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AP Psych – Duez Unit Plan - Chapter 1 "Evolution of Psychology" Psychology's intellectual parents were 19th century philosophy and physiology. Psychology was born as an independent discipline when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psych research lab in 1879 in Germany. He argued that psychology should be the scientific study of consciousness. Structuralists believed that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements. Functionalists, such as James, believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness. Behaviorists, led by Watson, argued that psychology should study only the observable behavior. Thus, they campaigned to redefine psychology as the science of behavior. (Stimulus-Response relationships emphasized) Freud's psychoanalytic theory emphasized the unconscious determinants of behavior and the importance of sexuality. Behaviorism continued as a powerful force led by Skinner, who asserted that psychology should study only observable behavior, and he generated controversy by arguing that free will is an illusion.

Humanism came into influence in the 50s. Led by Maslow and Rogers, emphasized humans' freedom and potential for personal growth. • Clinical psychology grew rapidly in the 50s forging the way for a true profession. The advances of cognitive processes and the physiological bases of behavior led to renewed interest in cognition and physiology. • Contemporary psychology has grown rapidly in recent decades and has resulted in many diversified fields of study. • Applied psychology encompasses four professional specialties: clinical psych, counseling psych, educational & school psych, and industrial & organizational psych Applied Psychology Behavior Behaviorism Clinical psychology Cognition Evolutionary Critical Thinking Culture Empiricism Ethnocentrism psychology Functionalism Humanism Introspection Natural Selection Psychiatry Theory Rogers Psychoanalytic Theory Psychology Stimulus Structuralism Unconscious Freud Hall James Skinner Watson Wundt 1. Summarize Wilhelm Wundt’s accomplishments and contributions to psychology. 2. Summarize G. Stanley Hall’s accomplishments and contributions to psychology. 3. Describe structuralism and its impact on the subsequent development of psychology. 4. Describe functionalism and its impact on the subsequent development of psychology. 5. Summarize Freud’s principal ideas and explain why they inspired controversy. 6. Summarize John Watson’s views on the appropriate subject matter of psychology, nature vs. nurture, and animal research. 7. Summarize B. F. Skinner’s work, views, and influence. 8. Summarize Carl Rogers’ and Abraham Maslow’s ideas and the contributions of humanistic psychology. 9. Explain how historical events have contributed to the emergence of psychology as a profession. 10. Describe two recent trends in research in psychology that reflect a return to psychology’s intellectual roots. 11. Explain why Western psychology traditionally had scant interest in other cultures and why this situation has begun to change. 12. Summarize the basic tenets of (a) evolutionary psychology and (b) positive psychology. 13. Discuss the growth of psychology and the most common work setting for contemporary psychologists. 14. List and describe seven major research areas in psychology. 15. List and describe the four professional specialties in psychology. 16. Summarize the text’s three unifying themes relating to psychology as a field of study. 17. Summarize the text’s four unifying themes relating to psychology’s subject matter. 18. Discuss some weaknesses in evolutionary explanations for gender differences in spatial abilities.

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