Myopia: (nearsightedness) This is a defect of vision in which far objects appear blurred but near objects are seen

clearly. The image is focused in front of the retina rather than on it usually because the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the eye s lens too strong. Myopia can be corrected by wearing glasses/contacts with concave lenses these help to focus the image on the retina. Hyperopia: (farsightedness) This is a defect of vision in which there is difficulty with near vision but far objects can be seen easily. The image is focused behind the retina rather than upon it. This occurs when the eyeball is too short or the refractive power of the lens is too weak. Hyperopia can be corrected by wearing glasses/contacts that contain convex lenses. Astigmatism: This defect is when the light rays do not all come to a single focal point on the retina, instead some focus on the retina and some focus in front of or behind it. This is usually caused by a non-uniform curvature of the cornea. A typical symptom of astigmatism is if you are looking at a pattern of lines placed at various angles and the lines running in one direction appear sharp whilst those in other directions appear blurred. Astigmatism can usually be corrected by using a special spherical cylindrical lens; this is placed in the out-of-focus axis. Astigmatism may occur in children and adults; it is fairly common and is not contagious. It is usually congenital - is present at birth - but can develop after an eye operation or an injury to the eye. It belongs to a group of eye conditions called refractive errors. Myopia (short-sightedness), hypermetropia (long-sightedness) and presbyopia (aging of the lens in the eye) are types of refractive errors. Eye related problems: Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens, which prevents a clear, sharp image being produced. A cataract forms because the lens is sealed in a capsule and as old cells die they get trapped in the capsule, with time this causes a clouding over of the lens. This clouding results in blurred images. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) This is a degenerative condition of the macula (the central retina). It is caused by the hardening of the arteries that nourish the retina. This deprives the retinal tissue of the nutrients and oxygen that it needs to function and causes a deterioration in central vision. Glaucoma: The eye produces a clear fluid (aqueous humor) that fills the space between the cornea and the iris. This fluid filters out through a complex drainage system. It is the balance between the production and drainage of this fluid that determines the eyes intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma is a disease caused by increased IOP usually resulting from a malfunction in the eye s drainage system. Increased IOP can cause irreversible damage to the optic nerve and retinal fibers and if left untreated can result in a permanent loss of vision. Choroiditis, also known as posterior uveitis, is a rare, inflammatory eye disease that, according to the National Institutes of Health, only affects about 200,000 people in the United States. The choiroid is the layer of the eye found at the back of the uvea. It is made up of connective tissue and blood vessels. This layer can become inflamed and swollen for a variety of possible reasons, although in most cases, doctors have been mostly unable to pinpoint the causes. It is generally believed that choroiditis comes about because of other diseased conditions a patient may have. Choroiditis has often been reported when the patient has been suffering from auto-immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, or lupus, or from serious viral infections, such as shingles or herpes. The fungus infection, histoplasmosis, as well as the parasitic condition, toxoplasmosis, may lead to choroiditis. Injury to the eye may also cause the condition. It is possible that repeated injuries to the eye may make choroiditis even more likely. The onset of choroiditis can be rapid, but it is more often slow. It generally affects only one eye. Vision becomes blurred in the affected eye, making it hard to see, and the eye is sensitive to light and may become sore and red. Early on, the patient might see flashes of light and floating spots. Gradually, the patient may lose his or her vision in the eye. Presbyopia is a condition, caused by aging, in which people find it difficult to read small words at close distances or to work on the computer for long periods of time. The condition is sometimes called short arm syndrome, because sufferers must often push small print to an arm's length to be able to read it. When adults are in their forties, the lens of the eye begins to have difficulty accommodating, or in other words, changing its focusing distance. This is due to gradual a thickening of the lens that creates less flexibility. Symptoms of presbyopia include difficulty in seeing contrasts between small bits of text, a need for greater lighting to read or do close work like sewing, and a feeling that the eyes are tired or strained after reading for short periods of time. Virtually all adults over forty experience some or all of the symptoms of presbyopia. Fortunately, a number a treatments for the condition exist. Wearing glasses, using contact lenses, or getting laser surgery can reduce the impact of presbyopia on one's life. If another sight impairment is present, bifocal glasses will give those with presbyopia a way to address additional sight impairment in the top half of the lenses. Looking out of the bottom portion of the glasses will correct vision problems when reading or doing close work. There is a clear delineation to the wearer between the separate strengths of the lenses. Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. Various scales have been developed to describe the extent of vision loss and define blindness.[1] Total blindness is the complete lack of form and visual light perception and is clinically recorded as NLP, an abbreviation for "no light perception."[1] Blindness is frequently used to describe severe visual impairment with residual vision. Those described as having only light perception have no more sight than the ability to tell light from dark and the general direction of a light source. Keratoconus is a disorder of the cornea, the clear, dome-like structure on the front part of the eye. In keratoconus, the cornea thins and bulges outward like a cone, resulting in distorted vision. As the shape of the cornea changes, nearsightedness and astigmatism may develop. The corneal changes of keratoconus usually occur

affecting one eye Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition. sometimes. For example. from Greek "squinting. the clear. cataracts can also be caused by trauma. generally affecting about 1 in 2. cataracts. but the average patient experiences clouding in one eye first. such a driving a car (does that traffic light mean "stop" or "go"?). or can be present at birth. After the initial exposure. but it can be uncomfortable and irritating. dome-like structure on the front part of the eye. suppression of the immune system. Herpes zoster can cause several problems with the eye and surrounding skin that may have long term effects. Progression of RP is different in each case. nearsightedness and astigmatism may develop. Color vision is important in many everyday tasks.[2] It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles. Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain in coordinating the eyes or of one or more of the relevant muscles' power or direction of motion. Keratoconus is most commonly detected during the late teens to early twenties. The majority of cataracts are age related. the cornea thins and bulges outward like a cone. As the shape of the cornea changes.very slowly. [1] In the progression of symptoms for RP. Color blindness is a misnomer because only a small percentage of people are unable to see any color. although it may start in one eye and spread to the other after a day or two. In fact. persons with color vision defects are excluded by law from certain occupations. night blindness generally precedes tunnel vision by years or even decades. in some cases as early as childhood. and scarring of the cornea and eyelids. It usually affects both eyes at the same time more than the other. a group of inherited disorders in which abnormalities of the photoreceptors (rods and cones) or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the retina lead to progressive visual loss. Eye problems caused by severe or chronic outbreaks of herpes zoster may include: glaucoma. squint-eyed"[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. Affected individuals first experience defective dark adaptation or nyctalopia (night blindness). Sores on the nose are a key signal of possible eye involvement. Abnormal color vision can even be dangerous in certain situations. generally affecting about 1 in 2. Surgery is the most effective treatment for cataracts but drops that may slow the progression of the clouding are available for patients who are not surgical candidates. the forehead.000 people in the general population. loss of central vision late in the course of the disease. It begins as a rash that lead to blisters and sores on the skin. double vision. Many who experience this infection find it extremely painful. prescription medication such as steroids. Modern Latin. Inflammation and scarring of the cornea. It may be asymmetrical. A cataract is an eye condition where the clear lens of the eye becomes clouded. When the nerve branch that supplies the eye is involved. it can reduce the ability to focus without eyeglasses or contact lenses. it only affects one side of the body or face during an outbreak. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. herpes zoster lies dormant in certain nerve fibers. strabos Strabismus (English pronunciation: /str b zm s/. In some cases. . is caused by the same virus responsible for chicken pox. Without treatment. In keratoconus. nose. Many people with RP do not become legally blind until their 40s or 50s and retain some sight all their lives. which may adversely affect depth perception. This is known as post-herpetic neuralgia. There is reason to believe that radiation may play a role in the formation of cataracts. Patients typically develop a cataract in each eye. This acutely painful phase usually lasts several weeks. The severity of cataracts begins as slightly cloudy and progresses slowly over time to opaque. Although keratoconus does not cause blindness. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of genetic eye conditions that leads to incurable blindness. however. Although keratoconus does not cause blindness. lack of normal color vision may limit career opportunities. strabizein "to squint". Color blindness is used in colloquial terms to refer to the difficulty in telling colors apart but a more correct term would be color vision defect. and certain medications. it can reduce the ability to focus without eyeglasses or contact lenses. the retina and optic nerve are involved. the condition typically results in blindness.[2] Others go completely blind from RP. Because of the layout of the nerves that herpes zoster resides in. It may become active as a result of many factors such as: aging.000 people in the general population. For this reason. which prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision. It's not serious. commonly known as shingles. and eyelids may also be affected. The corneal changes of keratoconus usually occur very slowly. Persons with color vision defects may be at a disadvantage in school or at work. RP is a type of progressive retinal dystrophy. strabismos. some continue to experience pain or neuralgia long after the outbreak has cleared. Keratoconus is a disorder of the cornea. however. which is the mucous membrane covering the white of the eyes and the inner side of the eyelids. rather than both at the same time. so prevention of cataracts may be possible with regular use of sunglasses that block ultraviolet light. Herpes zoster. stress. followed by reduction of the peripheral visual field (known as tunnel vision) and. normal color vision is vital in such jobs as color printing and color photography. resulting in distorted vision. Difficult strabismus problems are usually co-managed between orthoptists and ophthalmologists. such as in rail and water navigation. forming in the elderly. along with conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva ) and iritis (inflammation of the iris) are typical problems that require treatment. cf. Keratoconus is most commonly detected during the late teens to early twenties.

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