a)

the third person singular feminine of the
in
;

thus
it

impersonal phrases,

as

Luke

vi. 13.
;

vjas light

John

vi. 17.

Aqaai

it

was dark

pas-

sively, Barh. 84,14.

AiSdA«|

the report
it

was spread abroad;
to

Assem.
481, 7
;

I.

298. A.ll.
/? )

Ol^ Aij^yiZl
as

was revealed

him

;

in

connection with the demonstrative proadjectives

noun or with

subjects
to

;

e.

g.

John

i.

28.
i.

%^001 f^li A.ijQ*D ^^jb^OI this came

pass at Bethany
;

;

3.

Zooi

Ipxi

llal

there

u^as
it

not

any thing
to

Ephr.
;

I.

240, F.

{•ok)

-'<
I.

^^^

fjOl Z;£l»

seemed good
it

Moses passively,
to us.

Assem.

380, 4.

^

A^VmZI 1d>1
;

seemed just

Yet

we

also find for the neuter
;

h)
«

the third person singular mas*

culine
rest

e.g. Isa. xxiii. 12.

i^N
01^

»»

1 1 1

(j

there will be no

for

thee
I.

;

Barh. 133,

8.

r^^
is

^^ ^'^^^

^^i^

to

him;

Assem.
3.

362, 5.

«a^ jdouAj

^f it

shall be permitted to me,

When
it is

the subject of the verb

general or indefias in the
;

nite,

expressed, in Syriac,

in various ways,

English,

thus

;

a)hj

the third person singular

e.

g.

192
Gen.
xi. 9.
is

THE PERSONS OF THE VERB.
|rO he
calls
;

( i. e.

one

calls,

it

is

called)

;

to

whicli

also

appended by way of explanation,

after the

Hebrew
verb
tread
;

idiom, tbe participle or participial
xvi. 10.
;

noun of the same

e. g. Isa.
(

]»Q-»> «»OrJ the wine ireaders shall

no more wine
e.g.

i. e.

no one shall tread);
f^^it

or
(i.

"imj]

and
one)

\\^\\

;

I Sam.

ix. 9.

fOCn ;Sof he

e.

any
^^ow;

said ;

John m. 4,

pQ£D Vf^y% r-^^J) irr^*^^ P^-»f
is

can

one he horn when he
^iiioAj
it

old ?

or passively Matt. xxvi. 13.
13.
he

shall he told

;

Acts xvi.
to

L^ looi IvmASd ^L
58, 13, 15
;

|Zq^»
h)
(

there

prayer was wont
;

made ; Barh.
Ixiv. 3.
xlvii. 1
;

by the third person plural e.g. Isa. i. e., men in general ) have not heard ;
xi. 3.
sees,

oZ» U they Dan. i. 12
(i.

;

Heb.

»a001 ^V*^AliD>

>^^

ii;^ai ^Aey see

e.

what

any one

what
;

is

seen

;

also

with an explanatory parti-

ciple or adjective

e.g. Isa.

xxiv. 16.
;

0>

^M
li.

llcil they fail-

ed ;

c)

by

the second singular
I Tim.

e. g.

Luke

4.

•^j^Z
^A«<

p
in

t(;Ae?7,

iAor^ hringest ;
(i.

ii. 1.

^n;nV> jOOlZj
)
;

//loz^ o/^

ferest

e.

^Aa^ ^Aere

he offered
vi.

sometimes the verb

is

the second plural, Matt.
plural
itive
;

24

;

d) sometimes by the

first

e.g.

Mark

vii.57.

}^\:^Q

with ^, Matt. XV. 26.

— jqeqjj (or by the infinn>V);^\o — «r>rnV)\ xxii.17),
take

that

we

(i.e.

anyone) should

—and
;

cast

;

e)

more

fre-

quently by the participle alone;
do

e.g. Matt.vii.l6.

^^^^"^^ jSoL
;

men

gather ? v. 15
;

;

ix.l7

;

x.

29

I Cor. iv.l2

Barh. 6-2.

^•lof they say
Rem.

58, 9.
also
f

—Here belongs
^S»
one
obey.

;SDf ASD they say^
;

it is
e.

said

;

and imxii.

personal phrases

with an

infinitive following
;

g.

Matt.

12.

AvVnV

may do

Acts

v.

29.

oma-^ASliL ]]o

we (any one) must

.

VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.
4.

193

Wlien the Deity or those
the
e.

in high stations (e.g. Kings),

speak of themselves
pluralis excelkniice
(i. e.

first

person plural denotes the
i.

;

g.

Gen.

26.

(kjf

,aL2

let

us

I will) make man;
(i.e. Ij

xi.

7; Barh. 90, 9.
;

hold we
to

Jusiiman)^ have written

11.

^
a
)

^hdAo \0\ be*^oAo v:riie.
in

us (me)

Rem.

— Sometimes
the

though

for

the

most part only
Testaments,
viz.
;

passages

translated from

Old and

New

the construction

changes from one person to the other,
to the second, or vice versa;

from the third
A.^.^

Micah

vii.

18.

^Zq2| (Gw^
and and
15;

AjV r^X
there
is

Vo
no

Oilol'fl^

]o*r^?

1^-4^ ;n\V)o Vol ^nnjy
forgiveth sins,
his
)
;

God as
11.

thou,

who

remitteth
retainest

the

transgressions of the

(compare Ephr.
(CDOSO)
XiysTs
b
)

remnant of 284, A. B

heritage,

not 21.

Mai.

ii.

Gal.

iv.

Ll^L .OOOU)
ol

^r'-^A*

^'^M t^^l
;

^^

0*rib|
;

(xoj,

vito

vopiov

^s'Xovts^ s/vai

Rom.
;

ii.

1

;

Matt.

xxiii.-37

from the
,^1

first

to

the
.

third

person

e.

g.

Isa. xlii. 24,

25.

»001i\s
him,

GU^

i

5»i>

^o.il

because we have sinned against
(us).

— hath he poured out upon them
their
Ii-mJ

— Here
e.

also belong the

instances where
in

writers include themselves, in the

first

person plural,
Ixvi.

what they declare ©f

ancestors;

g.

Psalm

6.

Cn£D

^^Z

then did

we

rejoice in

him.

When

several verbs
it

having

diff'erent

subjects follow each

other in the same person,

appears to be rather according to the Syriac

idiom, not to indicate
;

more

particularly the difference of the subject

e.g. II

Sam.

xi.l3.

§ 67.

Construction of

the

Verb

with various

Cases

and

Prepositions.
I.

Verbs with the Accusative.
Accusative are construed
Verbs
;
;

1.

With an
)

a

Transitive

e. g.

Matt,

ii.

6.

->mri. v«i ©01 j

194
.>Vnv\ having
214,
2.
ifjjio

VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.
shall feed

my people

;

iv.

16

;

even

intransitives,
;

at the

same time a

transitive signification

e.g.

Barh.

1;^^

foai .^iO) he rode upon

an

ass

;

215, 11.

Rem.

— Here
;

also

belong such verbs as in other languages govern
to

other cases
believe ;
|JL1 ^0

e. g. xii.

,n^
Ephr.

command
x.

;

Matt, xxviii. 20.
(

^^V?i01 to
ii.

John
answer

38; Romans
III.

16,

with
<o

%^ John

23

)

;

;

285;

^^IlfiD

announce; Acts

xvi.

10. etc.

a Here belong the following classes of verbs signifying to put on or put off clothing, to adorn, to
h
)
;

)

those

gird^ to
vi.

cover

v:ith

anything

;

«an\
9
^Do]

I Cor. xv.

53

;

Eph.

11

Barh. 223, 12.
ments
;

^-^jia^A ««n\l>
iii.
;

that he
ii.

put on our gar;

%%i\% Col.
;

I

Sam.
Acts

4

Acts
;

xii.

8
Ps.

even passive verbs
civ. 2
vi. 8.
;

e.g.

*'^{^\l\

xii.

8

"^^^|
; e. g.

and

/3)

those denoting a vmnt or excess
1

Acts

1Ja«mO jZonii I

001

U^

^^6

was full offaith and pow;ra»»J

er
i/"

;

xiii.

10;

he suffer

Eom. i. 29; Mark harm as to his soul.
and
ii.

viii. 86.

Olmaj

.

f

Furthermore here belong
jOll John xv. 20
vi.
;

y) verbs of reraemhering

forgetting,

Lnke

i.

72
;

;

pjif John

17,

22

;

X^i neb.

10

;

and

finally

^)

verbs o^ coming and going to a place; e.g. Matt.
into the region of

XV.21.

*©•> JLdq>jA-^ ]Z]o Ae came
v.

Tyre
iv.

Mark
John
A*Ij
c)

38;

Luke

ii.

51

;

John
ii.

iv.

5

;

^jl

Luke
Acts

42
3

vi. 1;
ii.

j^Ol Luke
12
;

39

;

iv.

14;
;

John

^oaj

i.44

;

^oScD

v. 1

^

14^

ix.

xviii.33

;

several neuters also take an accusative, viz

;

a) in

connection with a noun,
;

as

their object,
12.

formed
r^\
to

from the same verb

e. g.

Judg. xiv.

\Lfj^o\

;

;

VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.
propose a riddle
;

195

Ez. xvii. 2

;

Acts

ii.

17.
;

— pop^
1

*****

^'

(Vm

)V)\n ^oSm
Ephr.
I.

to

have visions
253,

— dreams

Matt.

xiii.

24
is

251,

C

;

A

;

especially

/3 )

when
e. g.

the

noun
ii.

more accurately defined by an adjective;
fZ^j
fZOpM Q^fj^
I.

Matt.

lO.

they rejoiced

exceedingly;

John

iii.

29

;

Assem.

862, 18
;

;

Gen. xxvii. 34.
i.

lW> lAHif ^^f^c
to
;

lamented sorely Rem.
also

Zach.

14.
to befall,

1

001

,

in the sense of

happen
e.

to

any one,
xiii. 2.
vii.

governs the

accusative
,

of the

object

g.
;

Luke
Acts

tQJf

fOOl

|i201>

because this has befallen them
to

40.

•uCJUOQl

(llO ivhat has happened

him

;

Acts

xxviii. 5, 6.

t 2

The

following govern a double accusative
Pe. of

a ) verbs in Pa., Aph.^ and Sha.^
accusative, viz.;

which takes an
off clothing,
-«^>

a) verbs of putting on or

adorning^

covering

with anything;
I.

e.

g.

«jrjQ_^,

\*(

Mark
he
*0
P

xv. l7,20; Ephr.

239,

A.
;

'{lIjuLqd .Qjf ^a^lSLo
II. 178,

clothed
,.^7

them with garments
7

D

;

John

xix. 2.

^.•'

PQ..>|>

IZImJ
;

^cn o i mn o

-x

7

they

put upon him, a purple robe;
;

Ez. xvi. 10
I.

^) verbs oi filing up, satisfying

e.

g.

Ephr.

527,

A.

tilai
oil
;

tj]SQi.

Alli lAliif
53.
;

^^e ^^;^(^ow; /i/^eci

^^e vessels

with

Luke
John

i.

\tsi^ ^l^flO

"llSkD

^/ie

hun-

gry he fills with good things
or showing ;
/eacA
sAo?^
e. g.

y) those

which denote

teaching,

xiv. 26.
iv.

^fV?\o .on<^\j
6
;
;

Ae

^(;^7

^ow
1^5 the

all things ; I

Tim.

John

xiv. 8.

Is] .OLm

Father

;

verses 10, 32

verbs in Peal with a double accusative signification. Here belong a) verbs of clothing, covering (also with ^Q of
h
)
;

the thing)

;

e.

g.

Ephr.

1.

239,

A.

iLLsiboi

^qjI* jcof he

196

VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS.
yi^V)
to

girded ihem with girdles ;

anoint, Ps.xlv.7; ^y]

to

sow

;

Lev. xix. 19
e.

;

/3)

verbs o^ filling up (also with JD and^lo);

g. Jolin

ii.

7.
;

11.^1]'

]Ii
;

^f
Gen.

oSlk)
;

fill

{them) the water
I.

pots ivith water

verse 9

Barh. 212, 2

Assem.

832,

A.

12; 7)verbs oi commanding, ordering, (also

with _k>and ^\lof
01rO2)>

the person
he

and thing)

;

e.g.

vi.22.

\o

all thai

had commanded

him',

Mark viii.ll.
;

IZ]

OLl 0001

^->-^K*

demanded of him a sign 5) verbs of showing or doing any thing to any body, or making a person or thing to he
they

thus and so
^Aee
est

;

e. g.

Gen.

xvii. 5.

^^Aoou Jo / have made
(

a Father

;

John

viii.53.
i.

y^M2ii Aj| ri^l

QliD

i^/Aa^

7nak-

thou thyself f Heb.

2

;

Assem.

I.

346,

A.

4. v.

E.

Alis

so with an accusative of the material of

which anything
]£)p!^ —ijI

formed;

-e.

g. L

Kings

viii.

82.

V>Lq^
;

Uq
j'^o

he built of {them) the stones
Isa. Ix.

an

altar

s)

verbs of naming,

18

;

I

John

iii.

1.

II.

Verbs with Prepositions.

1.

Yerbs are construed with JD which in English are
in, on,

joined with
especially
;

upon, about, concerning,

etc.

Here belong
emotion of

a) verbs
e.g.
;

which denote some
i.l4.

state or

the

mind

;

Luke

ai,^0V)O
*i^

tO,-wJ they shall rejoice

at his birth

Barh.90,20;
iii.

\£i%lo have pleasure in some-

thing

;

Matt.

17

;

Heb.
ii.

x. 38;
V
;

•^ OlLoZZ]

to
;

vjonder at;
Matt.
xii.

Matt. xxii. 33

;

Luke
;

47

*^

\CiSQ to hope in
;

21
ii.

;

John v.45
Ja
I.

%0

^!lLiOl to believe on
;

Mark
;

i.

15

;

John
;

11;

\j1

to

look at
;

John

i.

36,

43

Barh. 190, 18
;

Assem.

89,

A. l7

«0 ZoiO

to be

ashamed of

Rom.

i.

;

VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS.
16

197
or threaten
7 7

;

»0

;l.(^

to
;

rebuke

;

I Tim. v.

1

;

(p

ibid,

;

\i

Matt.
ar
;

viii.

26

Luke
;

iv.

41

;

Barh. 53, 10; J3 wm]^

to

mock
ii.

Matt. xx.l9
b)

xxvii. 31;

*o ^O^k)

/o Z«//^/i at

;

Acts

13

;

verbs that denote acknowledging, denying, sioearing

by, calling

upon;

e.

g. Matt. x. 32, 33.
;

*,jiQ

1?^? .htSo
xxiii.

whosoever shall confess me

Mark
»aC)

i.

5

;

Acts

Kom.
shall

X.

9,

10
;

;

Matt. x. 33.
;

ioaajj
;

^
^
;

8

;

whosoever
I.

deny me
372,
8,

xxvi. 34

I Tim. v. viii

Assem.

341, A.

23

;

9

;

Matt. xxvi. 63.

7 adjure thee by the living

U^. loi!i.£^ God ; Mark v. 7
iv. 26.

]j1

]iDQiD

I Thess. v.27;
;

*0

Ip

<o

call

upon

;

Gen.

Here

also belong

c)

some verbs which denote a doing something for or against
some one
some one
16;
;
;

e. g.

*iD riQl,
;

%a«9|

and
;

a^aQj^ <o

prove against

Acts xxiv. 27
(also

xxv. 9

Rom.

ix.

17
;
7

;

1 Tim.

i.

•^ >ai£D

with

^^)
10

to testify
;

against
6?)

Deut. xxxi.
to

28.
ter
;

Of verbs of motion, here belong Luke
viii.

JD ^v2)
to

encoun(i.

27
;

;

xxii.

;

and *^ Ul

come with

e.

bring) something

Psalms

Ixvi. 13.
to

Rem.
*jk*^

—Here

also belongs

«^ \L»

drink from

;

Gen.

xliv. 5.

OIQ |4A*J (ino the cup from which my Lord drinks. Some e.g. II Sam. xxiii. 10. times JD denotes a part of the object ^\c^o *a;jsA Ae mao?e a/i overthrow among the Philistines ;
;

and here are

to be placed

«2

r^ll and ViJkll

^o

labor at something;

I Kinors ix. 23.

2.

The following verbs
;

are construed with

^

as a sign of

the dative
e. g.

a)

those of giving, permitting,

commending
;?2y

John
I
;

xiv.27.
;

^onL pi
Luke

*iDOl-ji ««kXA)

]Sn\«
*£Q2)|

pe«ce

give

to

you

Matt, viii.21,31.
;

— us

^ — ul^
32
;

permit me

Mark v. 13

viii.

Acts xx. 32^

^ir^

198
K0
9,

VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS.
«.7
t
«^

loi^U

cm!L p1 / commend you

to

God ;
;

I Peter iv. 19

h) those

of pleasing and displeasing

e. g.

John

viii.

29.
;

OtL \Z^y ^fio ^Acf^ which pleases him ; Rom. xv. 2, 3 or c ) those that denote likeness^ similarity; Heb. xiii. 16
;

e.g.

the

Luke xiii. 18. loi^j UonSV) llsoj ^isii^ to what is Kingdom of God like ? verses 9, 20 Heb. ii. 17 Barh.
;

;

137, 12.

Olli bS\

1q* thou

art like him.

Rem.

—Here
28,29
to

also belong impersonal phrases,

such as
;
e. g.

^ ]]o
Matt.

it is
iii.

fitting for^

and
;

^
II

Aa

|

equivalent to

to

have

9

;

Luke

xvi.

John

x. 16.

(with the accusative of the object in
9.

relation

^^sjv,

John
<rov

OlS L?( I'^T^O
£;)^si),

|£)l)o

^JOl

ouTo^ xoA t6v iraripoc xai

uiov

and

^

Aa^

equivalent to

not

to

have

;

Matt.

xiii.

21
e.g.

;

Johnxiv.30.
4.

In the same signification

occurs also

^

looi

;

Barh. QQ,

Iljri

oC^ 0001 VaSZ

he had three sons.

3.

With ^iD
flee,

are connected
oneself,

;

a

)

verbs which denote

to

fear,
e.g.

guarding
xxiii. 40.
ix.

regaining, ceasing, releasing
loilSL

Luke

tj]

\Z'y

^
; ;

U''*2)f fearest
ii.3.

thou
Aj1>

not

God? John
oil-t>

22; Barh. 94,9; Rom.

^o;i2

^(jl^>

^^
;

that thou

shah escape

the judgment

of God;
oioijl]

I Cor. vi. 18

x.

14

;

Barh. 170, 4
;

Matt. x. 17.

l^i'lio

^SjD

beware of men
Xm^LOi
;

xvi. 6, 12

Luke

xii.

15; xx.

46

;

John

xvii. 15.

^
ii.
iii.

^aj| '^L* that thou shouldst
11.
OlA-^-i-ytJ ^isD CLD;2)Zf
;

keep them

from

evil

I Peter

^>

abstain

from

lusts of the flesh
.

Actsxv. 29

;

I Pet.

iv.l.

loi^j^ ^Lo 01^
I.

iN» he ceasethfrom
3.

sin; Barh.102,9;

Assem.

42, 8; II Thess.

]a>n

^

^Qar:)iQaJ he

VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS.
will keep you from evil
;

199

h)

those of filling up, lacking^ and

failing
7

;

Luke xv.
;

16.

jCiOpM
;

^
;
ii.

OlflDp ySoSO-i /o^/? his
vi.lO.
ii.

belly unth husks

Barh. 69,1

I

Tim.

fZoiiiCJi 18
;

^
^^^^i'

Ql4

ih^y came short of the faith

II Tim.

c)

those of

askings

beseeching;
;

John

i v.

31.

OUiD 0001
11.

r-.*^^

besought him

verse 40; I Peter

Rem.

— —So

also expresses the Latin prce ; e. g.

^So AaIo

^o c?tV

be/ore ; or ^er, with

^\l and tONro, John

x. 1, 2.

With ^\l are construed verbs, which, in EngUsh, maj be followed by about, concerning, viz. a ) some which ex4.
;

press an affection of the mind; e.g. Matt.xv,22. ->^^ ^(Lm9A|
be merciful to
28.

me ;

xvii.

15

;

Eom.

^oAjI
;

^^^ji
xii.

\^ lio^
26.

^

ix.

15

;

xi.

82

;

Matt.vi.

why

take ye thought for
;

raiment

Luke

^vi
;

]..•>

to be

anxious

Matt.v.22.

^\k

^omoZ]

to rejoice
9,7 9?^

over

Eev.

xviii.20. ^o*l
to

p^ to weep

m>py»

TmVpYYiii

Wv

.\Vn7|

take counsel concern-

ing

;

Matt. xxvi. 4; b) those which denote pov)cr or authori-

ty over

something

;

e. g.

Luke

xix. 14.
;

poi ^^iNs

«^»>>V7l>
;

that

this

person should rule over us
;

Eom.

vi.

14

vii. 1

;

Barh. 40, 6

Matt, xxiii. 85.
xxi.

you

;

Luke

34

;

^oni\s ]L\2 John xviii. 4
;

shall come

upon
i
.

Luke
c
)

i.

%a01q1Li

ASeu

IALajJ fear fell upon him
•7
Tt

;

those which
_7

denote a doing for or against^
thing;
testified
e. g.

or an occupation tuith someV
mt\

Acts

vii. 58.
;

wiOiQ-il 0)01QD> ^^i\i| those vjho
;

against

him

Matt. xxvi. 62
ivitness
viii.
;

John

i.

8.
iii.

^^
26
to
;

joifi^j
v. 31.
of,

^901QJ that he might bear
^i»il •IXId')

of

the light
;

;

to

accuse
i.

;

John
;

46

^^ ^sAd

write

concerning,

John

46

v.

46

Acts xxi. 25.

^^ paol

and

200
.* r

VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS.
to

^5£^

speak

of^

about

;

John

i.

22, 30; xiii. 22; vii. 13
;

;

d) verbs of coverings protecting^ or burdening
xvii. 5.
</iewi
;

e. g.

Matt.

|Oau^
Luke
i.

Ajik^l
-

|Z;aC3U

im « bright cloud covered
l-*-^? OlNi
»>

35.

>*^>

\^

^
;

the

power of

the

Most High

shall cover thee
;

^\l |4^ and ]lQD have the
23
;

same
•^"^^
e)
e.

signification

Jer.

xviii.

II

Sam.

xiii.

25.

\Ci\l ]]> so that ive shall

not burden thee.

And

finally;
;

several verbs that denote a charge,
g.

command

or petition

^^
to
:

r^^

to

charge one
;

;

II

Chron. xxxvi.
xxii. 13.

23

;

^^ «iiAD
to
I.

prescribe for one

II

Kings
to

^^
;

plo

pray for
50,
6.

John

xvii. 9.

^ii ^|i

ask after

Assem.

Rem.

— Here

also
;

belong phrases compounded with nouns derived
I Peter v. 7.

from these verbs
cast

e. g.

(Ol-^
5.

MJL O^s

»0OtSi»
V^j^

your cares upon

the

Lord
for
to

;

Barh. 77,

O^^^ [^xVn
i.

|Zo\ I

()JD they took care

the

King
;

;

Isa.

14.

«jl^JL

0001

|Z;n i\ they are a burden

me

Job

\\i.

20.

5.

With Aa^
Gen.
i.4.

,

ol iO and

L\ i*^ betiveen, are construed

verbs which denote dividing, separating, distinguishing
e.g.

po«»»\

JJOIQJ ZujD
;

^/;ee?i light

and darkness

Euth

i.

17.

^;a Ae separated be* .0 1 AxS ^r—^ ^^icl (Vm
A 7

to see,

to

perceive a difference between
18.

;

II

Sam.

xix.

35

;

Mai.

lii.

6.

With >Ao
to

after, are

joined verbs which signify
e. g.

to

go

(equivalent to
Ihey followed

follow

)

;

Matt.

iv. 25. x.

oijAo o^]]
Matt.
;

him;

xii.
;

15;

Mark
;

32;

iv. 19.

*ajAi OL follow after me
1

xix. 2

John viii. 12

>Ao ^ai>

Tim.

vi.

1 1

;

II Tim.

ii.

22.

;

PASSIVES
Rem.

AND THEIR

CONSTRUCTION".
the

201
find

—More
;

in

accordance with
to

Hebrew idiom we
I

SAq
xiv.

with verbs signifying
xxi. 21.

put away, destroy: e.g.

Kings

10

General

Remarks.
as in

To
7
..

seern^
,

to appear^

are expressed,

Hebrew,
7 *•?

bj
* 9

7

< » *.KJLa

^*^

in

the relation of genitive or with the suffix be
;

longing to the person
7
7

e. g.

Gen. xix.
sons-in-law

14.
;

1

11

iSn

JOOI
x, 3.

.aOlQjA** he seemed

to

his

II

Sam.

y^y. vo

(he)

seems

to thee.

When
•»>

rendered more definite
7.. 7

by

the or had, •7 adjectives good **|!dZ( they are expressed either by ^7 iSO without ^ \SiM and \%'^% or
*

••*

,

»

il

;

e. g.
;

Acts

vi.

5
P

;

Rom.
7-. 7

xv. 2. 3
« 1 1 » f

;

Gen.
;

xxi.

11

;

Matt. xxi. 15
I. to

or in

connection with

N^)

e. g.
^

Ephr.

240, F.

loai

"

\i^% by

Vi;So

'^ '^*^ %.k2 luould this

seem good
Sq-ksT

God f

In the trans-

lation of the

New Testament,
Matt. xvii. 25

is

usually expressed
12
;

^ lU*^
Luke

;

e. g.

;

xviii.

xxi.

28
7

;

xxii.17;

x. 36.
suffer,
7

To

permit, are expressed either
to

by ^-oa

to

com;

mand, or

j^
;

cause (without the copula following)

eg.
that

Barh. 72, 12

or they are expressed in such a
is

manner

the thing to be done

implied in the imperative

itself

Barh. 27, 2; 114, 14.

III.

Passives and their Construction.
in passives
is

1.

The
e.g.

active cause
vi. 16.
viii.

usually expressed by
that they

^;

Matt.

]•<
29.

>i^\ ^op^AJj

may

he

seen hy

msn ; Luke

Oli^ looi ]ri» he

was caught hy

202

VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.
1.

him; Assem.
voice heard hy

39; 14,
;

and

16.

Uo
find

CJlL

M5^A»1

there

was a

him
we

Barh. 152, 11.
frequently

Rem.

—Yet

also

^iO, Matt.
;

iii.

14.

>,ilV)>

flQlZ^ that
2.

I should

he baptized

of thee

v.

13

;

xx. 23.

Passives

whose

actives

govern
of
tliem
;

a

double
e. g.

accusai.

tive,

sometimes

retain

one

Luke

41.

\M^Q£iy
ii.

paO) A>\vn/] she was

filled v:ith

the
o^

Holy Ghost;
z(;a*

40

;

Bark

32, 14.
;

|»Q^ «ain\>
;

rr^yi

^«^ ^^o
Assem.
I.

clad in Byssus

90. 14

108, 6

;

223, 15;

86,

A. 27, 28.
3.

When
;

passives,

especially in verbs
signification,
i.

relating

to the

mind, have an active
accusative
e.g.

they are joined with the
loe

I Thess.

2.

iZo^^ ^QO^ ^lapjAi^
i^anZ]
to thinJc^

remember you in our prayers ;
XV. 5
;

Rom.
to

ii.

3

;

^>oA«|
;

to
iii.

recognize^

Acts xix. 15;

MSdA»|
Tim.

ohey^

Eph.

vi. 1

Col.

22

;

*..;^^;2f to wish, I

vi. 10.

Rem.

—Here
xi.

also

belong such passives as
also

9)Q..Z(

to

chew the

cud, Lev.

3,5

;

and hence

may

be explained

why

participle*

passive of the Pe. (§ 64. 5) take the accusative of the object.
4.

Passives have also frequently a reflective signification
;

(§ 21, 2
•Gl.»Z|

§22. 2

;

§24.2

;

§58. A. a)

;

e. g.

John
;

viii. 6.
;

AxiA^
7
;

V^OA-i

Jesus bowed himself doivn

verse 8
^hose

Mark

i.

I

Tim.

v. 14.
;

^y^o?P
iv.

4^? ^-^^T
to

who

are young shall
xix. 16
io
;

marry
11
;

13

;

^ool>jZ1

wax

strong,
;

Acts

xxiii.

wkJL^Zl

to hide,

John

viii.

59

wuiaZ}

turn around, Matt. ix. 22.,

etc.

Rem.

—Many neuters

take a passive signification

;

e.

g.

pL^

to

MODE OF EXPRESSING GREEK COMPOSITES.
err,

203
to

Luke

xxi. 8.

fC^Z

|Sn\

1x^7

-rXavri^^TS
;

;

^iujk

hum,
iii.lO.

jQjLS ^i,ni

xai -rup; xolistch
;

>\2LJ to fall,
12.

|>Q12 \\2^
^x3X*]&rjo'ovr(x»

slg rr\jp

^aXksron

«0£L3

^0

^0

ot£^, viii.

^GLQ2LJ

etc.

Upon

the use of verbs for adverbs, see § 82.

1.

Appendix

to

§ 67.

Mode of expressing Greek
To
which

Composites.

the subject of the construction of verbs with cases and prepo*

sitions,

belongs

also the

manner

of rendering

Greek Composites,

in the Syriac translation of the
:

New

Testament, are express-

ed as follows
1.

By

simple verbs, in the signification of which
preposition
ocvapaivojxsv
xvi. 5.
;

;

a

)

the idea
xx.

of

the

Greek

is

included

;

e.

g.

Matt.

18.
2.

ij^

iONfO

viii. 1.

AmJ

fD xara/3avr<
;

;

iii.

Q^oZ
b
)

jxsravosrrs

;

QlL^ sifsXa^ovro

or

by verbs which

;

without respect to the Greek preposition, answer to the simple
;

Greek verb

e. g.

Matt.
;

xi. 5.

^V*^

ava/3XsVou(j'«

;

Acts

xxiii.

33.
;

Q^OU
x.31,32.

avaoovTsg

Rom.

14. 9.
;

^.js» avs^yjCsv
5.

;

Luke

xv. 24,

32

r^^

avTi-jrctpr^X^sv

Acts xxvi.

^-^r^

"TTpo^jvwrfxovTS^

;

Rom.
2.

XV. 4.

«£dA2dZ|

^irposypacpYi.

By

verbs

;

a

)

with a preposition answering to the Greek
;

;

e.g.

^noo\ = avTi
avrco
;

Luke

xiii.lY.

OlL^Q£lL 0001 ^ >
^ii

^
;

>

o^

01 avrixsj/xsvoi

Acts vi.lO
CTl-^

;

Rom.xiii.2.

=

iiti

andxara;
Matt.

Luke

x. 34.

«u01QX^

^Osij^Z] xa;

iirsii.s'kyj^y]

ajTou

xxvj.62.

yI

>S ^)01JQQSo xaTafxaprupoufl'/v Cou

;

^Cll

=

(j'Ov ;

Rom.

204
vi.8.

PECULIARITIES OF VERBS.
OlSni pjJ
;

(fo^rt(foiisv

avru),

Heb.

iv.

15
o''

;

II Tim.

i.

8.

^^O
fyjutwv
;

=

"TTpo

Acts
9
;

vii.

40.
)

.

>V)rO ^Q-^lp?

f^pofTopsCffovron

Matt.
tJLAyy

ii.

or

6

by an adverb of similar
Peter
i.3;

signification

;

e.

g.

—So ==

avtt, I

*M^yj ^iD (r^Ol ava^SwryO'aj Vaff»
,

Heb.

vi. 6.

^O*^^
Rom.
i.

^=
2
;

<po
i.

II Cor.

xiii.

2

;

ZjioV^Oi^

^
he-

flrpos/py)xa

,

Col.

5.

3.

By

another verb representing tbe preposition, which usually

stands

first,

without any connective
finite

particle,
e.

in the

same
( to

tense,

number, and gender with the
fore
)

verb

;

g.

^^O
e,

come
vii.

==
iii.

-rrpo

,

Mark
35.

xiii.

23.

^^|

vitOfO

rrposiprixa,

Acts

52;

Rom.

9

;

xi.

This verb sometimes follows

;

g.

John

xx. 4.

4.

If the
it is

composite

is

formed from a noun or adjective and a
into its
;

verb,

usually resolved

components
4.

;

e.

g.

Mark

iv.

20.

p

^

>*^<Ti*

xap<7ro(popou(fiv

m.

* -*^^ Of

-*^(^^

^*^vVr>x
|J

ctyaSo'jroivjfl'ai

•>;

xaxoiforf}(fai

;

Matt. xix. 18.

Zo^OlfiO

lOlfioZ

I^QA
Rem.

oj

•v]/Suoo/xap-ruprjfl'£«g'.

It

seems to be merely pleonastic, where in John
translated

iv. 4.

^is'pp^stf&ai is

by ;*^M |i-H?*

§ 68.

The Substantive

Verb,

and some

other

Peculiarities

chiefly relating to the Construction

of

the Verb,

A.

Use or looi
to

,

La^ and Aa2^

(§ 38).

Instead of looi

he (with

whicL, according to § 65. B.

and D, the imperfect and pluperfect are formed), the Sjriac

;

INDIRECT
also uses L^}

DISCOURSE.

205

,

and in negative phrases

LJ^

with

suffixes,

and with them also in connection with the former
forms the imperfect
verse 14.
;

(looi),

e.g.

John

ix.24.

|OCfl %uOloAji1

he was;

Zooi OuAa] they
IP 001

were, etc.
preterit,
i.45.
is

sometimes stands pleonastically with the
the signification of the pluperfect
;

without giving

it

e.g.

Mark

(OOl

^\M

he

began

;

Luke

i.

8

;

John

iii.

25.

It

sometimes omitted as present or imperfect, according to § 54. a mere copula between the subor when it would be 2
;

ject

and
i.2'7.

object
It

;

e.

g.

Matt,

xxvii.

29

65.

III.

Rem.)

Luke

seems to mark emphasis

after ]] (in the

Philoxenian

version Q-^ nowise)] e.g.

John

vi. .32.

^0*^\
;

«^QU IsQLo
11,
e.

(OOl

]j

Moses has not given you; verses 38, 58
or
in

xiii.

18
g.

;

Heb.

ii.5,16
xiii.

;

interrogations
jJ

with
not ?
,

jj

= nonne
;

)

;

Matt.
xi.

55.
xvii.

POI locn
17.

is this

xx. 13

Mark

vi.

3

;

Luke

40

;

Concerning fOOl

Aa| and AjlJ^ with
2.

\

=

to

have

—not

to

have,

compare § 67.

II.

Rem.

B.

Indirect Discourse.
is

The indirect discourse commencing with > (

usually expressed
ot< ),

directly,
iv.
1

= ^^ —
;»^»
;

e.

g.

John

7.

IQ «.^ A^> •-•^^
no husband ;

I

thou hast rightly said,

I have
;

verse 53

ii.

17

;

vi.

31

;

Barh. 51, 11.
69,7.

AlSoij

•;k>1"

p as he said;
the
is

I {he)

have heard; 135,10

PI (OOl P f<^i" \ (^\Vr>^ jSa*

—ij

001 he swore, he would

{I will)
Rem.

he

no King of
>

heathen; 223, 11, 12.
at the

—Sometimes

wanting
_«p
)
;

beginning of the direct

discourse (especially before 0|

e.g.
e. g-

Barh. 131, 11, 12; 374, 13; Barh. 106,3
;

443, 8

;

more frequently 'fihX

\

183,9

;

219,5

;:

206
243, 10
;

ELLIPSIS,
486, 5
1.

ZEUGMA,

ETC,
I.

;

543, 19

;

596, 11.

Compare Assem.

479, A.

24, with 480,
79, 19.

The

indirect discourse also occurs;

e. g.

Barh.

]iy^

.OOlL

InSiflD ]]j Ol!^
thee ;

O'^Xihey
3
;

said to him, the

tribute is not sufficient

for

94, 1

97, 1.
e.

Sometimes the
276, 8

direct discourse passes over into the indirect;

g.

— 10 and

vice versa

;

166, 19, 20

;

513,

5, 6.

C.
1.

Ellipsis

—Zeugma—Paronomasia,

and Puns.

When

a verb has previously been used in the protasis,
it

it is

usually omitted in the apodosis, where
;

would proper-

ly be repeated

e. g.

Matt.i.22.

UsdAjj Zooij oiSo
it

^>

IjOl

hut what has happened {has happened) that
led ;

might be
;

fulfil-

xxi.

4;

John xx. 81;
^^aJ^OI those
;

Eom.

v.

20

I Cor. ix. 25.
that they

Q£iCDJj
;

^^01)9
6.

who run {run)
19
;

may

obtain

II Cor. v. 13
iii.

Heb.

vii.

viii.

3

;

I Peter iv. 11;

I

John

Sometimes the verb

is

to

be supplied from

the context; Matt. 27,25.
us;

^^iNs OlSoj his blood {come) upon

Acts xxiv.6. ,^moSf)lO>

^\

as

it

{is written

)

in our

law.

Rem.

—The

ellipsis

must be considered

as a peculiarity of the SyJ in

riac language,

where the Philoxenian translation, omitting the

the apodosis, adheres strictly to the

Greek words
;

;

e.

g.

Matt

i.

22.

LOCn

OL^ ^>

(jOl rouro ds oXov yiyovsv

John
;

xx. 31.

Con-

'•erning the omission of

^|

see

B. Rem. above

and concerning

the elliptical use of |00l see A.

Rem.
its signification,

2.

Sometimes a verb, by

can belong to

only one of two connected nouns {Zeugma\ so that to the
other noun

another

verb must

be mentally

suppHed;

)

USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL.
e. g.

207

Job

IV. 10.

^\CiLL\ 1jl»0

(jiilj

(ASiDOU the roaring

of the lion
3.

{is stilled)

and

the teeth are broken ; x. 12.

Paronomasia and puns occur but rarely in Sjriac.
is

The former
Ps.
xi.

a mere imitation of the

Hebrew

original in
^5S:"}^

3.

^Oj^o
see it

lU^
rejoice.

^ovmJj

( Ti^^^'i")

d^5-i
in

that

many

and

Puns occur mostly

names

where the language does not require any such
be assumed
;

alteration to
{thy

e.g.

Gen.

xlix. 8.

fOjQJ

^

(joou Judah

brethren) shall praise thee, verses 16, 19.

CHAPTER THIRD.
The Noun.

§ 69.
1.

Use of

the

Noun

in General.

Abstract nouns not unfrequently in Syriac take the

place of adjectives
genitive
to

and then they stand in the
noun,
the

relation of
iii.

the

with

?

;

e. g.

Matt.

11.

[MyQOy p^ojQ with
the true vine
;

Holy Ghost; John xv.l.

!>;*>

'^vt

I Cor. xv. 44.

Especially does this union, as

in Hebrew, occur with adjectives

which denote the material
;

or substance of which a thing
\Zi\Dy
p.yif stone

is

composed
Heb.

e. g.

John

ii.

6.

water-pots

;

ix. 4.

p30i>> l^^xio

208

USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL.
x.

a golden box ; II Cor.
20,

4
;

;

II Tim.
7.

ii.

20

;

Barh. 11,

7,

8

10

;

88, 2

;

172, 8

228,

l>aiQJj fjoioi a fiery

pillar.

Rem.

—Adjectives
I;

of material, however, do occur
celestial sphere ;

;

e.g.

Barh. 59,4.

|!uZ\JkMJ

i^rnf a brazen

and

in the

same con-

struction adjectives of quality with 3 prefixed, used for substantives

jQ^^y
Abstract nouns with
place
of the
>

\Lf^M week of

the white {clothes).

in connection

with a pronoun, supply the
14.

predicate; e.g.
;

Rom.

vii.

p|

;fiQ£^>

—a) pf
Heb.
tAJf

but

I am

carnal

or

with a preposition prefixed they supply the

place of an adjective to which a
ii.

noun

is

to be supplied

;

e.

g.

1*7.

|Ol--^r^
one

in divine

(

things
;

) ;

Luke

viii.

49.

J^

tjLJ^y

of the household

even

with

suflSxes,

«a010)(A9

(Jajjaovj^ofASvof.

Some

abstract nouns, in the relation of genitive with
;
e.

J

following,

precede as nomen regens
writings
;

g.
;

Barh.
195,16.

170,

20.

loAo? lVy|C^ ^«wy
pi&ja9
irt,

172, 4

;

178, 5

^D'JkSi

the

remaining fortresses ; 198,13. Here also belongs ^i^
2.

according to § 55. B.
2.

Rem.

Especially are adjectives or concrete substantives deetc.,

noting possession^ custom^ similarity^ of circumlocution,
daughter
ruler
it is
;
;

expressed bj

way
Z;q

by means

of

the nouns

\d son

;

^\lO and

y^

lord,

master;

*^j and ^m^j prince,

and

LkJOi house.
;

In respect to the use of these nouns

to

be observed
designates

a)
Tit.
_P ._V
i.

'fCi

;

a)

Gentile names, inhabitants, etc.
;

e. g.

12.
"7

\4lo .k\n Cretans; Barh. 167,1
«P.

Acts xxi. 12;
7"

I

|iZ(

wkl^
;

oS svro'tioi

;

Barh. 80, 17.
species,

|Al.k^ >i1Q
;

citizens;

91, 2

(3)

the idea of race,

kindred
;

e.g.

Rom.

xi.l4.

I'rlCLD 'r^

a kinsman

;

Deut. xxiii.2

I Cor. vii.22.

p^m jo

;

)

USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL
_
P ?

209
Michael.

..7

a freeman
Chr. 5.

;

John

1**7
ii.

xviii. 35.

p£il %aJLO heathen

;

.rft>cr>;m

^^ a
14,

heretic ;

Assem. 11.248.

^4^ r^
Eph.
iii.

l«(>7

a

courtier ;

Eev.

20.

(Here also belongs jju^);
tfuv b'/xog)
;

y) participation^
|ZoZ;-i

likeness^

(=
;

e.

g.
;

6.
;

^jJLO

tfu/xXyipovojxof

I Thess.
;

ii.

14
i.

Acts
10.

xviii. 3

XIX. 24.

(ZaiiOOf
;

\£i
;

hixorsx^og

Dan.
14
;

]im '^ consituation^

temporaries

Phil. iv. 3

Gal.

i.

^) locality^ 1.
f

and other circum,stances
>0»
f

;

e.g. Isa.

xxvi.

jcm

\i^

a moat;
s

;£D

a neck chain.
7

And
;

finally;
;

the adverbial phrase OlAui
xiii. 5,

\ti forthwith^

immediately

Matt,

20

;

John

v. 9

;

xiii.

30

;

Acts x. 33

xxi. 32.

h)

L'f^ plur.

AuD forms
1>|a*

;

a) rarely abstracts ; e.g.

p>1 A;£^
feminine;

circumcision;
e.
,^)

more frequently
7.

concretes

in the

g.

I Mace. xi.

i;0 one hornjree;
;

or

it

denotes;
grapes^
?;ozce
;

the product of anything

e.

g.

\K% l/\^

h^

|ASQa L'^

gum

on sea-weed

;

and

tropically

]jo Z;i

Rom.
22
;

X. 16, 18; Gral. iv. 20;

and in the

plural,
;

Acts

xii.

7) implements^ clothing^
;

lAlibs L\^ napkin
etc.
;

1>^
xiii.

2;^
1

ring

^) descendants^

nations^
;

e.

g.

Luke

6.

^Ol'rOl ZjO

^Ae

Hebrews

Matt. xxi.

o.

^QaGl

L\Ci

Jeru-

salem^ or its inhabitants,
c)

^^^io denotes

;

a)
;

mostly concretes
Matt. v. 25
;
;

;

e. g.

Rom.
;

xi. 34.

]^V^ ^^^
xiv. 5.

counselor

xiii.

28,

39

II Chron.
;

iLoOjaZ ^\£q neighbor
>

^) sometimes nations

e. g.

n<^vr>

\vo an

Ethiopian.
vii.

In like manner

J)

V3^ Luke
;

41.

lioJ

1jk>

o?e6tor

;

Ephr.

II.

360,
e)

7

kOi forms

;

a) principally concretes

of masculine offices

210
e.

GENDER OF
Sam.
xviii. 1.
;

NOCJNS.

g. II

1^-^
Heb.
;

ȣ5>
14.

a chiliarch
1

;

Luke
Luke

xvi.

1.

\L^

*Q>

oixovo'fxof

iv.

^QD
;
;

•^S

app^ispsuj

;

I Pet. V.

4

;

Luke

xix. 2

^) abstracts

e. g.

xvi. 2.

(ZoAx£^ Asj

oixovo/xj'a.

In like manner

/
41.

)

akA)

;

a) concretes of

masculine
;

offices
ii.

;

e. g.

Luke
ii.

viii.

|A«QlO iAa)
;

apx'C-^va/w/oj

John

8,
;

9;
e. g. it

Acts

29;

I Thess. iv. 16
6.

^)

more

rarely abstracts

Matt, xxiii.
;

^ZoilD ^MuS

'?rpwToxa^s(5p»a.

Sometimes
pLoo^tt)!
the

denotes

y)

the extremity of a

thmg

;

e.

g.

**-•) orz^ice

c/^^e

stomach
g)

;

P->A

<.aj9 aperture
;

of

mouth.

Finally
in
f

;

LmJ^ denotes
is
;

a)

the place or receptacle^
e. g.

which

a

thing
prison

found or kept;

Acts.

xii.

17.
;

r*.CD|

Clm^
19

Matt

xiv. 2.

lAlk) ZuT)

^rai;e

Acts

xvii.
olive

|Lij LkS^ judgment hall ;
c?en
;

Luke

xix. 29.

fZui

AxS
;

gar

Heb.

ix. 4.
iv.

|^^"^*^

AjlQ censer
countries^
^^e

(literally,

house of in
e.g.
;

cense);
I.

II Tim.

13

;

/3)

cities, etc.

Assem

169, B. 7,

lliDoai) Aj-O

i?oma?i c?ommioy2-s
I

Michael

Chr. 10.
I^EM.

UcdI^

A^

Persia.
7

—Here, however, do not belong
where
the latter only occur
fii-i>)

*

^>cnj Aa.2

Mesopotamia^

and Iia-I LxJOi forehead^
rarely
er.

Ajl2

signifies between.

More
moth-

we

find similar compositions with %2)| father,

and

^|

Of

(Sol <Ae

croi^rz- o/"

^A^ head,

and

The Syriac also, though more rarely than the Hebrew, uses the names of countries and cities for nations and
SiDj Pib| hydraulics.

inhabitants

;

e. g.

Barh. 150, 12.

*a£l»'^1 Africans

;

248, 6.

A^r.alZ Tagritians.

§ 70.
1.

Gender of Nouns,
the plural take the

Nouns which

in

termination of

)

GENDER OF NOUNS.
another gender
(§ 44.

211

Kem. 2 and

3),

retain the gender of
is

the singular, and in this case respect
termination.

rarely

had

to the

Here belong
in

;

a

)

Tnasculines
;

with a femiMatt.
is

nine

termination

the

plural

e. g.

xii.

43.

*OOlO Aa^
I Cor. X.
9.
(

m^>
(ZoOm

|ZojZ| place in which there
^QJ|

no water;
them;

OfOOf
ii.

the serpents destroyed
;

VZoSlL from
IZojou (from
*.
i>

PU)
1>CJU)

Luke
Matt.

13

fALooI

{

from tool
xxi.
34;

Matt, xxviii. 20;

l2cin^ (from
vii.

t^)
etc.

Luke
;

25, 26.,
;

h) ferainines

with a masculine termination

^QAa> >»mr>vVn%
{4I* (from

..77

e. g.

John

xi. 35.

^^T
;

..y

^001
Matt.

fear5 carTze ^n^o

^Ae ez/^5

of Jesus

\k^)

xiii.

30;

V^D (from lAli) xxiv.35;
;

liiD (from ]AjiD) x. 30
^;
i

;

^-il» (from 1i\l») Acts xxiv. 17
etc.

N*

(from lAl») xix. 34.,

2.

When

the abstract stands for the concrete,
its

or

when

the noun takes another than

proper signification, the

gender in both

cases,

is

regulated

by

the sense.
80.
g.

Concernto the lati.

ing the former of these cases,
ter

compare §
e.

B
;

;

belongs

lA^Lo \(}yog= Christ;
it

John

1

4.

lA^!iD *|oai %^aioAjl
(literally, beast

ivas the

word; verse 14

or ]li
;

ZcLm
Barh.

of tooth)

=

avr/p^pjCTocr,

Eev.
;

xiii. 1

xvi. 2,13;
;

xvii. 7, 8.

ao>
;

a myriad {of men)
;

Acts xxi. 20

65, 9,
iants
;

10

334, 6

395, 19.
;

U^J,

in the plural,

= inhabi'
is

Barh. 159, 10; 236, 8

548, 20., etc.

3.

In Syriac the neuter of nouns,
(

as of verbs,
e.

desig18.

nated by the feminine

§ 66. 2
;

)

;

g.

Eom.
Assem.

vii.
I.

|Ao4

a^a^ov, IAajlQ

xaxov

in the plural,

218.

212
B. 11.
the

NUMBER.
IZZh^O lAOAAil n>\fr>|
they despised the old

and

new.

§ 71. Number,
1.

Some

nouns, particularly those which denote cohesive

materials (liquids, metals and the like), form a plural only

when they may be conceived
parts; e.g.
|Z;JLfiO

of as consisting of several
f^^IX)
;

barley^ plur.

barley-corns ;
iii.

in
vi.

like

manner

\^ from
;

|A4** wheat
|f^
»

Matt.

12

;

John
12.

13

;

I Cor. XV. 37
2.

and

^

^i7?26er ;

I Cor.

iii.

Some nouns lectives § 44. Eem.
SO.
lar
;

singular have a plural signification
7),

{col-

and then they take Ribui
;

§ 6. 2.

As
iv.

such they are joined either with the plural
JAJf
e. g.
;

e. g.

John

on^uo
John

there

came out people

;

or with the singui/ie

x. 3.
8.

Ol-iO jilDs p.L

sAeep

hear his

voice

verses 4

Rem.
occur,


1.

As

collective

plural forms,

the following
;

sometimes

l^iQO

locust ; Michael. Chr.

63,11

79, 6.

lAiiD (proper-

ly />ar^) remainder^

members

;

102,

5, 8.

Rem.

2.

As

pluralis excellentice, the Syriac has, merely
rp^7
7
«..

by im-

m.7

itation of the

Hebrew olJ)!

or

«^0>|

=

i^lJ^

,

Michael. Chr. 30.

Pf po^

«.feJ0>pO

/

swore by the Lord.

§ 72. Apposition
1.

and Duplication of Nouns,

A noun

in apposition, usually includes a

more accu-

rate definition or explanation of the previous noun, as for

APPOSITION

AND DUPLICATION.
cities
|
,

213
IAli,!!},

example
Assem.
city.
its
I.

in

the
3.

names of
f

]Lk\0^ lAo),
>

349,

Aoi

lAju,iD

>

^n

^ i]

Antioch, a great

The

noiun in apposition takes the
;

number and

case of

subject
;

e. g.

Matt
7.

x. 3.

fpft^Vn

^Alo

Mattheio the Pubtlie

lican

Barh. 32,

]>V*^^^ ^Ol!^ ^^jlOj IpAs)
the

image
12,
2.

«PP7 filMn

of Baal

{of a) god of

-ni-r

Babylonians

;

11,

8

;

»>

*ny\

oNV> ^iD from

Melchisedeck

{from

the)

Ca-

naanite.

Rem.

— Sometimes
noun;
e.

the noun in apposition
g.

stands before
'\LtS\

the

principal

Barh.
;

39,

11.

»ai»0;X

^f^mj
measure^

he took for wife Boxane

so too with nouns of weighty
;

and
I

time^ in the genitive

e.

g.

Rev.

vi. G.

,lDQn^CLD jA^Z

r^^>
2.

three

measures {of)

barley.

The

duplication of the
;

noun denotes
III. 154.

;

a)

a great numOirs Au]

ber or quantity

e. g.

Ephr.

_J|QJ ]ialo
;

^.iJQJ

^Aere are

many

fish in the sea

h)
e. g.

the distributive
Matt. xx.
9,

sense expressed in English

by
;

each^ by

;

10.

pj9

;1aj
;

a penny each
424,
e. g.

Barh. 85,

6.

-^^

^-^^

Jy Aeap5

10

;

165, 19.
vi. 7.
;

Especially in respect to
^^<;o

numbers

;

Mark

^>Z ^>Z

eacA
c)
e. g.

;

verse 40.

It©

)]iD

a hundred each
all^

II Cor. xi. 24
(§ 58. B. 2)
;
;

;

it

forms a

circumlocution for
7.

every
toVouj

Matt. xxiv.

P0> pOfjQ xam
;

Tit.

i.

5.
e.

yLk^ •
g.

U->n^^^ •
ii.

xara <6X»v

6? )

a

diversity^
;

variety

;

Mark
Acts

17
46.
;

-^>«^ 1^-*^ various diseases

John
;

v.

4

;

x.

•V

^Vo
1.

with different tongues
13,

xxi.

34

;

xxv. 19

Assem.

A.

6.

v.

E.

!>o^
;

!>o^o

^j
E

]]^]^
;

discourses having various contents

191,

A.

7. v.

280.

2 14
B. 13. V.
e.g.

THE EMPHATIC STATE.

E

;

e

)

a strengthening of the sense

(§ 77.

B. b)

John

vi. 7.

^^uu^ \V^\r^

very

little

;

II Thess. iii6.

§ 73. The Emphatic
1.

tState,

The Emphatic
with
this
is

State

expresses the

noun with the
that in

article

less definiteness,

from the

fact,

many

nouns

form

also denotes the absolute state (§ 45. 1),
;

which
also
it

no longer in use

e. g.

Matt. x.

9.

Sometimes
;

supplies the place of the indefinite article

e. g.

John

iv. 7.

^"^^^ _Sd
; ix.

fZAjf
vii.
;

ZZ|

tJiere

came a woman of Sa;

maria
\f^

1

;

Acts

37
e.

;

xi.

24

even with h^ masc.
xix.
12.
,ja

fern,

appended

g.

Luke

Ir^yf

a man.
Rem.

—From
is

this should

perhaps be distinguished the cases in
;

which r^
2.

used numerically

e. g.

Eph.
r

iv. 6.

Hence

to avoid

any ambiguity ooi

is

also

sometimes
it

joined with the emphatic state in order to designate
such.
\M'r^
It stands either before the

as

noun

;

e. g.

Matt. ix. 33.

001
it
;

mSo
e.

the

dumb spake
v.
9.

;

John
Ir^yi

xviii.

16

;

or
the

fol-

lows

g.

John

001

SoNnZf

man

became whole.
Rem.

—In

the

first
7

case
;

the
g.

absolute

state

usually
«
7

occurs,
7

r

when
the

}

follows

001

e.

Luke

xxii.

27.

tASDiklD)

001

servant.

3.

Hence

also

the emphatic state with
;

j

following
xviii.

is

used in the relation of genitive

e.

g.

Rev.

2.

THE CONSTKUCT STATE AND THE GENITIVE.

215

]Zpn4
devils

l**0'

^^? U>q4J0
all

I<^-»??

U'A^

<^

habitation of

and a hold of

unclean

spirits.

§ 74. The Construct State
1.

and

the Genitive.

In

tlie

Syriac also the Construct

state

serves to denote
in the

the relation of genitive,
plural of the masculine

more frequently, however,

and the singular of the feminine,
its

where

it

can at once be recognized by
<

special

form

;

e.g.
;

Matt. xi. 12.
p 7
>

^><^»
7.. p

,.feVoQ^

^i^
of
.

since the
the sea ;
7

days of John

xiii. 48.

(^
I. 2,
;

^<^rc\

the shores
I .»

-57
B.
1.

Acts xxiv. 16

;

Assem.
first

|r»^0

^A^Z

X

Al*

«-i01

that is the thirty-

year
;

S7, 3, 4. ,rftn»>\r%

Al«V)n

in the midst of the
^/i^V

clerus

40, 4.
the

.om/niVr>>m Zo;-i^
deficiency of their faith.
the

deficient

faiih^

literally,

Rem.
before

— Yet
the

masculine singular of the noun occurs also
in

genitive

the

construct
the

state
;

;

e.

g.

Matt.

x.

41.

]i^1 y)an
<m
the shore

in the

name of
;

Prophet

xiii. 2.

JSQa \Zi£L mJL

of the sea
of
7

verse 50.
adjectives
etc.
;

In addition to the nouns which
(

supply
r

the place

§ 69. 2

)

it

also
;

occurs
iii.

in

Q.. midst,

and ^-^ hand,

e.

g. Matt. xiii. 1

Gal.

19

;

Barh. 255. 11.

^ju^h^ ^it^

in the interior of the palace.

Here

belongs moreover the use of the construct state in adjectives and
participles

(§ 64. 1. B), followed

by the noun with a preposition
is

or

particle belonging to both, relation
II
;

by which
7

denoted either the genitive
blessed

e.

g.
3.

Luke
•a

i.

28. |i1*^
7"
-

AHijO

of (among) women
;

;

*•
»

Tim.

iii.

|A>i;^

<^v^Vr> slaves of passion

I

Tim.

i.

10.

(A^QiO ^\1 «^r^^

violator of

an oath

;

or

a.

more accurate

216
definition

THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND THE GENITIVE.
of the
adjective

or

participle

;

e.

g.

Luke

i.

Y,

18.

.OOIALdQa^ ^^,_CD far advanced
|jL>|
^

in their years ;
;

Rev. xiv. 4,

^

-

- < >

*^l

redeemed from the earth
is

Acts, xxiii. 23.

2.

Far more usual

;

a)

the connection of the emphatic
j

state as
e. g.

nomen

regens^

with a following
\**So\£i

before the genitive

Matt. X.

5.

ys^i^y

into the

way

of the Gentiles;
;

verse 15.
xii. 42.

(J^jj

]!iDa*-Q at the

day of Judgment
;

verse 42;
11,

tliOuiZj
;

lAai^LD
;

the

queen of the south
47.

xiii.

45;

xxiii.

35

xxiv. 3
h)

John

viii.

1oil^> ]JL0

the

word of
xii.

God

;

or

with a pleonastic suffix
(

referring to the
g.

genitive

following,

§

55.

B.

2

)

;

e.

Matt.

8.

lAnsj a\'^ Lord of the Sabbath ;
^Ae
u•o/•^'

xi.2.

|»>

laV)? .^mn «^v

of the Messiah

;

xu.

40.

P^Jlj

Ol^J^O

m

^^

heart

of the earth.

Rem.

—Rarely,
state

and

chiefly

in foreign words,

>

stands after tha

construct

before
^^^

the

genitive

;

e.

g.
;

Matt.

xiii.

22.
23.

9ZqJL)

"^^C
or

deceitfulness
the jjorch

of

riches

John
it is

x.

iOV)>\»> |n(^mf
used

of Solomon.

But

commonly
nomen

when one

more words
;

are interposed between the

regent and the genitive
the
region.,

e.g.

Barh. 421.13,20.
;

that

is

of Jerusalem
other
;

or

VQA»>ol9 001 ]jZ| when several gen1.

itives
.

follow

each

e.

g.

Assem.

83,

B.

21.

i^iOfol?

the

I'r^r^? )1-1'^? ICFllL convent of the Mother of God, of the Syrians in
;

V^

Ll^J
the

l*^)

Scythian

desert

Barh. 81,
is

2.

The nomen regens
ir
;

is

sometimes wanting, and
;

the genitive
7

then to be distinguished by j

e. g.

Rom.

xiv. 8.

_Lm t^>
genitive
;

7

the

Lords are we

••

Matt. xxii. 21.

Sometimes

J

is

wanting when the noun forms an apposition with a preceding
e. g.

Matt.

xii.

39.

|>*^1

^GU9

OlZI the sign of Jonah
the

the prophet,

j

stands before proper nouns, especially

names

THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND THE GENITIVE.
of countries and
definite designation
cities,

217

when they thereby
Matt.
ii.

acquire a

more de

;

e. g.

1, 6.

|fOCrLi9

^QmJ^ L.k^

Bethlehem in Judea.
scriptions of
plies

In some instances, especially in the super;

some Psalms

e. g.

Ps.

iv, v, vi,
;

^
^^c)

(^ auctoris) sup-

the place of >;

very rarely elsewhere
tlie (i.e.

e.g.

Barh. 17,

4.
T.

H;>r>\ [109Q£)
346, A. 25, 26.
cated
;

iAe deliverance of

6y

Lord ; Assem.
is

So too with -LD, when origin or descent

indi-

e.g.

Barh. 372, 16.
cities

)1^U^
;

^ 1^1*^
when
1.

,^i«V>/i »nrni
is

he took fifty

of the Franks

or

there

indicated a
|Jmo.

choice or selection from several;

e.g.

271,

*^G10,£l1 ^Sd
|

one

q/*

his slaves ;

270,18.

[aDjOL ^LO

(i*-j^

??^a7^?/ q/* i/<^

3.

The

genitive
22.

is

sometimes to be understood objectively;
e.

e.g.

Markxi.
ii.

loi!Lj lAdxicuai faith o/(i.
^7«e

m) God

;

John
vii.

17.

j^AjlDJ Olll^
xi.

2^a?

of

(i.

e.for) thine house;
the

13

;

Hebr.

26.

(»i>iaV)>

ai,fni>i

reproach

of

Clirist (i.e. that attached to

him).
imitating the
;

Rem.

— Other
I

turns
*^

of expression
cities

Hebrew

are

"

% p" .

Isa. xvii. 2.

;-t^0;^)

Pi9QO

of (about) Aroer
the

Exod.xxii.il.
Ez.

V»;]^>

OlASDOSb an oath of
KiQik iniquity
is

{by)

Lord
;

;

xxxv.

5.

•001^>

of

{at) their

downfall
object

Isa.liv.9., etc.

Not

unfrequently

this

genitive

of the

connected
is

with the
derived
;

preposition of the verb, from which the nomen regens
7 7
•*'«•>>

7

e. g.

Barh. 53,
1.

1&.

t^SOO) fZoiV)>ai

the faith in

our Lord

;

Assem.
4.

347,20.

Sometimes, especially wben geograpbical references are
(as in English)

made, tbe genitive occurs

where apposition
g.

would be more

strictly

correct

;

e.
;

Acts
;

vii.

40.
xi.

—A> ^isDj
8
;

Pk> I J5iD
13.

from

the

land of Egypt

xx. 6

Eom.

Barh. 114,

^1*^^> IjCI^ CTlSnS

the whole

mountain

of Lebanon,

218
5.

DESIGNATION AND USE OF THE OTHER CASES.
Standing
after

adjectives,

the genitive

is

often used

merely

to define

them more
i\)
.

accurately; e.g.

Luke

xxiv. 25.

|*^N »j,*n >0

(l

>rr>>>

o|

/oo^$ anc? 5^ot^ of heart ;

Acts

vii.

51.

UrJO «i

iT)
love.

0|

ye 5^yf necked

;

Cant.

ii.

5.

|ASD>j9 Zcfu;0 sick for

Rem.

— Sometimes a noun
e.g.

in the genitive
fl *

takes the place

of an

adjective;
xxi. 6

John,

xviii. 10.
;

V)i>

OUjf

his

right ear;
;
e.

(§ 54. B- 2.
iv.

Rem.)

and

vice versa the

nomen regens
John
ii.

g.

Luke
first

25.

|Aj^9|

(-^yeCI^

rroWai

x^p°^'

j

12.

In the

case the Philoxenian

translation uses, instead of

>,

the explanae. g.

tory
TR.

OOl and
P 1 >

i-iOl,

equivalent
J
is

to

that

is,

namely

;

0U9|

1

7

A>

v>« ^CTI and
prepositions

to

be understood
;

as a relative,

when
17. 55.

it

follows

with

suflBxes

e.

g.

Assem.

I.

30,

|<ysoorft,o^[^

^OCTuQl m^A (them)

the bishops.

Compare §

B.

3.

§ 75.
1.

Designation

and Use of the

other Cases,

The

dative and accusative have

^

for their

common
;

sign,

which may be omitted before the accusative
xvii. 4.
.

e.

g.

Matt.
cles ;

iNNfcV> A-LZ ,^^<

let ics

make

three

tdbema-

Barh. 60, 9.NO of \Cn )jlSO)) he raised a great perse-

cution.

No

difficulty

is

thereby occasioned even
;

when
21.

the

two

cases

stand

together

e. g.
;

Acts
xx. 32.
(§ 67.
I.

xiii.

VVn l^lV .OOI^

«^0U

he gave them Saul

Rem. With verbs having a double accusative

2)

^

falls

away

in

both cases.

The same
the

is

also to

be recognized in the preB.
I)
.

ceding pleonastic suffix to

verb

(§ 55.

Usually

DESIGNATION AND USE OF THE OTHER CASES.

219

^

(

==

];^j}^ )

stands
;

before the

noun

in

the

emphatic state
JOI il\

;

e. g.

Barh. 14, 9

or before proper names, 11, 20.

GILO
La

he built Nineveh.
J^j^

For
I.

this, in

Gen.i.

1


5

3,

the Peshito has

=
ii.

(compare Ephr.
iii.

116, D), which moreover occurs in

Eccl.

3

;

17

;

iv. 1

;

viii. 9,

17

;

Cant.

iii.

;

viii. 4.

2.

The
;

accusative

is

also used adverbially,
(§ 67. 1, b)

and then de;

notes
vii.

a) direction

towards a place
;

e.

g.

John

14,35; viii.l4; xviii.3
it

Barh.58, 18,19;

6) in

indicating

time
6.

denotes

;

a) the question,
jocyi the

How

long f e.g. Barh.7,5,
;

'^<^» _iAO)| l;.^^
'<- 1]Ld
;

rain continued forty days
they
;

3, 15, 16.

^OIqSa o\^12t
;

mourned for him
6,

a hundred years
18,

24, 7, 8
?

85, 19,
i.

20

195,

7

;

Assem.I.
]o(3\
it

A.]
to

;

/3)

When

Luke

59.
;

]IlV)Z?
i.

^all

came

pass on
;

the eighth
c)

day

Ps.

2.

f.4^^0

(Solna

hy
;

day and night

in reference to measure
etc.
;

and weight

How
]iiDl

long ?

How
it

high ?

e. g.

Barh. 38, 19.
long;
20,

looi j^j]
179,
13.

lAliZ

loas

three

cubits
^^^

6;

^ICi •

MO)

I


he

*qAji

Kr^
to,

snow lay four fingers
e. g.

deep;

d) concerning^ in relation

as

to ;

Barh. 37,16.

\a2xm

|001

f

A^QD
I.

ivas

beautiful
eyes

as

to

form

;

17.

>Q11
38, 4;

]S0Q2)0

(ijkl he

had small
;

and a small mouth ;
;

Assem.
Rem.

74,

A. 30

77,

A. 22

86,

A.

25.

—In
L*^
~

indicating time,

How

old ?

is

commonly expressed by
;

yd

or
I

with the addition of the years
r
7

e.

g.

John

viii.

57.

I

'^^^^^ *^
3.

fifty years old ;

Barh.

3, 20.

Derivative nouns also take the accusative instead of
;

the genitive of their verbs, viz.

a) participial forms;

Heb.

220
xii. 2.

THE CASE ABSOLUTE.
^ZoiSn>gi-^
b) infinitive

\jQUiy\ the finisher of our faith
;

;

James

iv.6

;

forms

e.g.

Kirscli.Chr.136,1.

tl«n m V)

.fr>.\n<y>r>i >^\i^or>r>o\ ^^^ conquest of Constantinople,
4. e.g.

The vocative is distinguisliable in part by its connection
Matt.
;

XX vi.

89, 42.
viii.

]»»naV>
;

.]
-

^jl^I

my

Father
;

if

it

he

possible
ii.

Rom.

15

partly
;

by

o], prefixed
;

e.

g.
;

Rom.
James

1.

M^'r^ o]

man

verse 3

I Tim.

vi.

11

V. 1.

Rem.-

—The Philoxenian translation
i.

imitates in
;

Greek nouns the
e. g.

vocative termination

belonging to that language
;

Luke

i.

3,

and Acts
5.

1.

l]lao'|2 o'V w 0£o>iXs
is

I

Tim.

vi.20.

Finally the ablative

distinguishable

by the

preposi-

tions, «^, ^So, ^Ql, etc.. prefixed.

Rem.
ner
;

—Time,
g.
I.

When
viii.

?

is

frequently expressed in a similar

man9
;

e.

Gen.

11.

[a^^

Ir^^^

"^

eventide ; Prov.

vii.

Assem.

3Y, A. 11.

§ 76.

The Case Absolute.
is

meant a noun, which, at the beginning of a sentence, by itself and without connection with what follows, forms a clause, and is usually to be exthe case absolute
plained

By

by supplying,
especially
;

05

fe,

concerning^

and the

like.

Here

belong
1.

the Nominative absolute^ which the following clause
;

;

a)
e.

either forms the

subject of
«aG1 %S|

g.

Gen.

xxii. 24.

L^^O .

OlA209>0 and

his concubine

she also bore ;

THE CASE ABSOLUTE.
or
b)
is

221

to

be rendered by an oblique

case,

wbich a
be
;

suffix

to the noun, in the clause following
itive
;

shows

to

a)

a gen-

e.g.

Ephr.

I.

242, E.

oi;fnn> ]n»V)n locnZ
the skin of the

p Jaj]
man a

|A>«y^\r^ i^ there be

found on
Matt.
;

body of a

blemish

;

I.

110,

D

;

iii.

4

;

or the suffix to the prepo;
1

sition indicates it as

^)

a dative
I

e. to

g.

I Cor. vii.
is

7.

Igu^

^^

01^ l^uOl-.* (AOGIQlO
;

\^

each one

given a

gift from

God

Acts xv. 21

;

/)

an accusative ;
13

e. g.

Ephr.I.

223, F.
lohat
ft)

^OUOOl Uk)

^l>j ^JLlr-^
;

1»Qi)D

loe

hnovj not
17;

has befallen Moses

(§ 67. 1. c.

Kem.) Ps. Ixxiv.
^!sD)
;

an

ablative (with a following

.^ and

e.g.

Heb.

x. 1.
is

.

^Z^? Xl^ii OlO looi
the

L^ XLA\\ ^q5i13 in the law
to

the

shadow of
ll'rSjoi^
o/"

good things

come
1]'

;

Ephr.

I.

237,

|Ld>qo

oiisi ^aaflo2

lioj ^\oo
bring

;iV7>>
to

^
the

A.

anything leavened and of honey^ Lord.
2.

ye

no gift

The

accusative

absolute;

e.

g.

Gren.

xlvii.

21.

\\Cl^ TpO ^So .Qj| .^is JSOI^O the people led he (literally led

he

it)

from, one city
Cases

to the other.
2^'^'

3.

ivith
]]'

^positions

;

e.

g.

Gen.

ii.

Olli
0/
^/^e

^QofZ
ifree

VAjlilOJO^

l^i? l^U?

U^V

^
;:

17.

of the knowledge of good o,nd evil {of it) shalt
preceding noim
9.

thou not

eat.

Rem.

—Sometimes,
is

instead
;

of the
g.

suffix,
vi.

the
7

absolute

repeated

e.

Esth.

—.

|;i:i.h^

^2uw^

%j>010.a

i*^\lO as for
;

the

man

thus

let

him

be clothed

likewise with the pronoun

e.

g. Jer. xxvii. 8.

222

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

§ 77.

Comparison of
A.

Adjectives,

The

Comparative.

Tlie comparative

is

usually expressed

by the simple

ad-

jective,with^LD

= proe following and before the object comviii.

pared

;

e. g.

John

53.

.obl

^

AjV

^y

Ajf

lioik
;

^0\\£i\ art
81;
xiii.

thou^ then, greater
;

than our father

Abraham
me

vii.

16; xiv. 12

xix. 11;

Assem.
is

I.

878, 19.
to

w^ioV
than the

(A^^D
queen
;

^So
372,

..A.^

pD^

^.y another

dearer

8. v.

E

;

Barh. 82, 20.
a cubit
taller

fr^/.

^OOl!^

^O

]ASo( Zboi ]lU9f she

zvas

than any man.

Rem.

—Besides
;

^Lo,
is

sometimes also

J^^

very,

or

\jAa more^

equivalent to by far,
the

added to the adjective
'r*Lk
is

in order to strengthen

meaning
^Ijif

e.

g.

Acts xx. 35.

kOOU)
is

\l^\}

^OIQ^Q^
receives;

«^CQJ>
Heb.
iii.

^^happier by far
iv.

he

who gives than he who

3

;

12.

The simple

adjective
;

used as a comparative
Ez. xvi.
61.

in stating the

age

of two persons

e.

g.

A^£QJ>
sisters,

]Z)Q1V^0 lAjLUliOL fc^oZoj^P
the elder

since

I

have received thy

and

the

younger

;

Barh. 27,
to

6, 7.

Rarely after the He-

brew idiom, are we obliged
from the context
e.
;

supply the comparative adjective
V
;

e. g.

Job

xi. 1

more frequent
1
1

is

^Sd

=

too ;

g.

Deut.

xiv. 24.

(>4)0f yiH!^ •^Ol

-

i

<^ the

way
;

is too
e. g.

great

for
iv.

thee ; or before

an

infinitive

with

^=

than that
it

Gen.

13.

-<"^*^*^^

^!Ld

|Oj

greater than that

can be forgiven.
;

This construction with ^Sd occurs also with verbs of quality

e.

g.

Lam.

iv. 7.

]n\M

^£d OjOiaO

Xy^^
The

^^

Q-kOj they are purer

than snow and whiter than milk.
respect to numbers,
is

adverbial

more or

less^

in

expressed

by ^1^ \aLa and

^^^;

Barn,

166, 2

;

Assem.

I.

414, 3.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

223

B

The Superlative,
;

The Superlative is expressed the noun following in the genitive
(m>,i.\s>

a)

by the
;

positive^

with

plural

e.g.
;

I Cor. xv.9.

.0019Q11

tlie

least

of

the Apostles

or with »0 in-

stead of the genitive;
the least

e. g.

Matt.ii.6.

|90aLi>

p\^*^
;

Ir'^^

among

the {princes)
;

towns in

Judah

;

or simply
the least

by

the emphatic state
85, 7.

e.g.

Matt. v.l9.

1^^^
A.

Barh.

)x!^1> 1Aq>
;

]Al-»,iD

wilO0> Rome^
;

the greatest city

of Italy
or

Assem.

1.

323' A. 20

335,
;

14. v.

E

;

in the

plural, ICor.vi.2.

]OrQy

sXa^jtfra
is

when a

preference

II Pet.i.4. |2>09 iisyKfra; given to one individual over a
plural
;

whole

species,

by ^\o ^Lo and a following
^Q*ISl5

Ephr.I. 204, C.
h)

^^
;

e. g.
;

]hiy the greatest of all evils

adjective or noun, so that the latter the relation of genitive in the plural e.g. Gen.ix.25. stands in
;

by doubling the
the

^^,Q\ r^l
530,
iest

meanest slave
i.

the holy of holies^
3, 4.

e.
<

the holiest
>

Exod.xxvi.33. place ; Num.

^>QO %M0fO
iii.

32

;

Barh.

|_nAV)
c)

\ .^sD

the Icing ofkings^

i.e.

the might;

king;

by <^4 ^^^
|

;-»Aa

before the adjective
the

e. g. ;

Rev. xviii. 12. Barh. 87, 3.
Rem.
«jla9

;n i V> r*^-* |ffl>n

most preciovcs wood
also

—To
;

denote the superlative, use
e.g.

is

made

of the words

and |jSD;

Barh. 170, 13. |ZQflD| «JU9 the most excellent
1.

physician

Assem.
like the

335,

B.

4, 5.

pilM9> |;l0
;

the

most mercifJCL^

ful

;

more
the

Hebrew, by

laC^
I
7

e. g.

Ps. xxxvi. 6.

|0u^

mountains of God^
is

i.e.

the greatest mountains.
>

In verbs,

a strengthening

denoted by

*

. (D much
;

;

e.g.

Barh. 56, 11.
(§ 67.1.

vmJ^iZI
c. (i)
;

«

I .» (Y)

he was
6,

much
135,

disquieted
1.

or,

by «29 many

e.g.

Barh.

5

;

To be noted
(is

also are such forms as

OlASjQQjaj,

literally,

whose wisdom

known) for

the wisest.

224

CONSTRUCTION OF NUMERALS.

§ 78.

Construction

of Numerals (§ 50).

A,

Cardinal Numbers.

The cardinals from three upwards, are connected with nouns in the following manner a) the object numbered pre;

cedes the emphatic state plural
three
2/ear5

;

e.g.

Luke

i.56.

lA^Z

"p^p-a

months
;

;

Barh. 133,

16.

^Z>Zo

^^t.ms ^JL9 twenty-two

4, 5.
it

or

b)

taV^nO ^Zl^D p»J-» two hundred and five years; follows in the absolute state e. g. Matt. x. 29.
;

^^>,^»

^Z>Z

^i^o
;

twelve baskets

John

^aXi^QO ^TQljZ Sparrows; xiv. 20. Acts xx. 3 Barh. 135, 10. v. 5
;

;

Rem.

—Exceptions
;

bered standing after

however, occur, the object numthe number in the emphatic state e. g. Barh.
to this rule,
;

160,17.
164, 4

Ir^ ^A^iL
or
;

VilV>Z
Matt.
iv.

eight thousand slaves ;
»P.
••

121,8;
ten cities^

the cardinal, though rarely, stands as nomen regens in
X

.7

-R

the construct state
(literally, the ten

e.

g.

25.

|Al-..*pLD

Z^£Q1
as

of the

cities).

Some nouns, such
;

pDQj, \Lim
I.

also follow

the 77-« X7 the singular *P77 numeral inOp^^? ivhen ^V^-. 22. (SdQu p>jO
>
• '

e. g.

Assem.

213, A, 21,

^7^

fifty-one

days had pas-

sed; Barh. 10,16. Concerning the designation of age

by pD and L'^
;

7.7
I]k5

comp. § 75.2. Rem.; Assem.I. 31,21
50,13
;

;

37*7, 1
;

;

Ephr.I.195,D
Barh.
5, 12.

Barh.

179,4; with the omission of ^-lii

'^

•.m^ktO

_iAsO

0)16

hundred and

sixty-five years

old.

For the

combination of numerals without any numbered object, compare § 50; in respect to which it is to be noticed that, contrary to the He e. g. Num. iv. brew usage the smaller numbers follow the larger numbers, see 43; 1 Kings V. 11. Concerning suflSxes to cardinal 8 46. 2. b.iiem.
;

B.
1.

Ordinal Numbers.

Ordinals are connected like adjectives with their nouns

in the

same number and case

;

e. g.

Matt. xiv. 25.

(Z'^^Soo

;

CONSTRUCTION OF NUMERALS.

225
Eev.
iv.

|i\\> lA>v> A;
vi. 9.

iji

the fourth

watch of the night
;

;

7

;

|ia>V)>> \L£i^

the fifth seal

verse 12

;

xvii. 11.

as follows

cardinal numbers also supply the place of ordinals a) a) the units, especially in designating time noun standing before the numeral in the emphatic with the
2.
;
;

The

state plural

hour
state

;

/3)

John xix. 14. A» |l-* y^\ about the sixth with the noun after the numeral, in the absolute
;

e. g.

;

e. g.

John
;

iv. 6.

,^aSi»

A*

*jkOaiA^|

it

was

the

sixth

hour
h)

;

verse 52

Acts

iii.

1

;

x. 9,

30

;

but more especially

in

numbers above ten with the noun preceding in the
;

construct state
teenth year ;

e.g.

Luke
2,

iii.

1.

|,fr>v^<^>.

AimO

in the fif-

in the

Assem. I. one hundred and
;

A.

1. 2,

v.E.
;

IrmLosb
p. 8,
>

^^ Alas
;

seventeenth year
;

388, 3

889,
state

1, 3, 5;
;

407, 10

or with

A. 17. B. 19 following in the
lAlJLD in
the

emphatic

e.g.

Barh.

4, 16.

t^^J
c)

"l^ilLj
J

ypar of the world one thousand ; or
cardinals to ordinals
I^lLZj the third
the
;
;

the

prefixed raises the

e. g.

Matt. xxii. 26.

^S*-t

the second;

verse 39

;

Luke

xii.

88.

t^h

o]

^L^l^

second or the third ; especially in designating the years of the reign of a sovereign; e. g. Barh. lO, 14; 11, 1;
86,

n.

Rem. Sometimes also, in accordance with Hebrew usage, the object numbered is repeated after the numeral in the absolute state
plural
ijear;
••;

e.g.

Gen.

vii.ll.

^1^

\y^ As AUlQ

in the six hundredth

and the years of the reign are given with
Barh. 19,
9.

^^J

with a

suffix

;

g.

01^ j> jxniAlAO

in the tenth year of his reign

;

00, 8.
is

In giving the days of the month, either *D without repeated after the numeral, before the name of the month

^Q^
;

e.

g.

Assem. I. 2, B. 12. v. E. ^££ijA^ VrO^^^SAo on the ISth of san{Aprii); 272,B.31 or, reversely, after the 399,19,20 407,8,9 name of the month, before the numeral following it ; e. g. 397, 13.
; ; ;

M-

OlO (l»AO tr>VM

.jM^jJD on the 9th of

June

;

or

with

^OjbO

226
before

RELATIONS OF NCJMBERS.
the numeral and the
;

name

of the

month which

follows with

JD

repeated

e. g.

398,

7.
;

^QID oa'r^O ^,£0:^0 ]liQ«
2V4, 30; or
reversely, so

^cL-Q
y>Qx;0
g.

on the 21 tk of December
stands after the
14.

that
;

name

of the month, before the numeral

Oli ^ ^"rr\\n
Matt, xxviii.
I. 2,

^jl ^OuD

gust.
e.g.

This takes place
1.

on the 22nd of Aueven in designating the days of the week

^ ^m^^

e.

399,

[^O
v.

^m

the first

day of

the

week

;

John

xx.

19; A.ssem.

B. 12.

E!

C
numbers

Other Relations of Numbers.

1. Distributives are

formed
e.

;

a)

by doubling
40
;

the cardinal
;

(§ 72. 2. b)

;

g.

Mark

vi.

Barh. 19, 14
^ijD
;

b)

sometimes by circumlocution by means of
41, 16.
2.

e.

g.

Barh.

r^

^52 ^ilil two
;

each
a) in

;

17.

Numerical adverbs

answer to the question,
7
;

How
it

many

times f (Multiplicatives)

cardinal

number

following,
7 7

a) by which more

,**

and »Q before a
defines

'clearly

IP

JDj Jer. xvii.18.

\^mn fj^ seven-fold; Luke viii.8; without ^>^ r** twofold /3) by the simple numeral

7

*

•J

;

with *0, Luke xix.8. lio)]^) (i.e. ]^1) fourfold; b) in answer to the question How often f a) with the signification of a cardinal,

by means of
;

^\

tirae^

plural ^i.l01

tiines^

as in

Eng-

lish

e. g.
;

II Cor.

xi. 24, 25.

^\ ^^ once
Luke
1.

;

^->J.£i

.aVJM
38
;

five times

Matt,

xviii.

22

;

xvii.

4

;

John

xiii.

by

l2\iil plural lAl^l, Asssem.

484, 27, 30;

sometimes

by .l^time, plural

^r^,
;

Barh.
in an

10,19;
ordinal

more rarely by
ordinal

|l»)6l loai/, or merely ber c. g. Gen. iv. 24
,

by the feminine of the
(3)

num-

signification, in

such a manner that either [id] with
>,

of the cardinal
;

precedes

and

is

repeated after

it

in the plural

e.g.

A\2>

]l£i\

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH ADJECTIVES.
^ i 1 n{ (also
third time
;

227
the

elliptically

ASZj U^l or ^ %\ n\ L^Lfy for
ordinals in 2o,
e. g.

or

by adverbs of the

Jude,

verse 12.
3.

LcLLL^Lfor

the second time.

Fractions are represented
;

;

a)
g.

by

special forms derived
viii. 7.

from the cardinal numbers
third; vi. 8.

e.
;

Rev.

^A^oZ

one-

Ji^O) one fourth
Rev. xi.l3.
^oiib

Heb.

vii.2

;

h)
;

by circumloEphr. 1.204,

cution

;

e.g.

D

;

Ez.

V. 2.

ASZ

^

I'rCQ^

^^

i-m one-tenth

1'h^»

§ 79.

Connection of the
is

Noun

ivith Adjectives,

adjective predicate. I. As epithet

The

related to the

noun

either as epithet or

it

follows the
1.

noun
^

in the
^

same gender and
;

^0

number

;

e. g.

Matt. xvii.

pDj

|>Cl4

an high mountain

xvi. 4. lZv^y«0
ation
;

lAjLi^ lAo;* a wicked and adulterous gener-

xi.

8.

n

i

^ > (AmJ

^q/lf

raiment
is

;

John

xi. 47.

"jAi-^ U6Z1 ma/iy miracles.
to

The same

true

in respect

pronouns and participles
;

;

e. g.

Matt. xv. 8.
8.

lioi

]^S

^7iw

people
door.

verse 12

;

xix. 1

;

Rev.

iii.

iLwuiAa llj2 a?z oj^en

Collectives

in the singular
;

are followed
I.
;

by the

ad-

jective in the plural

e.

g.

Assem.

78,

A.

4.

^r^ Koi
nouns
vii.

IcboSOJ the people who hold to the law
in the plural
38.

so also with
;

having a singular signification
limng water
g.
;

e. g.

John

M-M

(jLk)
;

Heb.

x.

24

;

or in the singular
-

ad sensura

e.

Num.
out.

iv. 5.

JDa«*^> ]1>Z

"^1

the vail

which ivas spread
Rem.
7

—The pronoun
tf

frequently

comes
:

first

;

e.

g.

John

xi.

47.

«0

19

*f^\\
'A

pen

this

man

;

Matt,

xviii. 1

xvii. 18.

Adjectives are also used

228

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH ADJECTIVES.
«apD

emphatically,especially in titles; e.g. Assem.l.25,A.I4.

p^Q^

^Qa^^al the jnousEphraem; 11V,B.23.^1-mQli ^;iD "^Ajr^ the holy John; 286, A. 1. If an adjective is appended to the deraonstrati%'e pronoun for the sake of more particular designation, the pronoun usually stands between the noun and the adjective e. g. Ephr. 1.
;

124,E.
127,
er.

|>^^on

li^fc^l

001 pOIQJ
"[z^S

this

light first spread

abroad;

D;

or before both, 132, F.
(as a

]t<=^\V) OOl this great teach;

— vJD occurs
Ipij

noun) exclusively before the noun

e.g.

Matt.

XV. 13.

§o5.B.

(Ao^ ^\o this lohole planting^ (with suffix, compare A word, generally a particle, sometimes stands be2. Rem.).
;

tween the noun and the adjective

e.

g.

Acts

xvii. 20.

jAiyt

(J.^

lA^rDGJ strange words
lows
in a

indeed. But very rarely the adjective fole. g. gender different from that required by the noun
;

Barh. 454, 18.

)A.*r^

with nouns of the

1>? (fem. "JAjLa^) the common gender, the gender of
is

holy

cloister.

Or

several adjectives
g.

following one after the other, 61. 1, 2.
2.

interchanged

;

e.

Michael. Chr.

As

predicate (with the substantive verb expressed or to

be supplied) the adjective precedes the noun, which follows
in the absolute state, or
jQliD

with a

suffix

;

e. g.

Mark

xv. 23.
;

OlO

-^ »\-^>^ Ir^'^ wine with which

myrrh was mingled
;

verse 26. lAl^^ Zooi t^laAo as reason was written
28.
«jlDZ.01V)»(T1 waOl

Matt.xv.

J^) greatis thy faith.

In like manner
is

the pronoun
the

e. g.

Mark

xv. 26. ]I>oau> ]n\V) qjoi that
ii.

King of the Jews ; Luke

12. 121 ^QloL IjOl that shall he

for you the sign.

Rem.
viz.:

— Sometimes the
several

adjective, as

predicate, follows

the noun,
signi-

when

words follow which define more closely the
e.

fication of the adjective;

g.*

Gen.

xix. 20.
to
e.
.

|*Hia;0

fjOl

lAa^O

Vr>A\ -(^'VVriX
bial
P

^01
.

this city is

nigh
;

flee
g.
.

unto

;

or an adver-

idea
7

is
9

embraced
'
^

in the preposition
.

Gen

xxix. 7.

v»i^^
*

y>

»

.

r^

pjDQu

it is

yet high day,

i.

e.

high in the day.

Sometimes

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH THE VERB.
the adjective
e.g.

229
noun

singular, as predicate, stands before the plural
jJliD

;

Barh. 542, 14, 15.
or
it

Old %2uA3

to

that

same were

the
;

words written;
e.g.

follows a plural, being

itself in

the singular

Assem.

I.

21,5, 6.

OIJ^

^^^^ (Z^aIdIO
But
Rev.

|AA...QflO songs

and

hymns were composed by him.
plural follows collectives
;

especially the adjective
xix. 1. 4.

in the

e. g.

^;Lo|) m..<^
The predicate
(»»
>

{.alO
also

a great multitude, who said
expressed by a noun
;

;

Barh. 88,
Cor.
v.
xii.

is

e. g.

I

27.

mSoi tOAj| 01~<^

ye are the body of Christ
3.

;

Eph.

30.

When

several nouns of different genders are connected,

the adjective as epithet and predicate, usually conforms to
the masculine
;

e.g.

Luke
;

i.

5, 6.

— M^lA-u-S. OiZAjIo t*pl
Barh. 106,9.

(OIJ^ >0,X) 0001 -j-Qujl tOOl^yL Zacharias and his wife Elizabeth both feared

God

verses 6,7

;

Rem.
2,

— Concerning the neuter
;

the same rules prevail as in § QQ.

and § 70. 3

e.g.

Assem.

I.

36, 6.
I.

li^Aoj
;

*^01 that which has

been written; 372, 19; Ephr. he did that which was evil.

241,B

Barh.24, 18. ,M^Ci}

^^

§ 80.

Connection of the
in

Noun

with the Verb.
to the subject;

The Yerb conforms
but to this there are
varietaie generis et

number and gender
exceptions,

ixisklj

red to the following cases.

which may be referCompare Agrell Comment, de
4.

numeriin LL.OO. Lundoe, 1815,
A.

In regard

to

Number.

1.

Here it should be remarked That collectives or those nouns which are regarded as
:

Wo 7 .k.1^;
Barh.
9-1,

e.g.

10.

o\n»l

.IC*r£ll^

plipo*? V-^>* the

Roman army

230

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH THE VERB.
;

proceeded towards Persia

96, 9

;

^to

;

e. g.

Acts xxvi. 13.
;

0001

%

>V)S>

M^

all
,

who were with me ; Michael. Chr. 15,5
»»

and its compounds,
all

\r);e.g. Assem.L39,3

— wrote
said
;

5.

Q£)Ao"|

^m^S
all

;

^^V^\n

;

e.g.Michael.Chr. 14,15. O'S^^^
e.g.Barli.277,6.

^yrSh

who

*aj1

^O;

oioiZ .•lSn>

that every

one wondered; alsofaio; e.g.Lukexxiii. 1.^001 a ir> olSo r>Vr>o
the

whole multitude aro5e;'l)..QflD;e.g.Barh.422,10.])»tQflD o2|
^
-R

a
V.

great multitude came
I..

7

»»9

3.

|OUp>

; X7»p7

Assem.I. 386,15,16; (So^;
7

e.g.

John

Tip

•t\P

K'^VC^

t^^ 0001 ^a^9 ^A-1012
;

in these [pools)
;

lay a great multitude of invalids

Assem.

I.

483, 19

Barh.
l^*,^

95,6,7;

227,8; 312,7;
;

]o^»'; e.g. Barli.211,8.

Qu-i
to the

^D'rlSoL the others fled

342, 19.

According

same

construction are
e.g.

names of places put

for their inhabitants

I'AOQl
X
7

cloister;

Assem.I.411, Note B. 4

— P— ^'^Oik
6.

;

•uOIOOVjva when the monks saw him.

Rem.
1J.1-M,

—The same nouns
;

also are

found with the verb singular

e.g.
e.g.

Barh.551, 13
e.g.

^^,
314,2
;

288,12, and

309,14; ^^V^Sn;
e.g.Acts xiv.4
;

Jul

^

its

compounds, ,»»\^

;

or

.

l\n;e.g.373,l;also|air>';

jSOl; e.g.Acts v.26;Barh. 301,9,10.
e. g.

In like manner,

abstract feminines occur for concretes;

|ZqaJ|, Barh. 490, 18.
for prisoner;
;

Ad;1 fZomj]
490, A. 31
;

OT-io

all

men fled ; \LmJ^M

Assem.

1.

f^l >,V) for inhabitants^ e.g.Acts xiii.44

fZ^l

for con-

gregation; e.g.ICor.xiv.23. Still
of these nouns in one and the
ral

more remarkable is the construction same period with a singular and plu-

verb

;

e.g. )].k^,

Barh.212,1. tjiOIO^j^lo
took

— ]]jum ^OIqXi ^Jil
uUf v^
e.g.

an army conquered him and
4
;

him

captive ;
8.

388,3,

ISOl;
2.

e.g.

Acts

xxi.

36

;

Barh. 371,

tion

Nouns with a plural form having a) either ( § 44. Eem. 6 ), are
;

a singular significain

respect to form

; 1

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH THE VERB.
connected with the plural verb
«
•'•7
;

23

e.
;

g.

faf,

II Cor.
^
;

iii.
'^••7

7

^ ••^7

18.

I^^^J»^yt

\^\^

y^ith

uncovered face
^.>j
;

Barh. 201, 1

|a-m;

e.g. Johniii.l5.
life ;

^^^>

Gl^ ^OOOU he shall have

eternal

V.26; Barh.219,12
the

^lio; e.g.

John

v.7.

Q^^fZZT?
;

\^

\^\D when
12; and]
i

water was troubled;
i

Barh. 194, 3

268,

7, 8,

V)»;e.g.Mark

lO.PkiQ* OOjAflDI
o

oupavoj

(f-x^i^oixsvoi

;

James

v. 18.

1^4^ QOOTLi ^ai^^

oupavo^ usrov g^wxsv

;

or b)

more

rarely, in respect to signification,
;

they are connected
•.a^I •-»r4 tl
i?2

with the singular verb
:^jZ the vail

e.

g.
i.

Luke
4.

xxiii. 45.

was rent

;

John

fOOl (.jk>^ locn
the

Oio

Am

it;aA

?^ ; Num.
water there
;

xxxin. 14.

(.jl-So
21.

^-^^

A^

there

was no

Luke

iii.

]iV)» wmAs^Z]
iii.

heaven was open-

ed ; 2& feminine, II Petr.
^ipoLvoi yjtfav

5. ^Oa'^o

^

Zooi ouA^l \tlnM

sxifaKai

;

Barh. 228, 10.

3.

lar;

With the noun plural also is connected the verb singua) when the verb preceding is use! impersonally; a)
;

Lk] and A^.^

e. g.

John

vi. 9.

i

t^rii

-•^>'

-

>nir>\v

A^j
;

^oJQJ
xxi. 25

^JLO
;

\^L£Dy he has

Jive oarley-loo.ves
;

and two

fishes

I Cor. xv.

40

;

Barh. 144, 8
A-i| there

with looi, John v.

2.
;

lOfcrnj IaSQaa

OIQ
;

(OOl

were in the same five porches

Assem.
e. g.

I.

852, 13
n. 13.

^) other verbs relating to persons

Luke

M.SQs9 It-H^^ [/ r>\.

w

peared

many

^
;

w»V»^Z] there
«* |»
P 7
»

ap7

of the heavenly host

;

Barh. 124, 11.

^

,*^\

p.^^

^Ae

Arabians made peace
four thousand;

133, 12.

aii^ |vo^| A»Vr>
;

there died

177, 14; 839, 9
;

or

ft)

when

the verb follows though more rarely
e.g.

a)

Aal'^and AjJb^;

Barh. 148,
jive walls
;

10.
/3)

!>on«in\ looi Zut iVo* UsdI* Ghisum
other verbs relating to persons
;

had

e.

g.

232
Barh.
iO.

IX KESPECT TO GENDER.

1

!->,

^^4^21 IPk^^CO many were slain
Arabians chose for king
;

;

125, 14,15.
9.

«,iW)| f-»~»^4 the
^\*j>

190,
;

wil12
;

p

- lAj-i^ since the inhabitants feared

298, 17

513, 3; 532, 19.

Rem. Some have attempted to explain this singular of the verb as the third plural pret. defectively written (§ 6 ; comp. Agrell a. a. O.p. 12,13) ; still it is remarkable that one and the same author, as
Barhebraeus, should employ interchangeably both ways of writing. On the contrary this constructioTi is found in Hebrew and more frequently in the Arabic and to both of these languages, such a
;

defective
is

form of the

3

pret. plur. is

unknown.

When

a plural

to

be considered as distributive {one of them^ or each one of them),

the Syriac uses not only the singular but the plural also, and marks
this

construction
e.g.

more accurately by

r^^^^O,

lOOUiO ^^
i>No

or

^^
^O

^-i^Ol;

Barh. 434, 12.
;

01>2]]'r*J^'^ ^iVt^SCJl each
101, 14, 15.
^Kt
,

them went
«.
-K

into his countnj

OOlllD each one of them had answered.
4.

...
Oil^
Matt.
;

one of

The

dual,

which

is

used in four words only, (§ 44),
;

is

connected with the plural verb
^OOOVJ

e. g.

xxiv. 40.

^>Z

two shall he

;

xviii. l9

;

xix. 5

Barh. 165, 19.

--lOT-icjZ, w>r-)^0

and

they both brought forth.

Rem.

—Sometimes,
is

also,

according to the sense, the verb in the
;

singular
01^^*1

found with
that
it

^'^^

e.g. Barh.396,12.
;

^'^^

AQ2L3J
is

^^

should be called Egypt

433,20.

Similar

Barh. 121, 11.

^;aSO
B.

—»ZjZ. Zjj
In

there departed two armies.

respect to Gender.

1.

Nouns

masculine, singular and plural, sometimes take
it

the verb, whether

when
not
i.b).

precede or follow, in the feminine they are masculine ia respect to the termination, but
to

a55

signification

(compare

§

43.

Eem.

2,

and

§ 70.

CONNECTION OF THE NOUN WITH THE VERB.
Rem.

233

It

must be considered

as
is

a solecism or

a designation of
;

the neuter
e.g.

when

the verb feminine

found with a noun masculine
it

Barh.527,16. [aSo> ZOOI
viii.

^ when

was evening

;

compared

with Matt.
there

16

;

xiv.
;

15

;

or Barh. 152, 14.

V^^^ - ^0^1
;

arose

a quarrel

compared with Matt, xxvi^ 5

Acts

xxiii. 10.

2.

Feminines take a verb in the masculine;

a)

when they
(compare

are feminine merely in respect to termination (compare §
70.

La);

h)

when

abstracts stand

for concretes

§ 70. 2); oLkHiD

e. g.

^aai, lAmai/or manldnd ; Barh.236,8.
[*JZi^ ^ I alQj^
;

^f

\LMZiy

there died about fifty

thousand

men
ry

;

548, 20

585, 14.

]2pCQi army;

581, 12.

QmliZf

|/»«^fr>v _A.^Cri these armies were assembled ; or |/n»^^\g> militafor soldiers ;

607, 20.
are also found with

Rem.

—These nouns
is

the verb feminine

;

e.

g.

Barh. 341, 10, 11. about twelve masculine
612, 14.
5*79, 14.

^iaj
;

\ljZl£^ JCQliZ yj'(
348, 15, 16.

^AISd

there died

thousand men

But the preceding verb
in such cases as Barh.
;

to be considered

as impersonal

lAa"! »QOL*Z( there was occasion given

compared with
;

Zooi |Ao> jAaj
jOOl

there

was much occasion
;

or

606, 19,
6.

20.

lA^j^J Oi2q!^

he

had fear

compared with 136,

|al^ ^^
3.

]AAjaj AliSiJ fear fell upon
is

the king.

Sometimes the noun

connected,in the same sentence,
;

with the masculine and feminine of the verb

not only,

a)

nouns of the common gender

;

e.g.

Mark

v. 13. |a*0)

QQ2U
;

oVv n
but
b)

lAaJ-4 ^-^^^

these

unclean spirits went out and entered
;

such also as have a determinate gender

e. g.

Barh.

268, 10.

QQ1>jZ|0

»jl^21J

—aOL»Z>Z
;

they

both {mother

and

daughter) fell and were suffocated

260, 11, 12.

234

CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES.

C.

In

respect to both

Gender and Number.

1.

Collectives feminine often take, in accordance witli the
;

meaning, the plural masc. of the verb
7. xli.

e. g.

Barh. 561,
;

6,

0001
57.

,^ I

n >'rl

l^OJj]

the inhabitants

had fled

Gen.

0L\ |i>1
32.

01^
I.

the whole people {country)
this

came

Matt.

viii.
;

olsj

_ ^cn X't^ OiSd
^a^o
;

whole herd


So
1.

;

perished
all the

Assem.

53, 17.

p fAUrk) 01^ Aa1dZ|
and
51,

inhabitants {the v)holc city) assembled

wept.

too the

names of

cities

e. g.

Assem.

I.

Note B.
to

QX^nAi^ AoaJ
sZam
580,
2.
;

%a01)0( ^Ae inhabitants of Edessa went out

he

Barh.

2-18, 6, 7.

]Zql»-a4 for Mohammedans; Barh.

1, 2.

"With nouns plural feminine, sometimes occur verbs

singular masculine^ as well before as after the
Isa.
iii.

noun

;

e.

g.

16.
;

tQ-^Olt

Aia
7.

^Q^'ylL] the daughters of Zion are

haughty

Barh. 215,

Ol^Zo^^
Ephr.

^oilo
II.

\\£il^ ^all

of his

goods had been plundered;
'\L^jkto

145, A.

looi

*£uLd

—jiOliNs
«

there

were writings composed concerning
j^-a
;

them

;

Jer. xiv.5.
;

nn»

— |A^| Me

hinds calved and

forsook

Barh. 368, 11, 12
eyes.

10, 9.

>aOioLl\li\ ASZ M^re

were three
Rem.
stands

Seldom are cases found, where the verb singular feminine
plural
tJie

with the noun

masculine

;

e. g.

Job xxxix.l3, 14.

OlAlO

1*^*^*

>

^^*-\»

ostrich leaveth her eggs.

D. Construction of sentences when

there is
is

or where the subject

more than one subject^ compound.

l.When
inative

the subject of a sentence
genitive, the

is

compounded of a nom;

and

verb conforms

a) usually to the

;

CONNECTION' OF THE
nominative

NOUN WITH THE
7.

VERB.

235
there

;

e. g.

Barh. 228,

1>qSqi ZqSoj Ai^i*Zf
;

was seen
Alk)As|

the

form of a
of

pillar

613, 14.

(lQfiQSD>

|Al..
h)

the cry

verb conforms to
principal idea
;

was heated ; the genitive, when the
the j)oor

348,

20;

the

latter contains the
iVyiQflO the

e. g.

Job

xxxii. 7.

y^v^So )1jl»)

multitude of years shall teach; Barh 96,8,9. ^Al i,V)) rnjf .rTm

A^SLI a great part of the city was destroyed
10,

;

141, 10; 241
multi-

U

;

188, 7, 8.

oooi

^"^^ASo

— ]AaIo ^s^\ a
is

tude of the dead were buried.

Rem.
Matt.

—In the
34
;

last

connection ^\o, almost always
xxi.

found

;

e.

g.

viii.

Acts

30

;

I

Cor. xiv. 23

;

to

which the verb

rarely relates, as Barh.611,3.

CFlAloZ

^cn^ PIdAaJ all of his

petitions should be granted.

2.

When
a
)

it

has several subjects connected by and^ the
;

verb stands as follows
der
e. g.
;

A) when they
;

are of the

same gen-

in

the plural

thus

a

)

before the subjects
^o'cJUAaf

John

xxi. 2.

"^oVZo \zP^ ^Q1SQ» I^^m^VoooI
^

^^pAjO
Barh. 19,
slain
;

there were together
7.
;

Simon Peter Thomas and Nathaniel;
were

^AjQuO

^o\» 0^4^21 Saul and Jonathan
;

78, 8

193, 17
I

Assem.

I.

30,

A.

1,

2.

^j>inlo

p
;

\Ml^ Ol^ibo

fcC0O|
;

No

when
1.

the clergy

and
/3)

the whole congregation

were assembled

Ephr.

223,

A
is

;

after

the subjects

Exod.

xvii. 10.

noStio

JomO

^oSoilo \»Ql^ Moses^
also frequently
;

Aaron
;

andHur^wentup.
in the singular
]l'r*A ^Q-i'rLDO
lene
;

But the verb

found

b)
1.

a) before the subjects
^Qui'rk)

e.g.

Matt, xxviii.

1A^_^
Assem.

Ll\ then came
;

Mary Magda;

and

the

other

Mary ; Barh.
I.

106, 4, 5

121, 19

159, 9;
pest-

160,13.
ilence
;

pZqLdo
193, 19
;

]l*^n looi there arose 272,

famine and
;

A.

35,

36

Ephr.

I.

216,B;

236

COXXECTION" OF THE NOUN" WITH THE VERB.
3) after the subjects
wi010,..».SQ-^2o Jesus
;

230,D
w»;£)Z*|

;

;

e.g. Jolinii.2.

^Qml

OCT

^V
;

and
A.

his disciples
5. v.

were invited

Barh. 1 11, lO

Assem.

I.

234,

E
it

;

B) when the sub;

jects are of different genders, the verb

conforms
;

a) to the
9.

gender of that standing nearest to
f

e. g.

Barh. 106,

'^(^'^

(aJO

I

r^it
;

1

• ilO r^ when men^women and youth had
\Ly\y%0
;

assembled together

192, 10.
;

pQ^ O i\yt2.[
6)

mountains
is

and

islands appeared

195, 4

or

the masculine
;

pre-

ferred, especially if the

verb follow the subjects

e.g.

Barh.

74, 12, 13.

0001 ^j^jASd OiAj^O *flDQu^]0O>o|Z Theodosim
were educated
;

and
C)
tion

his sister
finally,

77, 7

;

78, 2

;

Ephr.I. 253, A;

when there are several commence with the singular

subjects, if the construc-

of the verb, in the conis

tinuation of the sentence, the plural of the verb

used

;

e.g.

Barh. 137, 14. aa^LO
confederates

^axo'J^Q
fled
;

Uri.I :>qd Gahala
16.

and

his

arose

and

155,

P-»J

OlZO-^ t^ZU

00;PO
Rem.

(jlb^)O the judge and the elders went out and brought.
in the plural also follows,
;

—The verb
by

when

several subjects

are united

XH with

e.g.

Barh. 197,5,6.

^OL 5Q2U.CUJ
the
different

^O

ni<^

|»Vn r><^

|ZQ-iJL*j ?^;AeM Nicephorus with

Roman army
subjects,

returned; 72,2; 85,9.
of which one
first

When
g.
1
7

there
first
ii.

are

two

is

a pronoun of the
;

person, the verb follows in the
48.

Sy
first

person phiral
»!

e.
i^^
9

Luke

]2)jq4s

j^QTIilo

|j1

p

_^0G1

'

^*^

|pu.^n)

/ and
T.

thy father (we) have sought thee

with

much

sorroio ;

Assem.

173, B. 23

— 25.

Yet sometimes
is

when
the

the subjects are in the

first

and third persons, the verb
1,

in

person singular;

e.g.

Assem.

347, 28, 29. |M>iaV>0

pf

^Lk\ Y

H^ I and

the

Messiah are (am) one nature.

PECULIARITIES RELATING TO NOUNS.

237

§ 81.

Peculiarities relating to

Nouns.

A.
1.

Ellipsis.

If

the subject of a sentence

would be repeated

in the
it

predicate, before

a genitive for the purpose of defining
is

more

accurately, that subject
e.

omitted,

and only the geni]ooi wiOloA^f
;

tive is used;

g. Matt.

iii.

4. I^lfi09

Olscm^

pSDyi) his clothing
V. 36.

was

(

a clothing of) camePs hair

John
greatv.

er

^LmGU) ^iO pD>J (LOjOl-fiO a witness which than that of John; x. 21; xi. 4; Heb. iii. 3

is
;

14.

]Z^;ji

]ALqo]^

f

r-klQ.t) to

those

who

are of full age belongs

strong meat ; Col.

iii.

22.

Rem.
with

—This
;

Ellipsis also occurs in designations of
e. g.

time and place,

VAli

Assem.

I.

394,

6, 7.

OIQ

ZoCJli

lAl*
for

iO^
yLXm
,

|.rs.ir^ jjOOjOUQfiO a year before the Nicene council^

VAli

^^

;

1.

11.

lAl«> oijAo
xiv. 9.

the year thereafter, for

lAl*,

VAlij dljAo
(viz
:

;

Mark

IjOl

»a2',jQQD

IpZij

]:auV

^^

jZ|) where-ever this

my gospel

shall be preached.
is

2.

Sometimes the accusative

wanting with the active

verb,

when

the object can be easily supplied from the sig-

nification of the
J>

verb

;

e. g.

;Qj

to

plough^

literally to drive
;

P

7

(Pr2) the
,

yoke—plough),
bring forth,
•JQoaJ
to

I Sam.viii.l2. (in full,Luke xvii.7)
to

V
;

* to

Aph. r-^0|
marry,

beget (pi.-lS),
to

Gen. xvi,

1

XXX. 1;

literally
;

take (\lAi]); Ezra.
lots,

ix. 2,
to cast

12

(in full,
lot)

Barh. 39, 11)
;

^^j^ to cast
to

literally

(Ima a

I Sam. xiv. 42
;

(in full, Ps. xxii. 19);

also

nouns with prepositions

^fiO

consider, literally
(in full,

to

lay

(Va!^

m the Heart)

;

Job xxxiv. 23

Acts

v.

288

ZEUGMA AND HENDIADYS.
yy to ship, literally to go,

(|V)>n upon

the sea)

;

Mark vi.
§ 66.
1,

48

;

Luke

viii.

23.

Rem.
like

— Here
^r^7
and

also

seem

to

belong impersonal phrases

(

2)

^
;

^

Aj)Sd to which

may

be supplied

[ikSii

or

Pm09

^ «^p to which may be supplied
it is

|*^N»

To ^OlVvJ

it is clear,

and Aqaaj

dark,

it

is

forced

and unnecessary to

supply |l>| or jASOQa«

B.

Zeugma and Hendiadys.
noun
as well as with

Zeugma

occurs with the

the verb
the
;

(§ 68. C. 2); e.g.

Gen.

ii.

1.

^ooi1ju»1
all

oiSoo U>1o ]iV)»
;

heavons and the earth and
e.g.

their host

or Hendiadys

Gen.

iii.
i.

16.
e.

%-k£ui4^0
the

«>n>np

thy sorrow
;

conception,

sorrow of thy conception

and thy Job iv. 16.

Cases of Paronomasia are merely imitations of the Hebrew; and passages of accidental assone.g. Isa. XX viii. 10, 18
;

ance

;

e.g.

Barh. 102, 18.

]LJi^

llY Icdlsii

If

not by

persuasion hut by the sword.

APPENDIX.
77ie

Rendering of Composite Greek nouns.
the Greek composite
to § 67)

The Syrians render
the verb
in the following
like
signification

noun

as well as

(compare Appendix

into their language,

manner
;

;

1)

by simple Syriac words
iv.
;

of

e.
i.

g.

I

Tim.

18.

avayvwCi? U-»J^;

«'apaxXy](j'<j

(ZqIjO

;

9.

a(fs(3s7s

(IjUI)

avoVjoj

p^-^
ii.28.

;

Matt.
for

xviii. 28.

(fuMSovXog

IAio

;

or 2)

by writing two words
Acts

one

;

a) in the relation of genitive; e.g.

'rpo'/vwCij

|Alr-^

or

b)

ZQiO,^^; II Tim. m.2. by two nouns, of which,

dxapjCTOj

|Zcmx4^

*a,SiO

;

the latter stands in apposi-

;; ;

THE RENDERING OF GREEK COMPOSITE NOUNS.
tion
c) e.g.

239

;

John

xi.l6.

(fujmfxaSrjTa?

auTou «,>aiO,*lM

|,

iSo\il

by a
;

participle
g.

and noun wbich correspond with the
iv.

verb
or

e.

Acts

13.

aypa^iiaroi

(;f^ffl

^•>-^r*

U

*.

by

participles

and adjectives and the noun with
iii.

^

pre-

fixed;

e.g.

II Pet.

16.

5v<fv6rirog
;

P.3Q£Q^ »n>fn\
g.

or

d)

by the pronoun and verb
\tk3

e.

I Cor.

vii.

8.

a/ttjaoi

•OOlJSk

A^9

,^>\il»
;

If the composites are form3)

ed -from adjectives and nouns

they are frequently

re-

solved into their component parts, and rendered in the same

manner
genitive
Col.
ii.

as in cases
;

mentioned above
xvi. 14.

;

a) in the relation of

.,e.

g.

Mark

(fxMpoxapdia
'r^9
/

\o^ ZoiaO
xxiv.
24.

14.

p^£jpo7pa(pov

-o^Om
;

Matt.

4/gu(^o<rpo(p93Taj

IZo^rOj ]>*^i
ii.

b)

by

the

noun and
;

adjec-

tive
13.

;

e. g.

Phil.

3.

xsvo(5o|ia

ysu^CQ (m^oos
;

II Cor. xi.

^su^a-jroVroXoi

B-ii? t».i\^
;

4) sometimes we can
a) nouns, adjectives,

trace definite laws of rendering

and
22.

adverbs compounded with
flfavo'Ji'Xi'a

*af,

take

^^
b)

;

e. g.

Luke

xi.

\Xa\

CiSd

;

xxiii. 18.

-rafjo-rXig^s/

\mlD

Ol^

;

Sap.

xviii. 15.

iravTodivoLixog

la^So

^^j

;

when they
is

are com-

pounded with a
B'and Bj
i.
;

privative, the

latter

represented
]]';

by

e. g.

I Cor. xv. 53.
]]?
;

a^avatfia
iii.

12o2q1so
a(f(3s(frog
,

Eph.

4.

ctfAWfAOff

Xx::^

Matt.

12.
tfOv

|nij ]]n
often ren-

Finally, in

composites formed with
;

this

is

dered by Xll
fjoou

e.

g.

Philem. verse
xvi.
9.
o

23.
Cuvsp/o^

(fwcciy^^ixaXuros

«Aiai>
r

llni

;

Rom.

^fAwv

1m.L2)

y

CHAPTER FOURTH.
PARTICLES.
§ 82.
1.

Construction

and union of Adverbs.
is

Besides the formation of adverbs described in § 51,

to be noticed as a special peculiarity the expressing of

by

certain verbs, which, either stand in the

same

tense,

them numIn
r

ber,

and gender, with the

finite verb,

with or without the

copula, or the infinitive of the verb follows with
this connection stand
;

a)
^

y2i(J\ to return^
;
;

and

J2iflD0( to con-

tmue^for once more^ farther again

e. g.

Gen. vm. 10. ^^CJl
Ixxi.
vii.7.

C\S^Q again
^V»V^\
,7
7

he

sent

her

out

Ps.
;

20.

yZiOXL

wkJXiaZ thou shalt bring me again
they shall no more see
;

Job

w»JDQ2)0lZ U
«£kfiOo]
iv.

;

Luke xx.
203,

11, 12.

Jr«o he sent again
^^S^jl^

Assem.

I.
;

A.

7,

8
;

;

Gen.
also

2.

AaCDol

she bare again

Barh. 152, 3
;

by

ad|J

ding pleonastically %ooZ again
)li]]
> i .i

Gen.

viii.

21.
the

«2k£D0|
earth
-

ai4^Ls^^ JDoZ

/

will

no more curse
; e.

;

h)
i

ro I to

make

mjich^ for very

g.

Barh. 92, 14.

*

^^ f

;

CONSTRUCTION AND JNION OF ADVERBS.
;Q-* he esteemed very much
6.

241

;

II Cor. viii.l5

;

II Kings xxi.
;

«Aa^> ,n\V)^

«

I .t

rt)

I

he did

much

evil

c)

^Cu^m

to
\i

endjfoTwhoU2/^completeli/;e.g.Gen.xxivA5.

oSSVoV^N %o\9
to

he had not yet done speaking

;
;

d)
e. g.

^^
iii.

precede (always

without the copula) for
before;

before

L'^\ ASo^^ I have said
9,

Acts
11
;

ii.

31

;

vii.
ii.

52

;

Rom.
iii.

25;

viii.

28,30; xi.

35

;

xii.

I Cor.

7;

Gal.

8.

Rem.
in Hos.

—More according
vi.

to the

Hebrew, seems

to be the expression

4

;

\^0 WJ^^^i
is

ll'U (tjbH d'^Stp/p btp) t^^ ^^^i
;

which early

scattered

;

Gen. xxxvii. 7

or

11

Kings

ii.

10.

t^^^M ^

'

1

"^1
I.

(bi^^b ri'''©pn) thou askest

too great

a thing;com.-

pare Ephr.

519, D.

E

;

{^i^SH

^^ nChron.xxvi.l5,is expressed
finite

by

«jk.wfiD(
it

;

compare Jer.iv.5,and onward. If the
be omitted in adverbial usage
;

verb already

precede,
I
.

may
I7

e.

g. I

Sam. xx. 41.

^7
fir>|

>

.

j^oj

^'^ . Q22

7

7

they

mourned

but

David

the

most.
2.

Adverbs
;

like adjectives, are
a)

connected with nouns
I
7

and stand
Xt^}iDj\

before

them

;

e.

g.

Luke

iv. 25.

«-*-\v^

many widows ; John
Barh. 78,
6. V.
1
;

ii.

12.
;

1ASocL.a

^k\o few
30, 15,

days
270,
V. E.

;

105, 3;

106, 8

Assem.

I.

21

A.
;

E

;

with words standing between; 284, A. 10.
after the
;

h)

more seldom
little

noun

;

e. g.
ii.

I Cor. v.
9.

6.

^^Ln
»iytrn

l;»V>»i a

leaven

II

Chron.

]fn

O

much wood

;

Barh. 80, 16.

L^ti^

^

IjQJ the fire

placed under.

Rem.
tive
;

—Sometimes nouns represent the adverb by a following genig.

e.

Ephr.

I.

219,

A

IllLj
the

liolSoV tOOlL JoOlA^V
Particu-

|>qSQ10

they

had continually

cloud and the pillar,

242
larly

INTEEROGATION, AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.
should be noticed
54. 1

;

^^

v>

iNoO

almost

;

or

_Sd

^^

>

Vr>

i\0
3.

^iO, «>yiffl par Hi/,

etc.

The

repetition of the adverb indicates
;

;

a) a strength-

ening or increase of the meaning
jOl^

e. g.

Gen.

vii.

19.

-^l
vi.
y

quite

ready

;

Matt.

iv. 24.

-^ "*^

»(i

lO

i;er?/

6ac? ;

John
7

7
9

;

Barh. 65, 14.
degrees
;
;

^\^o ^iSnn
diversity
40.

and
is

84,

17.

>Ao >Ao

Z)^

h) sometimes a
e. g.

expressed

by adverbs of place and there.

I

Kings xx.

pLo

^a^

here

§ 83.

Use of the Interrogation^ Affirmation^

and Negation,
it

A. Upon the construction of the
be remarked
1.
;

interrogation,

should
a)

That the simple

direct question

is

distinguished

;

either

by being preceded by an
;

interrogatory pronoun or
is

particle

e.g.
_

Luke xxii.27.
^

»^> QI.Sd luho

the greatest f

S7
;

^0

fi:^

(iSo
ylCijL}
1.

what has he done

to thee ?

verse

10.

I

' < -

^

w»-K»A2)Z.|

how
33, 15

were thine eyes opened?
;

verse 19

i.\

**' m
;

vii.

35

Assem.

179, B. 25.
.

jii^V^
h)

OOCJI

^'^ "^1* whence

know

they thisi

or

-JIT by the
;

position of the

words employed, the prominent word in
first
e.

forming the question being generally placed
Matt, xxvii. ll.
the

g.

MjOOUj [n\V>
I.

oolAJf art thou

the

king of
^*^

Jews?

Assem.

33,

l7.

'\^l

^ ^1

^

%
e.g.
IJ

wish ?
2.

A question with
iv. 35.

]]

usually contains an affirmation

;

John

1?^

fZf

^'r^ l^'T >Ao? ^-^f ^oAjj
months cometh the harveat

say ye

notf that

after four

?

INTERROGATION, AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.
xviii.26
45.

243
v.

;

but with
1j1

pQ^
x.

it

embraces a negation;
^oAjI ^\cJs) \i£^
xviii.35
is it I.
;

e.

g.John

^Oal

^..•^QiD
?

]j!\i

believe ye that
;

I shall
so
also
'

accuse you

21

;

or a doubt

e.g.

Matt.

xxvi. 22.

^'r^ Ul
with olO
;

\^ Lord
e. g.

If John
240, P,
?

ix. 27;

xviii.25;

Ephr.

wO
xviii.

fOOl

\aS1m
xxiv.

\k'^
18
;

'^ '^*^
vii.

vjoidd this please
35.
question
is

Ood

Luke

8

;

John

Rem.

—The
;

direct

also

found with

f>|

(apa), Barh.

131, 12
3.

with ]iiD for
indirect

t^

119, 10.
is

The

question

indicated

by

t]

= whether
J

;

e.g.

Matt. XXVI. 63.

|cnL^> Ol*^ (»»iaV> OCn Ajf

whether

—or {utrum—an)
Matt.
xi. 3.

thou art the Christ the son of God.
9

The

disjunctive {whether
;

is

marked by d]
we

in the second part

e.

g.

^LuQCaSD 001 ^>*]]'oVl2]> OCT OCT^Aj]
shall

art thou
ix.

he
2;

who should come or Assem. 1. 87, B. 12,
Rem.

look

for another

?

John

13; 377, 20, 21.
is

—The
I.

affirmation or negation of a question

usually expres;

sed by a repetition of the leading verb with the personal pronoun
e.g.

Assem.

375,

7.

O'^l©


;

iii^oT?

^^

*1*1V ^oAlSos

Z^^f) ^,V)Nn ^lS£ls have you
said ?
.

heard,
10.

and

they answered, yes, all
true or

my brethren, what I have OSOO -^ P Of tr^^
it is true,
i.

^.1^)

is it

not

?

and they answered
e.g. Matt.xxvii.il.

e.

yes

;

sometimes by another verb;
said
it, i. e.

Z;1d1

t^

thou hast
;

yes

;

in the negative with the

same

repetition

e.
e.

g.

Assem. Assem.

I.

3*78, 7, 11.

Sometimes only
]]

|J

==

not, appears

;

g.

I.

33,19.

%^.d\

r^|0 and

he said^

No^

my father.
)

B.

The negative

particles

y and Q-L (and nonne?

are

distinguished from LmIL

by

this latter

forming the negation

244
to A-jil,

PREPOSITIONS.

and with nouns,

adjectives,
2), it

and

participles (§ 58.

B. 5) or with suffixes (§ 38.
verb.

includes the substantive

I Cor.

repeated in the latter of two negative clauses e. g. (but the negative sense is lost when the particle is to be taken affirmatively as in Matt. v. 25 Luke xxi. 34). To adjectives and participles it gives a negative or privative signifiJj is
;

Rem.

xi.

11, 16

;

;

cation

(
i.

=

un, in, -less)

;
j]

e.

g.

Eph.

i.

4.

>OQSid

|J

spotless ;
it

Rom.

23.
less

\\^.^>Avr>

imperishable.
«

Before nouns
i

signifies

nothing

than

;

e.g.

Deut. xxxii.21.

V)\ U nothing
B, and § 62.

less

than

my

(God^s) people.
it is

Before the future (equivalent to
;

an imper3.

ative)

prohibitory
or ]Jo

compare § 61.
), it

3.

Doubviii.

Ied(lJo

.— |Jo
3.

.. U

signifies neither

— nor

;

John

19;

ix.

§ 84.
1.

Prepositions,

When

prepositions
tt

come
a)

together, in
is

many

instances

;

a) the signification of

one of them
;

only apparently
prepositions,
is

lost.

Thus

for example,

^So

before

denotes
closely
46, 21.
/3)

the direction from a place whose position

more
I.

defined

by those which
Zu-mZ
it

follow

;

e. g.

Assem.
87,19

IpM

lap

^-Sd out from

under a

rock, 1.

;

after

prepositions

denotes a removal from the place more closely
;

defined

by those which precede

e. g.

Assem.

1.

54, 7.
;

\LfL —Id Ax»A2^

wiOloS^lCO they buried him under the Church

Barh. 200,
66, 18.

16.

iW,!^

^

\Ci^ before
below,

the city;
e.

72, 19, 20;
;

IjQ* ^i) ^\l!^ from

(i.

above) the walls

figuratively, 81, 17.
cellence ;
e. g.

(lO)09 ,oaLlo
is
;

^liO
b)

\).iA above all ex;

one of the prepositions

merely pleonastic

Eccl. X. 14.

OIjAq

^

after hira ;

Assem.

I.

36, 22.

^ ;

PREPOSITIONS.

245
•uOlQl^fQ _Sd
King.
be-

yLQLik

^J^from
;

thee; 37,
9.

1

;

Dan.v. 24.

fore
2.

him

Barh. 65,

]n\V)\ iol

to the

Several of the prepositions have a peculiar consecu;

tion

e.g. hetivlxt

—and

between^ \iQ

^

«

1 1 1

*^;

e.g.Matt.xx.lT.

.001^0 wiOfiaijLS between him and them
out the copula, xix. 10
;

;

frequently withg.

^ — A^
;

;

e.

Barh. 60, 13.
;

^CTJoll

tW A^^
;

between

Haran and Edessa;
e. g.

75, 17,18
;

83,

15

;

146, 13

rarely

^—^

Barh. 60,8

from— to

\

|iD^k«.^;e.g.Matt.i.l7.
to e.

^O^^ \^^^ \>o6v'^
7.

^

from.

Khrokam
out to^^;
3.

David ; in more general designations
g.

also with-

Barh. 99, 17; 105,

Besides the cases mentioned in § 55. B. 3. b) prepositions are repeated with several nouns which follow after one another, and depend upon one and the same preposition but the preposition is quite e. g. Barh. 82, 10; 104, 11, 13 frequently omitted after the first noun ; e. g. Barh. 6, 1 as
;
;

40, 12

;

Q^, 6.
special idioms, are
for

Rem.

—As

to be regarded
slg)
;

the following
ii.

;

a)

»0

sometimes stands

^ (sv ==

e. g.

Luke
city ;

3.

looi \\\
;

(SxhlJkJ^Df^


;

^'^"^ each went

to his

own

iii.

3

Barh. QQ,

16 17

;

or serves to designate the value or price of a thing, equiva-

lent to for

Barh. 64,

6.

,^isV)
149,
8,

^ l aV^n O ^'Z]kiO for
9
;

two

hundred and

fifty oholi ;

191,

1,

2

;

193, 19
;

;

h)

\

denotes direction

towards a place (§ 67.

1. b. ^)

with numerals,

with

]!^^

preceding

= about

to ;

c)

Lcuik and

^Q-l show, some(

times a possession in a physical and intellectual sense
e.ff.

=

penes)
;

;

Job
d\

XV. 9.

tZo^ JOOI Uj which
adverbs (§ 51.
(§ 58. B. 4, 6,7),
;

stands not in our power
;

23,

14;

anybody

— same

^^ forms

3. a)

expresses

the
*

pronouns
di-

and sometimes indicates the
%
P

7

rection to a place

e. g.

Assem.

I.

485, 28.

(mJ,^

^

towards

246
morning
;
1.

CONJUNCTIONS.
29
;

;

e)

\i^ often occurs before a duty or obligation
x. 4.

(§ 67. II. 4. b)

Ezra

It

may
/) W

also in respect to signification,
J

be considered as a preposition
.•J

;

without

;

e.

g.

Barb. 22Y,5.

pjO

(jr'l

V} without hands and without feet.

% 85.

Conjunctions.

Tlie Syriac language, in common witb. the other Semitic very deficient in conjunctions ; but affluence of periodic diction in all languages arises from this class of words. Hence in syriac, upon the one hand, the periods are wanting in variety and continuance and on the other hand the connective particles which do exist have many significations. In general the following may be observdialects, is
;

ed

:

1.

Those conjunctions

(e. g.

luhen^

then)

are frequently

omitted, which, in the protasis indicate the relation to the
apodosis,

and the two members are united by and

Gen.

xix. 23,

^ 4^© *^^
;

;

e. g.

liiQJi

when O

the

Sun had

arisen^

Lot came

xliv. 4.
fall

Rem.

—Moreover the following
;

away
1

;

a)

{asyndeton) after
;

verbs of motion

e.

g. Matt. ix. 7.
;

^1

^dO

he arose and went
;

Barb. 25,
XV. 6
;

1;

197, 19
;

especially in earnest discourse

e. g.

I

Sam.

h)

oVor

e.g. II

Kings

ix.

32.
in

^xlkxicfliD

1^2

_J>Z

I* ^ more

accordance with

Hebrew

usage

;

e. g. Isa.

1.

2.

^mS\

Aa^O
there.

ZuZ] (1V)\ wherefore was, I

came, {when

I came),

no one
;
e.

On

the other hand

O

is

often

repeated (polysyndeton)

g.

Barb. 51, 20.

;-^oZlo AaIdo
and went
to

f^Knm\
heaven
2.
;

r^Xrrn ^Q£}0 he
82, 17;

died,

was

buried, arose,

38, 5, 6.

As

correlatives, conjunctions

are

used doubled in a

;

CONJUNCTIONS.
sentence
as well
a) the

247

;

as^ both

—and
I.

same word
;

;

e. g. I.

e. g.

Assam.
;

*2i\ and i^l 291, A. 10, ll,v.E;

Q^ ^6\\ither—or ;
er

Barb. 112, 4

223, 4, 5

;

^V— ^1 ^whethflOOl

or;Q.g. 2l7,13; or 6)different

words

;

e.g.

—^|
with
yet;

like—as; Assem.
>

75, B. ll, 13, v.E; 374, 23, 24;
]

v^-\ preceding; Ephr.I. 214, E; H

— ^f although —
or
|J>

e.g. Barh. 91, 12, 13.
3.

The
I.

conjunctions j

=

that^ therehy^

= thai
;

not^

are usually connected with the future (§ 61. 3. A)

e. g.

As-

sem.

515, B.32

;

Barh. 213, 6

;

but in as far as they have
they are connected
|cn^|j

the signification of

since^ because^ (quod),
;

with the preterite
they praised

e.g.

Matt.

ix. 8.

•r^ou)
;

rt^^^m
13, 11
;

God^ because he had given

12,

41

;

Barh. 24,
4.

9.

Concerning the use of particular conjunctions, the

fol-

lowing
a)

may
I

be noted

;

sometimes used in comparisons (=^ ^^) e. g. and likewise h) yjk\ in comparing xix. 24 Matt, xi.22
is
; ;

o

;

one thing with another of the same species

;

e. g.

Isa.
;

i.

7

;

Job

xxiv. 14;
it
)

Assem.

I.

75,
^

A.

1.
;

v.

E

;

168, B. 29
;

with
if^

numerals
(

signifies really about

Barh.104,13
cases, the

c)

Q-i^

=
is

:|^

iav

denotes, in doubtful
;

relation of the

subjunctive

^1

=

Qjj^

s<

in cases of certainty,

denotes

the indicative, and also occurs in indirect questions (§ 83.3);
it

negative in those passages containing asseverations
translated, and which,

under oath, yet only in those which are
according to the

Hebrew
/{,

idiom, are without any negation
it is

with a negative U
Qjs^

U ] or ^ U ],

affirmative(compare
;

and

^*i

t]i^)

Gesenius Lehrg.

p.

844)

e. g.

Cant. 2. 7.

248
(\o

CONJUNCTIONS.
rouse not
;

Cr^^ V ^^^^ use of which see ^b^\ %
x'r*:^
a)
e.

^^^1

;

d) y (for the further

69.1
it

73. 8

;

§ 74.

2.;

§ 78.B. 2)

from
g.
J

particles

which

follows,
34,
;

forms conjunctions
so
I.

yjk\just as,
yz^5^ as,

Assem.
viii.

I.

17

;

thai,

Matt.
;

ii.

13

}

Uiul

John

28

Ephr.
;

214,

E

>

^Aif
As-

(of time) as, when, Assem.I. 485, 15

>

w*ai^

since, because^

Barh. 112,
sem.
I.

7,

8

;

160, 12

;

y j5\L, 89,7,
;

and

j

j2^

^,
as,

213,

A.

25, afterwards

j

oiAls;^ as soon
;

1.218

27

;

? liiO J ^^ii,

(of time) when, 1.485,20

>

Vy^,
until,
;

Barh.160, 16,
i/ia^including

and

158,12, since,hecause

;

j

\^t^

the terminus ad quem),
>
^cflJik 50

Ephr.

II. 125,
;

B

242,

A

;

]Lo^
;

mwc^

^/la^,

Barh.193,2
is

?

i»0^^ 6e/bre,150,l3

jS)

in the signification of that, >

sometimes omitted before the

future*

e.g.

John

xxi. 3.
,

t'oJ ?Otl
v. 7.
.(

W
|Z|
;

^if/^o
p| ^L

thati may

catch fish; after r^

John

pf
;

i^n/i7 that

I
.j

come

;

or

it is

pleonastic after

e.

g. Matt. x. 13.

OOl
;

|Aa^ |as>
vi.

tdj^ew
viii.

Me
;

Aowse
after

is

v)orthy

Mark
21
;

viii.

3

Luke

7

;

John
;

36

^f. Matt.

ix.

U'oiS^

Mark

13,

20

e)

the copula o also

denotes

a) that^ especially
;

after

verbs of sending, entreating, commanding, etc
I.
it

e.

g.

Assem.
221,2;
is

77, 23,

24
/3)

;

Barh. 11, 18
the apodosis
;
;

;

97, 8; 105,
e.g.

1

;

152, 5;

forms

Barh. 39, 7.8; and
11, 16; 16,

y)

equivalent to hut

e. g.

Barh.

9

;

S)

it

sometimes supplies the place of the comparative ^^^

;

e. g.

Job

v. 7.

Also the Hebrew

db^ii< is translated

by the

fre-

quently occurring "^'^jd

yet, nevertheless.

INTERJECTIONS.

249

§ 86.
1.

Interjections.

The

Interjection

which denotes an imprecation or cry of

distress, is

usually connected with

^ following
^.

;

e. g.
to

Eccl.

X.

1

6.

*

i*^\
;

^O

woe

to thee

I
;

ii.

1

^on\
;

«aO woe

you !
E.

Matt, xviii. 7

xxiii.

13-16

xxiv. 19

Ephr.

II. 135,

l)Oai-^> ]n\VlS

^o
with

woe

to the
to those

king of Judah

!

274, D.

|Al ,^>*^m»iZ\SOf^ «^0 woe

who meditate
e.g.

deceit ! 351, C.

^>Vnnio\
Ez. XXX.
2.

(jO; or

E

appended;


to

^^J^woe

to

mel

ISoCLiJi cnol
1.

woe for

the

day ! sometimes with you
!

^oA

;

e. g.

Jer.

27.
|jOl

fOOL-i

As

wkO woe

or ^!^,

Amira

p. 449.

jA^ij* ^So oio] woe

to this

generation.

Without an intervening preposition, they are the usual expressions of grief and mourning, and the noun is then to be
taken in the accusative e. g. Judges alaSj my daughter ! Eev. xviii. 10, 16, 19.
;

xi. 35.

^L\Si 01 Of

Rem.

—Sometimes

o\ occurs as an ordinary exclamation, with
;

^

as a sign of the accusative

e.

g.

Barh. 333,

3, 4.

As

a particle of

exclamation

sometimes also occurs
p. 436.

—a|

,

properly, verily^ truly /

compare Amira
2.

the following

Concerning the construction of particular interjections, may be observed
:

01 lo ! behold^ is frequently pleonastic; e.g.
149, B.

Ephr. III.

body

is

IZOilD 001 XUj^OI Vrs^ the mortal thus dependent upon the soul ; or at the beginning of
\m*^\n
it

(JZ (01

a period

serves to give animation to the discourse

;

Ephr. III. 247, C.
is

separated

;

«Aa;£) our brother (member) in designations of time, like the Greek ^<^>), it
e.
is

7^7 ^^?01

e. g.

X

^0 |oi lo !

signifies

now^ already ;
\'x^^
v.ik the

g.

Matt.

iii.

10.

^CUJD }..p

|01

(iNif?

axe

already laid at the roots of the
|01

tree ;

Num. xxu.
sem.
I.

28.
;

^^>mi tj^L
with
i

369, 30

^

already the third time
;

;

As-

following, since that

e.g.

Acts

250
X. 30.

PECULIAKITIES
pi

IN"

THE

POSITION"

OF WORDS.
Col.
i.

^li?
by
|J

^^

]oi since that

I have fasted ;
*2)1

4

;

preceded

(\oi

p

,

from which comes Q^)

ovx',

nonnef

e.g.Matt.v.46.

^r^il

IjOl

^01 |£a£SD
xiii.

}o\

j]

do not even the

publicans the same? verse 47;
b)

27

;

%£Ci^far be

it,

with
;

^ of the person and
e.g.

y

before the fu>*--^

ture of the finite verb
I

Matt. xvi. 22.

^'^^
>0<^ni>
;

^^Om

J 01 ^iL^
to

fOOlZj far

be it from thee,
1.

my

lord, that this

should hap-

pen

thee ;
it

Assem

341, A. 30. loilis^

^

-<^m

far be

from
N^

us that we should deny
;

God

375, 13.

Some-

times the participle follows

e.

g.

Assem.
that

I. 51, 12, 13.
;

ijj^^j

,fn»i ^JLm far be

it

from us
^f

we should deny
(==Q5ji^

the verb follows in the future, with

preceding
;

com-

pare § 85.

4. c)

;

e. g.

I Sam. xxiv. 7

or in the infinitive

with

^

;

e.

g.

Gen.

xliv. 7

c) •jlOQl4

hail!

{=

intlJi^) \n\h.

suffix plural,

and the
relates;

noun following with ^,
e.g.

to

which the preceding suffix

Matt. V.8.

in spirit; verses 4-11
I.

^^Q\^ llnnn^S ^ou^o^ hail to the peer with a word interposed; e.g. Assem.
;

95, A. 3, 6,

V.

E.
;

\si^ ^QLSQ« yS>
hail to thee

^V y^^ hail also
^
;

to

thee,

Simon

Peter
.

frequently absolute without

B.

3. v.

E.

Uli^ti 61

ininCL^
;j^5 is,

Sichem

;

96, A. 17, 19.

—The Hebrew
I

in the Peshito, expressed

by

]-J

;

T

e. g.

Kings

xxii. 12.

APPENDIX.
Peculiarities in the Position of Words.

In the position of words, which, as in the Hebrew, is very ea^y and natural, besides the peculiarities referred to in the
preceding chapters, the following deviations from the usual
collocations, occur
;

a) the

verbs (ooi and ;iD( are interposed

;

PECULIAEITIES IN THE POSITION OF WORDS.

25l

between words, which, according to their grammatical connection,

cannot be separated
.

;

e. g.

Exod.

vii. 7.

;-S |*Q«So
;

><^ fOCn

ilV)L Moses was eighty years old

Luke

v.

3

;

Exod.v.l6. Q109|
ye.

^ ^r^l
is

|1*^No and

bricks,say they to u-s^make

The same

true
;

;

h)

of personal pronouns, having the

001
are Abraham's seed
I

e.g.John viii.83.^0l^(j
37
;

^Uj
.

oil>l

we

;

verse

Heb. vu. 28.
the

f^i

i<^

JflDOSOJ

,iOQ2

^lOV)
;

(OLi rO 001

t7 is

law which makes p7'iests of

feeble
e. g.

men

c)
1.

more
^QJ|

rarely the

same occurs with the noun

Matt. XVI.

IOmJj (tV)#

^

|Z|

OL^ ^> \|^
;
i.

^Aey

besought

him

that he
it

would give them a sign from heaven
occurs with particles
;

d)
45.

more frequently
lAl^r^D^

e. g.

Mark
into

^QUj

Aafl^yi he should qo openly
)]

the city.

Compare loi and loi

(§ 86. 2. a).

EXERCISES
IN

SYRIAC GRAMIAE,
AND

A

CHRESTOMATHY,
rREPARED WITH REFERENCE TO

THE TRANSLATION OF

UHLEMANN'S SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

BY ENOCH HUTCHINSON.

NEW YORK:
1855.

Entered according?

to Act of C'-ngr ss
.

in the- }vai

1855,

By E

n U T C in N
<f

S

N
tli

in the Clerk's Office of the District C

iurt for

Suuthe

ti

District

New

Yo!k.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

The

following Exercises are designed for beginners,
at the

who
the

need something simple, and

same

time,

something

which will lead them grammar,

into

a thorough knowledge of

A small portion of Syriac,
lected

perhaps a page, should be
all

se-

and carefully analyzed in reference to

the import-

phenomena of the language. Every peculiarity in resPerhaps pect to each word should be critically examined. the best course would be to trace one peculiarity throughout then the page, searching the grammar and other helps
ant
;

trace another,

and so

on, until

every peculiarity shall have
facts

Thus the most important strongly impressed upon the memory.
been examined.

will be

The

great difficulty, especially with beginners,

is,

that

they often attempt to investigate too

many

subjects at once

and thus do not obtain
rapidly.

clear ideas of any.

There

is

fre-

quently a great inclination to press forward and translate

Hence,

many

important subjects of investigation
Superficial scholarship,
is

are entirely neglected,

the un-

avoidable result of such a course.

That nothing may escape observation, a few general
rections
analysis.

di-

are presented

to

aid

the

learner in

making

his

In mentioning those points, which are to be ex-

amined, the exact order in which they occur in the gram-

254:

INTROD QCTORY

REMARKS.

mar, has not been followed, but they have been so arranged,
it is

hoped, as best to facilitate the progress of the student
to

and they are intended

embrace the most important phen-

nomena necessary

to be attended to

by the

learner.

Before commencing the examination the pupil should be
directed to the Introduction of the grammar,
that he

may

become somewhat acquainted with the history and
of the Syriac Language.
rather as a

literature

The grammar should be
as one,
first,

studied

book of reference than
to

which must be
should consult
an-

committed
it

memory. The

student, at

as

an aid in analvzinor.

At

the

commencement of the
and that

alysis,

he

will feel the

need of

assistance,

assistance

he must find in the grammar.
principle of the language
parsing, he can easily retain

When
it

he there discovers a
its

and perceives
in
his

application in

time that he has carefully

memory. By the studied the Exercises and Chreshave a considerable
but will have most of the gramwith but very
little effort,

tomathy through, he

will not only
;

knowledge of the language

mar committed
no
plication

to

jneinonj^

and

loss of time in learning rules

and

principles,

whose ap-

he does not perceive, and which consequently are
After the pupil, in the course

apt to escape from the mind.

of his analysis, shall have become somewhat familiar with
the grammar, he

may

recite

it

regularly through, and

it

will

not be an unmeaning nor an uninteresting exercise.

The
in the

general divisions, in the Exercises, are
T",

marked by

the character

to distinguish

them from

similar divisions

grammar marked §. Smaller under Remarks and Explanations.

divisions are inserted

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYZING.

I.

Find the Guttural

Letters

on page
1.

first

of the Chrestomathy.

Vid. Gram. §
II.

Rem.

3, 4.

"

" Aspirates, or on
are found.

what

letters
1.

Kushoi and Rukok

Yid. Gram. §

Rem. 4

;

§ 5.

III.

"

" Diacritical Points, for which the vowels are designed to compensate, formerly used instead of

vowels and for other purposes.

Yid. § §

2, 3, 4,

and Rem.

IV.

"
" "

" " "

Long and Short

Vowels.

Yid. §

3.

Rem.

3.

V.
VI.

Simple and Mixed syllables.

Pure and Impure, Mutable and Immutable vowels.
Yid. § 45.

A
13

;

§ 48.

A.
Yid. §
3.

VII.

"

" Dipthongs, Quiescent and Otiant letters.

Rem. 4
VIII.
"

;

§

;

§ 14.

" Liuece l\fdrhetono, Mehagyon^ and Sheva.
"

IX.

"

Lima

Occultans.

Yid. §

8.

X. Find on what

syllables the

Tom

is

to be found.

Vid. §

9.

XI. Examine the Marks of Punctuation.
XII. Find Ribui.
Yid. §
6.

Yid. § 10.

XIII. Read the Syriac.

XIY.

Translate.

XY. Examine

the

Changes of Consonants

assimilated

tra,ns-

posed
§ 12.

—dropped—added

and exchanged.

Vid.

256

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYZING.
the Changes of

XYI. Find
XYII. Find

Vowels

—thrown back—exchanged
Yid. § 15.
§ 46.

transposed

—dropped and added.
;

the Suffixes and Prefixes, Sufformatives and Prcfor

matives.

Yid. § 16

§

36

;

XVIII.

Parse.

In respect to Verhs

ascertain whether they are

Simple or Compound
lar or Irregular

— Passive or Person— Gender—Mood— Tense— Conjugate and InJUct
Active,

—Their Conjugation—
Mood, Tense,
19., etc.;
etc.,

—ReguNeuter— Number—
Voice

them

to the Case,

where they are

fonnd— Rule.
Nouns

Yid. §

§ 59., etc.
Adjective

— or Substantive— Derivation and Formation — Declension— Person— Number— Gender— State— Case Yid §43;
or Prefix
.

— Signification — Suffix
44;

.

§10;

§

§

n;§

45; §73; §74; §46; §47;

§48; §50;
Pronouns

§77.,

etc.

— What kind — Person — Number — Gen der —
Yid. § 16
;

Case— Suffix—Rule.
Participles

§ 17

;

§ 54., etc.

—Derivation—Active or
or Derivative

Passive

— Conjugation
qualify.

—Rule.
Adverbs
§ 51

—Primitive
;

—What they

Yid.

§ 82.

Numerals

—Cardinal
Suffixes

or

Ordinal

—Gender—Decline—To
§ § 84.

what they belong.
Prepositions

—What they govern. Yid 52; — or Prefix—What Conjunctions—What kind —
Suffix
;

they

connect.
Interjections

Yid. § 53.

1,

2

§ 85.

—Prhnitive or

Derivative.

Yid. § 53. 3; § 86.

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR

EXERCISE FIRST.
YiD. Gram. §
1.

Rem.

3, 4.

ir

1.

Find
1.

the

Gutturals on the first j^age of the Chrestomathy.
all

Select

those letters

which are ever used

as

Gutturals; thus:

loioi11oilloicnlloilloi]loioilcFiloi llcTiGi] loilloiGiliaillj^loicnoilGij^
loi]oi>jOi|ll oiloiioiloi]oiloioiloil

lloiioilloioiloilloillililioiliH
01
1

01

1

I )

1 01*

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

The above The

are

all

guttural letters, but not

all

used as such

in the text from which they are taken.
V)

guttural

|

resembles the Spiritus lenis of the Greeks,

258

EXERCISES IN SYRUC GRAMMAR.

being a scarxjely audible breathing from the lungs.

1 has always
like
iJ^

a feeble sound.
the Hebrews.

The Galileans pronounced i and oa

of

An Arabian would pronounce 1 as
It is

a sort of vowel

sound Uke

a.

a kind of soft breathing (comp. Gesenius'
§ 6).

Hebrew Grammar, by Conant,
as
7.

The Greeks

express *j^

well

as

^y sometimes
*** is

by Spiritus asper, and sometimes by
like

Usually

sounded

hh with a

rolling of the palate.

01 before a vowel

is

our h (Spiritus asper); but when uttered after
little

a vowel,
softer,

it

has nearly the sound of h in Korah, perhaps a
!

as in ah

oh !
;

It is difficult
still it is

to

ascertain exactly the

sounds of these letters
fix

important that the learner should

upon a
2.

definite pronunciation of each.

Find those

letters

which are here used as gutturals.
o\*

oi2^j^oioiGicriGiGioioioicnoioi

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Verse

3.

word

3., 01 is

a guttural, as

it

would
its

in

Hebrew
(Some

take a composite sheva, and

it

has no vowel of

own.

would perhaps prefer
consider
in
1 at

to call 01 a regular

movable consonant, and

the end of the word as otiant, and

O

as quiescing


h)
c)

)•

Verse Verse

3.

word
word

4.,

l

is

a guttural for the same reasons.

3.

6., ** is

a guttural for the same reasons. a guttural being movable.
It

d)

Verse 4. word

6., Ol is

be-

longs to the second syllable of the word, being preceded by a

vowel

15. 4. d).

The

other cases

may be

similarly explained.

Rem.
letters

It should be remarked that there are
first

on the

some other guttural page of the chrestomathy, which should be con-

EXERCISE FIRST

—GUTTURAL

LETTERS.

259

sidered merely as movable consonants.
are sounded,

It is true that all gutturals

and might be said to be movable consonants (compare Gesen. Heb. Gram., transl. by Conant, §23.2). Still we prefer make a difference between gutturals and regular movable conto sonants. The latter, though guttural letters on page first, are the
following
:

3.

Find those guttural
:

letters

which are regular

raovable consonants

loil1oioiloiGnilloioiloioi>^js*loi

GIaxGIj^IoiIoIOImOIIOIIGIOIOIIOI

EXPLANATIONS
a)
is

.

Verse

1.

word 2.,

(

is

a regular movable consonant, and

sounded nearly like the vowel
its

,

and does not quiesce
(

in

vowel.

In dialects kindred to the Hebrew,
far
its

melts in-

to the
J5^

vowel

more readily than the sound of the Hebrew
Still ] retains its

melts into

vowel.

power

as a

movable

consonant.
ter to take a

It is

very

common

in Syriac for a guttural letit

long vowel, where in Hebrew,

would have a
(vid.Ges-

composite She va.
enius'
b)
is

This seldom occurs in Hebrew
23. 2.
it

Heb. Gram, by Conant. §
1.

Kem.

2).

Y.

w.

5.,

01 is movable, as

does not quiesce and

not otiant.
c)

V.

1.

w.

8.,

O

(not a guttural)

is

movable, as the prefollovring

ceding letter
quiescent.
d) V.
its
1.

is

not sounded,

and the

one

is

w.lO., 1 should

be considered as movable though-

sound so melts into the vowel, we can scarcely perceive
it

that

has the power of a consonant.

260
e)

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
y.
1.

w.

11.,

1 is

not movable, as

it

quiesces, thougli

seldom, in


7

(§ 13. 1.

Eem).
is

/) Y.

1.

w. 11.,

01

movable
it,

for the

same reasons as

others above.
ble (comp.
g)

— preceding
5. 1. f;
2.,

belongs to the previous sylla-

t
w.

§ 15. 4. d).

Y.

3.

01 is

movable as

it is

a

suffix,

and

=

j:|

of

the

Hebrew
V.
9.
it

(§ 13. Rem.).
9.,

h)

w.

1

is

movable
1. 1. b).

as

it

has a vowel of its own,
it is

though

so flows

into the

sound of the vowel that

scarcely perceptible (T

Rem. It should be remarked that two of the guttural and Ol are sometimes used as quiescents and sometimes letters (§ 12. A. B. and Rem.; § 13; §14).

letters

|

as

otiant

EXERCISE SECOND.
1
Find
ening,
the

2.
letters

Aspirates or in what

Kushoi (•^-•00 a hard-

and Rukok (»^0>) a

softening are found.
1.

1.

Those which are ever aspirated (§

Rem.

3).

••••••

Find those, which are aspirated on page (§5. and Eem. by Tr.).
2.

first

AAAAAZAAAoAZr^

r^

^

L rt^y

^ ^o

EXERCISE

SECOND—ASPIRATES.

261

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Verse 1. word

1.,

A

is

aspirated as

it

closes the syllable

(§5. 2.

Rem.

c. a).

b) V.l. W.2., A is aspirated as it follows an ple syllable (§ 5. 2. Rem. c. c., and § 15. 4. d).
c)

open or sim-

V.l. W.4.,

A

is

aspirated, because a letter,

wbich would
2.

in

Hebrew, take a vocal Sheva, precedes
0?)

it (§ 5.

Rem.

c.b).

V.

2.

w.

4.,

^
r

is

aspirated as the preceding

word ends

with
e)

1 (§5. 2.

Rem.a).
is

V.3. W.2.,

aspirated as

it

follows an open syllable

(§ 5. 2.

Rem.

c. c).

/) V.3. W.4., Q is aspirated because it follows a letter which would in Hebrew take a vocal Sheva, (§5.2. Rem.
c. b).

which would

g) V.3. W.4., in

r is aspirated as it is preceded by a letter Ilebrew take a composite Sheva and would

of course be vocal
(§ 5. 2.

(§5. 2.

Rem.

c. b).

h) V.3. W.5., 2) is aspirated as it follows

an open syllable

Rem.

c. c).

i) V.4. W.7., J is aspirated in 1 (§5. 2. Rem. a).

as

the preceding
it

word ends

k) V.4. W.7.,

^

is

aspirated as aspirated as

closes a syllable (§5. 2.
closes a syllable (§ 5. 2.
it

Rem.
I)

c. a).

V.7. W.4.,
c. a).

y is

it

Rem.

m
ble

)

V.lO. w.

4.,

r is

aspirated as

follows an open sylla-

(§ 5. 2.

Rem.

c. c).

3.

Find those which are not aspirated

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Verse

1.

word

(§ 5. 2.

word 1., Rem. a).

a

is

not aspirated as

it

begins a

262
h)

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC

GRAMMAR
it is

V.4. W.I., f^ is not aspirated though (^5. 2. Kem.fl), because it begins a verse.
c)
ter,

preceded by

|

Y.6 W.3., A is not aspirated as it is preceded by a letwhich, in Hebrew, would not take a vocal Sheva, and which has no vowel (§ 5.2. Note by Tr.).
d)
abet,

For the pronunciation of these and § 1. Eem. 8, 4.

aspirates see the Alph-

Rem.
£)
»•

—£D when aspirated
;

is

sounded
like

like v,

and when not

aspira-

ted like b

f like th in that,
is

when
in

aspirated, but otherwise like

d

;
;

when L when
is

aspirated

sounded
tk

aspirated
like

like

or /, and otherwise like p thin, in other situations like t
it

pk

sounded

g hard whether
is

be

aspirated

or

not *

;

O when
palate
;

aspirated
in

sounded

like

hh

other situations like

k.

or k with a rolling of the In general the aspirates are

pronounced like the corresponding letters in Hebrew (vid. references above and Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar by Conant, § 6. 2. 3. and

Note by

Tr.).

EXEKOISE THIED.
1
(

3.

§ 2

;

§ 3

;

§

4 and Rem),

Find the

diacritical points for

which the vowels

are designed to compensate, formerly used instead of

vowels and for other purposes
VA^ ooio
looi 12]
Ta!^

:

001 li\^ ^^IL looi 'Zooi looii looi ooio 001 looi VZlj looi J\£i looi*

J\^

* The aspiration of
palate.

.t

^

would be indicated by the

rolling of the

EXERCISE THIRD

—DIACRITICAL

POINTS.

263

EXPLANATIONS.
Rem.
1.

Diacritical points
4.

sometimes mark particular lenses and

persons of verbs (§

Rem.).

Rem.

2.

—The vowel system of the Syrians began
Mohammed.
Then and even
seen in the more ancient writings.

in the time of

after the

completed by introrlucing characters from the ancient diacritical points were used to some extent by

be introduced system was Greek vowels, the
to

many

writers.

They

are

now

diacritical points here presented and others, appear Syriac writings, perhaps from the fact that they have been copied from more ancient editions, and in some cases doubtThe several less, directly from the oldest edition'^ of the Peshito. editions have been copied with so much care, that even after the

Rem.

3.

—The

in ancient

vowel system came into use, the diacritical points, which had been used long before, were copied as well as the more recent vowels. Thus appear sometimes two characters to represent one vowel sound. As later editions have appeared, however, those points have gradually been omitted and vowels substituted, though, some remnants of the old system are still left (§2; §3; §4).
a)

Verse

1.

word

4.,

"jAL*

The

diacritical point

under L,

according to the principles laid
Gates the

down byLudov.

deDieu,indi-

vowel


.

ancient diacritical (§4.Rem.).
6)

have then here the vowel and the point for which the vowel compensates

We

V.l. w.

5.,

0010.

The point under

01,

according to

Amira, indicates
c)

— (§4,Rem.).
wft|o*

V.8. w.

2.,

The point under

wk indicates, ac-

cording to Ludov. de Dieu, the vowel
001*

(f 4.

Rem.).

Diacritical points are often placed

under and over the radical letters of verbs, sometimes to distinguish particular persons and sometimes to indicate vowels In the imperative and infinitive it may (vid. T 3. Rem. 1). omitted or inserted underneath (vid. §4.Rem.; albe wholly
so compare Hoffmann's Syriac Gram. § 14).

264

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

EXEECISE FOUKTH. 1 4
Find
I.

the

Long and Short vowels
:

(§ 3.

Rem.

3).

Find the Long ones

*pppipix

9

9

9i.'np-t,09

9

P

^OP-UPPP** PPi>«sPPP'»>PPK
*4v

pp9pi>99

p

PPP

P

px-npp

p

EXPLANATIONS.
a) Verse 1. word 1., _!. _JL are both long lowed by *a quiescent (§ 3. Rem. 3. b).
h) Y.l. W.5.,
c)

as

thej are

fol-

_!

is

long because o quiesces in
is

it.

Y.

1.

w.

11.,

long as

it

has a qTiiescent (§13.

1.

Bern.).

The

other instances need no explanation.

2.
J
y
J

Find the Short vowels
V
7 r

:

'K777ryj97r

r

r

T

9

EXERCISE FIFTH

—SIMPLE SYLLABLES.
is

265

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Verse
V.
1.

1.

word
10.,

2.,

_L
is

short as

it is

a regular short

vowel.
b)

w.

^
is
7

short as Olaph

is

movable, not
it

quiescing.
c)

(§8.

V. 8. w. Kem.3).

1.,

-1

short as

it

has not O quiescing in

several other short vowels on page form dipthongs with O and •^* These quiescent letters do not fully coalesce with their respective vowels but melt into them to a greater extent than they would do in Hebrew, under similar cir-; cumstances. They can scarcely, therefore, be considered as movStill the vowels in able consonants, as they would be in Hebrew. these cases are heterogeneous and the quiescents do not sufficiently coalesce, in our estimation, to make the vowels long (vid. Gesen. Heb. Gram, by Conant, § 8. 4 ; Uhlemann § l.Rem.4).
v.l. w.2.,
first,
;

Rem.

—In

.. and

EXERCISE FIFTH.
1
Find
I.

5.
4).

(he

Simple and Mixed Syllables (§15. 3 and
:

Find the Simple Syllables

*^*b wif o'A looi k) TaIi ooio k> VaL

J^ o\ Iboi '{\
]j

loi

1o 1^ loi
!^

^f O^

lool OOl SD lAL OI
Or
*

J(o\ loOl
.

S\£i \

|0l

(^ |0G1

20 i^

I

|J£> IrA^ !l>
*

|0 aa ]-jl |0G1 j^o\m,

I

^A QJ
U
(0CF1

|)01 ^xl 1

p

P jaO QA jl*|>A«|l|aiaiAjCipnZ m!^
Ia 0010 QJ 1)01 aaO

QA

266

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

10

]

V^

\ t-£

looi 10 }V)\ 1J\

EXPLANATIONS.
Rem.—A simple syllable tjerminates in a vowel sound, and that vowel sometimes has a vowel letter quiescing in it. A mixed syllable terminates in one or more movable consonants. Every vowel stands in a simple syllable when the following consonant takes a
vowel.
X

a)

Yerse

1.

word

1.,

«-»;:Q is

a simple syllable as it ends in a
;

vowel sound, although it has a quiescent m. lias a vowel of its own and is of course sounded with the following syllable (vid. 1 5. 1. Rem., and § 15. 4. d).
simple for the same reason as last, the syllable ending with «^ and not with A (vid. §15. 4.d).
b)

Y.l. W.2.,

w*f

is

V.l. W.2., oA is a dipthong and should be considered, think, as a simple syllable because O coalesces in the we vowel to such an extent that the syllable ends in a vowel sound, though the coalescence is not so perfect as in a regular case of quiescence. Some may regard o as a movable consonant as it would be in Hebrew^, under similar circumstances, but we incline to the former opinion (vid. ^"4:. 2.
c)

Rem.

;

Gesen. Heb.Gram. by Conant, §

8.4).

d) Y.l. W.4., So is simple (vid. reference above).
e)

Y.l.w.

4.,

lA^

is

simple, 1 quiescing in
is

/) Y.l.
a vowel of
it

W.5.,

0010

simple, the last

O quiescing.

g) Y.l. w.lO., ] is simple as
its

^

which follows Olaph has

own.

h) Y.l. w.ll., (o is simple, Olaph quiescing in seldom quiesces in that vowel (vid §13.1 Rem.
1. 3. e).
i)


;

though compare
,

1

Y.

3. W.2.,

]^

is

simple, 1 quiescing in

— and

*^

being

otiant

EXERCISE FIFTH
Jc)

y.3. W.5., I is as is longs to the next syllable (§15. 4. d).
I)

—MIXED SYLLABLES. — a long vowel and simple

267
2) be-

V.4. W.5., «aA is a diptbong and ends in a vowel sound melts into the vowel to such an extent that it can hardly be considered as a movable consonant as it would be in Hebrew. choose then to place the syllable among
as

^

We

maple ones

word

8,

»-»J. in verse 4. word 7., and •-•01 in verse ; are similar instances (vid.T4.2.Eem. TTS.l.c).
;

7.

m) Y.4. W.6., QJ is simple as O quiesces in makhig it a long vowel, and 01 belongs to the next syllable (§l5.4.d).
syllable
2. d).

n) V.7. W.3., £qL is simple as 01 belongs to the penult and follows a long vowel (§15.4. d. compare 1.
;

^

2.

Find the Mixed Syllables

:

Zu.jL

ZoL Ium ZqI
ay
^\i
iSo 901

^
)|

oih»

'Zooi

^*
oiSos
^j...

oii

ouQ
m.j>

^001
>oi

01

a

'^o jj

901

^ ^Ai ^Sq o-Ry-n ,7txt NnN 01^
UIL^
Olr
r*-*
'

^
\y^

^

01 r £a-J9

>oi

«^> i.k))

^

EXPLANATIONS.
Verse 1. word 1., Llm. is mixed as sonant sound (vid. T[ 5.1. Rem.).
a)
it

ends with a con-

Y.l. w. 9., lc\ (vid. t 5. l.Rem.).
b)
c)

is

mixed, ending in a consonant sound

Y.3. W.2., oir is mixed as 01 =course movable (§ 13. Rem.).
d) Y.7. W.7.,

j:^

in

Hebrew and

is

of

^?
§3.

not quiesce in
(vid. §15.4,

it,

is short when o does is mixed as and the following consonant has no vowel

and

Rem.3).

268

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

EXEKCISE SIXTH.
t
Find
the

6.

Pure^ Impure^
(§ 45.

Mutable

and Immutable

vowels

A

;

§ 48. A).

1.

Find the Pure vowels

:

EXPLANATIONS.
An
Rem. a pure vowel, is one with which no consonant impure vowel is one with which a consonant coalesces.
a)
colesces.

Yerse 1. word 2., dipthong (vid. § 3. Rem. 4


7

7.

is
:

pure* as the syllable oL

is

a

also Palfrey's

Gram.

§ 2),

and O

does not fully quiesce in _!_, though it so far coalesces that Still it can hardly be considered as a movable consonant. as the vowel is a heterogeneous one and O does not fully coalesce in it, we scarcely feel authorized to place the vowel among the impure ones, though some may prefer to do so, Gesenius' Heb. Gram(vid. T" 4. 2. Rem. T5. 1. c. and 1 mar by Conant, § 8.4 compare §15. 4. d; also ^ 6.2. Rem., and T' 6.1. Rem.).
;

;

;

b)

Y.l. W.9.,

is

a movable consonant and
with a vocal sheva.
*
It is also

pure as O does not quiesce in it, being ^ preceding being pronounced

mutable

(

•[ 6. 4.

b

).

EXERCISE SIXTH
c)

—IMPURE

VOWELS.

269

is pure as Olapli does not quiesce in V.l. w. 10., Olaph is here a movable consonant according that vowel. to the analogy of the Hebrew (vid.§l. Eem.4.;also Gesenius' Heb. Grram. by Conant, §23.2).

d) V.3. W.5.,
ces).
e)

— —

(the first

one)

is

pure f as
_£.

f

being a

movable consonant does not quiesce in
Y.3. wif it
7.,

(vid. last referen-

ed as

pure as O is movable, cri being soundhad Sheva, and forming a part of the syllable.
is

f) V.3.
quiesce in

W.9.,
it,

pure and immutable as 01 does not being a guttural (comp. ^ I. 2. a).

is

g) Y.4. W.5.,

above).
h) V.7. W.3.,
^) y.7. W.9.,

pure as oi is ^ in Hebrew and is of course a movable consonant (vid. §13. Rem. JL is also mutable according to the general rule (^[6. 2. Rem.).
is

— — —
*

is

pure as

^k
is

is

a dipthong (vid. a

is

pure as 01

a guttural.

=

2.

Find the Impwre vowels
I I

:

X

<>

^

P

X

P

P

7

p

X

p

«<

9

9

X

X

X

I

9

P

X

»,

*k

p

9

«.

*k

«K

>

*

«^

P

P

«>.

p

«^

p

X

9

«k

9

«w

^

X

9

Tl

«v

9

P

t>

p

p

p

p

X

9

EXPLANATIONS.
Yerse 1. word 1., and are both impure vowels as they have «^ quiescing in them.
a)
f j»_
is

X


X

also

immutable

(

^

6.

4

).

270
h)

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
Y.l. W.3.,

6. 1. e).

it

c) Y.l. w.ll., is impure asOlaph quiesces it, though does not often quiesce in that vowel ( § 18. 1 and Eem.). The other cases are similarly explained.

— —

is

impure

as 1 quiesces in

it

(compare

T

m

Rem. As a general thing, those vowels, which are pure are mutable and those which are impure are immutable but there are as in Hebrew many exceptions (vid. 6. 1. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i).
;

^

3.

Find
:

tlie

Mutable vowels (compare

T" 6. 2

Rem.)

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Yerse

1.

word

10.,


*["

is

mutable
c
)

(also pure,

to the general rule (vid. ble (compare T" 6. 4. d).
b)

6. 1.

as

it is

according in a simple sylla-

Y.3. W.2.,

long.
c)

Y.4. W.2.,

— —

*

is

mutable as

it

has no quiescent and

is

is

mutable as

it

is

in a simple sylla-

ble.

4.

Find the IminutaMe vowels

:

"Rpppipxippp ^100 0900
0f>0-*>i^^07
^
'-*

r

P

^

*^

O

^

7? .»

O70700'^700^00
S

0^0^7

I

^

^

P077*.0XP»«>'»7

.

—DIPTHONGS. 271 P97r«k»«PP9 0099O'XOO9»
EXEKCISfi

SEVENTH

EXPL
Rem.

A.N

ATIONS.
Hebrew
;

—Those vowels
mixed

are immutable,as in

in

which

either

a vowel

letter quiesces; or

from which a vowel

letter

has fallen away;

short vowels in
forte;

syllables

which would inHebrew takeDaghesh

and vowels immutable by nature.
are both immutable as well as

Yerse 1. word 1., impure, having quiescents.
a)
b)

V.l. W.2., is in a simple syllable, is pure, and cannot properly be considered as immutable though O coalesces with it to some extent (vid. T4.2.Rem. ^5.1.c; •fB.l.a).
;


''

.

.

.

c)

y.l.w.4.,
is

over So

is

immutable by position as

IALs^
reality

derived from ^5iSD a

Ml

verb,

and the

1^ is in

doubled and the first would, if expressed, take Linea This is similar to Daghesh forte in Hebrew, and makes, as in that language, the preceding vowel impure and immutable (compare §48.B.Feminines).
occultans.
d) y.l. w.lO.,
1


7

is

short but in a simple syllable

(

^["5.

g)
e)

and consequently not immutable.

Y.l. w.lO., (the first one) is immutable by nature it is sometimes, however, like all the (48. A. Masculines) other vowels, mutable (vid.§ 15.1.b § 45.2.b) as in Hebrew
;

;

(vid. Stuarts'

Heb. Gram. §127).

/) Y.l. w.ll,
2. c).

is

immutable as

I

quiesces in

it

(

T

6.

g) Y.3. W.I., syllable.

is

immutable as

it is

in a short

mixed

272

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

EXEKCISE SEVENTH.
t
Find
the

7.
;

Dipihongs^ Quiescenis and Otiant Letters {%'^.BemA §13; §14).

I.

Find the Dipthongs (§3. Rem. 4
:

;

Palfrey's

Gram. § 2)

0_

0._

O...

0.^m

O..

ji.-»

jk.. a...

Oi_

EXPLANATIONS:
<z) Yerse 1. word 2., O is a dipthong as o is in tlie same syllable with _L without fully quiescing in it, though O so melts into the vowel that the syllable may be considered as ending in a vowel sound (vid. T"4.2.Eem.; ^"5. 1. c and

1;

Gesen.Heb.Gram. by Conant,
b) V-3. W.4.,

§8. 4).

o


^
.

7

is

a dipthong for the same reason as
.
.

last.
.

is a dipthong as a unites with Y.4. W.5., a does not fully quiesce in it (vid. references above).

c)

_

'

but

Rem. It will be observed that dipthongs in Syriac as well as in Hebrew, are quiescent letters with heterogeneous vowels but in Hebrew the quiescent letters are movable while the reverse is true in
;

Syriac.

2.

Find the

Quiescenis

:

innu-oaUoQiaiann]

a

:

EXERCISE SEVENTH

—OTIANTS.
1

273

]1

o

lal

U

o

1

al

Ul-

-

aniUn
it

EXPLANATIONS:
a) Yerse 1. word 1., wi is a quiescent as sound of the preceding vowel (§13.3).

unites with the

but does not b) V.l. W.2., O is a regular quiescent letter forms it dipthong and here fully quiesce, though a so melts into the vowel that the syllable may be considered as ending with a vowel sound (vid. TfT.l.a).
;

c)

Y.l. W.3., O

is

ant, 01 not being sounded.

not quiescent as it is a movable consonThe following ] however qui-

esces in the preceding vowel.
d) Y-1. W.5., O (the first one) is in Hebrew take a vocal Sheva in_!L
;

movable

as

the second

it would o quiesces

e)

Y.l. W.9.,

Q
I

does not

quiesce in

as

it is

movable

(vid.

16. l.b).
w.ll.,

f) Y.l.

quiesces in


*

though

it is

rather un-

usual (§13. l.Rem.).
g) Y.3. W.2., \ quiesces in

3.

Find the Otiant Letters

a)

Yerse
is

1.

word

2.,

^

is

otiant as

it is

a part of the suf2. b).

fix

and

not followed by 001 (vid. § 14.
•iA

h) Y.3, W.2.,

is

otiant because

it

follows a quiescent.

^74

EXERCISES IX SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

EXERCISE EIGHTH.
1
Sheva, where there
is

8.
((ijL..OlSD),

FindLinecB Marhetono (p^Oi;!iD), Mehagyono

and

no accumulation of consonants,

1.

Find instances of Marhetono and Mehagyono
i>

:

EXPLANATIONS:
a) Yerse 5. word 7., >? Here is an accumulation of consonants, and to indicate that they could not all be sounded conveniently, Marhetdno (or a horizontal line) would regularly be placed over j In this case the j would in Hebrew take
silent

Sheva.
(vid.§7).

\

must of course be pronounced with a vocal

Sheva
Rem.
first

1.

There seems to be no instance of Mehagyono on the

page. A.T.Hoffmann in his

SyriacGrammar gives (A^aa>
e

as

an
it

instance.
(vid. §
7).

The

js»

is

to he

sounded as though a short

followed

2. It appears that Marhetono indicates silent Sheva when an accumulation of vowelless consonants,but under no other circumstances, though silent Sheva, in reality, frequently occurs as

Rem.

there

is

in
is is

Hebrew. So Mehagyono represents vocal Sheva only a similar accumulation of vowelless consonants,though
no accumulation vocal Sheva often occurs.

when when

there there

2.

Find instances of Simple vocal Sheva

:

EXERCISE EIGHTH

—VOCAL

SHEVA.

275

EXPLANATIONS.
Yerse 1. word 1., Q would, in Ilebrew, take a vocal Sheva, and as it cannot well be pronounced without the aid This canof a vowel or half vowel we must use the Sheva. not be considered as an instance of Mehagydno, for there is no accumulation of consonants which are destitute of vowels According to Lud. de Dieu and Norberg, the (vid. § 7). Syrians did icse the Sheva and pronounced consonants aca)

cordingly, as in
b)

Hebrew

(vid. §5.1).

V.

1.

W.4.,

va like
Rem.
to

^

^

should be pronounced with a vocal She*
(vid. references above).

under a
find

—We

no characters to indicate Sheva and seldom any

Marhetono and Mehagyoiio, still we are to pronounce the consonants where those characters would regularly occur, as we should if they had actually appeared.
indicate
c)

y.3. W.5., 2)

is

pronounced with a Sheva.
2)

The

presyll-

ceding syllable being simple^
able.

belongs to the final
first

d) y.3. W.9., Oi

makes a part of the

syllable of the

as it constitutes a part of the penultimate syllable, being preceded

word and should not be pronounced with vocal Sheva. e) N.^. W.3., • is pronounced with a vocal Sheva
(§ 15.4).

by a long vowel
/) V.9.

W.9., Ji

should be pronounced with a vocal Sheva

(vid. last reference).

3. Find the silent Shevas, where there is no ac cumulation of consonants destitute of vowels
:

EXPLANATIONS.
a) Verse
1.

word

1.,

A would

regularly in

Hebrew take a

276
silent
2. a.

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

Sheva (vid. Conants' Gesen. neb.Gram. §10 b and Rem.).

;

also T8.

h) Y.l. W.2., o would in Hebrew take a silent Sbeva, being a movable consonant at the end of a syllable but in Syriac it so melts into its vowel, that the syllable may be considered as terminating in a vowel sound, and O does not take silent Sheva (vid. ^ 4. 2. Rem. comp. references
;

;

above).
c)

Y.3. W.I.,

^ takes

silent

Sheva as

it

closes a sylla-

ble.

d) Y.3. W.2., Ol is a movable consonant at the end of a syllable being equivalent to jtj in Hebrew and takes silent

Sheva.
01 is at the end of a mixed syllable with a vowel, and takes silent Sheva though a guttural (vid. short ^8.4.d; ^6.1.f comp. Gesen. Heb. Gram, by Conant, §22.
e)

Y.3. W.9.,

;

8).

a dipthong. It f) Y.4. W.5., A forms with the vowel would in Hebrew be pronounced as a movable consonant and take a silent Sheva but in Syriac it so melts into its vowel that it can hardly be considered as a movable con;


7

sonant and does not
18.3.b).

tiike

a silent Sheva (vid. ^4.

2.

Rem.;

g) Y.9.W.5., ^» takes a silent

Sheva

as

it is

preceded by a

short vowel and ends the antepenultimate syllable.

4.

Find instances of Composite SJieva
. .

:

OlAACnOIGIGIOIOlOIOIOIOIOIOIOI*

.
.

»

Yerse 3. word.3., Ol would in Hebrew take a composite Sheva and is pronounced as though it did here (vid. Gesen. Heb. Grammar by Conant, §22. 3 ^1.2.a).
a)
;

h) Yerse 3. w.6., a* takes composite sheva for similar reasons as in the case above.

EXERCISE NINTH
c)

—LINEA

OCCULTANS.

277

Sheva but silent Sheva simple as in Hebrew. The Gutturals take simple Sheva where other consonants would take silent Sheva (Gesen.Heb.Gram. by Conant,§22.3).
Y.8.W.9.,
01 does not take composite

d)YA.

W.6., 01 takes

composite Sheva (vid. a above).

EXERCISE NINTH.
1
9.

Find instances of Linea Occultans (§8)

:

0101G10101010101C710101«

EXPLANATIONS.
a) Verse 1. word 2., 01 is an instance of Linea occultans, indicating that the oi is not sounded (vid. §8; §12.1. A. and
B., also Rem.).

Y.l. W.3., is another instance of Linea occultans. horizontal line under 01 shows that the letter is not to be pronounced. In this case o begins the syllable. The othe cases are similarly explained.
h)

5

The

278

EXEECISES IN SYEIAC GRAMMAR.

EXERCISE TENTH.
1
10.

Find on wliat Syllables
Ajl*

tlie

Tone
ZcA

rests (§ 9)
'i^

:

^X

loOT

^

oaio So

^X

looi

'!ik

^X ]oai
f

001 So 01 ^1 looi

ZUa Zo^ ^ \0
(001
»

Olr
*

fOOl 1

f^A*
*

_•

ZOOI SOr 01> 01.J3 *

>j

ja

.001 QJ 1 0010 QJ Oft 901
^

a*

U 01.2 (001

J

9)

^^
• •

oiSos
1

^1

oi 1 o> >oi ^\JL

QJ «A1 -«SO Olr
;a.y.

(J

001 (001 QJ
lli

)01 X^^ Q-J *

^( |001
tm

o-j
«

;

)0i ^A.1 ])

12

(001

10

oi, (001

10 U

OLA

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Yerse
2).

1.

word
it

1.,

the tone because

Aim is the final syllable and takes ends with a movable consonant ( §9.1
tone, as
2.

and
b)
y

Y.l. W.2.,

^( takes the

O

in the final syllable
3.

oA
01

is

and
c)

not movable (vid. ^4. «ji are not sounded.
is

Rem.; ^8.

b

;

§9.1

and

2).

the penultimate syllable ilnd has the tone according to the general rule (§9.1).
V.l. W.4., So
d) Y.8. W.2.,
01,.

is

the final syllable and takes the tone

because 01

is

movable.

EXEKCISE ELEVENTH
e)

—MARKS

OF PUNCTUATION.

279

S)

Y.3. W.5., 1 belongs to the

is

the penultimate and takes

tlie tone.

last syllable (§15. 4. d).
it

/) Y.4. W.5., tOOi takes the tone because movable consonant.

ends with a

g) Y.5. W.3., Qm is inserted above as receiving the tone according to the general rule, though it is somewhat doubtful whether, in such cases the tone was on the penultimate or Euphony would seem to ultimate syllable (§9. 1. Rem.). favor the former opinion there is another instance of the
;

same kind in

v. 7.

w.3.

EXERCISE ELEVENTH.

Find the Marks of Punctuation (§10)


1.

1

11.

«V* EXPLANATION'S.
4.,

•«•*
:

a)

Yerse

word

is

a

mark of punctuation more gen-

erally used to denote the end of a period, but sometimes used in the middle to denote a slight pause similar perhaps to our comma. It is used so here (§l0.d).
b)
c)

Y.L

w.l5.,
••

denotes the full close of the period.
indicates the
is

Y.5. W.4.,

end of the protasis

(§10.a).

d) Y.5. W.7.,

of any
e)

mark

of punctuation. It

supposed to indicate the longest pause is sometimes written thus

(§10.c).

Y.6. W.5., / indicates the end of the apodosis(vid.§10.c).

280

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

EXEECISE TWELFTH.
t
12.

Find instances of Ribui

(§6)

:

EXPLANATIONS.
Yerse 3. word 4., " over the word is an instance of Ribui indicating that the preposition has a plural suffix (§
a)

e.l.Rem.; §16.C). J) y.4. W.2., here Ribui indicates that the noun over which it is placed is in the plural number though it is rendered as if it were in the singular. This word occurs only in the plural form (§44.Rem.6). The same is true in respect to V.4. W.4. c) Y.4.W.7., Ribui indicates simply the plural form of the noun as above.

EXERCISE THIRTEENTH.
t
Read the Syriac
Yerse
aithau
1..

13.

:

B^rishith

aithau

vo meletho v®hu

m^lHho

vo l^voth

aloho. valoho aithau

vo hu melHho.

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
/

281

/

/

/

V.
V.

2.,

bono aithau vo
/
••

v^risliith l^votli aloho.
/
/

' ••

f

f

8.,

kul bidheh hh^vo v®vel*odhau opli«lo hWho hh^voth

medhem dahhvo,
/ f /
f
ft

V.

4.,

beh
"

bbaye bb*vo.
••

v^bbaye
••

aitbaybun
••
••

nub^^ro
••

^

dbavnaynosbo.
V.
••

5.,

v®bu nub®ro v%besbuko manbar* v^bbesbuko lo
/
/

adbr^keb^
f

/

V.

6., bb^'vo

varnosbo dbesbtadbar

men

alobo

sb®m6b

yubbanon.
..
..

/

/

f

f

V.

7.,
/

bono

etbo
-

l^'sob^dbntbo db^nasbedb
.. ..

-

al
..

nub*ro.
.,

d*kulnosb n^baymen bidheb.
/
/
/ /

f

f

V.

8.

5

lo

bu b^vo nub^ro.
••
••

elo
~

db^nasbedb
••

al nub®ro.
•• ••


/

/

/

/

/

V. Q.jaitbau vo ger nub^ro dhasbroro-.db^manbarl^knlnosh
/

_

_
/

f

detbo poPmo.
f

iff
lo

V. 10.,b®ol®mo b®vo. v®ol®mo vidbeb b®vo. v®ol®mo

yadheb.

EXPLANATIONS.
X

"Verse 1. word 1., ing a syllable of itself.
d)

^\^
Tbe

is
®

tbe

first syllable, *25

not

mak-

brew, and
b)

is

answers to tbe Sbeva in Hepronounced like a very sbort e.
2., •^1

Y.

1.

w.

is

perbaps best pronounced

like ai,

In oA, o bavtbongb tbe a sound is scarcely perceivable. ing a beterogeneous vowel, does not fully quiesce, still it so melts into tbe vowel tbat it can bardly be considered as a

282

EXERCISES IX SYRIAC GRA^rMAR.
01
is

movable consonant (vid T4.2.Rem.). it takes Linea occultans (§8) and the
c)

not sounded as

wt is otiant (§ 14. 2).

V.l. W.3., loqi» CIl is not sounded on account of Linea occultans, and O becomes vocal by beginning a syllable.

Olaph so unites with, a, scarcely "perceivable in pronunciation, though being at the beginning of a syllable it is a It is at the same time a gutregular movable consonant. tural letter and must have the sound of the Spiritus lenis of the Greeks (vid. Tl.2.Rem.).
the a
d) Y.l. w.lO., I sound that
is

pronounced
is

it

e) V.l. w.ll., lo^ _L is pronounced broad and long as has a quiescent (§13.1. Rem.).

it

/) y.3.

W.I.,

^^

is

pronounced thus

:

Jcul^

u taking the
it

broad and short sound.
quiescent (vid. §3.
g) Y.3.W.2.,
otiant.

The _L
3).

is

short here as

has no

Rem.

Olpilo bidheh.

(

quiesces in JL, and

^

is

Ol

is

a

movable consonant though a guttural
v*vel®othau.
T[8.2).
r

letter.

K) Y.3.W.4.,

^

must be sounded with a
is as-

vocal Sheva (vid.
pirated.
•-»

being preceded by a vowel

as well as oi

{s otiant.

In ooij
ced with the sound.
y
)

7

^

dahhvo.
syllable.

CJl

is

movable and pronoun-

first

_L has a broad and short

Y.4. W.5., *jA thay.

is

short and broad as

it

has

no quiescent though

*^ so melts into the vowel that it hardly be considered as a movable consonant (vid. ^ 4. can 2. Rem.).

k) Y.6. W.I.,
is

vocal and

Ol looi hh®vo. quiesces in J1

is

pronounced

witli

Sheva.

EXEECISE FOUKTEENTH

—TRANSLATION.

283

EXEECISE FOUKTEENTH.
t 14
Translate
LiiefraUy
:

Verse
lie

1.

In

(the)

(or it
it

the)

Word

beginning was (the) Word and was with God and God was he

or

(the)

Word.

2.

This was in (the) beginning with God.
;

Every (thing) by (the) hand of him was without him also not anything was which was.
3.

and

4.

lives
5.

In him life (lit. lives) was, and life was were) (the) light of (the) sons of man.

(lit.

And
(lit.

he

(or

it)

light, into (the)

causing or permitting to and (the) darkness did not comprehend
eth
6.

darkness, shinshine §23.2.a.Z>),
it.

(There)

was a son of man, who was sent from
(lit.

God, whose name
7.

the

name

of him) (was) John.

This (man) came for a witness, who shall (should) bear witness concerning (the) light, that every man might believe through (the) hand of him.

but not he was) (the) light (came for a witness) who might bear witness concern8.

He was

not

(lit.

;

ing (the) light.

284
9.

EXERCISES IX SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

shineth world.
10.

For (that light) was (the) light of truth, which upon every man, who cometh into (the)

(lie)

and
not

(the)

was in (the) world (lit. in the world was) world was by his hand and (the) world did
him.

know

EXPLANATIONS:
In translating this word, no distinct character in Syriac for It was originally expressed by the the definite article. noun in the emphatic state but this is by no means uniThere are many cases, as in Uebrew. versal in laterSyriac. in which the definite and indefinite articles have no word nor character to represent them, and they must be supplied
a)

Yerse

1.

word

1.,

Ai.ii.>;n>

the is

supplied.

There

is

;

in translating (§45.1).
b) y.].

W.2 and3., looi ^OloAaf was.
001
to 6(?,in

The

substan-

connection with the other substantive
^OloAjil) forms the

verb La]

to 6e, (third person masculine imperfect tense, vjas (§38.1,2).

001 IS a pronoun of the masculine Y.l. W.5.. 001 gender. It is pleonastic •nd need not be rendered (§55). As the neuter gender in Syriac is included in the masculine
c)
•X
_

©

and feminine oqi might be considered either masculine and may mean he or it (§43).
d) y.3. W.3.,
1

as neuter or

001

is

rendered

z^a5,

and

is

in the imperfect

without
e)

.-»oioA.»1

(vid. §65.B.a).

Y.3. W.7.,
is

^001

is

rendered was^ same as
jooi) (v. 3. w.9).

last.

The

same

true

m respect to
first

/) Y.3.
together.

W.6., I'U*

The

and io^-ii (v.3. w.8) should be taken means any and the second something or

EXERCISE FIFTEENTH
thing.

— CHANGES

OF CONSONANTS. 285
Ifiing,

Taken together they should be rendered any
(-•k'A*

g) V.4. W.2.,

is

rendered

life.

The noun always

takes the plural form though it usually takes a singular m<^aning and has sometimes a :-^ingular and sometimes a pluHere it takes a verb singular and in v.4. w.4., a ral verb.

verb plural.
,

»

J'

.

a participle but it is used instead of the present tense of the verb (§64.2. A. andKem. also
h) V.5. W.4.,
is
;

9aulD

;

^
it

18.5).

V.6. W.3., >?A»(j means forms the imperfect tense.
i)

(lit.) is

sent;

but with foOl

EXEECISE FIFTEENTH.
1
Find
the

15.

Changes of Consonants

Dropped
1.
^

—Added—Exchanged

—Assimilated— Transposed—
(§12).

Find those whicli are changed by assimilor
:

tion

All of those letters which take Linea occultans, are in reality assimilated (vid. §12. and ^9).

^

2.
:

Find tkose which are changed by

t/ransposir

tion

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Terse

6.

word

3.,

ij'Aslj

is

in the

Ethpa. conjugation

286

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
for

and • and A are transposed, the appropriate place
ing before* (§12.2).

A be

Find dropped :
3.

those

Consonants

wbich have

been

EXPLANATIONS.
a) Yerse dropped.
1.

word

4.,

'{t^^

is

from

]]2i, const.

A^^*

] is

h) y.3. W.2., Oipi^alo* ] final is

dropped to give place

for

the suffix.
Y.3, W.7., Zooi» (§37 Table).
c)

1
7

is

dropped to form the feminine
,

a) Y.4. W.7., fai
e)

•7\-r

m^O

'•

im>»
(

7

m.

(

is

dropped before the second
dropped
after the

J.

Y.5. W.4., )OuSd»

is

preforma-

tive So»

/) Y.7.
fore 1^

\v.7.,

and
f

v.9.
7

w.
»

7.,

*«i\n>»

1

is

dropped be-

g) Y.7. W.8., ^-SQaOVJ. ]

is

dropped before

2jD»

4.

Find consonants which are added
^010 lA o lA
1 1

:

a

loll w»oio lA 01 o ^oio IZjoiloll ^oou iD lolSDollcnljlAloilkljjlj
1
1

^oio

1
1

^oio
? 1

o

•.*ou

o

1

Gl
Ol

1

? 1

J

1

1

wiOlO

Ijlj^olji^l-ilollD

1

O

Ol

EXPL AN ATIONS.
a)

Yerse

1.

word

I.,

A-ijl*'^»

s

is

added

as a prefix.

EXERCISE FIFTEENTH
h)

—CHANGES
1
is

OF CONSONANTS. 287
is

Y.l, w,2., •aOioA^V

prosthetic (§38.1). wiOio

a

suffix.
c)

y.l. W.4.,
1 is

lAl^* A

is

added from the construct
is

state

and
d)

added because the word
w.IO., IotlL.
state (^18.^).
1

in the emphatic state.
at the

YA.

is

added

end

to

form the

emphatic
e)

V.2. W.I., poi» Perhaps

f

should be considered as ad-

ded here because poi seems
of
tOl,

to

be a kind of emphatic state
|

though we have omitted

above as the word usual-

ly appears in the emphatic form.
/) Y.8.W.6 ,f-M»
is

I

added to form the feminine.
added
is

g)V.S, W.7., Zooi* Z
h)

is

to

form the feminine.
state

YA.

W.2.,

I

"^-

f

added to form the emphatic

(118.«;).

i)

YA.

W.5.,

inflection

and

*)

^oouA^I* ^oou at the beginning
I

is is

added in the course of prosthetic (§38).

k) Y.4.W.6., jjOiOJ*

is

added to form the emphatic state

(118.
I)

.y).

y.5.

tr.3.,

PQAA*a»

(

is

added

to

form the emphatic

state.

m) Y.5.

W.4.,

jouIjd* Sd

is

a preformative occurring in

the course of inflection.
n) Y.5. W.7., Oi-ajj|»
tion.
o)
I

is

added

in the

Aphel conjuga-

Y.6. W.3., >>A«lj»

A and
!>

]

are added in the course of

inflection (comp. T"l5.2.a).

p) Y.l.

W.4., >oi

m

J IS a preformative.

288

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
Y.7.W.8., ^-SOiOU^
4-»0TJ is

q)

added in the course of

in-

flection.
r)

Y.8. W.6., jCTUCQ-JK J

is

added in the course of inflecadded

tion.
s)

Y.9. W.9., ]V7

\%S>

1

is

to

form the emphatic

state.

5.

Find Consonants exchanged
first.

for each other

:

There are no cases on page
for
1

1

is

often

exchanged
exchange

before oi and vice versa.

Other

letters also

with each other (§12.4).

EXERCISE SIXTEENTH.
t
Find
the changes

16.
trans-

of vowels

jposed

—dropped and added

—thrown bach—exchanged—
(§ 15).
:

1.

Find those which are thrown back


a)
•^

— EXPLANATIONS:
2.,

Yersel. word

w»OioAji|^

JL

is

thrown back from

tol (§l5.2.A.b; §13,1.3).
h)

Y.l. W.7., ^OToAaj

— same as above.

n

exercish: sixrKKM'ir

changes of vowels.
is

289
to 0»
ili

c)

V.l. w.ll.,

(oi^o* _L
is

thrown back from
f

f

d) V.3. W.2., ai|^(;0« JL

thrown back from

to

on

account of the
e)

suffix.

V.5. W.4., jOUSd*
its

I

ped and

vowel -^
1).

falls

the characteristic of Aphel is dropback upon the preformative of the

participle k? (§23.

/) V.6.

W.3., yjL3\y*

JL

is

thrown back from
falls

(

to y*

g) V.IO. W.8., ol-ij-^»

^

back from

,

to *j (§36;

1

18.37), as the vowel JL of the original form ^r-a is and a suffix appended (Tl6.2. e, and4.Z ; •|[18.37).

dropped

2.

Find those

wliicli

are

exchanged
for

:


a)

for

— —
,

for

— —
,

7

EXPLANATIONS:
Yerse 3. word 2., oir»po is derived from f^* is dropped and JL added in the course of inflection and _f. is thrown back from 1 to s (^16.1.d) the word here being in
the suffix
state.
,

Some would
and

prefer to say that


7

is

chang-

ed into
b)

(iri6.4. c

5. d).

IS changed V.4. W.7., ]! im>> struct plural (§45.2.a ; •[[18.1).
7 ?

into—

in the con-

c)

Y.5. W.4., iouSD* In the second syllable,

*
is

changed

as the third radical of the verb into derived, is Resh (§23 1).
,


7

^

'

from which jOuLd
7 «
-R

is

•^

7
^

c?)

Y.7. W.8.,

^—SCaOU

is

derived from ^lo(*
,

— ischangis

ed into


7

,

and


7

.

in the last part, into
it


»>

m

.

passing from

Peal to Aphel.

But

is

better to say that

dropped

290

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

in one case, the other (•([ 16.4.h 5.r).
;

and

— added

and

— dropped and — added

in

Y.lO. W.8., OUlr-^ is derived from ^r-*j and has the appearance of being changed into _L on 'account of the suffix (§36.A.Rem.) but _L is dropped and JL thrown back upon •a (ll6.1.^ and 4.6; ^18.37).
e)
;

3.

Find those vowels, which are transposed

:

EXPLANATIONS.
>00tJ« with transposed in the emphatic state from the last to the part of the word {vid.^lS.y).

SoiQJ from

JOU or

O

is

first

The

other cases are

all

similarly explained.

4.

Find those vowels which are dropped
7 7

:
7

f7QTP7ypyi*f\i*7JP
T
P

7

T

X

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Verse
;

1.

word

2.,

w»oloA^| -has an additional syllable

wiOiO—

but the original vowel
it

is

not dropped as
;

%ia

quiesces in
h)
_L. is

making
IALSo

it

immutable (vid.§l5.8
derived from
|J!sO,

§48. A).

V.l

W.4.,

is

construct A^Lo*

dropped to form the construct
is

state

and _L of the con-

struct state

dropped in the emphatic

state because the ad-

EXERCISE SIXTEENTH

—CHANGES

OF VOWELS.

291

10 is added (vi(l.§15.3; compare ^16.5.6).
c)

V.8. W.2.,

Oi,-»Uo
*

is

derived from

r^*

is

dropped

and from the emphatic
the suffix (compare
d) Y.3. W.6.,

state,
c?).


^

is

dropped to give place to

-I

^ 1.6.5.
the

|r>* is

femimne form of

^a**

is

drop-

ped
e)

(vid.

116.5.7).

V.4. W.7., IaIaIjOj*

is

dropped from the plural

ab-

solute of jULiD in passing into the construct state (vid. §15.3,

and Rem.; Tl6.5.^; 118.1).
/)
noun.
V.5. w.T., oio>>(
is

Aphel of yjy with a

suffix pro-

In taking the

suffix,

— of the verb
;

is

dropped and


is

of the suffix added (vid. 1"l6.5.m

118.7).

g) V.7. W.8., lAojOlCQjk is in the feminine

emphatic

state,

no

from the noun ^OlCD, and, in the course of inflection dropped (vid.ti6.5.^; 118.17).
h) V.7. W.8.,


f>

^SiQaOU

is

a verb from
7

^^sDf,

and

is

in the
in the

Aphel conjugation.
first

In the course of
is

inflection,

part of the

word

dropped and

— in the
7

last part,

and

other vowels added (vid.116.5. r; 118.22).
i)

V.9. W.5., \S\My

is

compounded of ? and

p'fM*

The latter

is

falls away in a noun in the emphatic state from ;• taking an additional syllable (^15. 3) to form the emphatic


7

stxite (vid.

1

16. 5.

.s;

1
is

18.32).

k) V.9.W.9.,

JV^NnN

compounded of

-^

and |V)\\ em-

is dropped in forming the emphatic state from ^a^« phatic state (§15.3"^ as an additional syllable is received 16.5.^; 118.36).

d

*
I)

7

V.IO. W.8., 011,-ji

is

a verb with a

suffix,

derived from

292

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

is dropped and ^r—>« In taking the suffix, upon the first radical (§36 ^18. 87).
;

falls

back

5.

Find

tliose

vowels whicli are added

:

yppyrpp7i*7pr'»i7«kPF7»
P707•^p•^7•^P^P7PF•*I•»>Pf
9

10

y

Oi-np*

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Yerse

1.

word

2.,

%^GrioA^f^

is

added in the course

of inflection as a part of the sufibrmative of the verb.
V) V.l. W.4.,
.

IAaSd
*

is

in the emphatic state

from the con-

•7

struct state A^^Sd*
16.4.5
c)
;


7

is

dropped and

— added (compare ^
state,

11^.

d),

Y.l. w.lO.,

foC^

is

in the
it is

emphatic

but as

it al-

ways appears in
(at

perhaps better not to place the end of the word) among the vowels added.
this state
-R

» X

^

7

d) y.3. W.2., oir-ji(2

is

derived from ^-^^


7

is

dropped
state

and a new vowel,
(r-^l,

X

,

added.

Then from the emphatic
;

Jl

is

dropped to give place to the suffix with which added (vid. § 46. 1. a compare •[[ 16. 4. c 1" 18.
is
;


3.

m).
e)

Y.

w.

4.J

w>Oio, \Np o

is

from fS\n»


7

is

added

with the

suffix.
•>

^

f)

V.3. W.6.,

ped and

^

1rM

is

the feminine form for

t***


7

is

drop

added.

EXEKCISE SIXTEENTH
0) y.3. W.9., \ooij* pronunciation (vid-^flS.^).

—CHANGES

OF VOWELS.
j to

293

IS

assumed over

aid in the

h)

YA.

W.6.,

(ioiQJ
"

is

derived from )01J or J001J»

is

added in the emphatic
a.0

state (vid.T18.?/).
7

V

i)

V.4. W.7.,

fai

iinn
Jaj]

is

assumed

(vid.§ 15.4.6).

beginning of the word The remainder of the word is comat the


7

^

^

pounded of Aid and

The former

is

in the construct

plural, andjin passing from the absolute to the construct plural,

is

dopped and

— added

(vid. §15.3

and 4

;

^[16. 4. e;

^

18.1).
Tc)

Y.5. W.3.,

pqamJD*

This

is

from ^iQaaj though the
_!. is

emphatic
1)

state is the

more usual form*
This
is

added.

Y.5. W.4., jouSd*
,7

a participle active, Aphel,

from 5au*

The

first


7

,

is

assumed, forming a part of the

preformative (vid.^l8.5).

m)
from

V.5. W.7., 0l0>j I

is

a verb in the

Aphel conjugation

*^>j»


7

is

assumed in the preformative.
suflSx (vid.Tl6.4./; Il8.7).
is


»»

is

also

assumed with the
n) V.B. W.2.,

(ai;£)

in the emphatic state

and

is

ad-

ded (vid.ll8.9).
o)

y.6. W.3., >?A«1?

is

compounded of

j

and the verb

>>Asf, Ethpaal from ),a»


is

is

added as a part of the pre-

formative. in Ethpaal.

The first _L

is

assumed in the course of inflection

p) Y.7.

W.3.,

lAojOimL

in the feminine emphatic state

from JOICD* In the course of inflection and _£. is dropped (vid.^l6.4.^ «f 18.17).
;

— and — are added
relative >

q) Y.7. W.4., joiCDJj is

compounded of the

and

294
the verb

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAB.
joifiOJ,

Aphel of

joifio^

is

assumed in Apbel

in the course of iDflection (vid. §18.18).
r) V.7.W.8.,

^Sfi-iOU

is

a verb in the
inflection,
7

Aphel conjugation

from ^iD(«
of the

In the course of
is

in the first part
in the latter part
(T"l6.4.

word

of the word,
22).

— added, and — dropped and — added
dropped and
7
_

ft

is

A

;

I[l8.

i;*j
latter is a

is

compounded of

>

and
7

ih'fM*
9

The
If
ac-

noun

in

the emphatic state from \m or y^M*
_L. is

considered as derived from the former,

dropped on

count of the additional syllable (§15.3), and, in consequence,

•> having no vowels,

>

takes the

new vowel _L

(§15. 4. b),

J- is also added to form the emphatic state (vid. 118.32).
t)

T 16.4.

i]

y.9. W.9., Isb^jk

is

compounded of

^

and ^V^\s, em-

phatic state from V)\s» phatic state as a syllabic (vid.ll6.4.A; 118.36).


is

is

dropped in forming the em(§15.3),

added

and -L

is

assumed

EXERCISE SEVENTEENTH.
1
Find
1.
the
Suffioces

17. and Preformat

and
lives

Prefixes^ Sufformatives

(§16; §36; §46).
:

Find the Prefixes
• •

•••

••«

EXERCISE SEVENTEENTH

—SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES.

295

^

>

L O

O

£)

O

«

EXPLANATIONS.
a)

Yerse

1.

word

1.,

Q

is

a prefix preposition.

b) V.3. W.2.,

ID is
it.

a prefix preposition

with the vowej

thrown back upon

c) V.3. W.9., J is a relative pronoun prefixed to the verb, and, two vowelless consonants occurring together, JL is assumed to aid in pronunciation. The other instances need

>

no explanation

2.

Find the Suffixes
01.. «u010-. 01—
i

:

OL—

01-—

Ol—

01..

01—

»

EXPLANATIONS:
ft

a)

Yerse

3.

word

2.,

oi—

is

a suffix pronoun with

its

union vowel.
h)

Y.3. W.4.,

%jiOiO-., is

a suffix pronoun added to a prepoto Au] is

sition,

though the same form when attached

a suf-

formative.

Rem.

—We use

the terms sufformative and preformative to indiare suffixed or prefixed to
to

cate those letters which

words as neces-

sary appendages in order

form particular conjugations, tenses,
states,

moods, persons, numbers, gender*^ or
of inflection.

according to the course

Such

are mero formative letters and properly constito wiiich they are attached, while suffixes

tute a part of the

word

and

appendages which have more distinct significations of themselves, and do not necessarily compose a part of the word to
prefixes are

which they

are attached.

296
3.

EXERCISES

IN"

SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
:

Find

tlie

Preformatwes

So

I

A—1

-J

^ou

.J

So

«

EXPLANATIONS.
a) Verse 1. word 2., 1 is, strictly speaking,a preformative but the letter seems to constitute a part of the word through all of its changes and does not so properly come under this head as it does under "consonants added" (^15.4.6).
7

h)

Y.5. W.4.,

Sd
_7

is

a preformative added in the course of

inflection.

Y.5. W.7., jugation.
c)

I

is

a preformative added in the

Aphel con-

d) Y.Q, W.8.,

A
7

'\

are preformative letters

added in the

Ethpaal conjugation.
e)

Y.7. W.8.,

^OIJ

is

a preformative added in the

Aphel

future.

4.

Find the Sufformatwes

:

Mil
a)

^cno—

I

11

1

I

EXPLANATIONS:
Yerse
1.

word

2.,

%jqiO—

is

a sufformative as

it

forms,

according to the inflection, the third person singular masculine preterite, though it is in reality a noun suffix attached
to the original
h)
tic

noun A^
is

being.

Y.l. W.4., lA
state,

the sufformative ending of the emphais

or rather 1

the

ending of the emphatic

state

EXEECISE EIGHTEENTH

—PAESE.
emphatic

297
ia

and A
formed.
c)

of

the construct from which the

Y.3. W.6.,

]

is

the emphatic ending.
]

d) Y.3. W.7.,

Z takes tne place of

and

is

a formative

letter in constituting the
e) Y.4. W.5.,

feminine gender.
a sufformative found in the course

^OGU
is

is

of inflection.

/) V.4.

W.7.,

I

the ending of the emphatic state.

g) Y.6. W.2.,

I

is

an emphatic ending.

EXEECISE EIGHTEENTH.
1
18.

Fanrse
a) Yerse
1.

:

word

1.,

Ajus-i^s

is

compounded of the

pre-

position ;0 in

and the noun Ajuiu) beginning.

Q

is

a pre;

position governing L^^muy in the ablative case (§ 75.5

§52

;

§ 84).

LkM^j

is

a denominative

noun

(§41) from the root

MjA principal^

chief,

head (Hebrew
its

tU'S^'"!

Chaldee "^J^n

)

formed by adding to

root the formative letters

A^ (§39.2).
(§15.4;

The vowel
§13.3).

is

added and aids to form the syllable Aa
of the
first

Aa^9

is

declension as

its

vowels are imits in-

mutable (§48. A) though
flection (see its plural)

it is

somewhat

irregular in

—third person, singular number(§44).

298

EXERCISES IX SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

Aa.aji>, plural |Zujl*>»

The two

points over
to

j

in the plural

compose Ribui.
and
at the

The point belonging
is

y still

belongs to

j

same time
it is

part of Ribui (§6.2.Rem.)
is

—feminine

gender as

the same as in Hebrew and
It

transferred from

that language (§43.2. Rem. 2).

ends also in (A a feminine
(

termination in the emphatic

state,

being the regular em-

phatic termination (vid. last reference and § 45.3. Z^).

In the

absolute state the form

is

Aa.mj>,

emphatic lA.ui^9

45;

in the ablative case after the preposition
it (§75.0).

a

and governed by

b)

V.l. W.2., *ji01oAa| isanauxiliarj
Z^—^1
is

verbfrom A—-a]

to

be

(vid. Lexicon).

formed from the noun Aa
is

being, v»'ith

a prosthetic

(
it is

^OloAa]

irregular

—takes the noun
(•[ 17.4. a;

suffix
is

^OlO-., as

derived from a noun, though that suffix

here to be considered as a suffiormative

^

17.2.

Rem.)—neuter (§
digm)

66.2

;

§19)— singular number
1.

(§38.1.Para-

—third

person (§38.

Paradigm)

—masculine gender
;

(vid. last reference)

indicati vemood(§ 65. 1

compare

(§18.4)

preterite imperfect tense,as joOl immediately fbllows(§18.4.
it is

Rem.; §38.2;§68.A). Inflect to the person where
7

found.

»I

First person

common gender ^A^| (I am),
art),

second masculine
{thou
art),

y^Lk] {thou
masculine

second feminine
{he
is)

> i

^ hLk]

third

*aaioA.*'|

(vid.§38.1. Inflection).

It agrees

with
B.2).
c)

its

nominative lAi^, though of a different gender (80.

Y.l. W.3., looi

is

a

substantive verb signifying

to

be

(§38.1)— a ]]'verb(§38.
third person

1)—irregular (§32)—neuter
number.

19)—

—singular
effect of

When

used with another
§ 38. 1)

verb

it

has the

Yau

conversive in Hebre

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH

—PARSING.
as a lielping

299
verb

—masculine gender and used here merely
d) V.l. \v.4.,

to the preceding, in forming the imperfect tense(§38.2).

lA^So loord

is

a substantive noun, derived

from
§ 39.

viio
2. h.

to

speak^

forming in the absolute state
),

]^^

(vid.

third

example

construct state Ali^,

emphatic

]Aj^V)

first

declension (§45. feminines

A;

§48. B. feminines;

T

6. 4. c).

Decline. Singular (vid.above)

^!^,
]ooi
e)

construct A^lo, emphatic IASV) (§ 45. 8)

son singular

—feminine — emphatic
0010
is

state

—nominative case

—plural absolute, —third

perto

wiOioLf (§80.B.2).
y.l. W.5.,

compounded of the conjunction
is

and the pronoun ooi»
1)

O

a copulative conjunction (§53.
It

—a prefix
may
is

(§53. 1. Rem.).

connects the two nouns.
^',

001

be translated by he or

as

the neuter gender in
(^f 14. c; §

Syriac
43)

included in the masculine and feminine

—a personal pronoun separate (§16) — third person
It is pleonastic

sing-

ular.

and need not be rendered

in transla-

ting (§55).
supra.

For explanations of the next three words vid.

f) V.l.
(§52
;

W.9.,

2q^

wiih^

a preposition governing

(Oli^

§84).

g) Y.l. w.lO., (oi-Sv

God

—taken from the Hebrew
^j»^

nib^
a de-

and that probably derived from

God.

nibb^

is

nominative noun taking the Syriac emphatic termination.
I

is

the ending of a large

number of Syriac nouns, some-

times indicating the feminine and sometimes the emphatic
state (§43.2; §45.3).

Some nouns always appear

in the

em-

phatic or suffix state

45.1.Rem.).

louS. has the form of

300
the

EXERCISES

IN"

SYRIAC GRAMMAR.

emphatic

state.

It is a substantive
1.

noun and may be

declined like «^il.i (Decl.

§45. masculines

A)

singular-masculine-emphatic state

—ablative case and gov*
in the

—third person

erned by

iol (§75.5).
faC^o» O
]oi-!L
anc?,

h) y.l. w.ll.,

isa prefix conjunction conis

tinuing the sense.

God,

nominative to
vid. supra,

001 w»oioAa| (§80).
{)

For further explanations
is

Y.l. w. 14., 001

a pleonastic pronoun (vid. sw^ra).
is

y) y.l. w. 15.,
Ibqi

|ALSd word,
\\l8.b),
this,
it

in the nominative after

^qioLf (§80;
poi

k) y.2. W.I.,

same.

It has the

form of the em5

phatic state though
original
(§17)

should be considered as one of the
»
J

forms of the word.

The forms
as

are ^01 and poi

—a demonstrative pronoun—singular-masculine-noroi. 001 ^OjoZuf —used a noun. Decline
(§80)

it

(vid.§17).
I)

y.3. W.I.,

^^

allj

every each, (§58.B.2.^,6)
^

—a pronoun
1.

used as an adjective (§58. B. 2.5) the noun thing to which
it

belongs being implied

of nouns
plied

—third person-masculine-absolute
as a collective

—declined

according to decl.
state.

The im^o^
itself

noun would be

in the nominative to looi; or

might be considered

noun and

in the

nomi

001 (§80. A. 1 and Kem.).

m) y.3.
,

W.2.,

Olr^lo by

the

hand of him or hy

his

hand

O is a prefix preposition governing rA^^* The whole word is compounded of the preposition a hy, the noun ^a empha^

7

rk\

hand, and the suffix Ol— of
7
r-«

him or

his,

i^ (. is

a de"Ti

nvative noun (§39), from

and takes a

suffix

(Hebrew

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH

—PARSING.

801

Chaldee^^)-2nd.declension-singular. Absolute and constr. ,^,

emphatic
|a,
»|

I

j-i],

plural absolute^r^ I,

construct

^hI, emphatic
B)
abla-

—third singular masculine
and governed by
to the
iD

(§45. masculines
01
|

tive case

(§75.5).

is

a suffix pro-

noun attached

emphatic

state

and

falls

away

(§46.1.
(§54.

a)-third singular masculine (§16. Table)

—genitive case
It agrees

B.2) and governed

by
to

^i]! (§16
be is

;

§16. B; §74).

n) Y.3.W.3., |001

here rendered was^ the imperfect

being sometimes thus formed (§65).
(fl4.<^).
o) Y.3. W.4.,

with ^i^a

^Olo,sNoo
o and^

a7id without

htm

—compounded
i%\o
suffix
its

of the conjunction

O, the preposition
is

,s\n, and the suffix

pronoun %jOio^*
without
••7

a conjunction as above.
It

is

a preposition with a suffix.
••7

governs

•uOlO—* wiOlO— him,

is

a noun suffix - plural (§16.Table)

third singular masculine

—ablative

case

and governed by

jili
jp)

(§75.5).

y.3. W.5., VSi] also
2) I also.

not^ neither

—compounded of U
one, certain,

not^

and

2)( is

a conjunction(§58.2.a) and continues the
qualifies 2oqi*

sense.
q)

U
7
,

not is

an adverb and
lrA» one,

Y.3. W.6.,
rM, is a

any

one,

a certain
b)

cLi^y't

from

pronoun (§58.10.a and
like

or a numerical adjecindefinite

tive (§50.2).

Here it has the sense of an

pronoun

—singular feminine and belongs
^',-k) (§58.10.a).
r)

an adjective to the noun

V.3.W.7., Zooi

to

be

from looi^

] is

changed into Z to

form the feminine (§l9.Table).
(001 (vid. n. supra).

Imperfect and parsed like

302

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
Y.3. w.S., Vo,_1d any thing has a similar meaning to
^

5)

that of

1,-M

above

;

but has more the sense of a noun.
fr>* (§58.10.6).

It is
It is
it,

sometimes used in the same manner as

,-M

belongs to

as

OOT and
tance

^r-iD

is

one of minor impor-

(^

ll.c;

§ 10)-third singular feminine-absolute state(§80).

nominative case to Zooi
t)

V.3.
is

"W.9.,

fOpij which

was

y

which

a relative pronoun (§ 17.2)
to

—compounded of — the
is

jo 01

and

>

in

third singu-

lar

—nominative
.,

lopi»
in him,

v) Y.4. w. 1

01-^

compounded of

d

in

and 01-

him.
01is

S

is

a preposition, governing the ablative (§75.5);

a suffix

pronoun

iB.Table; § 52.Table)-third person

singular

—in

the ablative case and governed by

O

(§ 75.5.

compare §54.3.1).
v)

YA.

W.2.,

(

I

M

life,

is

a verbal noun(concrete) (§40 Ta-

ble A). It occurs always in the plural form(§44.Eem.6), generally with a singular signification (vid.Lexicon; §80.2)-deriv-

ed from |a-M

to

ZiVe-appears in the emphatic form,like other

plural forms mentioned(§44.Rem.6 and§45.Rem.)though this
is

its

usual form.

It

is

an anomalous noun having no

regular declension-third person plural masculine (§45.Rem.)-

nominative case to |ooi

(§80.2.6).

w) YA.
tion

W.4., t.4.A*0

and

life

—compounded of the conjuncis

O and, and
it

^i-m
is

life.

This

parsed like the same word

above, only
2. a).

in the

nominative to a plural verb (§80.

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH
x) Y.4. W.5., ^oOLiAu]

—PARSING.

303
third person

was, literally were

plural masculine,

and agrees with |jum in gender and numc.
*^

ber (§80.2.a; vid.also
1^

and

d.
.

supra).
is

>OlQJ U^ht,

a verbal noun from yCU
state

'

to

shine

— an

infinitive
(^

form in the emphatic
a).

like

U^QO
The So
one in

from

^^^

40.Table, II. A.

Infinitive absolute iou,

you

or joou, emphatic state

pOU,

(jOU, pGIQJ*

which appears in the which

infinitive is here

dropped (compare
is

§39.2.6.and §40), though the emphatic form
it

the

usually appears-declensionIV.(§45.masculines,D)-

third person singular-masculine-emphatic state, and in the

nominative case after ^oouA-i], but used as the construct before J of the
1)

next word

(§74.2.a),

V.4. W.7., t«l iio? of (he sons of men, a composite
..7
-0
..p

noun

(§41.1)-compounded
the
genitive
'f^ son,

of

>,

jAd and

]mS\*
"

j

of

in
7..

Si

sign of
is

case,

which follows

(§74.8).

aJjD sons,

from
••7

primitive
"y

— anomalous.
|;1D,

Singular absolute

;iD.

construct ;s. emphatic
.

plural absolute ^^il*^, construct

^''

^uAd, emphatic

t-a-lfD

(§49.masculines)-third person plural-

masculioe-construct state(in form and because the next noun
is

in the

genitive)-genitive case, though

in

the construct

state, as

sometimes occurs in Hebrew
§434.
b)^

(vid. Stuart's

Hebrew
is

Grammar,
-ftj"!,

governed by

> (§74).

]mJ man,

from

the

1

being dropped (§12. 3. a)-derived from theHebrew

word
1,

';25^5j^

man (Chaldee
it

"©ilDJSsVa

primitive noun-declension

but .«omewhat irregular

(vid.

Lexicon)
it

^third

person

singular as

has not Ribui, though

has the same form
state abso-

which appears in the plural-masculine emphatic

804
lute
'

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
j> p.

and construct
..7
"•

«aj1,

emphatic taj],

absolute

plural

^M —

or ]j«J|-genitive case and governed
jul£5 (§74).

by the preceding

noun

2) Y.5. W.I.,

opio {Yid.supra

e),

3) Y.5. W.2., (jOlQJ^A^jisinthe

nominative absolute, with

the participle ioiiisD{§76.1).

For farther explanation of the

word

vid.

y above.
Z7i(^/ie)c:?ar^ne55,is

4) Y.5. W.3., pOAwwrii

compounded of the

preposition 15
stantive

z/i,

and pomja darhiess.

poaM

is

a sub-

noun

(the

Hebrew form

is 'n'©n)

^ verbal noun)

declension fourth
lar

45. masculines

D)

—third

person singu-

masculine-emphatic state-ablative case and governed by

a

(§ 75.5).

5) V.5. W.4., JcniliDperTniV^m^

irregular^, active intransitive verb (§20.2) jou
-in the Aphel conjugation

"...
7
7

to

sAzne-a participle from the
^

to

shine (33)

19 Table; § 19.B.4; § 23.1)It
is

an active participle

(§19. B. 4; §23.1).

used here

for

the third person singular of the present tense(§64.2.A.Rem.)

and rendered the same

as

though

it

were a verb

(vid. Trans.

^14) third person singular. Conjugate
found.
II,

to the place

where

it is

Preter. Peal iou, preter. Ethpeel
§21.1), preterite

iouZf (§ l9.Table
II,
1

and

Pael jOU (§l9.Table
§22.

and

§22.1),

preterite Ethpaal >oijZT(§ 19. Table II,

and Eem.),

preterite

Aphel h6u\

(§19.

Table II; §23.1),

future

Aphel

ioilJ

(§19. Table II; §19.B.2,5; §23.1), imperative
1;

Aphel

joijf (§ 19. Table 11; § 19. B.

§ 23.1), infinitive
9;

Aphel

oioiii (§19.Table

II;

§19.B.3 and

§23.1)participle active

EXEKCf.S'':

EIGHTEENTH

—PARSING. —

805

Aphel iouSo (§19.Table II §19.B.4; §23.1). It is found in the Aphel conjugation-active participle masculine gen;
'

jOlQJ (§ 64.

1.

A), or

is

absolute with

it.

6) y.5. W.5.,

pOA-jaO and
«k

^he darkness.

O

is

a conjunc-

P

-x

-n

^

tion as

above, and pcia->*

is

in

the nominative case to
4.

Ol-Oj>1»

For farther explana.tions see
comprehended
'"

supra.
is

tive intransitive verb,

....

7) Y.b. W.7., 0I-0>>|

it^

an irregular
*

ac-

composed of yS} and

(TL» Irregular-

active voice-intransitive (§19.Tablel)-indicative (§65.1.B.b)

-Aphel
is

preterite.

The usual form is
final

yhyx*

When
is

the suffix
* CTL.^

appended, the

vowel of the verb

dropped (§15.3)

and the

last consona,nt

forms a syllable with the suffix

It is in the 3rd.person

masc; Peal »^J>, Ethpeel
j^Jjf,

*^>>^I,
its

Pael

^jj,

Ethpaal ^^JJM? Aphel

and agrees with

nom-

mative poJUA^* The suffix OU is a personal pronoun third masculine singular-accusative case (§54.B.l) and governed by ySi\*
19 OOl
vjas^ is a

Lomadh Olaph verb
Q

—Peal
(§42.

active voice-8d. singular-masculine-indicative mood-present
.0
7

tense (32.1) and agrees with |aj;j2 (vid. IflS.c).
9) y.6. W.2.,
1)

\Ml\d son ofman^

is

a composite

noun

compounded of ;s son and

%mj\

man

;^
(vid.

is

a primitive

noun

ma-sculines)

—anomalous— — third person
|aJ man^
is

singular, construct

to fOOl*
itive

— nominative case man— prima noun derived from
masculine
%mS\

paradigm §49.

—declension
1).

first-third person singular

masculine-em7

phatio state-in the genitive case and governed by

;Q

(§74;

118

806
10) Y.6

EXERCISES IN SYRIAC GRAMMAR.
"W.3.,

5jA»1j ivho was senilis compounded of
j is

>

whoj

and yjLa]
culine, a

loas sent,

a relative pronoun-third singular masto >>A*1 (§l7.

prefix,

and in the nominative case
is

2; %oQ).
sive

>>A»f

a verb in the Ethpaal conjugation

voice

—regular—third
>

singular masculine

—indicative
Eth-

—pas-

mood
its

preterit

imperfect tense (§60.4), and agrees with

nominative

Peal jjs, Ethpeel >>A»|,

Pael >>«,

paal J>A»|»

In Ethpaal and the other passive conjugations

»

is

transposed (vid.T"15.2.a).
W.4:.,

11) Y.Q.

^iOfrom,

of, is

a preposition

and governs the

ablative case (§75.5),
12) Y.6.W.5., fOliSiv God^ a

noun
state

singular masculine

—emphatic
It

—declension —ablative

first

—third

case,

and gov-

erned bj

^

(§75.5; ^18.^).

13) Y.6. W.6.,

GdOs
is

his

name, compounded of SQ» name

and

Cl—his.

iQ»

a

noun from ^Q^

—anomalous —third
in the emphatic
suffix state

singular masculine.

Absolute and constr. singular ^Q», emOlSo*
(vid.

phatic
lines).
state,

po*

suffix state

paradigm, § 49. mascu-

JL of the absolute state

falls

away

and from the emphatic
|

is

formed the

by

dropping

and adding 01

— (§46. La) —nommative

case to

looi uiOloZul ivas (implied).
(vid.^18. b and
c).

In reference to looi ^OloAal
a suffix pronoun, tiiird sing-

OU
;

his, is

ular masculine (§ 1 6.Table)-genitive case (§54.B. 2)

and gov-

erned by ln» (§16

§16.B

;

§74).

14) y.6. W.7., ^-jL>*Qji John, a

noun proper-anomalous-

third singular masculine, absolute state-nominative case after

loci «^01oAji|#

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH
15)

PARSING.

307

y.

7.

w.

1.,

poi same,

this

—a demonstrative pronoun,
Olaph
(]])

singular, masc. nominative case to IZ] (vid. ^18. h).

16) V.

7.

w.

2.,

1Z1

came

—Lomath

active

voice-Peal conjugation-pret. imperfect-3d pers. singular,
masc. indicative

mood and

agrees with poi (§27 Tab.; §32).

17) V.

7.

w.

3.,

iZojCJiroii/or a witness
is

—compounded of
*
p

^/or, and (ZojcncD witness. (lOjOiCD
the verb
joiflo ^o witness.

a noun derived from

The form

?CJlfiD

appears as a noun
jcnro, emj)h.

of the 2d declension.
\t>

Absolute and construct

p

IjolfiD (§45.

masculines B). The feminine absolute has the

In many nouns Z is inserted before the final ] in the feminine O with Z is also sometimes inserted (§45. 3 and Rem. 3) as in this word. It has the form here of the emph. feminine. That indeed seems to be the usual form in which the word appears 3d pers. singular, dative case and governed by i^ (§75. 1).
as the

same form

emphatic masc.

viz. IjCiro^

;

18) V.
ness

7.

w.

4.,

)01..m
of
>

li

ivho shall (should) hear wit-

—compounded
witness,

who, and >oi
to

m

i

shall (should)
(§23.
2.

bear
»ai.

or

cause

hear

witness

a)

m

.

1

is

a verb from JOICD to heget, to hear witness-Ai^h,
voice-regular
'OifloZl,

conjugation-active
sing.

(§26)-intransitive.

3d

Peal

>C71CD,

Ethpe.

Pa. ?aia>, Ethpa. 'OiooZj^

Aph.

pret. ?C7lCD|,

Aph.

fut. >OTCDJ-fut. tense,
7

masc. gender.
last sylla-

In the fut. Aph. 3d. masc. usually we find — in the
ble
;

but sometimes as here we have

.

(§23.2,

where are ex-

with— in the last syllable. Compare §19, Tables I and II). The future tense is here used in the sense of the subjunctive mood imperfect tense (§61. 3. A. b) and
amples,
agrees with
its

nominative

?

? is

a relative pronoun-3d

308
pers.

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH
singular,

—PARSING.
case

masculine-a prefix-nominative
t)
,

to

jdLmJ (If 18.
19) V. 7. w.

5., ^oJ^ to,

against, on account of, of-'pie^
.

position governing

poiQJ

20) V.

7.

w.

6.,

(jOIGJ Zi'^A^-verbal

sAzTie-declension fourth,

3d

pers. singular, masculine,

noun from iou to em-

phatic state, ablative case and governed by

^^

(1[18. y).

21) Y.
every,

7.

w.
e

7.,

**Aoj-compounded
is

and t^J man-y

...

of j that,

^

all,

a conjunction (§85. 3 & 4, c?)-prefix
all, is

connecting joi—mj and ^-ifi^ou -^ every, noun, but here used as an adjective (§58. B.
belongs to «-*!
is

2. b.
1.

a proa) and

For declension,

etc. vid.

^18.

*-*! rnan,

a noun from •*-*JJ declension first, but is somewhat irregular-3d pers. singular, masc. absolute state, nom. case to
^M
.

Nl iOTj.

For further explanations,
7.

vid.

^

18. 1.

22) V.

w.

8.,

^ SD aOU

migJit helieve-a. verb doubly

irregular, ]si

and
c).

^,

and

is

placed

among the

defective

verbs (§35. 2.

In the Aph. conjugation. Pe.

^1,

Aph. ^^Q-iOi, future Aph.^2»^GfU-activevoice-intransitive3d pers. singular masc.-future tense and used in the sense of the subjunctive mood, imperfect tense, and agrees with
its

nominative
7.

t-JU.
9.,

(comp. ^18. 18).

23) V. 24) V.

w.

01 ^]o through or hy the
18." 77i.,

hand of him.

For parsing,
8.

vid.

^

where the same expression occurs. an adverb and
is

w.

1.,

P

not, is

qualifies looi

25) V. 8. w.

2.,

001 he,

a personal pronoun separate-

3d

pers. singular masc.
e).

and nominative case to (ooi (comp.

1[18.

26) V.

8.

w.

3.,

looi was-Rn irregular verb agreeing
(vid. 1[18. n).

with

001 for

its

nominative

EXBRCISE EIGHTEENTH
27) V.
8.

—PARSING.

309

w.
(

4.,

fjOlOJ light-SL

noun and nominative

case after (ooi

vid.

^18.

y).

28) V.

8.

w.

5., \i] hut-2L

conjunction, a contraction of

|J

no^, and \\if', it continues the sense. Following this and preceding the next word, there is something implied;

supply IZojOim-!^ "IZl came for a witness, the same which is expressed in verse 7. For the remaining three
after
|j]

words of this verse, vid.1[18. 18, 19, 20.
29)'

V.

9.

w. 1 and

2.,

(oci *ji01oAa| was-a.

verb and

agrees with poiQ-J understood, pOlO-j poi ^/^a^ light, being implied. For parsing this verb fully, vid. ^18.h.& c.

30) V. the sense. 31) V.
after fooi

9.

w.

3., ja-«

^

/or,

is

a conjunction continuing

9.

w.

4.,

pOiQ-J
(vid.

light-Si

noun-nominative case

^oioL]
9.

^18.

y),
j of,

32) V.

w.

5.,

p;*j of ^ri^^A-compounded of

and

\i\» truth.

\S\M is a

coTivmcec^-declension
singular. Construct

noun derived from the verb >;» to he first (vid. §48. A. decl. 1. Kem.)absolute, J* or >J«, emphatic
p^Ji

and

forming the emphatic state, from \m* « falls away on account of the addition at the end (§15. 3), then —»> pre7

senting two vowelless consonants, ? takes the new vowel (§15. 4. 5)-3d pers. singular, masc.-genitive case after
_^
P

j

7

.P

-X

(§74. 2. a).

The

expression p^»? |>aiQ-J

is

an instance

in which the abstract
tive,

noun

and the phrase
9.

is

\y\M has the sense of an adjecproperly rendered the true light.

33) V.

w.

6.,

9GUl-So> which shineth, or having shone—
7

,7
7
7

compounded of ^OLJ^Ld
which,
Soujl-Sd
is

shineth, or

having shone, and
7

>

an Aph. participle from jou, absolute

310
with

EXERCISE EIGHTEENTH
> (1[18. 5). >

—PARSING.
nomina
;

which,

is

a relative pronoun,
(§76. 1

tive absolute with icTi-Ui)

^18.

3).

34) V.

9.

w.

7.,

«A^-^£^
every and

uioon every
^^J-

man, compoundis

ed of

^

upon,

-^

man.

^
is
I).

a preposition

governing the accusative or dative.
adjectively

-^
18.

a pronoun used »*!
is

in the accusative

and belongs to **-i (vid. and governed byi^
w.
\ll\

a noun

(1[18. 1, 9, 21).
j

35) V.
12] comes.

9.

8.,
is

Ih? who comes, composed of

who, and

a verb-Peal conjugation, present tense,

and agrees with
36) V.
of
Ik 9.

its
9.,

nominative
]V)

>

(1[18. 16).

w.

NnN
the

into

the t^;or?(i-compounded
-^
is

into,

and

l ^n\s

world.
.

a preposition

governing the accusative.

(V^

Ns

is

a noun from V)Nn

second declension. Absolute and construct
|V^Ns >

iQ^^ emphatic

final vowel — falls away in the emphatic state as a syllable is added (§15. 3)-3d pers. singular, masc. accusative case and governed by ^ 37) V. 10. w. 8., (the seven preceding words are ex-

In Sn\\ the

plained above). 01-i^.i knew

Am-compounded

of 01- him,

^r* is a verb with a suffix pronoun attached to it-derived from the Hebrew 3? i^ to know, doubly

and ^r* knew,
anomalous.

-»-2)

and ^i^-Peal

preterit

-3d

pers. singular,

By taking masc. indicative mood and agrees with |i^^ form is changed. The common form of a suffix the usual
T

I

X

7

the Peal preterit
the
first
is

is

^r*

radical

when

- falls away and -- falls back upon the verb takes a suffix (vid. §36).
its

01-

a suffix pronoun with

union vowel (§16. Tab. a)

-3d pers. singular, masc.-accusative,
(§54. B.

and governed by ^f^^

1\

CHRESTOMATHY.

CHRESTOMATHY.
FIEST LESSONS IN TKANSLATINa.
John
M»aioA^t

i.

1

10.

lA!^

ooio

*

I'AlSo Ibai

^oio'AjV Aa^*£)
Ibi!^

i

lAlk) 001 looi *aoioAuf lai!L6
loi!§L

2cA

Iboi

ZoL ZuA^o
^OlOpl-^OO

looi
«

wkOio'A^V l^oi 2

^^

ZOOI

lrA»

|J£)|

(001

OlpilO

\0

3

|001>

laiiin? J901QJ ^ooLiA^I

(.ft^o

«looi Uaa OlO 4
5

012>)1
*

|J

PQ«mO
-X
-K

*•

90UlO POAMJD |)01QJ 0010
.J

P 7

p

p«»7

^ijaCLk

oiSa»
*

•:

loi^

^
-^

,77

•'^

«pp

7

•?

'?^f? l^*r^
(Z]
*

iooi 6

^IOaOU .ai\n>

l^oioj \y^ )Ounj> (Zo)Oim\

poi 7
.1-

Ijoicis

^
*•

jdimij

W

I'cnoj Iboi doi

P's

fZT)

^<V*^V

)aiisb)

lr^> lloioj ;?• looi •uoio^f 9

Q' lioLio

*

looi

oi^l-£ V^><^o

*

looi

1

V)\sn
'^

10
7

*

Ollpk

314 CHRESTOMATHY

—FIRST LESSONS
ii.

IN TRANSLATING.

Matthew

1

10.

001)

*•

1^^^ ^QZU ^yt »imV)
^r»01
*

*

|>00U> (^\Vr>^
«u01CU.l;j

V «CD>0>01

*

•.

^(•,£CLi1

«iV)S\
1*£)

lin^i

|L^

^OOUk)

%2llLiO

^C^^SdS

aIUa^

]Sdo AI13^u»Am

'^

]

^

I

^

o.n-n,\ oAl

^ooil

jQ.1^1
9 iblO

^H Ml ^1?
ollT

*jJo(aM oZ *^oujoA*j.ns]j
QlSns

1^^^

^

p ^J

^QJOl*

oili

ISoi .bouSo'r^ loOl ^iT

]i.»1,^nn

OW?

OOI V^iDOO

CHRESTOMATHY—FIRST LESSONS

IN TRANSLATING.

315

Mark

xiv.

32—42.

.o novA n

(2)]::iX

OlLQl '^JO*

p|

P^

r^

pjOl QQZ 33

o'rAiZZlo ]a>oi
]..<^^Vr>

oao fZoSQ^ ]k) A ^Ji.**^! V> cnL ^gi V>P

j, "jooi

U^O *\lV\

\>-1 \>.2L30

\uXo

^TD'^OO* 35
'^TilZ 36

.

A-J I

""^^^ V0;SiD \0 ^^^1

M

'r^^lO*

(Al« OUSD

^qLiZ
\illo*
7'»«

jjj

ol.o

O'^aiZZl*

©•riZASol |Ai« 1^** Aako*]
g

(]

38

01—ipl'p.^ |j] ]q^4^o M^
X

VmO> tjauCGll39
x

«»»n»l .jDoZ
1.

Ul j^oio* •^1
••7
••?

P'^77
I
7

7'T»P'n
«^

I7

-x

lAlJiD *aoio »a1.
7
*v

*soZ
7
.>

io

P

••

7

*

I

7

^.aAr^ |J0
«v

^001

^r>L£Li

^001

1 1 >

S>

^^LO ^aOV)>
-ft+k
-I.

7i> ^ooiJu '^lo
P

I..

797P-R
A^Zj (Zlo*
7

p .Qj]
9

7

,-dLirDi
f>

oiL ^o*^p ]ik5 ooci

41

I*

7

loio

OAi*

ZZlo 1Z>* 'A4^

cuxxjZZIo ^inV)

Qrik)>

*

«ji^

y)\aV>> 001

Jli\Ci

Luke
^*r»o poij^ >,fcOiiNon»
P

xxiii.

18

27.

17*7

*

^;Solo ^aio

oi^ ^) qio*
7

i8

X7•»•X'^

P7

777

7

316

CHRESTOMATHY— FIRST LESSONS IN TRANSLATING.

2o^ooiSqi >SiLD
21

^> ^oZ*
^QJOI^
*

Or^JaDl

A.*^ looi t^J l^^^o
|*rAJ>

0001 ^^iSO
^^ i

^>
^9
-Tt

v&nai\

(o •

p

,isq4^^i^

22

mi

A^Z>

001^

•^ou^qjoi ^^oij^aoi *^*rSo|o

X

10

'^''

•n*-nppr
^unnL ^>
*

23

01^ 0001 ^-kl^lso
JC712

*.

|k))|jar^ 0001

^cuoi^

«^^9)0 .OOIAji) ^OOl^O fOOl
. •

^^O

«^0LiJQ£LOp>

24 ftrriV 25

-nrnV rr*0^' Oai^ ^Oai^ !••«* '»7 7'»»l7
«

-ftmA\l« |00lZ> r^c^i .00lA^|« lftm7* ,n£) 0* T>P
Ti

** .mnAx .^i* ^l .<rsn[,\.<7^^

17*
^>

«k'''

Q^U?
*

001 Ih^cd]
r

77
*.

A^^

looi
*>

*p-n
I

^) U^^o
n
\^

.mifnfciol ^^^4^?

'^7'^»•x»>
^<Asl
v^o«i\

'6

••

oil^

^^AnoSo fOO*

.oou

^oicAi qSq£do

lA^'pO
.-"p

P-X

""P?
f

^
y

27lV QCD OIjAs looi
p

Vlo*
Q

^sSn«\ o^mI 7'»> 91 T>P o>'^ ViQAji> oi>Ao ^-i^J? ]2U^]
1Z1> ]aj-k9ao
7

*7'»>*
,^i\il IJUO

or
]iai9

*

^Oiolkl ^12§^0

.IaOOI

t

r^^?

Luke
33

xxiii.

33

— 42.
9
9.

^Z ^oiQar^i
«*p*
1^
•»>

P7

9.7

ryp7-*>0
•.

''«5'

lA£i£5'rO
^

V*voASdj
^
7

|r>j
.

fADOy!^ oZ(
I

po*
'1.^
»

7

xf
p

^

•*

"7

*.

n

'^

»*

'^

y

*p

y

*

«.**

«

34

•^.

]]

.OOUi

^Q£i*

l^l

looi

'^l ^QA^
*

^J

001*

•OOulLl
35

CLiil))lo

«^G10AmJ CXyv^O
^

^r^^ H^ C^f*
(OOI

OlO 0001 ^ ^ VnVnn
. >

Ip^o ]SQ1

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^y *PCT (TDAO) 1/ri>^i% P-«X7?!>.. 7 » 7 7 P PP7 ^1o* Ijct lal^nfD ^j^ijktoy 1ZoM.Sn\ ^ctqIi IctIL -^p 17 pP7'»••^ » 77 7 PP7 77 -"P P-X <^Ai\r>V Ict!^ i^nj .IjCT IZoini) loAoj Uso j^nj
«AJ|

*.^GU.^ yix£QJ

1.^

.

^

P*

^P

P

.0*

-x

I

7

^
9..

PPPP

i7

pi7

.ppl
fi

^

^XLftAD)
7

**lAA^r^ «^CT
t

lAl^r^

^O
7 7

-h

•^..7

7

**U-**'i

l^-t-O ^SO

•770 0*0 ^ ^Ict jCT£Qk5jOCT '^Lol* ^o^vlWUI ^l

PPPP7
^IjCT

ItdZoS
i».
.^-li^l
^
*,

7P
21

X

iy

"^

7

-"'X

.x-nppp
x7-n_I7
•> ^-liiOl

^CIl

]»»i«^ ^QAji

^*rk)>

ctZo^i

^* .^QJI^ ]a*^ 1Z
•IjlUrO

^OUiD

CHRESTOMATHY— FIRST LESSONS

IN TRANSLATING.

325

Psalm
-'<^V :]nSV)\

xlv. 1

— 10.
l^iA^)
.

^^

*r^1o

.Iri^

in\

\lol*

i

]SD>1*

^\\\ loi!^ y^'r^ 1jOi14^

j^Zq2i£D

^

fcawi

3

lAlj^r^

•••

..imnV)!

«Uqcu)19 ]ii2q!do ]Asqo) IAIsd

• • •

>VnVv ^>Q,\s\ ]ai!L

oLjbfiD^Qr)^

:

]n\V)> .>nir>^o'\v^%

6

A^jLCDo lZon*>i Asom)*

:

^ZonSV)? I4^s t^i«g^ 14^^

7

Z;!:)*

:

^Oah^ »^ZqL

^o

'Uju9 Ucugi

^

^^L^sonS^

:

«xnj>l

«^tO $«^wo

^Z'^TD

,

isV)»* «^j^o'|> )2oi>>io

^»»

Psalm

li.

1—10.

*

y-^r^

]LMlciO

:LL^

yi^jo^k\n

y\* ^^niSnn

.qj')4

326

CHRESTOMATHY—FIRST LESSONS

IN TRANSLATING.

6^>

Aj]=^

t^^lol

^jljAi^ loi^M^o

Al^^I

]lQSn>

7jx>09^
:

:«^Ai9o] ^Asooja) lAo-moo

«Zu^. lA^onn
,

yoL] lyA^

^o

c'l^

.

ii

i\\>i

\d}1]o \ziO\Ci

As

10

:

^Q.^

Ir^ ]AloZ V»^090

Oc^^ «^^

«^'r^

l«^? Ull^*

Psalm

civ.

1

— 10.
«imnZ]o*

2*^]

]-^* o^ASd

:

"^Q^'rSo j^l lioiQj

.

,mn\

7

»^jlSql5 J

Co ^o

^-i^'A ^Z|r)

^*

:

tlio qSqjd ] jo^

^o

8AiidZj1)ZIo

lAina

oZujjo \ja^
j]>

on\m*

:^-i^oi>ASd

9:'liil]auQinajo .o'^nu
JO

..6oi^AS£iflD]k)aMZ* :.6oii^

:^.a^0liDljQL4 Al-UDO •U**J^

U^i^^

^>r«*

»

CHRESTOMATHY.
NOTES ON THE READING LESSONS-

After having analyzed
reading his
first

the

first

page of the Chrestomathy, and thus

given a specimen of the manner in which the learner should proceed in
lessons in Syriac,
it

will

only be necessary, in re-

spect to the remaining pages of the Chrestomathy, to explam the
derivation and formation of the most
occur.
difficult

words which there

Thus the student
it is

will

be thrown upon his own resources, and

be induced,

hoped, to assiduously study his grammar.

EXPLANATIONS.
Matthew
1) Verse
1.
ii.

1

10.

word

3.,

r^^l
is

is

a verb in the Ethpeel conjugation^

from r-^*
2) Y.
1.

w.t.,

fi^O>*^

compounded of iD a preposition and
from

«.klOCLa a

noun of the fourth
w. 10., oZf
is

decl. construct plural,

^Q^

3) V.

1.

a verb from }l] Pe, pret. 3d. masc. plural

(vid. Tfl8. 16).

4) Y.
6) Y.
6) Y.

2.
2.

w.

5.,

^V*^

is

a verb from \\j^
is

w. 10., f,tfnV) w.
5.,

a verb in the
in

infin. pret.,

from ryv^*

3.

^l2Z|
i>

is

a verb

Ethpeel conjugation, from ^0]
7

or ^1
y

7)

Y.

4.

w.

1.,

«A12

is

a verb in Pa. conjugation, from «A12*

328
8) Y.
4.

NirrES

ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.

w.

2.,

tOOl-^-from

^

and takes the noun

snffix-3d

masc. plural.
9) Y. 4. w.
3.,

*-»^J-constr. plural from

JDJ *
•^

7

7

10) Y. 11) Y.
ciple
(

4. 4.

w.

1.,

^U^-is
11.,

a part, from

^]**

w. 8 and

looi

mdicate the imperfect tense, the
vid. § 64. 2.
6.
6. 6.

S^tli)* These two words latter word being a passive parti-

B.a;

§ 65. B. a).
is

12) Y.

w.

6.,

*-iAj001

a verb in the second person from loOl
fut. Pe.,

13) Y.

w.

12.,

*£5QaJ-third, masc.

from

%naj*

14) Y.

w. 15.,

^010

1

\*p3 is

a verb

m the

fut.

with suf&x, from

15) Y. Lexicon).

1.

w.

8.,

M-iK^

is

compounded of pu"! and

2

(vid.

16) Y.

T.

w. w.

10., •-*V**Z1 is
6.,

a verb in Ethpe. pret. from lv**»

17) Y.

8.

Q-^l

is

a verb in the imperative from ^l| (vid.
7

§28. 1 and 2).
'^

7

-»>

18) Y.
19) Y.

8. 8.

w.

t.,

0*^nS, imperative from t*^ns»
is

w. 12., «-fcOUJOA**^»|j
suflBx,

composed of
7

^OU-meaning
|

him-Sd. masc.
in

>

M«^ a conjunction*-and JoAjjJ^ a verb
from %m

Aph. conjugation,2d.
20) Y.
8.

plural,
is

>T
masc. (vid. § 28.
2.

w. 13.,

o2

a verb 2d.

pi.

Rem.)-

imperative from \l\ to come.

21) Y.

8.

w.

14.,

^^0|CLm
suflBx

is

a verb from |Qa»

2d. masc.

plural, imperative,

with a

pronoun

(vid. § 3t. table of verbs

U

with suffixes

;

§ 37. 3).
5.,
7.,

22) Y. 10. w.
23) Y. 10. w.
7

CLftr^is a verb from frja*

lAl^)

is

an adjective noun, fem.

sing, construct,

from «^9

In

connection with the preceding word
(vid.
i)

PO,

it

forms a compound conjunction

meaning when.

85. 4. d. a).

N0TE3 ON THE CHEESTOMATHY.

329

Mark
24) y. 32. w.
4.,

xiv.

32—42.
composed of |l;DAk) and
}

]l*rOASDj

is

The

relative J with the preceding
3.

pronoun should be rendered that
is

which (vid. § 56.

a)-X^'ftit^

an Ethpe. pass,

participle,

from

25) y. 32. w.

8.,

QoZ-imperative from JDL^ (§

29.

2.

Rem).

26) y. 32. w.
21) y. 33. w.
tion

11.,
7.,

1^lLD-Pa.

act. participle
is

from ].\.

o;SQOASa^
infinitive

composed of the prefix preposi-

and the verb
t


8., 9.,

Ethpe.
is

28) y. 33. w.
the prep.

nosZASQ^O
verb in the

composed of the conjunction O,
e

^ and the
11.,
9.,

infinitive

from

*OQl

or

%Q1

29) y. 34. w.

OQiD- imperative from \QO*
0;jLlZ2]o-imperative, Ethpe. from

30) y. 34. w. 31) y. 35. w. 32) y. 35. w. 33) y. 37. w.

ioior;^*

(M>'^«V>-Aph. fem.

participle,

from «»»^»»

10.,
5.,

'fillZ-Pe. future, from ^-fcSSDj
is

'r^*
y^^^y and

a participle, plural from

that from the verb

«^^>
bviZASO-infinitive, Ethpe. from

34) y. 37. w.

15.,
2.,

)Q1
•.

or \L^

35) y. 38. w. 36) y. 38. w.

Q-^ • j^ra^z-imperative. Pa. from

|^f

4.,

^ollZ

(je)shallenter-Pe.

fut.

2nd. plural, from

^orV\l.
37) y. 38. w. 38) y. 40. w.
suffix
8.,
9.,

Vni'fcV)' willing-Sict part.
•X

f.

Pa. from
7

*Sq4*

••

7

7

_

<jP

*0G1i1
p..

fcS their eyes-f

rom

|l

»\ with a plural

pronoun.
I
7

39) y. 40. w.

10.,

tr^Q-k heavy-s^n adjective in the plural, from

40) y. 40. w. 41) y. 41. w.
or

13.,
8.,

-aIJ k7i£w-fvom ^^
o^QJ

Q*K-»J2.Z|Ore5^2/e-Ethpe. imperative from

330
42) y. 41. w.

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.
14.,

^Cl^Lm^ being bdrayed-Eih^^e.

participle

from

43) Y. 42. w. 44) Y.
42. w.

2.,

^iIj future of
^
7

>ill to go.

«

6.,

^Oi^M^ betraT/ing-A-ph.

participle

from

^o\»

«

Luke
45) Y. 18. w.
46) Y. 18. w.
1.,

xxiii.

18

27.

0\n

cried out-Sd.

masc. plural, from

(lO

6.,

wi01i\on»

take him fli6'fli/-2nd. masc. plural,

imperative, with suflBx pronoun (vid. § 36.

E

table of suffixes).

47) Y. 20. w. 48) Y.
21. w.

8.,
6.,'

VrAJ-future from \\M
t>

to rekase.

-x

«-*0ljL2)aoi
^
^

c/-wci/i!/

Am-imperative, with a suffix

from JZia]
49) Y. 22. w.
IP
,
.

19.,

^^ClQ-^y J \-I will chastise him-fut.

1st. sing.

Pe.

>) with a suffix pronoun.
21.,

50) Y. 22. w.
1st. singular,

^OlOiO.nH-/
pronoun, fi'om

7

willlet
7

him ^o-future, Pe.
7 •

with a
3.,

suffix
X

Q^s *
2irged-a part, from

51) Y. 23. w.
52) Y. 23. w.

^^OZ with
with

0001

JQ2L*
him7

10.,

^^OUJOaop

(that)
suffix

they shall crucify

pret. Pe. fut. 3d. masc. plural,

pronoun, from %S10\ (vid.

§ 36. Table).

53) Y. 24. w. 54) Y. 24. w.
sing, noun,

4., 5.,

loofZ
•X

.

should ie-future
t

of

looi
*

7*

-n

tOOlA^J* (accordingto)^Mr6^re-a
suffix

feminine,

with a plural
16.,

(§16. Table).
their

55) Y. 25. w.
plural from

>oan

>*^»

will~Si

noun with a

suffix

^^*0 •
2.,

56) Y. 26. w.
part, plural from

^iNqqSo

leading or causing

to lead

away-Ajph,

Nn*
4., 0,-ial /aic?

57) Y. 26. w.

Ao/^ o/-from

r*A

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.
58) V. 26. w.

331

13.,
8.,

^^^

might carry-futwre from

^^«
*

69) Y. 21. w.

\r^r^

bewailing-A-ph. part, from ,^9

Luke
60) y. 33. w.
61) Y. 34. w. 62) Y. 34. w.
5.,
t.,

xxiii.

33

42.

llpDASOmM-Ethpe. pass, participle, from VrO»
•X

7

dOQ^* /or^ire-imperative,

from tO*^»

16.,
1.,

OiisDj]! casl-Ai^h. 3d. plural from )1d'

63) Y. 35. w.
64) Y. 35. w.
prefix prep.

^\o staTiding-psLTtmipie
*
9

from

^QO*
^'Hal-with the
9

7
i^o

12.,

Ijh^jU
X 7

o^/^r^-plural from

Lomad.
13., «.A.x»l

65) Y. 35. w.
66) Y. 35. w.

5arc^- Aph. pret. from \x.***
5/^<2ZZ

14.,

1*0

17

mre-Aph.
7

future,

from ^-m*
«

6t) Y. 36. w. 68) Y. 37. w. 69) Y. 42. w.
7

1., ^^ I >

n V)

7nocking-i^3iYt

from

»

Q *^

8.,|1»( ^arg-imperat.
3.,

Aph. from

]-»-m

«.feJUp>Z|

rermmler ?w€-imperat. Ethpe. with

suf.

from

JiiJ

Luke
TO) Y. 45. w.
3.,

xxiii.

43

53.

^'r^A^wasrent-'Eih^e.

part,

from

l^*

^

i IS

transposed and changed into

^

(§ 12.

2.

Rem.).

11) Y. 46. w. 12) Y. 46. w.
preposition,

iV
3.,
1.,

\10 mce-with a prefix preposition.

«^^(£3 zWo
pronoun.

^^3/

ImTids-^om

r<*

with a prefix

and a

suffix

13) Y. 46. w.

8.,

^\SD co7ifiding-VQ.

117

>

act. participle

from ^QflD

14) Y. 48. w.

4., ,^ i

m, came together- Aj^K

pret. plural from;

332
75) Y. 48. w.
plural.

NOTES ox THE CHRESTOMATHY.
tOCTUrAj

16.,

their

breasts-from

(-Ai-*^

^th

suf.

76) Y. 49. w.

1.,

^^

i

V) I

O standing--p3iTt. Pe. plural from ^QQ
his acqiiaintance-^TOm.

77) Y. 49. w.
suffix.

6.,

%AG1Q10pi

(10 ^a with

78) Y. 51. w.
79) Y. 53. w.

7.,
1.,

\DSQ^^waUing-ip3iTtic[^le frora |QQD

OlD^^took down- Aph.
1
19

pret.

from

AmJ*
7

;ini ^w^

ow^-part. passive, Peal from ;£13
*

81) Y. 53. w.

13.,

^KlxOiLL'^ was laid-Eth^e. pret. from ^OSO

I

is

doubled

(vid. § 12. 2.

Rem

;

§ 31. 2).

Acts
82) Y. 23. w.
3.,

xvii.

22—32.

^^pAi

passing ft^z-Ethpe. part, from

•^p

83) Y. 23. w.

9.,

AwJD*] I fovMd-A.^\i.

pret. 1st. singular

from

84) Y. 23. w.
85) Y. 23. w.

14.,

CfuJLl wi

ii^

Vi^ with a

suffix.

29.,
2.,

;nmV)

dedare-Po.. part, from ',^£0

86) Y. 25. w.
87) Y. 26. w.
fut. 3d. plural

»Ak)AmSDi6'or5^z/)pi7i^-Ethpa. part, from

•aS^s.

8.,

.OOOU

shall he,

with t->^iQl shmdd dweH-Fe.

of the defective verb (001
2.,

88) Y. 27 w.

,^iS*^
1^ I

17
17
1

5<'€Z:i7io--participle
7

from

P^«

89) Y. 27. w.

4.,

*^nsV)

seeking,

feding-Fael pags. participle
r

7

from

«^n\
7

90) Y. 28. w.
^^
••

4.,

1

»i

our

life--p\.

absolute form with

suf.

—«.

7

from
91) Y. 28. w.
suffix
5.,

^JuXftlZAlD
*

our

^TimTi^-Ethpe. part, and

from

^01

or ^1

«

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHT.
^A-il-are-lst. person plural from A**!

333

92) V. 28. w,
93) Y. 28. w.

6.,

12.,

tO^^? who
^Sd01Q4
'-

with you-Qom^o^td. of

tOO

you,

\ with
•tiuffix

and

J who.
16.,

94) V. 28. w. pronoun.

our offspring-from >0Ci1Q4 with

95) Y. 29. w.
96) Y. 29. w. 9t) Y. 29. w.
.7

8.,
9.,

^ '^^-^
;QCnV>

our

debt,

from

«ni n

with a

suffix.

to

MmA;-infimtiye, Pe. from 'paCD

15.,

(a^^. •- -MJn^/eTi or ^rat'eTi-participle,
\i

Pe. from

98) Y. 29. w.
99) Y. 30. w.
or «joZ

16.,

VZqiSdoIo
J^oAj

by art, from

VZoiiDol*
Pe.

15.,

shall

repe^i^-future

from

*Oo2

100) Y. 31. w.
the prefix j

6.,

iO,Jj that shall judge-fuinre Pe. from •> with
I

% 7
fl?i<^

101) Y. 31. w.

14.,

t

il^fO
X

showed,

made knowti-X^h. from
*k

102) Y. 32.

w

8.,

i

n

7
I

V> V> woc^irz^-participle, Pa. from »r)OV)»

KoMANs
103) Y.
104) Y. 105) Y. 106) Y.

vi.

1

10.

1.

w.
w. w.
w.

4.,

(QQJ

^AaZZ remairir-'Pa,. future

from |C10
J tiA*

1.

8.,
t., 6.,

hLkLL shall be abwndant-Eth^pa,. future from
1i»J ^AaZZ fc-future Pe. from
7
7

2.
3.
7

\x^*
Pe.
1st.
pi.

tr^C^> who
^*
7
7
'^

were baptized-^ret

com. from r^Ql with the prefix >

lot) Y.
7

4.

w.

1.,

t^^oZ]

ttre

Jwriei-Ethpe. pret.

1st.

pi.

com,

from ;i^£)
108) Y.
4.

w. 14.,

wiCniaQfjf/Aw/z^^r-a noun in the suffix state,

334

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.

3d. masc. singular, from >

*0 1

with the prefix J
should

109) Y.
110) y.
111) y. 112) y.

4. 5.
5.

w. 20.,
w.
4.,

^OU

walk-MnTQ Pa. from y^Ol

^O oZf A^re Jee?i j7Zaw/e{f-Ethpe. pret. from JD ^^
r

w. 11., ]0C7U shall Je-futm-e Pe. from VoOl*
I

6.

w.

1.,

,

1

>Sr>

k7iowing--'p3LTtm-p\e,

with a

suffix

from

113) y. 114) y.

6.
6.

w.

5.,
Y.,

*2iDjl1

i^

crz^q^e^Z-Ethpe. pret. from «^101
/A«< «A<mi<^

w.

^i^AJ>
^SQaGU

k ff«5^rM/e6?-Ethpa. from
^^|
«

^^4^

with the prefix J
8.

115) y.

w.

6.,

hdieve-Ayih. future from

116) y. 8 w.
117) y.
9.

10., 13,,

iiU

5^^?/Z

fc-future Pe. from ll**.
being powerfuIr-Hihpsk.
participle

w.

^4^AjdD

from

«4-^ *
9.,

118) y. 10. w.

wi-M living--part. Aph. from

^.m«

CoLossiAXs

iii.

1

15.

119) y.
120) y.
perative,

1.

w.
w.

t.,

QIS

Wv-imperative of
let

llQ^
im«

2.

2.,

QI9Z]
*.
••

your

affections he j?/flca^-Ethpe.

from ^1>
7 7
>

»*

••

7

121) y.

3.

w.

4.,

tO^i

»>

2/owr /z/g-from

|i

n

with a

suffix

pron. and the prefix

O

122) y.

4.

w,

9.,

tO^. ZZ

(ye) shall oppear-future Ethpe.

from

123) y.
124) y.
plural from

5. 5.

w. w.
p

1.,

oAjlSdI mortify-Aph. imperative from AaIo*
<x

••

7

p 7

3.,
7

»0^iV)>01
^

p2^-r?w«w5er5-Suffix state, 2nd. masc.

V5j01

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.
125) V.
w. 11 and wiOl ^OlJ*

335

5.

12.,

These pronouns seem to
3. a).

include the substantive verb (comp. § 54.

126) Y.

Y.

w.

8.,

—A-Q2)OTA2iD
Om>>
1|

turning or having ^i*r?i«^-Ethpa.

127) V. 128) V.

8.

w.
w.
w.

3.,

put away-Aph. from t-MQJ or %mJ
ye shall

«

9.

2.,

^OOOlZ

^-future from looi*
deceitful-pairticiplQ

129) y.

9.

3.,

^^i\.«r^

^yi'>ig,

Pa.,

from

130) Y. from *»»,?>• 131) Y.
»*
••»
*.

9.

w.

7.,

*^01Q»».^Q< put

off,

cast

away-\mpersitiYe Pe.,

It takes a suffix.
9.

w. 12., i-fcCno^aoOl
*"

^w

deeds-svLf[. state,

plural from

(02)001

«

Zr rA»ASD> w^o
sive

7

.

•»

5ei?i^

re?z«z(;e</-Ethpa. part, pas-

from Lfj^ with the prefix
6.,

J

133) Y. 10. w.

au;^> wA^
|*^iO»tO
»>

created

him-from |jO with a

suf.

pronoun, with the prefix J

134) Y. 12. w.
with the prefix

7.,

a?i^

bdoved-iplural

from (*^>*^>'

O
7

7

y

135) Y. 13. w.
termination-2nd.

1.,

tOA^OOlO
X
7

arid

i/e-from
#

001 with the verbal
7

pi,
2.,
1.,

with the prefix

O

136) Y. 13. w. 137) Y. 15, w.

^.j; *^

>

m V) forbmring-Psi. part,
a,nd his peace, fr'om

from ;nro»
suf.

OlV>\»0
*

(lQ^» with

pronoun, and prefix

O

138) Y. 15. w.
139) Y. 15. w,

4.,

^QoZon\ your hearts,
•X

from

lo^ with suf. pron.

I

*

6.,

^oLk'rOl] ye are called-Eth. 2nd. plural from

140) Y. 15. w.

10.,

^a>Q—So
7

*

thankful-psLTt active

Aph. from

336

NOTES ON THE CHEESTOMATHT.

Revelations
141) Y.
w.

v.

1

10.

1.

1.,

A^VmO and I

saw-Aj^h.. pret.

1st.

sing,

from

'\\^ with prefix


opcTir-Fe.
infinitive

142) Y.

2.

w. 10., kj>jA£^kl^ to

from %jaA£)

with prefix !^

143) Y.
IV**

3.

w. It., 0L>1»»V)\

to look

on

i^-infin.

with sufi&x from

with the prefix
4.

^
A^OOI
it

144) Y.
dropped.
following,

w.

2.,

w-formed from

Ajif

and 001,

*)

being

The phrase, including the word preceding and the one means literally, it is weeping much.
4.

145) Y.

w.

Y.,

vMt^A»| was found-Eihpe. from
•»»

»>

146) Y. 5. w. 8., t^oZ literally thou shall weej>-2nd. masc-put for the imperative (vid. § 61. B. a).
147) Y.
6.

per.

fut.

(vid. § 64. 3.

w. 6., ^(O) B. Rem.).

to stand.

^]o

is

a participle from

^OO
JHQJ*
plural,

148) Y.
149) Y.

6.

w.

8.,

|mim

slain-^2iss. part. Peal. fem.

from
f.

6.

w. 21.,

^9>As|> who

were

sentSd. per.

,77

Ethpa. from

>>•
Revelations
xxii.

1

10.

160) Y.
a
suffix,

2.

w. 23., *^01Q2)'p4o and leaves of it-fvom ]£i*ri with

and

prefix

©
P
-X

151) Y. 152) Y.
plural,

3.

w. w.

4.,

3.

loou shall 6e-future of Vooi 7 14., ^ouJOmSOAJ shall serve Am-fut.
*
7

3d.

masa

*
suffix.

Pa. from »aS^» with a
5.

153) Y.

w. 16.,

,7 y JOUiD

causing to shine-A]ph. part. masc. from

JOU*

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.
154) V.
155) Y.
from ryV^

33t

6.

w.

15.,

OiO»»V>N

to

show-va&mtwQ, Pa. from •^Qaj*

8.

w. 13., r%ify>V^^ to worship, to pr(Z25e-infimtive, Peal

156) V.

11. w.

1.,

Wi^ shall be Jiltky-M.
tO\M

Ethpa. from

1L#

151) V. 14. w.
from ^^il • 158) Y. It. w.

15.,

they shall enter in-fut.

3d. masc. Peal

4., 3.,

(Z cw7i€-imperative of fZ|#

159) Y. 19. w.

y^JDJ

shall take

away-Pesil future from

>^^»

338

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.

POETRY.
We
in

present a few specimens of Syriac poetry, taken from the

Peshito Bible, published by the British and Foreign Bible Society,

1826.

It will be observed that the text does not appear in a

rhythmical form,
Peshito or
literal

nor are
version

there

any

divisions

into
close

verses.

The
first,

was made near the
in the

of the

or beginning of the second century, while the divisions into chapters

and verses were introduced

thirteenth century.

Points, in

addition to Ribui, will be noticed over and under particular letters.

These are intended to mark the occurrence of Kushoi and Rukok.

Psalm
1

xlv.

1

10.

Yerse

2.

word
«

9.,

poiNf^V)

therefore.

This

is

composed of the
Conjunctions as

.

conjunction ^^.^io and the suffix pronoun
well as other particles often take suffixes.

poi*

2) Y.

3.

w.

1.,

]iO>1

cast

(gird)-Aph. imperative, from \idy*
xvii. 27.

See a similar instance in Matt.

Psalm
3) Y.
2.

li.

1—10.
Aph. from

w.

1.,

lyv^l

7WM/^i}>/3/-imperative,

kv^

used

here adverbially in the sense of viry muth.

4) Y.

2.

w.

2.,

»

i 1

.1

I

• wash
(

??i€-imperative,

Aph. from imQ'

with a

suffix

pronoun.

NOTES ON THE CHRESTOMATHY.
5) V.
saffix
2.

339

w.

7.,

*ijJ^> ckainse ;w6-imperative, Pa. from

pj

with a

pronoun.
3.

6) Y.
time

w.

8.,

,^*^l\nn

in

all

turn,

always-irom

^D

all,

^}

and the

prefix preposition,

a

in.

7) Y. 4. W.8., %Oyy\LJ that thou mightest be just-Ethpa. 2nd. sing.
r

masc. future from ^}]* junction > precedes. 8) Y.
6.

The preformative

falls

away

as the con-

w.

7.,

«jkiAl90| thou makest rm
suffix
blot

to

know-'^nH. sing. pret.

Aph. from ^pi with a
9) Y. 9. w.
7.,
«

pronoun.

I

»»N

c2^Mmperative Pe. from Im^L*

Psalm
10) Y. 11) Y.
5.

civ.

1

10.

w.

1.,

^^Af

prepared, laid-EthpeAvom

ylO*
pronoun from

6.

w.

4.,

OlAloASO-participle with a

suffix

12) Y.
7.,

7.

w.

7.,

i^iOOlSASo hasfening-sm Ethpe.

participle,

from

13) Y.
plural,

9.

w.

6.,

OUOrftmo and
suffix

(that) they should not cover-M.

Pa. from ^£02 with a

pronoun, and the conjunction

O

precedmg.

SYRIAC

LEXICON.

•si\, "l^l, suf.

^jJd\ a father,
parents.

pi.

VoSs^ol
^ll

Jerusalem.

\Cl^^a\

I

LOIS I

to go, to

go away.

|0|

to perish,

Aph. to cause

to

]-m1 brother.
fjj\

perish, to destroy.

to

hold,
of.

to

seize,

to

lay

^\ol

to be sad, to be disturbed.
idol).

hold

\v.i10| Abnil (name of an

U*r^\ the

last,

the end.

^01 ^s]
IZ^.*! a
fJjl

Abraham.

^i > >l,

|1 i;»*l

another;

fem.

U» I m. a reward.
letter,

lA-a*^**l,

pi.

m.

^'r^l,

a writing.

an

ear.

O

(

or.
I

tj.4^ayv-»| an Egyptian.

- *p

Of

(mark of the vocative).

Aal42)ayv^|
Egyptians.
1,^1

Adverb,

like

the

A.k20| namely, that is (from 0| and AaD).
]2"aiVD0l
skill, ability.

hand-in Hebrew ^^

.

T

fpAf

who, which, fem. of

(l-»l»

li^ol^f.

a nation.

^1
Mesopotamia

so as, according to, as to,
•7

r^iDOl Ophir (a proper name).

(secundum) nearly, J
as, therewith.

^|
if

just

«a0190| Edessa

in

(a proper name).

Pi.^1 where?
where
;

J

|0

,

there,

Vm>0| a way.
|^-.^>0| the law book of Moses,
the Pentateuch.

P—

a]j

whither?

P-a]

^So whence ?

QDu\

where.

842

SYEIAC LEXICON.

^V.
^1, U^l
that.

how?

>

Uo^l

**^ vv to learn,

Aph. to cause to

learn, to teach.
I*^
»

^^iSil

pi.

they.

\\ a ship.
vv to constrain,
to compel,
i

^(

truly, certainly, yes.

to

urge any one,

Ns>

JLil who,

what-P-iji

op-

at what.

pressed.

«n»rn>|

Isaac (a proper name).

M ^-^
^^');£CLk| Israel (a proper name).
\\Ojk\
I

oppressed.

honor, a
7

mark
X

pol mother.
of esteem,
,

a solemn procession.

aV)(
X
7

Amida
*
|1

in

Mesopotamia

(a proper name).
I

A-^l
Mr^l

it is,

^Lk\

am,

et€.
7

17
*

^jkLol,

iV>l, surely, firmly.
7

serpent
at the

(^'p^»6va).

*>

»
fut.

7

rM^l
^^^1
]

same time-together.

^1 Aph. ^Sa»oi,
to believe.
Iff

^iOftOU

to eat, to consume.
,

17
>V)| Adv. constantly.
to speak.

A,>]l

So

nV just

as,

>

]

^.of

of
P

7

such a quality {qualis).
|i

;!k5| to say,
7

*

irn

0| a stranger, a guest

V^l
7
IS

a lamb.
»

(f^'vo^).

^A!^l
yet

(with > following) i£

Bl

but,

(aXXa),

if

not

Oif.

(=V 0)]j
I

«

7

IjI I, pi.

^Lm

we.
^^^^ (a

to lament.

Q—]1 m. ^^>
1

ill fv

(^ ^cc.)
proper

Voil^ God.
J 5

7

mctl^

01
gorily.
f.

()J|

Antinum

name).

fZooi!^

divinity, the

godhead.

7

-W

1

Ethpa. to sigh.

(,>>,im^ Vv an Alexandrian.
1

man, a certain
X
p

man, pL

•SuL

Olaph, the

first

letter

of

..

P..P

the alphal^et.

^^kJU| and (aJ|*

SYRIAC LEXICON.

343

7

IZqajI

humanity,

as

concrete,

^i>

I

a

lion.

mankind.

J3DQa9 I Arius.
i\
f.

A—jV

m.

*jiA

thou

pi.
;

,£00.,^ %£DCU9| Areopagite.
|jQ29| a
p p

^oAaVm.

ruler,

a chief man.

7

^tS(l

you.
wife.

(o^^l

a Syrian, a Gentile.

^ZAjI a woman, a
|Za£D| a heaUng.
IjjfcXbVa bound, pi

]^0

rr>>l
I
•^
•»>

an

errorist,

a heretic.

.miro?! heresy

{oCi^sdig).

tU^l

^^

f^)| earth, land, country.

a prison.
ijJQ^flOl styUte

w»xDs I
(according to

to find, Eth'pe. to
six

be found.

]2iOQ—u 2A»1 the
the creation.

days work,

Assem.)

17

"W

|Z|

to come, Aph.
7

to

lead,

to

.fy>,rr>^cQl sedition.

bring, to conduct.
7 7

^»o4^1
p
.X

^il

of cinnamon.
soldier.

>Z1, IjZI a place, a region.

I

7

*

lZQl4'r4^1 a

pi*

ISOxncol external
dress, (c^^jxa).

appearance,

«fD in, from, through, to.

[>i\|«o a possessor of a bath.
pASCLiJUCDl hypocrite
r 7

1

y^lo,
4^1
also,

ISso'Ui
y

a pulpit

(^^fAa).

|ja( neither.
face,

•X

-L^l'
over,

U-2)V

^^ -^T
to,

^Q.1

pO

hence.

ZcJlS to be ashamed, Ajph. to

<.k2)M

accordmg

make ashamed.
P
7

towards.

A

IZZoiQ shame,
|£)QO£CU^( a
7
'^

disgrace.
'^

bishop.

I

-x

-X

X

-x

«£)

1 to

be anxious, uneasy.

V^q\q*^, .uZq^QO a counselor.

(—So
MaiflLcijffour.
a
-X

OOP

*^

agreeableness,

amiableness.

Ioji-4'1 heterodox.

1)Q2 awkward,

uneducated.

BU
|lb
to

SYRUC LEXICON.
P

tX

17

deride,

to

«fr>Oi\ifn*^ Basilius (a pro•P« ^

]l'

a

(from 1Z;--m1 end)

17 |ZoV)amn

per name.

f.

joy, benignity.

finally.

V;4^
•P
T>

m. back.

^^4^

to cease, to destroy.

^QfiClQ to perfume.

^4^
y

to conceive.

|V)mn
Jio
to
p

odors.

U4^ pregnant.
y

to seek, with

^Ld to

entreat,

til

iO among, between, m. (Aaa2 evil.
'

demand.
t
»>

IP nQ,N%*^ enemy, an adversary.
1 AliD
,

m. an tvil person-pl. ^ai*^,

the seeking, the finding out.

>

^
y

to take away.

IlqmjlJD malice.
«,iQa>*^ Besoe (a monk-proper name).

'r^^

m. small-t>»2 feminine.

{LO'f^fjO a small matter (for the
Adj. small).
I

a between, by tuLO = t -1
>

;

Aj

^...2

^

—n

*^ to explore, to disco ver^

out

;

^JOU

Ethpa. with

JD

to contemplate.

AaID Mesopotamia.

|oo
^,
fO

a gnat, a midge.

Lm^,

|AaA
the

a house, V>-^09
dominion.
(a proper

l;r> sou.

lAi^^o ^aJL2 an ^ •

Aa^

Roman

inhabitant of the city.
to create.

^CUj^AjLq Bethlehem
name).

l^];^L^
name).
»P
P

Barabbas

(a proper

Ipo to weep.
iVS"^ mthout.
Q

7

|^;^;2 a Barbarian.
7

y

(iin

pi.

m.

sons,

pul

»r 1*^

yf^y^
name).
X

Bardesanes

(a proper

C6>7i5^.

lalalO men,
7

lit.

sons

of men. '^d

is

always used in the

lA^iio houses,
7

pi.

feminine.

sing, for son.

^\

a

to

fall

down, to bend the

lanD

to despise. Far6. P.

|ai2

knees, Ethpa. to receive a benediction, to bless one's-self.

despised.

SYRIAC LEXICON.

345

y>;£3 but,
r
T

jnet.

1^9 GL* m. blasphemy.
«0 •it)
9
.X -X

>ai;o

^ ^
Guria (proper name of

Ethjpa. to

become man.

U-JQ^i shame, disgrace.
]a)Ci.t

(i;0
mB^S

man.
the lightning, brightness.
pi.

a woman).
circumcision.

I2;a, Z;^^ a daughter,

Al£5»

iJoAo,

f

A^oAq a young woman,
^.O^Ao afterwards.
soon,
(literally),

^^M^t to laugh, to mock.

a maiden.

jAq

after,

t

A

for.

«•

to

uncover,

to

discover,

^>So

5A0

Ethjpe. to

be discovered, to be

shortly thereupon.

made known.
V^yi to rob, Eth^e. to be robbed.

•^*

Aa^J^..
fjLi,
(;,•

public, free.

an arrow, dart.
(1 i \yt .P P • vC^

Gahlee (a proper name).
,

\^^y\ to choose, to select.
^

0^ 7 («1^.«

^

p

7

|1 1

^.t
\^

a revelation.

a

side,

a part,

V^^sx
i.

.7
^P«

«2L^yi to engrave.
-X

|J-SDC0) the wrong side,

e.

an

^r
an
accomplishment,

|Zo;j^Q-t
perfection.
7

enemy.
(i*^.> the choice.

;5£Li to

fulfill,

to

finish.

fA\an.« a
7

formation, a creature.

^3^7
(»^\\ ^ ^^^, a person,
*
I

Ir^V mighty. ^
unknown.
V»J-y% to lend.

*P

X

^

r^-\\,
p

P-1 Pass. Part. IV*-^« hidden,

^SQCD-t Gethsemane (a proper
name).
•fl)-t Pfl^.

*mi.«,

(rcxi-i race,

*2)-\to blaspheme.
ofi'spring.

family (/svo^)^

«•-•

to

meet with any one, to
one.

*£QfiCl.t A'ph.

«<^i

I

to

lie

down.

happen to any
Quy
in the midst,

;i-« to scold, with
*p

^7
7

«2

Q%v^

within.

Pa^^t
» p

the north.

^
a lunb.

||Q^ a

troop, a multitude.

|io;-i a bone,

346

SYEIAC LEXICON.
«Ji9>

>
tive

m£iTk of the Genitive ; Relor

Pronoun ;
to offer,

while, that, there-

^^)
»P
7

Daison (the proper name

with, in order that.

of a river).
!;-»>

«M^>
;i>

Pa. the same.

a
7

cloister.

*P
^P«

9

i**^y an

ofifering.

m;^) a monk.
Os

P

7

to carry, to take, Ethpe. to be conducted, to conduct onesself.

|LQu;-»j monastic I 17 1

life.

injiAA> testament

{^la^^xvi),

VJ. ?

to

lie.

Pa.

^K^*

P>, tl^)
*
P

pure, clean.

^lo^ty
(OG1>

a falsehood.

Pj pj
7

17 Pa. «ji^> to purify.

to remember.

gold.

iOj, and liaOj the blood.

];^0>
P»0>

behavior.

jZqSdj a resemblance, an image,
a likeness.

David, sometimes written
(a proper name).
place.

>oau>
«k

lliO>

similar.

^0>, Iboj, VAooj,
p

]lib9 Constr.
5^Sd> to sleep.
X
7

St.

ukib> value.

«a09, «^> to crush.
^^w>*> to fear, to worship.

y k V>> sleeping

;

Matt.

viii.

24, pi.

"jA^j
Qa) an

fear, terror,

]y\»,

A^>
7

superstition.
evil spirit,

^1Sd> to weep.

the Devil.

7

;S;D>

Ethpa. to wonder

at, to

be
»

pQ^>

to be possessed of an evil
p

astonished,
^>

spirit.

*^-jj
who
• 7

a word accompanying the
§ 16,
«

to

judge,

Pass. Part.

^J

judged.
Possessive Pron.
is

i\i>
JaiJj the feast of the appearance

my, or my.

I

of Christ

«^lXi> thy, or

who

;

Epiphany.

is

thy.

*9
J

7

^>
KLft>
fi-ij

pLOi the beard.
but (5i).
a Judge.
,*

»7

»^>J

Apk. y»jy\ to comprehend.

judgment.
is

P^JJ an arm.

* This

formed from ^ and V^
Tr.

^yy
^

to encounter, to speak with

Vid.

reference above.

any one.

!

SYRIAC LEXICON.

347

.minioj *
kO

f

•»»

P-kJOl advantage, pleasure.
7

Vol lo
(>01 Pa. «a)01 to lead, to guide.

^ft£)01 to

return,

Aph.

to

lead

back.

*fiD90901
IjCn
7

Herod (a proper name.)

this, she,

Pr(m.{Chal.,

)i^X\)T

P901
•h»01,

here, hither. ^0

>OjOl members.
(>J01 honor, glory.
7

piOl now, at present.

0G1 m. «^01
f.

0*.
f.

I

and 001 m. «a01
;

O

fO the letter Vau, and.

that, the former

>

001 who;
7

9

«a0L»O
to be

since.

lb 01

{Verb Subst.) Fut.

^1

to redeem, Fut.
*
7

^P
]Ie)1

•»>

*
,

P^.

oou*
QiaOOI he,
1

she.

^1,
p y

]loi

time, pi.
I

Acts
*.. 7

001 them.
customs, deeds.

xvii. 26.
*.. 7
7

(aaooi

lAioi, ^2)29 or ^h\n] ^lyly
twice
;

^fuOl
'

there, then.
'

il*^!
-•»

A^Z
7

thrice
;

li |J..Qa01 a temple, a palace.

3>0,«£)

^ ^1
be
just,

before.

yZo-lV)
trine,

iOl faith,

belief,

docsay-

U»l
» P

to

grow dumb,

to put to

silence.

jjM^Oj* Lf^jL the
in like

17
7
-hS

ing faith.

(DLk>l just, upright.

ZqDOI
M-i^Ol
^.201,

T>

manner.

*..jO>1 to
it is

t-O)! it befits,, suitable, it is becoming.
agreement,
corres-

therefore.
|1

i^P.

10\

SO, in this

manner.

\^

I

0>1

pondence.

^01, ^Ol^ hence,
7

for, there.

lAo)l

alms.

^^01 Fa.
to walk.

to wander, to

go

forth,

Aal;^Oll Adv. carefully.
,

7

^^iNoi they,
^Ol,
I

>011 Ethpa. to beware.
these.

f.

P

P

-x

—!01 m.
*
f.

(AxaOl praise, show, splendor.
IjOl
this.

plur.

tOJOl

.m.^ir>^
name).

I

7

P

Zenobius

(a proper

m. ^xJOl

348

BYRIAC LEXICON.

^ov
^01, ^1 to move, to be
restless.
10

17
;>yt
><

lame.
f.

(101 a moving, a dance.
\£iO\ hyssop.
fO-il

rM m. (pM

one, a certam one,
7 7

honor, splendor.

PI
Ir-AA,

I

^

any one

\^m^
to

P

^^

Sunday.

of

%u,-.A»

rejoice

;

|Ao>

PVl

a weed.

LO pKi to rejoice
'*

very much.

^1

to arm.

Vr^
• -^

]d] to conquer, to vanquish.
(-i.01

\LOfXt rejoicmg.
P ••

...

a conqueror.

(jpM mutual, reciprocal.
OfAj, KOfjsj gladness.

];.i^l a song.

^

species, kind.
J.»J1

Mr^ joy.
^ifAA the breast, pi.
xxiii.
,

•U.J1,

m. fornication.

suflf.

Luke,

IlOaJI

fornication.
7

48.

>ai1, IjQII
small.

little,

jQllTi U> not

)p>j to surround, to flow around.

ijOl honor, majesty.
7 P

JQll to
|*^i01
7

cry, to call.
«ji9rAj

around.

cross.

LpM
p

to renew.
f>..

«£iol to crucify, to torture.

1Z,-M new,
Qa*, Pa;.
dicate.
«
P

9

X

r

7

II
7

7

pi.

l^r^
7

^Qlm

to show, to in^

IjV*^ free,

I^Vm^
quiet,

free.

7

<^»i ought.
|A^Q*^»i
dence.
.£>

(liQja love.
concealed
I
..

resi-

|irnV)Q>* perseverance, patience.
»P
P
-x

P;XSQ>4
I
7

injury.

X 7

|o,o...
I
7
7

beloved,

pi.

,^i*^i*^»i»

])«-M to see ,E^^pe. to be seen, to
appear.
|01

-*^'^>^ Habib (a proper name),
fc»

I^TILm
7

an associate, the other,

M

a

vision,

pi.

p^P*^ &n

any one.
p

apparition.
I
7
t

tan»i

to enclose.
feast,

;^pa June.
to bind.

L^ a

^

a

feast day.

«OVm

«

SYRIAC LEXICON.

349

*9

kOVk» bond, union.

y^^M
t*^N»>
pi.

to dream,

Ethpe.

to re-

\l\^ a

view.
sin.

cover.
for,

14^

to err, to
sin,

instead

of.

fOl^A* m.
foil^AA

crime,

|a!4^>

AV)»i Ethfe. to be angry.
(ASQjs» anger, wrath.
(A.||J-^»

and
sin.

^Ol^Ai*

VAo^**

a

sigh.
9
IS

f.

7^
pi.

1A4a* wheat,
HLA* to
tk.-A>
live,

]4>*

^i-M we,
1*^1 »i

us, pi. c.

from \l\*

Aph. t^-Ml
t

a heathen, an idolater.
-x

and

(>

M life.

(It always

«£Qlm, «fiDQj^ far be
I
7
7

it.

has the plural form but generally a singular signification.
7
••

^*m»t

vehement, strong.

I

^Q£Qj^ to envy, with *^*
{I^Lm to cover Ethpa. to conceal
one's-self.

7

<*^i
»P.-X

n
7

m. a debtor,

pi.

^^i^a n»
an animal,

1^0 *»>
I

living creature,

a monster.
7

Aa|^i^»>
7

diligently.

^^^u-M, |JjL>j a force,

an army.

^2Uj

tI^A. to blush, to

be ashamed.

^^.Lm

to strengthen.
»i

\^^
strong.

the back, the loins.

>^S>

and |Ji^\a
»
17

»>

jQaj to be white.
\j^ to see, to look out.

linen, fine linen. l^ji-Mli

^

17

X I

7

^'^••I7 ,^1 V)>0»> and (V)in»t»

i««i7

M

wise,

plural

^>j, ^r*^|
,77
>;>*
m.9

to curse, to detest.

Pa. to
?
Q>

liberate.

]AV)^M

wisdom.

\»\*^

magician, a sorcerer.

|]aj vinegar.

'(L\L
fly.

f.

from 12'^1

finally,

the

]h^0

Nm
N»t

a gnat, a
to

end, enough.

<^

mingle,
to

Ethpa. to
with

f*ja endurance,

suffering.

take part,

associate

^Q«»»,

pOAj^
Eph.

darkness,
iv.

pi

any one.

^Ioqaaj
healthy.

18.

V)iN>i, |V>i\»> sound,
»>

^Aja

to mark, to seal.
seal.

7

uLm

to wash.

jScAja a

850
ff*

SYRIAC LEXICON.

^IL^ to

carry.

*n\(f Etkpa. to be

dispersed.

12)4

a rumor, a report.
-^^j-

Isili foul, detestable.

•^4
W

good. Adv, very. P. m. sealed.

12LL4 unclean.

n ^ Fart.
seal.

IZq^U^

uncleanness.

Iln^

«^a^
be

P^. «*^i ^ to be ready, to

pL^ to wander, to wander around, to fall from to forget, with

^

willing.

something, to apostatize, Aph.
to mislead, to deceive, to cheat.

p^Q^

the pious, the good.
blessed.
family,

(jAaci4 bappy,

]LOh\(f

error, heresy.

^010-4, and
ofiFspring.

hDO^ kind,

NOS^

to taste, to taste well.

^L^

to

be laden, to bear, 4?^-

|Ai (^O^

vine, branch.

to cause to carry, to bring.

i^a4 readiness.
|fnV)Q^ a part
•SiCL^,

(j2:i2Li= *£iQ4)
run.

*Sl4 to over-

(tomus.)

Aph,

*S1^1 to overflow,

«^4

to

swim over any-

to

fill.

thing, to overflow.

•mSL^, Ethpe. JXLua-^Zl to
quiesce, to obey.

ac-

fjQ^

a mountain.
distress, misfortune.

^9Q4
I

y'ri^o chase away, to drive away.
7

90^
cealed,

y 7

I*

that which
secret.

is

con-

*2)'r4 to strike,

Ethpe.

^'ril]

jl^O^^O
(j

t^'p^ a

leaf.

0*^i
ft

(^,

|Zo*^i

goodness, excel-

lence, benevolence, grace.
7

*ffl^^ to order, (TaCrfeiv).
P
-TV

|mn(^ an

arrangement,

order,

|u|a fine, suitable, proper. *. 7 t^a^i to \Nish very much, Ethpa.
f

Pi,

state (Tafij).
]j^,

the same.

|i\^

a young man, a youth,

^^^ to lead, to lead away.
>an
I

tAi\(^ a

girl,

a maiden.

I

to dry up.

.

SYRIAC LEXICON.

351

^,

I

pi I hand, r*:Q by, with help,
of.

now
9
9 7

;

^O

I

No daily. 19
7

on account

V>-9Q-» a Greek,

Aa|—JQ^ Adverb.

],_u Ay*,
'

t-ijo] to

thank, with

in

the Greek manner, accord-

*£3 to

beUeve

in something, to

ing to the Greeks.

confess,

]v>^

«

m. acknowledged, known.
knowledge.

,.0 9

•jZoa, piZoi use, advantage. II »» 1 a hermit. (a,

]Alr^

f.

,N
to
;

I

i

to bring forth, Ethpe. to
7

^r^

know,

to be acquainted to

be born.

'with

Ethjpe.

be known
to

;

19

Aph. to make known,
dicate.

in-

p-Xi birth. #7 rP
-X

IjQ

^
*
7

a small boy, a child.

|l^, 1^0 p» an acquamtance, one ]ao
known.
')Av
vice.
>

Ni

a teacher, a learned

man.

knowledge, insight, de-

t*^\
*
9

to learn, Aph. to inform.

fV)

.1

the sea.
to swear, Apk. to cause to
to.

r^m
-

^9
to
;

I
a

give,

Imjperative

fV)

^^
one's
I
-X

with
I

1m2J

to

give
*9
I
|1

swear, to swear
I
7

up
9
9

life.
«v

*••?*.

iV)» the right hand, the
-X

right.

(jtiOGU, jOCTLi Judaea,
pi.

Vijoauj

^9

9

(jDQla a suckling, a baby.
*
*9

Jews.
>i<^r>> Jovmian (a proper
7

I

^rr>r>i

•2UCQ.A J[y. to add.
I

name).
9
-X

<

^-'^^

John (a proper name.)

P^a to increase * 7 »QonSi Jacob
(20
7

rapidly.

(a proper name).
care.

«£l£QQji Joseph (a proper name).

^ one who takes

»flOOi\o> Julius ( a proper name )
»CD01 i\oi name).
Julian (a

rOji to burn.
19

proper

fj^A flame, holocaust.
I 7 » 9 17 iOi, |;>na

;

illustrious,

honored,

(l*^\ni a
.

doctrine, teaching.

^Q--i, pbou

^^'

day,

^991 (SnV)in
to day,

great.

9 7*9 9 7 by day, ^iOO*, (liOOa

JD;u

to be great, to increase (in

respectability).

352
*p

SYETAC LEXICON.

r

U^'r^ a month.
(la*rj,

^.fiO^CO a throne.
7

^

1^1^;^ a
Jesus.

tent.

,

»»

O
-x

Ethpa.
-X

p.

^Zl
laying the

to

^QA^
JuLa
-So

blush.
»7
X X
1

A-» being, essence.

1—10
or

^O'^^JD

the
of
7

on

extending

hand
*,

to

remain,

to

dwell,

to
(X^J^o-rov/a).
«•

settle, to sit.

;—iAji

^-D
X

-x

all,

every,

,

»»

N O each.

more than.

]*^\o
abound.

a dog.
P

|Zo;-»Aa superfluity.
)xLi to win, to

T

Vy i\o, IjAikO a crown.

Uo^^i^ every
«2.

thing,

any thing.

VAIo
7

a bride.

IP
I£>

to prevent, to rebuke.

pQ2 how

much, how much more.

lA |o,
X

l^p

passion.

;i£lD to be amazed, to be sad.

LuUId justly.

{lO to give a surname.
righteousness.

IZojp justice,
or Peter.

(Aid a
» p
i>

fellow servant.

\ki\D a stone, a

rock,

Cephas,

1*^10 bosom, lap.
7

%M1D

p

to assemble, to collect to-

IZp
7

f.

a rebuke.

gether, Ethjpa. to be assembled.
*

;^^
7

perhaps.

(IT) an

p

assembly.

fD

as,

during (pleonastic before

(coo a cup.

the Part.).

Itqo

to conceal,
*P
p
..

Pa. to cover,
one's-self.
7

poi2
£
-X

Ethpa. to hide
a priest.
priesthood.
*
r

^P

(Zqjoid the
IP

(£QD,

(imn, (>fn^

concealed,

pmQO
7

shame.
»1»
..

«P

7

11*^0 famine.
7

|jQ2Q3 m. a
IjSOQD a

star, ^/.

|jQ2Q2

Matt. xxiv. 29.
priest.

;S1D to deny, to refuse, to desert (with *£i)^

•^QO, (£02 m.

p where, pi^ there
a cup.

7

7 •

where.
it

|p

to feel pain,

^ A^p

pains

UjJOO

a

cell.

one.

SYRIAC LEXICON.
kO

353

'

(1»;S

sad,

sorrowful,

JSM^e.

to

^A^Q^
Zol^
iKkL
,>i^,

abuse, insult.

pass by, to go.

^^^.^lOQ^ against, towards.
weak.
to, by, besides, with.

OUp, loup

infirm,

\\D Aph. to announce

(^^ii^utftfsjv).

to blot out.

]i »^ffr^>p a christian.

>Q»»\o

only, alone.

yt\D to involve, to
by.

roll up, to

pass

]V>»»\ bread.

tJi,
roll,

t^,
\
not.
it is

X^
&c.

night,

pi.

pp a
]]a2 a
-

a

scroll.

^oN
A.&^

collision,

a shock.
>

<^*^ Etkpa.j
to

^

nil

|J_^

an insane person.
^li?
;

humbly

entreat.

^iiLover, up
besides.

vyi^ before,

jdAd
P-Ad

to write, Aph. the same.

^Ao a writing,
flax, linen.

a book.

«m\

\

to eat.

]jO0nN
.

opponent.
tongue, langua laire

12)Ad a

shoulder.

aN, (la\

>Ao

to remain, to remain behind,

ISd that, what;

J

]Sd when.
a part

U not,
\i^
i*^n

no

;

]] J lest,

without.

I;!©]^ word,
of speech.

discourse,

heart.

V to arouse, to cheer.
dress,

p po
*P.

a handle, a covering.
spring, fountain.
blessing,

tlO*^V>
7 7

]^0o\

a garment.

(Ad;*^V> a
tion.
|J-,^Sd,

a benedic-

IZai^jk-Cii^ a decision, reliance.

y^^
;*S\

to hold, to take hold.
outside, without.
roll.

]A\.tV)

scroll,

volume,

«a*S\

to clothe, to cover.

— ,^ freely.
%

^Q-^ Pa. to accompany, Ethpa to be accompanied, to be con
firmed.

• .1 V), (so. J^ a

wise man, pL

354

SVKfAC LEXICON

Iff

(m^^ an altar. ;^^ a desert.
r

]l

I

\f)V) a heretic, a seducer.

Aji]ii>()V) secretly.
(i

'|ZQj;^rSD redemption.

V) water.
to die, Ajph. to cause to die,

];ar^ a
,-^

cloister,

a chamber.

A^^

to mortify.

r-^

thus, thence, therefore.

jAaId

distinguished, excellent.

llupSo,

lAlji^

a town, a

city.

P^qLo

humility, modesty.
affable,

^r^O something, y>,iD U nothing. »P X 7 HinV)

modest.

Vi^r^
East.

eastern,

MjJ^

the

v>.>'SV> now, immediately.
»P.X

|/n^>^Vn
gence.
7

I

7

lowhness,

mtelli-

vii9,iO a song, a hymn,

U^^laOlLo beUeying, with
orthodox.

7

]'r^'r»

»^iT^So, ^^!So

to be depressed.
full.

^^aOll^ prompt, ready.

V—Sd to be
to be
(j-iiiD
P 7 7

Fa. to fill, Ethpe.

filled.

VZvQOloi

a

gift.

«jDQSd, Fa.

«n>v)

word, saying, plur. (J—So*

to deride.

poSo
)1qLd
]
»»

myrrh.
death.

pP—io
strike, to

an angel, a messenger.

|»a\V) a captain.
prick, to

V) to
a

yXiO

to advise, to

consult, to

bite,

reign.

IZokkSo

blow,

plague,

2>l.

y^^,
*
7

]h \V> a

king.

]Zqm1o*
)j.*.m1d weak, humble.

IZonNV)
\\\

a kingdom.

V>

to speak, to converse.

;mV) on

the morrow.
pi.

)^^
waves.
to arrive,

Abs. word.

poafctVl) a tempest,

lAlk) Empk, word ;)Z. UiO.
]l

14^

to go, to come,

'^NV) a

teacher, a learned man.
learning.

3/. Fret.
^^h6*^ from,
of; J

Z^»
of,

JLQI'^W)
on account
P

over,

7

Vy.^

while.

IjJ^SaLd speech.

?

;

SYRIAC LEXICON.
VAa'^a^)*

355

^io who?
7

y

^ \n
is

that,

which,

tical
(i.

person),
Christ)
;

OlV) who ^JD

this
(m-s'v);
it

e.

(f^ our Lord, ^b;ih title for
a
precious

certainly

often

is

ecclesiastical ladies.

superfluous.

|AAj-t;l0 a
of,

pearl,

^D
(

ft

of,

from, on account

loS,
.1

^
?

since

stone.
7

from,

of;

^-i

3;..^ to
to
*0«
-X

fall off,

to cast away,

*^1 afterwards, hereafter,
suff.

make
7
7

free.

with

,^lV) of us.

|Zoj;Ld a
*
P

falling

off,

an

injury.

U^ what

|»»;V)

bold,

impudent,

Adv.

|1m> >.iV) a faithful servant.
|Z;jlLo a candlestick.

l^ci^jVo a garment.
^P
I
7

]AjlSd a part.

f;^;^
^0.
7
m.0

bitter, sorrowful.
7

fZ.Qj;*^>mV) patience.

jAi^a^SD a
00 7

chariot, a throne.

]mmV)

poor.
f.

Pfej;So

that

which

relates

to

fAjijOSOlSb

Christ.

baptism.

I-L-Sd, 12;S.V)
cavern.
<
f

a

hollow,

a

|i^i\;V) a flock, an assembly, a

community.
*^

^^
]!a

^^ an mterpreter,

l^fAliD a messenger.

7

an explainer.
1

*,i.»aV) to anoint.

^Sd,

^So

possible.

|<^N»><iV) changable, variegated.
|»fc

f

^Sd

to be able, Ethjpe. the same,

laV)
7

the Anointed, the Mes-

to have

power to do (with t^
^P

siah.

by, through).

(CTlLOmiO known, distinguished.
•7

7

|Za»iJiiOvSo splendor, light.

«

I

W>aV)
7
-X

complete, perfect.

^A^So
VAi ISd
(•,ib,

in the midst.

10

1«V)aV) a
P

deacon, a minister.

^Pj

7

midst.
(u'rk)

|/r>i^Vr>ifcVn the office of a dea-

1*^,

Lord,

Sir,

^*^
for

con.
kP 7

literally

my Lord

(title

tl;aV) a person

sick of the palsy.

bishop or any other ecclesias-

(A^jj^Vd a position, a bed.

356

SYRIAC LEXICON.

VZairCuA^Ali
oaASD

f.

obedience.

|Zo;-»P abstemiousness.

to extend.

|JmJ a

valley.

)>jA!i time, a period.
]lV)y*>ALD an
interpreter.

AijJ to go down, to descend, Aph.
to lay down, to take down, to

brmg, to

deliver.
pi.

l^il

ni »»ZASb necessity. ^ZjZASd a catechumen.
J.

(AmJ m. a garment,
»>

^a!AmJ,

7

*

7

*a43
i.

to drop.
of,

f

1^1

m. a prophet, Matt.

22.

^
7

to take care
1 1 f.

to watch.

|Zn»»

|Z.0>^1

-X

f.

prophecy.
out, patience,

^7

11
1

lenity,

meekness.

17
drawing
suflfering.

tiOi
joJ,
p

Xicaea (a proper name).

Zo;-i-iJ

(^
*
7

a yoke, a bow.

^-k2J

guilt, injury, crime.

I
7

7

;jiOU shining, bright.
,

«£QQJ to augment, to honor, to
Ethpa.
sacrifice, to slay.
•X

jOU to shine,
fjOU a

Aj^h. to light,

7

to be bright.
river.

tJD0V)1 law.
7

«*^ft>l to take, to receive.
•P
0^

T>

pOIQJ m.
shine.

hght, from

JOU

to

pOimi
7
7

temptation.

• * y£Cli to pour, Ethpe. J^£QjZ1*

«>*QJ, «.mJ to repose, to be appeased, Apk. to lay aside, to

«nrf>1 to ascend.

{i paj refreshment.
^Jyiu to
fall.

put away.
•X

7

«jaQJ,
p
-x

p^QJ
*o

rest.
p
-x

7

«aV^Q^,

ppQLJ
f.

«n<^l to go out, Aph. to take out,
a stranger,
» P
7

I

7
1

liupQJ ^QJ, to
»P

«ni*^
also Neuter.
sleep.

spread.

^

(jk2L] the soul, reflexive, self.

p

-x

Pt^QJ
*.

distribution, expending.

IP,

9QJ

fire.

to ^ to «A ^ to plant.
I

fight,

attack.

7

SYRIAC LEXICON.

357

Ilm^
>^» I
Imu ^

a victory, an
3

exploit.
in

>^ to order,

to arrange.

Nesibis

Mesopo- )G1£D to

testify,

to witness, A^h.

tamia (a proper name).
victorious, superior, clear.
.

to die as a martyr.
|>GlfiD Emjph. of

>Gl£D a witness,

UliQJ Ethjpa. to be avenged
>«^ni to adhere, to
7

a martyr

(

==,aa^^Tu^).

follow.

IZojOlflD testimony, witness, martyred one.

;AJ
l&J

to dig, to dig out.
{jpl

^LtS\) a woman.

Q£D \= a multitude.
P^Xyt Q£D offense.
-'^^<^f^ to

pAj

a downfall, a curse.

long for something, to
in.

|!bot^

silver,

money.

take pleasure

|Z(£b a bushel.

yioQflO thought.

(nro an

old man. Adj. old.
dense, extensive.

|n ^om
heaven.

reception, ascension to

fm>nCD M^£D
7

>OQ£D, ^.IX) to
ode, a song.
to add,

place, to inter,

IAa^CD an

^IiJId
or

to shut,

iJSoli
books,

to be satisfied.

to

write

compose

;*^rr) to believe,

P^. to

declare,
jii

i;0 to

punish with death,
interred,

to forbear, Afh. to suppose.

Eth^e. to be
t;*^fio hope.
|!yJ]D to multiply,

to be

buried.

to increase.

O-y.

j]D0p3QflD synod

(tfuvoiJof).

r«wCO to worship, to honor.

p-QJO
need,

m

indigence,

poverty,

IZf.^
I
>

worship, honor.

|JQ.|JDD a cluster.
7

p;lQfiD a deed, an occurrence.

»»P T
1 1

7

Pi)Q£D Syria.
^"jjjQflO

i yi

rn,

*

yi

rn much. Adv. very.

Adv. Syriac, in the

|Zo|

i .1 (in

a multitude.

Syriac.

358

SYRIAC LEXICON

Vi-»5QCD a Syrian, Adj. Syrian.
t'^M.n)
to
pull

1 Asim,
lips.
7

jp/.

l2Q2)ffi the mouth, the

down,

Fa. to

destroy, Ethpa. to be dispersed.

«»t;fin

Pa. to dishonor, to

violate.

jl^iC Satan (a proper name).
\f^£Q a
side,

a page.
feast,

;niCr) to bear, to endure, to Ij^l a
7

a feast-day.

tolerate.

r^l
to

to do, to perform, to yield,

V) irn

the laying on (of hands).

make something (with a
7
r..

fASiCY) an assembly.
19
'^11 fin I

double Accusative).
y

a sword

(|«(poj).

rOl

m.

servant,
xiii.

vl.

\x*^\

Pl£D to expect, Pa. inco to wait.
*

Ij^il Mat.

21.

IZoN^rO

transgression.
;

JOIQI
7

creator.

>n\m
.SOfY),

to ascend. to lay upon,

n\

to pass by, to pass over;

^QfiD to place,

with *Q, to pass around.

to commit.

Zul'^m Hebrew, Ad.
ically.

Hebra-

.^^m

to support, \M2iJ to take

refreshment, to tarry.

U-lQCD

^^, ^^^ shortly.
(J^, l^^-\^ a young cow.
yl
until,

left,

wrong.

]l£D to hate.
|±C0 hated, mean.
W

^^U^j^^U not yet; ]LOj^
>

X

«niT)
7

to

need,

«niHT) Fart.
until,

]^rl

until that;

Fass. Ft.

;^£D to make, to do, to
sick).
(

visit

(the
,

^,
7

Mr^time.
aid.

J pi

Fa. to support, to
church.
to act unjustly.

r^lfiO

a scribe, pZ.

^

r^^CD, 1 1*^^
ship.

\l^

Vi

i

^no, l^ia^no a

^Ql
7

;£1QD, |;£k£D a book.

^Ql, fjOl

unjust, sinful.

^

poi

wicked, ungodly.

STRIAC LEXICON.

359

]jl^ai a

habitation, an abode.

|r)^l dippmg, baptism.

]j'p3Ql death.

IjoSqi a
-x

pillar.

(jUQI an answer, an
song.

P

alternative

IP

>0SnS an

inhabitant.

^OQL, %Cil Ethpe.
,

to be troubled.

USOl

trouble, labor.

(Zol^jal uncircumcision.
p

•fiOl to dwell.

>ai
p

or ;^ to watch.

(11 to hear, to answer, Ethpe. to
converse.
<^P«
-X

X^ to blot. »p
\fjLL custom.

P

»

fZaiOll
*P

piety.
is

I

X

7

« P

7

^A^, P-iA

eye.

Ipkll one who
t^
stir up.

dead.

^.kl to arouse, -4?^-

(ill a cloud.
I..

Vr^

a guardian angel.

^^i,rns twenty.

^0.1 over, to, against, on account
of; >
»P«
-x
»>

(ai
«P |l
I

Prt. to inter.
T>

^^ because.

p

S aversion, opposition.
« *
7

|LQ£^Q^
lAi^

avarice.

«'^nS
^p
p

Pfle/,

to inquire.

|Jl,

cause.
altar,

(;oi a
Acts
xvii.

root.

]AXi an
ml, \y^
into,

23.

*£)•,! to flee.

to go, with

«^

to

go

^Al
ri^Al

to avail, to prevail.

with ^\l to carry on prointercourse to

hibited
one,

with any
into,

prepared, the future).

Part, (put for

Ethpe.

go

Aph.

]naii
•p»Al,

ancient, old,
rich.

f.

VAcui\l,

to lead, to lead into.

NoNn Emph. y<\\\
,

I'^Al

world, race,

generation.

^Ql
^Ol,
7

with, above.

toi
~

a nation,

pi.

^jl^D^dL,

]y]2i
7

fruit, pi. ]j\si*^

^w2)
(iOl to suffer one's self to be dipped,
to suffer one's-self to be baptized.

to meet, to

happen to (with

K^, Vn^

body.

360
iOSi*

SYRIAG LEXICON.
*
7

7

17

7

^^Q2i, t^A^d to blow, to sound.

(imf)^^ ^Q
chantment.
(A.eJL£) a limit,
7

apparition,

an en-

jOO^oaPaul
]ui.\o<^ work.

(a proper name).

an end.
to free, Aph. to

^Q£), ]Ldqs mouth.

jQQfiQ2),

jn2)

PpDOa

a command.

permit.

>Q2) Ethpe. to be unwilling.
]xQ.. jQ2) a tower {'^'^^yog).

J£Q£) a

lot,

a portion,

^/.

(COS)*

(Zoikia a work,
»P
I

labor.

pLl)Q£) a reward, a recompense.

^, Pa
7 P
-X

.

*-»

^
<K

17

to free, to deliver.

|lO>Q2) redemption,

salvation.

fJdSi to

command.
m^OO

P^>a2)
w»Qa,
to

separation.

^fOQ^, yifOQSi
come
mand.

precept, com-

i-aZ)

to remain, to

any one.
doubt.

(ASiia a camp, a valley.
•P
7

(nsQS

7

(£Cu>^
^P
-x

paradise.
deliverer.

\CLMQjZi an explanation.

o

PD0;2> a redeemer, a
,^i\tAg) a
phial.
»P
P
-x

p

tjt£30;^ salutiferous, saving.

|qqcDQ-Li^
.rc\nf\\

a philosopher.
JCL\Si Persia.

.o\ Pilate

(a proper

y»SL\Si a Persian.

name). ]<^'<^ mediation, entreaty.
P

7

^\Si to recompense, Ethpa. to be

X

I

rewarded.

IP

jjqLd;-!^
church.

a

servant

of

the

»P

-X

7

(20 • ;2
7

face, presence.

. P 7

%Ci\2i to preserve, to deliver.
jole.

\D2i cheek,

*•;£) to separate, to divide, Ethpe.

i-iujla to divide,
*. 7

Ethpa. to doubt.
#7
P

to be divided, to appoint.
L'fSi to

^»,>va, Par^. «M.\<^ to work, to
serve.

break.

«^^a2
Il2) to
return.

to extend, to spread,
right.

Pa. to answer,

Aph. to lead back, to make

t^ia^ just,
»»

7

known

;

Ethpe. to turn

one's-self.

«na<^

to interpret.

SYRIAC LEXICON.

^Ql

|So.t A£> a word,

a matter.

|*^iN» a
|V>\ • a

cross.

|Aa, PiAa wide.

figure,

an image.

wmAs)

to open.
jp/.

(;£)• early time, dawn,

I^Aa
god.

m.

idols,

images.

|)»

Ethpe. to be

separated, to

I^As) an

idol,

an image of a false

burst.

*

7
;

7

^\£i£) Pa. to receive
If •

\y.ao Aflol
to pass.

to be filthy.
7

to happen, to

come

fl^

vile, filthy.

;jQO

to bury.

KO »

to be willing, to wish.
will,

;ilQO,

pQjdO

a sepulchre.
the beginning.

^Q^fO —SsO from
IZqH).

^0-^t, |asj,

5>OpO
7

for,

to,

>

5>0^^

,^«22>

^ V>

of one's-self, freely.

ere, before.
m.0

(ajO* willing, ready.

7

•juLOfiD, f-fcSOrjO the first.
P

^aJD*
(1.^1^
»

1*7

will. will,

\M^fO
purpose.

holy.

loo

to remain, to stop.
reception,

|CJL» to thirst.

^0

»

,

^
a

JjCJQO a
ment.
. P
-x

an entertain-

»

to fast.
fasting, fast days.

7

P^O •
|Z.jo

days of

\MyCLO

holiness.
p

figure,

a pretence.

>0Qj3, ^OlO to stand up, to stand,

|1# to incline.

Fa. to pray, with

Aph. to
conclude,

erect,

to set

up,

to
de-

to

appoint,

to

^\-JL to pray for any one, to
termine; with \yJL
bless.
'^

l^^O

pre-

p

7

ceding, to
inclined.

make war with any

Up,

X^t

one.

«i^ •

Ethpe. to be crucified.
prayer, an entreaty.

•Qji;.^l0GLO a church-yard, burying-ground.

fZo^* a

362
*.

SYRIAC LEXICON.
ll

.to

*-

«7

I

«v

« y

7

|J:UQ£D a servant of the church,
sexton.
.ffftoi

Pa^Ojlao
er name).

Cappadocia (a prop*

>^i^ftp>or^

Constantine

fimo
IP *fO to

cassia.

(a proper name).

name, to

call,

to choose.

1^900 a town, a

city.

^^—O
near.

^JU9ao
name).

a Cjrenean (a proper

to approach, to draw Pa. to conduct, to bring;
sacrifice.

(mID) to
l^'fO war

lA^QO
|j

truth.

q4^

ni.

a murderer, a robber.

«ico\|^fr>o;o a
X
7

crystal.

-ju^JD cunmng, mgemous.

«*^i;0 near.
|1

i;0 reading.
field,

|]4o

slaughter, murder.

pOi^

a league, (V^

i

O tl^

l/u;o a
*P
7

a country.

consecrated virgins.

P;iD a horn.

]Z\V)iO
\t\
i

resurrection.

(Aao^O
^P

calvary.

17

O

a song. a
tree,

|«>«0
bark, a book.

a priest, an elder.

|<'^- <^

(jAj-O Cithara, harp.
"jjOjA-iX) a player on the cithara.
^^y-D,

*^5

mucli,

great,

loud,

chief;
J[6;f.

2) ateacher,
-»<..

jEw^^^.lbi
7" 7

7

IJ-D a
little.

voice.
pl.

\^J

Const.pl.

«.42n
up, to

^iSn
*.00O;
I

Jo J
•X

to grow.

Fa. to bring
p

So

the clergy.

educate.
..*

VAilD a

bride.
;

Qdj
Aph. to grant,

-J

a myriad,

y/.

^Q29*

|jLO to acquire
to bring.
I

|Zqsj

greatness, a multitude.
7

».(^.>, *-• J to

wish very much, to

ilO

a pen, a reed.
desire,

Ethpa. the same.

po;.^J^ a

centurion.

(^j£Q£5 Csesarea (a proper name).

Ui5 to be angry.

]ijO to

call,

to cry.

^^>, y^i

foot.

,

SYRIAC LEXICON.

353

p

p

?

^Q.t9 to stone.
«jiLt9

jlO)09 a
rank.

prince,

a person of

to mark, to feel, Aph. the

same, with

JD

pioAO) a
to perceive, to

sign.

y)i
remark.
|A..> a wish, a desire.

»>> beloved.

^
;

»i>

to

love,

Ethpa.

with

]jj to go, to chastise

with and

^i

—1

to feel compassion.
pi.

IP iH V>
l^0>9 a
7 ,

7

to ship.

|SQja9

compassion,

benevo-

lence, love.

persecutor.

(ASDajJ love.

(jlS0>9 persecution.

•^

7

«^C1>
T
p

to hasten, to tv^mbX^, Ethjpe.

«^Ui9 to

lie,

to float.
far distant.

to be afraid, to be terrified.
-X

•Aja) to be

7

Aa]vD001> Roman, Adv. romaicallv, Latin.

Ui^9 smell
VpAj spittle.

*^ai) to run, to hasten.
|P

[Xm^j the

first

named.
firstling,

-x

,

H'
»
P
-x

0> anger, misfortune.
spirit.

(Aaa^j, Aa^a^)

begin-

ning, pi. \LxJklj*
,

oaO> m.
(>*0>
f

f.

wind, breath,

pamai?
spirit.

the high priest.

t1 »>0> spu'itual.
o
-x

p.ft^9 a person of rank.

«p

(slmOj bowel
mercies.

love,

bowels of

J^O)
*
7

to ride.
feel inclined, to

^>
(Oa»09

Ethpa. to

be

IojsjO)

distance

^^

moved.
y)>, ]SDi
f.

from a distance.

lASoi high,
iv. 6.

loud,

pi

^OJ
fcP

Ajph.

^Q_^)|

to raise up,

jSdS

James
lie,

to elevate.
P -x,

pii

to

to be placed, Aph, to

jloiDO) a
•P
P

gift.

cast, to send;

with «*^

Nn

to

-x,

p^lO)
|ioO)

a quarrel. a cloth
J

administer; with ]ii*^1 to lose
life.

a rag.

364

SYRIAC LEXICON.

]1D) Part P. thrown down, given
up.

to praise.

|i*^»
hills,

captivity, destruction.
praise- worthy.
vine.

Vi^)
niir.

Luke

xxiii. 30.
sufifer-

»»

i*^»

IZoauiiDi

patience, long

fAa i*^» a

^4^*
7

a sceptre.

]aSD9 evening.
imft>> to sprmkle.
Jl>

^^.^i* to guide, to lead.
*?
r

If
,^iS*^»

^IOa,

(Sn»

seven,

Pa. wi^) to obtain again,

seventy.

Ethpa. to be reconciled.

«nn»

to leave,

to give up,

to

b^k\^0^\ mournful, deeply moved.
Ia^j a herdsman.
^-ft^9,

permit, to let go.

[bS^M a week.

(u^Q.!^ an
|laA)
sense, mind.
I

uproar.

a

i

.

i

restless,

uneasy.

iOAj £M^g.
^'

to be angry.

pHL)
rOj

;

^(^
thunder.

to kindle.

%ji^i^ Ethjpc. to be moved, to be
indignant.

to dance, to mourn, to lament.
sinful,

|lui3>

a transgressor.
sign.

\rM to throw, to precipitate.
7 7

^as9
2, 5

to

make a

' ^

?

>f» Pa. to
is sent.
,

send,

jE%a. >?A*(

to be inflamed, to rejoice.

7

J 01* to

awake.
to be

^oa\»
Ijl* an

Sapores (a proper name).
evil spirit.

QM

to be worthy, Ethjpe.

considered as worthy.

^ji

to entreat,

Pa. to ask; with
some
one.

|Q*, (uQa equal,

pi.

\aQm*

^\l

to ask after

pOliDCUi renown.

|A!L»,

1Z8-»

ViwQQs
entreaty.

praise,

renown, glory.

^.•Q*, V.W* to wash.
y\M, ^-kA to reconcile, to calm.
'^

7

\LCi'^^%

nearness.

«2ia«

to free, to tear away.

SYRIAC LEXI(X)N.

365

p

p

>

(4^Q*

dishonor, shame.
excliange,

]V)\»
*p

j)/.

m.

lV^\»

peace.

]<^\>>Qj change,

^QA, piss a name.
x

|Vr>\o« consummation, end.

poV)» Samona
X
-X

(a proper name,. (a proper name).

^Q», vg^
-x

to despise.
right.

wiJOV)» Simon
«P
7

"ll^Q* power, authority, ^P (OQs way, street.
.P,
-x

(i

V)»

heaven.
(a

t^«iV)s Samosata
name).
>

proper

pQ»
PP
-x

a wall.
beginning.
confirmation.
gain, advantage.
stupid.
inferior.
Jlj?/^.
•X

]j9QA

iNV)»
7

to finish, to complete.

MSa»

to hear.
*

p)QS
P
-x

•QlSO* Simeon, Simon

(a proper

P^Zq*
P

name).
-n

|)Q4* awkward,
..I

7

«AiQs
^aSQ*

to serve.

\^JL» despised, small,

the sun.

wkkQs j?/.
vmJH* I

f.

^^i>i>T present,

[13 Fa. to go away, Oi;V)N or

Cl'kJ Zoi^ to
to be able, to find.

die.

«»>S»
P

to send, to put away.
c

(is, fi pL»,

m
-ft

insane, foolish.

]]*,
>,.

>iN»

lAl»

year.

to cease, to rest.

I

X

•»>


I

'^

"^

I

\
i\»

•i"

"^

•,

^.-^

rest,

^Lo

\fl3 torment, pam, torture.

^p

]i\»,
|»»
7

^ lalV) sudden.
an apostle.
* 7

^Jj, (l* tooth.
]<
J

-<*

sharp.
I
7

*

4^ Pa. *4^
be powerful.
to
fulfill,

to be able, to

pji Ethpa. wLLA*!

to relate.

V*
I

lAl» an

hour;

\tlJkCi

^Q^ to approach fulfillment, Pa.
to complete
;

01—S
7

forthwith.
play.
fern,
-pi'

with

vA lll» jest, I
m.0%0

to salute, Aph. to dehver up;
*
P
-x,

\jJZiM beautiful, good,
I 7

f—aj09
to die.

to give

up the ghost,

|Z.,i'^» also the
ness.

T^i^'^er,

goodr-

366

SYBIAC LEX K, ox,
V

B2.
^\clm
to hear, to take ; Apk. with to
|;-4|Z not clear, dirty.

2) dregs,

—Lo

go away.

that which
able.

is

most objection-

I;* an mhabitant.

Jj«

to dwell; with

^\l to

MoZ
besiege,
7 7

to

demand.
on trade, Ethpa. to

Fa. to begin.
^*^'rM,
V^'fJ^

^•Z
generation,
bio-

to carry

win (by trade), to be added.
graphy.

(Z)QiDjZ wonder.

L. ;* a

light,

wax

light,

a candle.

PsboOlZ an

abyss.

|;^QlZ wonderful.

|Ax—-• r—y.;-*
parition.

a spectre, an ap-

)01L to be

surprised.

oZ

Ttfr-last letter of the

Alpha-

P;a

the remainder, the rest.

bet.

y'fM, 'fM Ethjpa. to be convinced.

J^oL
•^oZ

or ft^Z to repent, to turn,

\*rA\M true.
really.

Adv. A_-»Vr»'r*

truly,

to return.
again.

YrM truth.

01 oZ to be astonished.

a;

TO

SIX.

p£Li>OL
X
7

mterpretation.

A^lcuA*
^L.,JB

^f^v. silently.

fZoZ
dumb.

repentance.
limit,

to be silent, to be

PiDQjaZ a
ZUtZ,

bound.

ZomZ, A.i^Z under, A.>-mZ

2.

^Sd from below,
under.
(2.»V^»iZ, shame.

^^

A**A^

^-

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I^JZ

a merchant.
(a

ti^oU, ^ODoViolZ Thomas,
proper name).

|Zon>Z

repentance.
urge, Par/.

%^2Z
^CDQAj-aolZ
proper name).
|jZ to

to

^ i *^oZ,

Theophilus

(a

Luke XXV.
hang

23.

up, to raise up.

.

SYRIAC LEXICON.

36^

Lj^Z

suow.
the Trinity.
scholar, Ethjpa

J2U.0Z
^a.«>Z

great, strong.
to explain, to interpret.

IZo—»Aa^Z
fi£i^L to

make a

---j'Z, ^..^IjL two
the second.
I

:

.

to be learned, to be a scholar.

Ir-A^D^Z a scholar.
A!LZ,/.

^-»'Z right, true, faithful.

^i^lm.

three.

]LiL a door, a gate.
fA.iA>Z mind, opinion.
I

OIIsdZ to wonder, to be astonished.

loixioZ wonderful, remarkable.
^IjlSdZ, ]V)iV)Z honest, genuine.

AajQ^jbZ a hymn,a song of praise
service, attendance.
TO.

(AaLQsZ

]iSdZ/.

eight.

^Z/.
«

1l»Z

nine.

^SiZ

there, in that place.

>S»Z

to narrate, from |l!»*

(jZ to repeat, Pa. to narrate.

f

AaAsZ

a narration.

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.<

,wv

in "-^ rH • CM

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LIBRARY
Pontifical Institute of

Mcd:«.,al Studies
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3tre:t TORONTO. ONT„ CANADA M53

113 ST.

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