Data, Information, Intelligence, Information Technology, Information System, evolution , types based on functions and hierarchy, System AnalystRoles and Functions. 2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 9

SDLC, SSLC, System Analysis and System Design. Tools – DFD – ER - Object Modeling – DBMS - RDBMS - OODBMS 3. INFORMATION SYSTEM 9

Functional areas - Finance, marketing, production, personnel ,material IS, DIS, EIS, KMS, GIS, International Information System. 4. SECURITY AND CONTROL 9 Security, Testing, Error Detection, Controlls, IS Vulnerability, Computer Crimes, Securing the web, intranets and wireless networks, software audit, ethics in IT. 5. NEW IT INITIATIVES (SYSTEM AUDIT ) 9 E-business, e-governance, ERP, SCM, e-CRM, data warehousing and data mining. Business intelligence, pervasive computing, CMM. TOTA L : 45 TEXT BOOK Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane Price Laudon, Management Information systems Managing the digital firm, Pearson Education Asia. REFERENCES Gordon B.Davis, Management Information system: Conceptual Foundations, Structure and Development, McGraw Hill, 1974.

UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO MIS Data – Streams of raw facts representing events such as business transactions. It is unprocessed facts and figures without any added interpretation or analysis. "The price of crude oil is $80 per barrel." Information – Clusters of facts that is meaningful and useful to human beings in the processes such as making decisions. It is data that has been interpreted so that it has meaning for the user. It is collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves. "The price of crude oil has risen from $70 to $80 per barrel" gives meaning to the data and so is said to be information to someone who tracks oil prices. Knowledge – is a combination of information, experience and insight that may benefit the individual or the organization. It is the awareness and understanding of a set of information and ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision. "When crude oil prices go up by $10 per barrel, it's likely that petrol prices will rise by 2paise per litre" is knowledge. For ex: A set of raw sales figures is data. For the Sales Manager tasked with solving a problem of poor sales in one region, or deciding the future focus of a sales drive, the raw data needs to be processed into a sales report. It is the sales report that provides information. This information when applied with a detailed analysis can improve sales in that region. DEFINITION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM  An Information System is a system that accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output. This supports an organization's business strategies, business processes, and organizational structures and culture to increase the business value of the enterprise in a dynamic business environment.  An Information system is a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. For ex: ATMs, Airline reservation systems, Course reservation systems. BASIC COMPONENTS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM An Information System is defined as a set of people, procedures and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information, and provides feedback to meet an objective in an organization. All Information systems need the basic five components to perform various business activities, namely– i) Hardware – are the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical components making up a computer system. It refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips, etc. ii) Software – are the instructions that tell a computer what to do and how to do it. It is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related

devices. It is the term used to describe the instructions that cause the computer system to behave in a given way.  System software offers a protective shield to all software applications. It also provides support to the physical components of computers. System software coordinates all external devices of computer system like printer, keyboard, displays etc. Ex: Operating System – Windows XP  Programming software usually provides tools to assist programmers to develop the programming languages necessary to run computer software. Compilers, interpreters, linkers and text editors are some of the basic tools used in programming software. Ex: ‘C’ Compiler  Application software is any tool that functions and is operated by means of a computer, with the purpose of supporting or improving the software user's work. It may be for a general or a special purpose. It is also used for commercial purpose. The application software is widely used in educational, business and medical fields. Computer games are the most popular forms of application software. Industrial automation, databases, business software, medical software and educational software prove to be of great help in the respective fields. Ex: General purpose – Word processor (MS-Word), Special purpose – 3D Studio Max. iii) People – There are many roles for people in information systems. System analysts, Programmers, Technicians, Engineers, Network Managers, Database Managers, Knowledge workers, Production or Service workers, Data entry operators and many other computer professionals who utilize the computer-based information systems are the personnel in an information system. iv)Standard Operating Procedures – are sets of rules or guidelines, which an organization establishes for the use of a computer-based information system. It is a set of procedures that define how employees and managers should deal with certain situations. v) Data & Network resources – Data is a vital resource in an organization and must be managed. Data is facts, figures, and values from which information is derived. A database management system is a computer based tool used to set up a database, make it available within an organization and control the integrity of those data resources. A network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. Capabilities expected from an information system are Transaction Processing System, Decision Support System, Executive Information System, Management Information System, Work flow system and Expert Systems. An Information System (IS) is nothing more than a group of interrelated elements that work together to capture, process, maintain and disseminate information. At its most basic, any IS consists of an integrated set of data inputs, processes, storage mechanisms, and outputs.

Processes consist of related tasks that are intended to achieve specific goals and objectives — they are the ongoing activities that capture. interest rate or payment amount. those loans that are in arrears. lists. It maintains relationships among items of data — for example. relate and analyze data in the system. In a computer-based system. To achieve the system’s objectives. management reports. between clients and loans or clients and savings balances — and stores and safeguards it.. In some cases.Inputs include all of the raw data that your institution gathers or generates as a part of its operations. such as a loan amount. The Information System framework identifies the major components and activities that make the information system to deliver its objective. relating and preserving the system’s data. the format and content of the output is defined by the software (a standard or preformatted report). In a manual system.3 Storage provides a means for organizing.e. these processes translate data (i. or otherwise highlight. one process might compare actual loan payment amounts against scheduled payments in order to flag. storage generally refers to database management software and a computer hard drive or other. An information system . storage may be as simple as a set of file folders and a filing cabinet. In others. transaction journals. similar device. For example. manipulate. They include financial statements. Outputs are the information that your system generates to describe or summarize your historical activities and to help guide future operations and decision-making. FRAMEWORK OF AN IS BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT INPUT/ DATA PROCESS OUTPUT / INFORMATION FEEDBACK or CONTROL STORAGE BOUNDARY A Framework is defined as a brief set of ideas for organizing a thought process about a particular type of object or situation. client name. account number. online inquiries and various other analyses. the raw facts) into useful and meaningful information. the user determines the content or format (an ad hoc or a custom report). Information becomes knowledge in the hands of people who can use it creatively to innovate and solve business problems.

 Consultants and outside service providers. processing. accounting and internal auditing personnel. An IS is nothing more than a group of interrelated elements that work together to capture. data related to accounting records.or DOS-based software programs. Manual systems are highly labor intensive. and outputs. training and cross-training are vital to maintaining the system. data and networks to perform input. either totally or in conjunction with one or more simple computer spreadsheets.A manual recordkeeping system typically includes the processes and practices that generate. A manual IS generally consists of the following elements: • Staff and consultants . process. Accounting records include such things as source documents (e. software.Comprehensive training and cross-training is vital for the staff of a manual system. • Facility and environment . At its most basic. and often the largest cost component in the IS budget. as the system is so dependent upon the people who operate and maintain it. including accountants.The requirements that a manual IS imposes on an institution’s physical facility and operating environment typically include: Furniture and equipment for staff. The outputs obtained from this type of information processing are oral or written reports or a variety of physical actions. external auditors and IT professionals. chairs and locking filing cabinets. People receive input data by seeing or hearing them.  Buildings. any IS consists of an integrated set of data inputs. transaction journals and audit records.g. staff members need to be comfortable using a keyboard and mouse. knowledgeable staffs are potentially available to accommodate an increased workload. It also allows your institution to grow somewhat more rapidly as additional. invoices and bank statements). • Recordkeeping systems . However.  Electric and communications utilities and other infrastructure.  Environmental controls.uses the resources of people. hardware. The data is stored in the brain where the manipulations are done. As such. Because manual systems are labor intensive. In a manual system. the staff generally do not require sophisticated computer skills. If portions of the system are maintained in simple spreadsheets. processes. storage mechanisms. organize and maintain data — specifically. they typically require more people to maintain than do computerized systems with similar capabilities. ledgers. the personnel include:  Clerical.People are the most important element of any IS. such as those for fire protection. and basic Windows. TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM There are two types of Information systems: Manual Information System – are systems created and maintained on paper. plus offsite record storage if available. Cross-training allows your IS to continue to function in the absence of one or more people. historical reports. and legal and administrative documents. such as Excel and Windows Explorer. maintain and disseminate information. Historical reports analyze and summarize past activities or represent the status of the institution at various points .. It is the earliest and the most prevalent form of data processing. output. including desks. storage and control activities that convert data resources into information products.

in the past — such as financial statements. Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Systems ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES . The manner in which information is communicated throughout your institution. and past-due notices. The procedures for safeguarding information and for protecting or restoring it in the event of a disaster. community surveys. also record retention and destruction policies. processing Data storage. bylaws and incorporation documents. Mechanisms for storing and preserving data. policy manuals. as they are the business activities that the systems are designed to manage. various historical and operational reports. These practices provide the foundation for the recordkeeping and information systems. They also include certain internal controls. disaster recovery record Data analysis. The procedures for entering data into the system and manipulating it. or the loss of key personnel. dissemination reporting. such as a flood or fire. such as locking file cabinets. and legal and administrative documents. Legal and administrative documents include loan agreements and payment schedules. as necessary. Activities related to manual recordkeeping include the following: Activity Data gathering Description The manner in which data is generated and collected for input to the manual system. audits and disaster recovery practices intended to safeguard the information assets. performance indicator/ratio reports and a broad range of operating and management reports. informationsystem audits • Business practices and procedures .The business policies and practices reflect the institution’s mission and culture as well as the overall strategy and tactics in its business plan. visitation reports. Manual recordkeeping systems maintain accounting records. maintenance Data security. Internal controls. Those practices intended to ensure the integrity of the data in the manual system. loan application forms. business plans. Data recording. protection. training records. to calculate or otherwise provide needed information.

A computer-based IS consists of a number of integrated elements. The personnel involved in establishing and maintaining such a system include:  Clerical. including IT consultants and external auditors. has data processing capabilities. and user support staff (if you maintain an in-house IT function). it is a cause for concern the chance of successfully concluding the project is reduced. people are the most important component of a computerized IS. not willing to keep you informed. For existing staff.As with manual systems. It is essential that you find consultants you are comfortable working with.* Less expensive. initially * No computer-literacy requirements * Adaptable * Places fewer demands on infrastructure * Expensive as organization grows * Quality is less assured the * Requires strong internal controls * Security can be problematical * Lower productivity * Limited growth potential * Lack of institutional memory Computer-based Information System – It is an information system that uses hardware and software to perform its information processing activities. The same person can act as your liaison with IT consultants to coordinate support requests and other necessary work. It consists of people. you should assign at least one staff person with the responsibility for maintaining a library of your hardware and software documentation and other computer-related records. and that communicate effectively with them and the other staff members. and that those consultants are willing and able to communicate using language that you can understand. such as preventive maintenance schedules and repair history. data. . accounting and internal audit staff. consultants and vendors . Consider replacing the consultant as soon as is practical. and as a communication device by giving the required outputs. Cross-training among the staff is important in a computerized system to ensure that the system continues to function in the absence of one or more people. If a consultant is not responsive to your requests.  Programmers. Computer-based information systems are highly automated systems that are created and maintained on either a standalone computer or a networked computer system. If you outsource your IT work. including: • Staff. system and hardware support/maintenance persons. It serves as a data storage and retrieval device. Hire consultants that the management is comfortable with on a personal level. or implies that any part of the project is too technical for you to understand. programs and computers. including existing personnel and any additional people deemed appropriate for the new system. a new system may involve new or altered responsibilities and working relationships.  Consultants and outside service providers. procedures.

language translators and utility programs to manage such routine tasks as backups and data compression. on the other hand. Some software vendors provide access . scanners. The programs are referred to as applications (or. and creates portions of the user interface. • System software .location systems) and modems. such as network hardware (for multi-user and multi. such as desktop computers (CPUs) and servers. such as keyboards. Applications are developed. they can share the same client file. monitors (computer screens). thereby approximating the operation of an integrated system. such as a client file or chart of accounts. it is an off-the-shelf application (also referred to as turnkey or commercially available). However. It manages the various hardware devices and interface with applications software. and the client borrowing or repaying loaned funds. owned. lending.• Computer hardware . If they are not integrated. smart cards and voice recognition equipment. this approach might not be practical if the underlying data and processing structures of the applications differ significantly. based on your standard practices and operations. it is theoretically possible to develop software programs to link them. usually supplied by the hardware manufacturer. the application was acquired from a software vendor that markets it commercially to other institutions. scanners and backup drives.  Output devices. bar code readers. Many software vendors do not provide customers with source code for their products. An application’s programming language is the coding scheme that instructs the system to perform desired actions. mice. Processing devices. in high-level programming languages such as C. If you purchase two or more standalone applications. If. If an application is developed specifically for use by your institution. sometimes. This eliminates redundant data storage.The hardware element of a computer-based IS typically consists of the following categories of equipment:  Input devices. If these applications are integrated. word processors and spreadsheets are generally considered to be software applications to automate business processes.   Telecommunications devices. Taken together. COBOL or Visual Basic. it is a custom application and. that control and coordinate the workings of all of your computer hardware devices. • Application software . Integrated applications generally share access to information in the database. For ex: savings and lending applications require basic client information to identify the specific client that is depositing or withdrawing savings. accounts payable and inventory. each will maintain its own client information.refers to the basic set of computer programs. System software also manages the interaction between your computer hardware and software applications. These links also can be expensive to create and maintain. General ledger (GL)/accounting. these instructions are referred to as source code. most likely. or written.Applications are user-oriented software programs that automate business processes. including printers. It also includes communications software. modules) because each automates a specific business function. savings.

together. the general field-record-file concepts are still relevant. a client record includes all of the data related to one client (e. a loan number or a loan disbursement date. records and files that contain your organization’s current and historical data. keyboard trays and wrist rests. Field — the numbers and characters that. humidity and fire protection. Depending on the type of database (e. Additional software programs. Record — a collection of related fields. These practices provide the foundation for IS. address). as they are the business activities that the system is designed to manage. the related policies and procedures are likely to change somewhat. If there is a change in the system. However. • Information database . ii. v. plus an offsite data storage facility. for example. hierarchical or relational). Computer systems generally also require some form of generator or uninterruptible power supply (UPS). A technical discussion of database concepts is beyond the scope of this guide. filing cabinets. Furniture and equipment.. different terms may be used. desks. Temperature and humidity requirements for your computer hardware are detailed in the documentation supplied by the manufacturer. as well as the overall strategy and tactics in its business plan. you cannot make changes or implement your own enhancements. represent one business fact. A more sophisticated system . collectively referred to as the DBMS (or database management system). Electric and communications utilities and other infrastructure. The database also establishes and maintains the relationships between all of the items of data. If you do not have source code.g. while others provide source code for an additional fee. as well. age. such as chairs. iii. name. manage the interface between the database and the software applications. vi. • Physical facility and environment .The business policies and practices are an important part of your computerized IS. such as those for temperature..g.The demands on your institution’s physical facility and environment are more complex for a computer-based system than for a manual system. for example. IT library or other central location for system and software manuals and other reference materials. if limited portions of the source code. client number. Environmental controls. File — a collection or related records. For ex: a client name. They include: i. Buildings. • Business practices and procedures . They reflect the organization’s mission and culture. gender. a client file includes all of the records for all of your clients.The system’s database is comprised of the fields. iv.

accommodates more sophisticated practices.. The physical facility and the business policies and practices are a vital part of — and provide the foundation for — your information system. audits and disaster recovery practices intended to safeguard your information assets. * Enhances productivity * Provides more sophisticated capabilities * Facilitates growth * Develops institutional memory * Utilizes staff more efficiently * Enhances data security * Automates important security controls * Increased productivity and a reduced potential for error and timing issues. DISADVANTAGES * More expensive to establish * Places greater demands on the infrastructure * Requires computer-literate staff * Can generate voluminous data * Potentially inflexible in core processes FUNCTIONS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM . The business practices also include certain internal controls. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer-Based Systems ADVANTAGES * Ensures the quality of information * Less expensive to operate medium-to-large sophisticated operations.

to a challenge posed by the environment Is an important instrument for creating value for the organization Transforms through various stages in the business information value chain to add value to information Literacy includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems and technical knowledge about computers Denotes Computer literacy is knowledge about information technology. .A BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS An Information system Represents an organizational and management solution. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES Design competitive and effective systems Understand system requirements of global business environment Create information architecture that supports organization’s goal Determine business value of information systems Design systems people can control. focusing on understanding how computer-based technologies work. based on information technology. understand and use in a socially. ethically responsible manner.

COMPETITIVE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Four powerful worldwide changes that have altered the business environment: Emergence of the Global Economy Management and control in a global marketplace Competition in world markets Global work groups Global delivery systems Transformation of Industrial Economies Knowledge. vast opportunities for lifelong learning.  Management Information Systems (MIS) is a field of study that offers great excitement.Turbulent environment Limited employee knowledge base Transformation of the Business Enterprise Flattening Decentralization Flexibility Location independence Low transaction and coordination costs Empowerment Collaborative work and teamwork Emergence of the Digital Firm Digitally-enabled relationships with customers. and employees Core business processes accomplished via digital networks Digital management of key corporate assets Rapid sensing and responding to environmental changes. and a chance to be at the leading edge of the tremendous changes in our world.and information-based economies Productivity New products and services Knowledge: a central productive and strategic asset Time-based competition Shorter product life . DEFINITION OF MIS MIS is the study of information system focusing on their use in business and management. . suppliers.

updating.A Management Information System is used to transform data into useful information as needed to support managerial decision-making with structured decisions which are those that are based on predictable patterns of activity. economics and psychology that arise in the development of long term maintenance of Technical . Behavioural approach – which is concerned with behavioral issues by sociology. (i) Storing. as well as physical Technology and formal capabilities of these Systems. 1986. collecting and processing it. APRO S TE YS The contemporary approaches found in MIS are: Technical approach – which is a combination of computer science. The Technical approach to Information System emphasizes mathematically based model to study Information Systems. there are four major tasks of a typical MIS: Data gathering Data entry Data transformation and Information utilization. (ii) Supplying the processed information to the various users managing the organization. management science and operations research with a practical orientation towards building systems and applications. A Management Information System is a network of communication channels and information processing centers collecting information from its source of origin. According to McLeod.

OBJECTIVES OF MIS The basic objectives of MIS are: To provide requisite information support for managerial functions within the organization To make available. (iv) To retrieve information about internal operations from databases those have been updated by TPS.information systems such as Strategic Business Integration. Design. To ensure that wrong and unwanted information is not generated and data overload is avoided. (iii) To provide information regarding products in advance to the managers. SCOPE OF MIS The scope of MIS is: (i) To provide managerial end users with information products that supports much of their day to day decision-making needs. right information at the right place at the right time at the lowest cost. utilization and Management cannot be explored usefully with the Models used in the Technical approach. .  Sociotechnical approach – In this perspective. CHARACTERISTICS OF MIS Jerome Kanter has listed the following characteristics of MIS: MIS is management oriented Management directed Integrated system (5 Ms) Avoids redundancy in data storage Common data flow Heavy planning element Sub-system concept Common database Flexibility and ease of use and Computerization. the performance of a System is optimized when both the Technology and the Organization mutually adjust to one another until a satisfactory fit is obtained. Implementation. (ii) To provide a variety of reports and displays to management. (v) To obtain data about business environment from external sources and to serve the management.

Money. software. 4. Subsystem concept: MIS gives provision for breaking into various subsystems based on activity as well as the functions of the organization. MIS is the ‘catalyst and nerve centre’ of an organization. unique databases and common database. 8. Common data flow tries to utilize minimum data processing effort and strives to minimize the number of output documents and reports. who meet the information requirement. It has a number of subsystems. accuracy. Management directed: Since MIS requires heavily planning and investment. Machines and Methods are the basic resources of management information and is recognized as an important factor and its effective uses contributes to the success of the management . Common data flow: To achieve the objective of integration and to avoid duplication and redundancy in data gathering storage and retrieval. The system is easy to operate so that not much computer skills are required on the part of the user to access database for information or for carrying out special analysis of data.1. Common database: Its acts as a master that holds the functional subsystems together. 9. Avoids redundancy in data storage: Since MIS is an integrated system. it becomes necessarily that they have to be viewed as an integrated system. This type of integration can avoid duplication. . Flexibility and ease of use: MIS has been designed flexible enough to accommodate new requirements. 10. 3. simplify operations and produce an effective MIS. data processing operations information presentation and feedback. so that effective implementation of each subsystem is possible at a time.. The development of the systems starts after deciding the management needs and keeping in view the overall objectives of the management. it avoids unnecessary duplication and redundancy in data gathering and storage. 5. humanware. It binds databases of all subsystems of the business system and through information interchange. avoid human errors etc. This provides speed in creating and accessing files. 2. 6. reduction in clerical work. MIS is management oriented: The designing of MIS takes care of the managers. integrates the organization. But separate files should be opened which are significant to one application with the use of common data flow. data capturing is usually confined to original sources and it is done only once. implementation and maintenance of system. so that the result is balanced. 7. Materials. Computerization: MIS can be computerized because of its nature as a comprehensive system. It achieves this aim by allowing access to different master files of data to several functional subsystems. consistency an data processing. management is deeply involved in the design. In order to make these an integrated systems effective. Integrated System: Five Ms – Men. Data requirements for different levels of management also supports the need of than one database. Heavy planning element: Design and implementation of MIS require detailed and meticulous planning of such activities as acquisition and deployment of hardware.

M .IMPORTANCE OF MIS MIS affects all areas of business Manufacturing Accounting & Finance Human resources Marketing Top management and Performance evaluations— expectations.

Changes in production and distribution methods . extranets and other enterprise and global networks) Evolution of Management Information System Information system is as old as recorded human history.Management accounting and its applications . An information system generates information using data.EVOLUTION OF MIS Factors which influenced the evolution and fast growth of MIS: . In the third millennium BC. Management information is reported on an exceptional basis for managerial decision-making or action. and interorganizational computing. . accounting and other applications) 1960 to 1970 – MIS (Management reports of prespecified information to support decisionmaking) 1970 to 1980 – DSS (Decision Support System – interactive adhoc support of the managerial decision-making process) 1980’s and 1990’s .Management theory and techniques . communications and collaboration. including global operations and management on the internet. record keeping. intranets.Introduction of computer into business data processing. enterprise. out of the temple grain store. The evolution of various computer-based information systems are as follows: 1950 to 1960 – EDP (Electronic Data Processing – including transaction processing. the whole system is called ‘Management Information System’.Strategic End User Support End User Computing Systems – Direct computing support for end user productivity and work group collaboration Executive Information System (EIS) – Vital information for top management Expert Systems (ES) – Knowledge-based expert advice for end users Strategic Information Systems (SIS) – Strategic products and services for competitive advantage 2000’s – Enterprise and Global Internet Working (For end user. If the information systems generate information useful for managers in planning and control.Development of management science . The Sumerians used clay tablets for recording receipts and issues of grains to individuals. the earliest use of information system discovered was in a Sumerian temple.

Nolons stage theory is one that looks at the growth of stages of MIS in firms.The evolution of MIS and its fast growth in the last few decades can be attributed to the following factors: • • • • • Growth of management theory and techniques. Strategic Information Systems: Strategic products and services for competitive advantage. Growth of management accounting and applications in business. Electronic data processing (EDP) (including transaction processing. • Executive Information Systems: Vital information for top management. Introduction of computer in business data processing and the developments in information technology. . He categorized application systems into: • Clerical systems.record accounting and other EDP applications) keeping 1950’s – 1960s 3 . • • Expert Systems: Knowledge based expert advice for end users. Evolution of Various Computer Based Information Systems: 1 . Another way to study the evolution of MIS is to look at the various application subsystems forming a part of it. These applications systems constitute the MIS. Changes in production and distribution methods and the consequent changes in the organizational structure. Gary Dickson proposed a model of information system developed based on the organization structure and its information needs. • Programmed systems. 2 . • Decision support systems. 4 . Development of management science. In 1968 . Management Reporting Management information systems(MIS) 1960s – 1970s (Management reports of prespecified information to support decision making) Decision Support Decision support systems(DSS) 1970s – 1980s (Interactive ad hoc support of the managerial decision making process) Stategic End User Support (SEUS) • End user computing systems: Direct computing 1980s – 1990s support for end user productivity and work group collaboration. • Information systems.

Enterprise and Global Internet Working Internet worked information system. WHY ORGANIZATION The key elements of an organization are its: .5 . A six step process for analyzing a business problem involving information systems is as follows: Identify the problem Analyze and select the best solution to the problem among the alternatives Analyze the value of the firm provided by this solution Identify the technologies to be used to generate the solution Identify the changes to the organizational processes that will be required by the solution Identify the right management policy that will be required to implement the solution. organization and technology issues. 1990s – 2000s HOW TO ANALYSE A BIS (BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEM) PROBLEM? IS problems in the business world represent a combination of management.

that has been accepted by most of the members. and the software governing the organization of data on these physical media.) actually produce the organization’s products or services. The major business functions. accounting. Production or Service workers (machinists. Culture – Each organization has a unique culture. Senior Managers make long-range strategic decisions about what products and services to produce. clerks. etc. processing. Managers perceive business challenges in the environment. Computer Software consists of the detailed programmed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system. and output activities in an Information system. consist of sales and marketing. and human resources. People – Organizations require many kinds of people and skills. Politics – Different levels and specialties in an organization create different interests and points of view which lead to conflict. .. and way of doing things. manufacturing. architects. Operational Managers are responsible for monitoring the firm’s daily activities. MANAGEMENT Management’s job is to make sense out of many situations faced by organizations. or specialized tasks performed by business organizations. TECHNOLOGY Information Technology is one of many tools managers use to cope with change.Structure – An organization coordinates work through a structured hierarchy where people are arranged in a pyramid structure of rising authority and responsibility. Storage technology includes both the physical media for storing data such as magnetic tape or optical disk. make decisions. etc.. Conflict is the basis for organizational politics. In addition to Managers. Middle Managers carry out the programs and plans of senior management.) design products or services and create new knowledge and Data workers (secretaries.) process the organization’s paperwork. etc. or a fundamental set of assumptions. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – SOPs are formal rules for accomplishing tasks that have been developed to cope with expected situations. packers. values. It is important to note that managerial roles and decisions vary at different levels of the organization. Computer Hardware is the physical equipment used for input.. Knowledge workers (engineers. finance. and formulate action plans to solve organizational problems. they set the organizational strategy and coordinate the work.

A Digital Firm is one where nearly all of the organization’s significant business relationships with customers. data and storage technology. and networks providing a portfolio of shared information technology resources for the organization. Information Architecture is the particular form that information technology takes in an organization to achieve selected goals or functions. consisting of both physical devices and software. links the various pieces of hardware and transfers data from one physical location to another.Communication Technology. suppliers. software. It is a design for the firm’s key business application systems and the specific ways that are used by each organization. The IT infrastructure provides the foundation or platform on which the firm can build its specific information systems. A Network links two or more computers to share data or resources such as a printer. and employees are digitally enabled and mediated. The Information Technology (IT) infrastructure consists of the computer hardware. . DIGITAL FIRM INFOR IT INF Intensive use of Information technology in business firms coupled with equally significant organizational redesign. has created the conditions for a new phenomenon in industrial society – the fully Digital Firm.

Customer Relationship Management Systems attempt to develop a coherent. and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge. By digitally enabling and streamlining their work. and other digital technologies. giving them more flexibility to survive in turbulent situations. There are four major systems that help the digital firm. namely: Supply Chain Management Systems automate the relationship between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning. sourcing. manufacturing. services. capture. storage. and human resources. Knowledge Management Systems support the creation. buyers and sellers to exchange information. and delivery of products and services. Digital market – Information systems links.EMERGING DIGITAL FIRM Digital Firms sense and respond to the business environments far more rapidly than traditional firms. Electronic business – The use of internet and digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise. payments. Enterprise Systems create an integrated enterprise-wide information system to coordinate key internal processes of the firm. networks. products. integrated view of all the relationships a firm maintains with its customers . integrating the data from manufacturing and distribution. digital firms have the potential to achieve unprecedented levels of profitability and competitiveness. sales. It includes e-commerce as well as processes for the internal management of the firm and for coordination with suppliers and other business partners. . finance. Emerging Digital Firm consists of: Electronic commerce – The process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the internet.

effective. and digitally enabled? The Globalization Challenge: How can firms understand the business and systems requirements of a global economic environment? The Information Architecture and Infrastructure Challenge: How can organizations develop an information architecture and information technology infrastructure that can support their goals when business conditions and technologies are changing so rapidly? Information Architecture – particular form that IT takes in an organization to achieve selected goals or functions The IS Investment Challenge: How can organizations determine the business value of information systems? The Responsibility and Control Challenge: How can organizations ensure that their information systems are used in ethically and socially responsible manner? .FIVE KEY MANAGEMENT ISSUES OF THE DIGITAL FIRM Strategic Business Challenge: How can businesses use information technology to become competitive.

The concepts that can be considered to it are: . developed and implemented as needed. highly integrated system would bring together processing for all organizational subsystems.MIS – AN EVOLVING CONCEPT When the concept of MIS was first introduced. but conforming to the overall plan.Store and process data . MIS is a combination of computers and procedures for providing information that managers use in making decisions. FUNCTIONS OF MIS A MIS is used to collect data.Information Resources Management (IRM) .End-user computing.Decision Support Systems (DSS) .Collect data . many proponents thought a single. store and process data and present information to managers. standards and procedures for the MIS.Present information to managers . The functions of MIS are: . It was demonstrated to be too complex to implement Now the latest concept is a “Federation of sub-systems”. MIS as a concept continues to evolve.

middle management and top management. Both vertical and horizontal integration exists among all four information levels – operational level.INFORM INFORMATION SYSTEM LEVELS Information systems meet not only operational needs. For ex: The finance and HR personnel payroll system based on employee-related data elements common to both personnel and payroll. VENDO HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION Horizontal Integration may occur within or between major systems. VERTICAL INTEGRATION PURCHASING RECEIVING Vertical Integration of an information system within production occurs as follows: Functional – machine assignment Supervisory – machine scheduling Tactical – Make or buy decision Strategic – new product design T M . lower management. but also three levels of management needs.

. Data Administration – is a DRM function that involves the establishment and enforcement of policies and procedures for managing data. system analysts. Its major components are: Database Administration – is a DRM function that includes responsibility for developing and maintaining the organization’s data. etc.FEEDBACK AND CONTROL Essentials to the design of any management system: Control is the process of comparing an actual output with a desired output for the purpose of improving the performance of a system. Feedback is the action taken to bring the difference between an actual output and a desired output within an acceptable range. DATA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT It is a managerial activity that applies IS technology and management tools to the task of managing an organization’s data resources. Data Planning – is a corporate planning and analysis function that focuses on DRM. It helps in developing overall information policy and data architecture for the firm’s data resources. designing and monitoring the performance of databases and enforcing security. Processing Transactions Maintaining Master file Produce Reports Process Inquiries Process Interactive Support Applications Outputs for users The user of MIS provides inputs and receives outputs in the following types: Transaction Documents Preplanned Reports Preplanned inquiries responses Adhoc reports and Inquiry responses User Machine dialog.. computer operators. Processing functions which include. Hardware – machines and media Software – system and application software Database – collection of data Standard Operating Procedures – manual or instruction booklet • Operating Personnel – programmers. OPERATING ELEMENTS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM The operating elements of an IS are: Physical components which include.

The records are integrated because a database contains multiple files and the records within those files are processed by relationship to one another. into three main categories. Types of Information Information may be classified on the basis of the purpose for which it is utilized. understanding and/or retrieval. DATABASE PROCESSING A database is a self describing collection of integrated records. information retrieval or report generation. It contains a directory or dictionary of its contents. It is organized data that has been arranged for better comprehension. It is translation of a given set of data or items into a set of quantitative or qualitative symbols. namely: . understanding and/or retrieval. Database Processing is utilizing a database for data processing activities such as maintenance.Data Dictionary – is a software module and database containing description and definitions concerning the organization databases like structure data elements Inter-relationships other characteristics. INFORMATION Information is organized data that has been arranged for better comprehension. A Data Processing system processes transactions and produces reports. What is one person's information can become another person's data. It represents the automation of fundamental routine processing to support operations. It is the execution of a systematic sequence of operations performed upon data to transform it into information. Information reduces uncertainty and triggers action. Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real or perceived value in current or prospective actions or decisions.

. who.  Accuracy – means that information is free from mistakes and errors is clear and accurately reflects the meaning of data on which it is based. This type of information is generally based on data arising from current activities of the organization. It usually deals with current activity data. For ex: current stocks-in-hand. For ex: sales analyses and forecasts. etc. production resource requirements.  Operational information – applies to short periods which may vary from an hour to a few days. outstanding orders from customers. competitors.  Tactical information – is used in short-term planning and is of use at management control level. when. why.  Completeness – Information provided to a manager must be complete and should meet all his needs. This relates to long-term planning policies of the organization as a whole. Some of the attributes of information. Incomplete information may result in wrong decisions which may prove costly to the organization. rather he should be able to extract the required information directly. For ex: Information pertaining to new products. where.  Explicitness – Information received by a manager should be in such a way that he does not waste any time on processing the report. Attributes of Information Quality of information refers to its fitness for use.  Relevance – Information is relevant only if it answers specifically for the recipient what.  Exception-based – Information which results in saving precious time of the top management and enables the management to devote more time in pursuit of alternatives for the growth of the organization. etc. It is required for taking immediate action. annual financial statements. or its reliability. which influence the quality of information are:  Timeliness – means that information must reach the recipients within the prescribed timeframe. new technologies. etc. work-in-progress levels. Strategic information – is required by managers at the strategic level of management for the formulation of organizational strategies. and why?  Adequacy – means information must be sufficient in quantity which is required in the deciding processes of decision-making.

Generation of information costs money. The change in the behavior due to new information is measured to determine the benefits from its use. • Possession utility – the person who has the information influences its value by controlling its dissemination to others in the organization. It is because of the fact that managers at different levels are required to perform different functions in an organization. if available when needed. • Time utility – Information. Utility – Utilities of information which may facilitate or retard its use are • Form utility – Information should closely match the requirements of the user. To arrive at the value of new information. (iii) Technical dimension – refers to the technical aspects of the database.. the cost incurred to get this information is deducted from the benefits. The information needs of managers at strategic planning level are altogether different from those of operational control managers. Various aspects of the database which include the capacity of database. The value of information is the value of the change in decision behavior because of the information. Dimensions of Information Information may be understood to have the following three dimensions. response time. are required for the design of information. data interrelationship. The cost is related to the response time required to generate information and communicate it. . validity. Measuring costs and benefits of information is difficult because of intangible characteristics of information. (ii) Business dimension – Different types of information are required by managers at different levels of the management hierarchy. has a greater value. namely: (i) Economic dimension – refers to the cost of information and its benefits. • Place utility – Value of information is more if it can be accessed or delivered easily. The costs of information include: Cost of acquiring data Cost of maintaining data Cost of generating information and Cost of communicating information. etc. security.

Human/Machine Resources. Software Engineering is considered a subset of ISEM.The underlying philosophy behind Information Resource Management (IRM) is to design. these resources can be shared and re-used throughout the corporation. not just by a single user or application. Inputs. and Data Bases. Files (computer and manual). Sub-Systems (business processes). Panels. Call Parameters. and Subroutines. Administrative Procedures (manual procedures and office automation related). Positions (Jobs). Maps. both logically and physically. . Skills. Computer Procedures. These three classes of information resources provide the rationale as to why there are three complementary methodologies within "PRIDE". and Information Requirements. There are three classes of information resources: BUSINESS RESOURCES – are Enterprises. Views. Programs. Operational Steps. ENTERPRISE ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY (EEM) – for defining the mission and goals of the business and the development of an Enterprise Information Strategy synchronized with the business. IN FOR M A AN SYSTEM RESOURCES – Systems. Objects. DATA BASE ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY (DBEM) – to design and develop the corporate data base. Modules. When standardized and controlled. Outputs. inventory and control all of the resources required to produce information. Projects. INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY (ISEM) – for designing and building enterprise-wide information systems (business processes crossing organizational boundaries). Business Objectives. Business Functions. Storage Records. DATA RESOURCES – Data Elements.

Other benefits include:  All information resources are controllable. and Organizational psychology. communication. The five dimensions of IRM include: (1) Strategic management.  Cost-benefit analysis and valuation of Information resource that is derived from Finance and Business management. These can be listed as follows:  Database design and development that is derived from Computer sciences. (2) Resource management.  Complete and current documentation of all information resources. Information resource management has become a popular way to emphasize a major change in the management and mission of the information systems function in many organizations. One of the important by-products of cataloging and cross-referencing information resources is a model of the enterprise. permitting the ability to design integrated systems and perform an "impact analysis" of a proposed resource change. IRM may be viewed as having five major dimensions: A management concept that views data.  Classification of data and information retrieval that is derived from librarian and Information sciences. (3) Functional management. and computer resources (computer hardware. all of which would be in standard business terminology. In many organizations. The methodologies promote design correctness and the production of a quality product.Each methodology consists of a series of defined phases. software. and personnel) as valuable organizational resources that should be efficiently. Redundancy of resource definition is eliminated. . Techniques of Information Resource Management is derived from the fields that have been associated with the Information Systems. information.  Communications within the organization is improved since developers and users would use standard and common definitions for information resources. Laced throughout the methodologies are defined deliverables and review points to substantiate completeness and to provide an effective dialog between management and developers. activities and operations. economically. and effectively managed for the benefit of the entire organization. in an organized and meaningful way.  Information Systems and Technology Audits that is derived from other Audit Systems like finance.  Simplified search of information resources for reuse.  Document life cycle that is derived from Records management. energy etc. including how it is organized and how it operates. (4) Technology management.

and IS personnel are vital organizational resources that must be managed like other business assets. and communicate data and information throughout the enterprise should be managed as integrated systems of organizational resources. not just for operational efficiency or decision making. telecommunications networks. . Operational Management Information technology and information systems can be managed by functional organizational structures and managerial techniques commonly used throughout other business units. Distributed Management Managing the use of information technology and information system resources in business units or workgroups is a key responsibility of their managers.(5) Distributed management. store. Resource Management Data and information. Technology Management All technologies that process. hardware and software. no matter what their function or level in the organization. Strategic Management Information technology must be managed to contribute to a firm’s strategic objectives and competitive advantages.

evaluation. sabotage and assassination. including information about the natural environment (Shulsky and Schmitt. analyzing. Intelligence Bureau (India) The Intelligence Bureau is India's internal intelligence agency and reputedly the world's oldest intelligence agency. See also data warehousing. and actions of people. It was formed in September 1968. intelligence typically regards the current plans. counter-terrorism and covert operations. high-tech surveillance equipment. and making use of information. and the abstraction. and understanding of such information for its accuracy and value.) refers to discrete or secret information with currency and relevance. Intelligence cycle management The intelligence cycle is a investigation process used by end users (commander of a task force or supervisor of an investigation unit). It involves spying. look-outs. as it was evident that a credible intelligence gathering setup was lacking. • Military intelligence is an element of warfare which covers all aspects of gathering. Depending on the national policy. Sometimes called "active data" or "active intelligence". Its primary function is collection of external intelligence. and also secret agents. or collection and analysis. Well-known national intelligence organizations India • • Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) Intelligence Bureau (IB) Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) Is India's external intelligence agency. Business intelligence denotes the public or secret information that an organization obtains about its competitors and markets. after the newly independent Republic of India was faced with 2 consecutive wars. some intelligence agencies engage in clandestine and covert activities beyond espionage such as political subversion. 2002). as these may have urgency or may otherwise be considered "valuable" from the point of view of the intelligence-gathering entity. or intel. over enemy forces and the ground.INTELLIGENCE: Intelligence (abbreviated int. serves a function for organizations similar to that which intelligence (trait) serves for individual humans and animals. some governments have other organizations for covert action. the Sino-Indian war of 1962 and the India-Pakistani war of 1965. when done properly. Other agencies strictly limit themselves to analysis. which allows that user to gather specific . • Intelligence as used here. decisions.[1] It was recast as the Central Intelligence Bureau in 1947 under the Ministry of Home Affairs.

A marketing executive who wants to know what his or her competitors are planning. or 3. reliable information) is intended to help decision-makers at every level to make informed decisions. without additional cues). An infantry officer who wants to know what is on the other side of the next hill. tone deafness is what neuropsychologists would call a selective deficit: a problem with a particular area or skill center in the brain. When the same skill center is highly developed. and e) The next set of priorities is determined. then we can expect to find several different types of mental ability (or disability) corresponding to strengths (or weaknesses) in specialized areas. c) This information is analyzed. depending on how well various parts of the brain function. An intelligence "consumer" might be: 1. nor can they be expected to be. and often include measures of confidence and reliability).g. Intelligence organizations are not. intelligence (the gathering and analysis of accurate. understand the possibilities of that information. military and business affairs. an analyst (c) may require more information (b). infallible (intelligence reports are often referred to as "estimates". d) The processed information is disseminated.information. the result is an acute sensitivity to melody and sometimes perfect pitch (the ability to identify the pitch of notes played in isolation. Studies of savants and brain damaged patients helped to lead researcher Howard Gardner to a theory of multiple kinds of intelligence described in his book Frames of Mind (1983). but when properly managed and tasked. For example.. b) Raw information is collected. A person can be a selective genius (a savant) or a person can have a selective deficit (missing or defective skill). can be among the most valuable tools of management and government The Nine Types of Intelligence By Howard Gardner If distinct parts of the brain perform distinct functions. A person with tone deafness cannot "carry a tune" because he or she literally does not hear melody like other people. . The related field of counterintelligence is tasked with impeding the intelligence efforts of others. Sub cycles also exist: e. A head of government who wants to know the probability that a foreign leader will go to war over a certain point. Within the context of government. and the limitations of the intelligence process. or 2. The intelligence cycle is the continuous process by which: a) Intelligence priorities are set.

vocalist. musicians. which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“Body Smart”) Bodily kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. and detectives. and inductive and deductive thinking patterns. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are leaders among their peers. surgeons. and mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking processes. are good at communicating. animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds. and relationships. Teachers. the ability to note distinctions among others. Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians. why do we die.1. as demonstrated by composers. . and how did we get here. scientists. Young adults with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns. It involves effective verbal and nonverbal communication. there is often an affective connection between music and the emotions. quantify. create. and carry out complete mathematical operations. 5. reproduce. They are drawn to arithmetic problems. 6. and the like. Athletes. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss. sneakers. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters. symbolic thought. Interestingly. Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”) Designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants. Interpersonal Intelligence (People Smart”) Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. This intelligence enables us to recognize. Musical Intelligence (“Musical Smart”) Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch. and farmers. and tone. and sensitive listeners. rock configurations). it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. 3. timbre. It enables us to perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract. categories. and reflect on music. social workers. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills through mind–body union. kinds of makeup. rhythm. dancers. consider propositions and hypotheses. and politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves. and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. strategy games and experiments 4. gatherers. sequential reasoning skills. and seem to understand others’ feelings and motives. 2. conductors. actors. such as the meaning of life. sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others. Existential Intelligence Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence. and craftspeople exhibit well-developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (Number/Reasoning Smart) Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate. It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences.

Linguistic intelligence is the most widely shared human competence and is evident in poets. telling stories or doing crossword puzzles. The tools generally read data that have been previously stored.[2] The typical applications of OLAP are in business reporting for sales. spatial reasoning. sculptors. often. . marketing. sort. and industry analysis. reading. or spend free time drawing or daydreaming. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Business intelligence is a general term used to refer to a number of activities a company may undertake to gather information about their market or their competitors. and an active imagination. Some areas often included under the blanket heading of business intelligence are: competition analysis.[1] OLAP is part of the broader category of business intelligence. 8. Spatial Intelligence (“Picture Smart”) Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. and philosophers. market analysis. which also encompasses relational reporting and data mining. and to use such knowledge in planning and directioning one’s life. Types of business intelligence tools The key general categories of business intelligence tools are: • • • Spreadsheets Reporting and querying software . journalists. Sailors. but also of the human condition.7. spiritual leaders. or OLAP (pronounced /ˈoʊlæp/). is an approach to quickly answer multi-dimensional analytical queries. novelists. in a data warehouse or data mart. Core capacities include mental imagery. Business intelligence tools are a type of application software designed to report. and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. pilots. Young adults with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing. They are very aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated. Intra-personal intelligence involves not only an appreciation of the self. Intra-personal Intelligence (Self Smart”) Intra-personal intelligence is the capacity to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and feelings. Linguistic Intelligence (Word Smart) Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. It is evident in psychologist. Young adults with this kind of intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles. management reporting. summarize. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and meaning of words and to apply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use of language. though not necessarily. These young adults may be shy. graphic and artistic skills. 9. and present selected data OLAP Online analytical processing. painters. analyze and present data. Some people also consider industrial espionage that operates for information-gathering purposes to be a form of business intelligence.are tools that extract. image manipulation. and effective public speakers.

the audit trails of a workflow management system. • Process mining Process mining is a process management technique. such as marketing. For example. organizational. Inability to find patterns may become a cause for some disputes between customers and service providers. that allow for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. The discovery of a particular pattern in a particular set of data does not necessarily mean that a pattern is found elsewhere in the larger data from which that sample was drawn. They borrow aspects of navigational databases and hierarchical databases that are faster than relational databases.[4] Databases configured for OLAP use a multidimensional data model. For example. Data mining is becoming an increasingly important tool to transform these data into information. Data mining can be used to uncover patterns in data but is often carried out only on samples of data. The mining process will be ineffective if the samples are not a good representation of the larger body of data. control. The dimensions form the rows and columns of the matrix. Process mining aims at improving this by providing techniques and tools for discovering process. It is commonly used in a wide range of profiling practices. The term OLAP was created as a slight modification of the traditional database term OLTP (Online Transaction Processing). and from one or more remote sites on the Web and present it as though it all came from the same source • Data mining Is the process of extracting patterns from data. the measures form the values.[5] The output of an OLAP query is typically displayed in a matrix (or pivot) format. • Digital Dashboards In management information systems. data. a product might obtain information from the local operating system in a computer. The basic idea is to extract knowledge from event logs recorded by an information system. surveillance. and social structures from event logs Process mining techniques are often used when no formal description of the process can be obtained by other means. the transaction logs of an enterprise . An important part of the process is the verification and validation of patterns on other samples of data. a dashboard is an executive information system user interface that (similar to an automobile's dashboard) is designed to be easy to read. allowing for complex analytical and ad-hoc queries with a rapid execution time. Therefore data mining is not fool proof but may be useful if sufficiently representative data samples are collected. from one or more applications that may be running. fraud detection and scientific discovery. Data mining cannot show up patterns that may be present in the larger body of data if those patterns are not present in the sample being "mined". financial reporting and similar process management (BPM)[3]. or when the quality of an existing documentation is questionable. budgeting and forecasting.

Data Observatory is a more widely used term internationally particularly within the area of public health where sites which often include this type of statistical reporting application are often termed a Health observatory Except for spreadsheets. BOM (Business Operations Management). BPI (Business process intelligence) illustrate the interest in supporting the diagnosis functionality in the context of Business Process Management technology (e. Another widely used and largely synonymous term is Data Observatory. For thousand of enterprise users in a variety of industries and levels of responsibility. Contemporary management trends such as BAM (Business Activity Monitoring). Workflow Management Systems but also other process-aware information systems).g. organizations. The tools are sometimes packaged into data warehouse appliances. As long as organization and delivery of information is your primary goal. Spotfire provides indispensable analytic applications. primarily in the UK public sector.. primarily in North America. and products. these ubiquitous applications offer many benefits—and a few limitations. Moreover. and the electronic patient records in a hospital can be used to discover models describing processes. components of ERP systems. Intended to make information a tool for competitive gain. these tools are sold as standalone tools. To date it is not widely used elsewhere although other terms like Community Information Systems apply to solutions. But reporting is the real key to success in exploiting information for advantage. • • Business performance management Local information systems The term Local Information System (LIS) has emerged over the last 5 years. the business intelligence system will likely satisfy your needs. your business intelligence system must contain an analytic component that allows you to explore and interpret data quickly. that have a great deal of overlap. your company has probably invested heavily in a business intelligence system. When reporting tools can't get information to the right people at the right time. suites of tools. . or as components of software targeted to a specific industry. To be effective. It's when it comes to reporting that many solutions fall flat. Business Intelligence System Does Your Business Intelligence System Provide the Answers You Need? Like most enterprises.resource planning system. such event logs can also be used to compare event logs with some a priori model to see whether the observed reality conforms to some prescriptive or descriptive model. decisions are either delayed or made without confidence.

procedures. engineering. Interpersonal skills help systems analysts work with end users as well as with analysts. managerial. file and application servers. risk. Analytical skills enable systems analysts to understand the organization and its functions. and change. and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities. coordinating and recommending software and system choices to meet an organization's business requirements. OR What do computer systems analysts do? • A systems analyst is responsible for researching. and implementation time-lines. BASIC FUNCTION: Provides analysis. Basically a systems analyst performs the following tasks: * Interact with the customers to know their requirements * Interact with designers to convey the possible interface of the software *Interact/guide the coders/developers to keep track of system * Perform system testing with sample/live data with the help of testers * Implement the new system development . which helps him/her to identify opportunities and to analyze and solve problems. planning. databases and network environments as it applies to Academic Information Systems. and other systems professionals. implementation. technical. The systems analyst plays a vital role in the systems development process. workflow. and scheduling limitations. Essential job functions also include all tasks assigned to the Analyst/Programmer classification. Management skills help systems analysts manage projects. May analyze or recommend commercially available software. The systems analyst must be able to work with various programming languages. A successful systems analyst must acquire four skills: analytical. programmers. documentation and staff training for software that includes or supports operating systems. business. design. configuration. design considerations. and computer hardware platforms. and all other data processing problems for application to electronic data processing systems.“COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST" Analyze science. Systems analysts may act as liaisons between vendors and the organization they represent. Analyze user requirements. resources. They may be responsible for developing cost analyses. and interpersonal. operating systems. They may also be responsible for feasibility studies of a computer system before making recommendations to senior management. testing. Technical skills help systems analysts understand the potential and the limitations of information technology. May supervise computer programmers.

and report progress on a weekly basis to the CIO. Provide SQL administration in live and test environments. etc. Troubleshoot technical issues and identify modifications needed in existing applications to meet changing user requirements. Assist network administrator with application installation and testing. Produce technical documentation for new and existing applications. Verify database and data integrity. Provide minor programming for some in-house IT projects.* Prepare High quality Documentation Responsibilities: • • Provide technical expertise and recommendations in assessing new IT software projects and initiatives to support and enhance our existing Microsoft based systems. Participate on IT project steering committees and be involved in the design phase of any new IT software development projects. user guide. Identify opportunities that can improve efficiency of business processes. Participate in weekly meetings with the IT network team to discuss progress and issues to be resolved. Assist in managing an outsource relationship for 3rd party application development and programming consultants. Investigate and resolve application functionality related issues and provide first level support and troubleshooting of our Financial Edge and Raiser's Edge systems Coordinate application development for multiple projects. Assist in troubleshooting software application issues. Make recommendations on custom applications which include a number of MS-Access data capture systems for Stewardship and other databases which need to be moved into a central SQL repository. Analyze data contained in the corporate database and identify data integrity issues with existing and proposed systems and implement solutions. Provides assistance and advice to business users in the effective use of applications and information technology. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Write technical procedures and documentation for the applications including operations.

• •

Assist in the creation of the system design and functional specifications for all new development projects. Serve as a liaison and facilitator between all business units to assist in addressing and resolving IT software issues.

Qualifications: • • • • • • • Extensive knowledge of data processing, hardware platforms, and enterprise software applications. Technical experience with systems networking, databases, Web development, and user support. Good background in Data Base design in Microsoft SQL and Access. Background in Microsoft .NET, Visual Basic, Excel, Word, Outlook and HTML. Good working knowledge skills with Microsoft Office Products, Microsoft Visio, and Microsoft Project. Strong project management skills with effective results focus within an information systems environment. Strong analytical and problem solving skills.



Systems Development Life Cycle System development consisted of a programmer writing code to solve a problem or automate a procedure. Nowadays, systems are so big and complex that teams of architects, analysts, programmers, testers and users must work together to create the millions of lines of custom-written code that drive our enterprises. DEFINITION System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is the overall process of developing information systems through a multistep process from investigation of initial requirements through analysis, design, implementation and maintenance. A System development cycle is a systematic and orderly approach to solving system problems. The Systems Development Life Cycle is a project management technique that divides complex projects into smaller, more easily managed segments or phases. Segmenting projects allows managers to verify the successful completion of project phases before allocating resources to subsequent phases. The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), or Software Development Life Cycle in systems engineering and software engineering, is the process of creating or altering systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. The concept generally refers to computer or information systems. In software engineering the SDLC concept underpins many kinds of software development methodologies. These methodologies form the framework for planning and controlling the creation of an information system: the software development process. Overview Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is any logical process used by a systems analyst to develop an information system, including requirements, validation, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership. Any SDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned Information Technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance.[2] Computer systems have become more complex and often (especially with the advent of ServiceOriented Architecture) link multiple traditional systems potentially supplied by different software vendors. To manage this level of complexity, a number of systems development life cycle (SDLC) models have been created: "waterfall"; "fountain"; "spiral"; "build and fix"; "rapid prototyping"; "incremental"; and "synchronize and stabilize. SDLC models can be described along a spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential. Agile methodologies, such as XP and Scrum, focus on light-weight processes which allow for rapid changes along the development cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and Dynamic Systems Development Method, focus on limited project scopes and expanding or improving products by multiple iterations. Sequential or big-design-upfront (BDUF) models, such as Waterfall, focus on complete and correct planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results.[citation needed]

Some agile and iterative proponents confuse the term SDLC with sequential or "more traditional" processes; however, SDLC is an umbrella term for all methodologies for the design, implementation, and release of software.[3][4] In project management a project can be defined both with a project life cycle (PLC) and an SDLC, during which slightly different activities occur. According to Taylor (2004) "the project life cycle encompasses all the activities of the project, while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the product requirements" History The systems development lifecycle (SDLC) is a type of methodology used to describe the process for building information systems, intended to develop information systems in a very deliberate, structured and methodical way, reiterating each stage of the life cycle. The systems development life cycle, according to Elliott & Strachan & Radford (2004), "originated in the 1960s to develop large scale functional business systems in an age of large scale business conglomerates. Information systems activities revolved around heavy data processing and number crunching routines".[6] Several systems development frameworks have been partly based on SDLC, such as the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) produced for the UK government Office of Government Commerce in the 1980s. PARTICIPANTS IN SDLC         Project manager Systems analysts & designers Database analysts & designers Users Programmers Database Administrators (DBAs) Networking experts and Other technical experts.

current and future • Provide data and modeling expertise • Provide DBMS expertise and • Monitor and tune databases. Responsibilities of Database Administrators • Ultimately responsible for databases .“What data is needed?” and • Designer . Responsibilities of Users • Ultimate users of new system • Provide requirements. Responsibilities of Programmers • Design programs (detailed design) • “Write” programs • Test programs and • Write SQL for database access.“How should it be done?” • Greater technology focus Responsibilities of Database Analysts and Designers • Focus on business needs • “Bridge” business and technology • Primary focus on data requirements • Analyst .“What should be done?” • Designer . business needs • Review documentation • Test & accept new system • Train other users and • May represent “actual” users. Responsibilities of System Analysts & Designers • Focus on business needs • “Bridge” business and technology • System functions and data • Analyst .“How should it be stored?”.Responsibilities of the Project Manager • Assemble the project team • Build detailed project plans • Monitor people and plan • Work with other management and • Ultimately held responsible for success of system development project. Responsibilities of Other Technical Experts • Provide expertise in specified areas networking operating systems .

hardware development languages development methodologies and tools INFORMATION SYSTEM PLANNING Typica S ystem s Problem w ex s ith sesire to exploit a In r new fo m t D T et h .

raised and eventually be retired from its function.Establishing Objectives for Systems Development  Performance objectives • Quality or usefulness of the output • The quality or usefulness of the format of the output • The speed at which the output is generated  Cost objectives • Development costs • Costs related to the uniqueness of the system application • Fixed investments in hardware and related equipment • On-going operating costs of the system Stra TRADITIONAL LIFE CYCLE MODEL Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC is a model of a detailed plan on how to create. D eveloping ov . implement and eventually fold the software. It’s a complete plan outlining how the software will be born. develop.

Systems investigation • Problem definition – A brief description of the proper understanding and definition of the problem is essential to discover the cause of the problem and to plan a directed investigation. • Technical feasibility – Can the hardware. The existing system is evaluated.e. and other system components be acquired or developed to solve the problem? • Operational feasibility – Can the project be put into action or operation? • Schedule feasibility – Can the project be completed in a reasonable amount of time? • Economic feasibility – Does the project make financial sense? • Legal. software. • Feasibility study – is a preliminary study for an evaluation of whether it is worthwhile to proceed with a project. Deficiencies are identified. political and contractual feasibility – Does the project comply with the laws. Data collection . This can be done by interviewing users of the system and consulting with support personnel. rules & regulations pertaining to the land? How will the key stakeholders view the proposed system? Are the contractual ramifications assessed due to the construction of a system? • Organizational feasibility – Does the proposed information system support the objective of the organization’s strategic plan? Methods of preliminary investigation i.

The system is put into use.  Systems maintenance and review – involves the monitoring. operating systems. adjustments must be made at this stage. If necessary.  Systems design – refers to the technical specification that will be implied in constructing the system. the deficiencies in the existing system must be addressed with specific proposals for improvement.Process design. and all aspects of performance must be tested. s s Struct Interv Unstru . communications. Plans are laid out concerning the physical construction. resources and products) • The expected information system (in terms of capabilities of IS required to meet the information needs of the user). It focuses on three activities: .Data design and . user training and installation of the system. programming.  Systems implementation – involves hardware and software acquisition. Users of the system must be trained in its use. Systems analysis – is a detailed study of the various operations of a business activity along with its boundaries. It involves a detailed study of: • The information needs of the organization and its end users. It describes WHAT should do to meet the requirements of the users. The new system can phased in. Software needs to be maintained not because some of its modules or programs ‘wear out’ and need to be replaced. and the old system gradually replaced. The new components and programs must be obtained and installed. The proposed system is designed. The new system requirements are defined. hardware. In some cases. evaluating and modifying of a system to make desirable or necessary improvements. The new system is developed. This is an ongoing process. It describes HOW the system will accomplish the needs of the users. This can be done in various ways. it may be more cost-effective to shut down the old system and implement the new system all at once. according to application or location. • Existing information systems (their activities. and security issues. In particular. until the system stabilizes.User interface . site preparation. but because there are often some residual errors remaining in the system which have to be removed as soon as they are discovered.

is necessary to coordinate activities and manage project risks effectively.  describe a proposal’s purpose. reviews.  the cost estimated for developing and executing the system. particularly in the early stages of a project. System implementation phase and System maintenance and support phase. and network requirements as possible. It specifies the relationships between project phases.  explain how the proposed system supports one of the organization’s business strategies. System integration and testing phase. The depth and formality of project plans should be commensurate with the characteristics and risks of a given project. and  Target dates for each phase of delivery of system developed and so on. and deliverables. and maintenance projects. including transition criteria. The feasibility study document should provide an overview of the proposed project and identify expected costs and benefits in terms of economic. should also identify alternative solutions and  collect details as many informational. System feasibility phase. milestones. The business case should. In other words feasibility study is also called as software requirement analysis. Project plans refine the information gathered during the initiation phase by further identifying . (i) System requirements phase: begins when an opportunity to add.  identify expected benefits. acquisition. and operational feasibility. System coding phase. In this phase development team has to make communication with customers and make analysis of their requirement and analyze the system. Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC is a model of a detailed plan on how to create. feedback mechanisms. (ii) System feasibility phase: After making an analysis in the system requirement the next step is to make analysis of the software requirement. By making a detailed analysis on this area a detailed document or report is prepared in this phase which has details like  project plan or schedule of the project. Careful planning. This phase is the base of software development process since further steps taken in software development life cycle would be based on the analysis made on this phase and so careful analysis has to be made in this phase. implement and eventually fold the software. System design phase. baselines. technical. The document should be reviewed and signed off on by all affected parties. develop. It’s a complete plan outlining how the software will be born. improve. functional. or correct a system is identified and formally requested through the presentation of a business case. The feasibility support documentation should be compiled and submitted for senior management or board study. The document should also describe alternative solutions and include a recommendation for approval or rejection. System analysis phase. A software life cycle model depicts the significant phases or activities of a software project from conception until the product is retired. (iii) System analysis phase: is the most critical step in completing development. at a minimum. By making analysis this way it would be possible to make a report of identified area of problem. a life cycle model addresses the phases of a software project: System requirements phase. System documentation phase.SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Software development life cycle is basically a process which is adapted and followed during the development of software. raised and eventually be retired from its function. Typically.

developers. files. (vi) System testing and integration phase: A software or system which is not tested would be of poor quality. tables. Using a top-down approach. letters." Object-oriented programming centers on the development of reusable program routines (modules) and the classification of data types (numbers. design. security. and network requirements as possible. Procedural programming involves the line-by-line scripting of logical instructions that are combined to form a program. and network administrators should review and refine the prototyped designs in an iterative process until they agree on an acceptable design.). audit. Using a bottom-up approach. then expand design layouts as they identify and link larger systems and connections.) and data structures (records. database layouts. and system architectures. then expand design layouts as they identify and link smaller subsystems and connections. Programmers use various techniques to develop computer programs. dollars. Primary items organizations should address in formal project plans include:  System overview  Roles and responsibilities  Communication  Defined deliverables  Control requirements  Risk management  Standards  Documentation  Scheduling  Budget and  Testing. etc. designers first identify and link major program components and interfaces. (iv) System design phase: involves converting the informational. Advancements in programming techniques include the concept of "object-oriented programming. development. A critical part of a project manager’s job is to coordinate discussions between user. and quality assurance personnel should be involved in the review and approval process. Based on the need the . Effective development standards include requirements that programmers and other project participants discuss design specifications before programming begins. Program designs are constructed in various ways. functional. This is because this is the phase where system developed would be tested and reports are prepared about bugs or errors in system. etc. Audit. database managers. (v) System coding phase: involves converting design specifications into executable programs. designers. The procedures help ensure programmers clearly understand program designs and functional requirements. security. To do this testing phase there are different levels and methods of testing like unit testing. system test and so on. security. Contemporary design techniques often use prototyping tools that build mock-up designs of items such as application screens. designers first identify and link minor program components and interfaces. End users. The large transactionoriented programs associated with financial institutions have traditionally been developed using procedural programming techniques. and network personnel to identify and document as many functional.the specific activities and resources required to complete a project. and network requirements identified during the initiation and planning phases into unified design specifications that developers use to script programs during the development phase.

The system is then integrated and tested as a whole. personnel may need system file layouts to describe interim files. The documentation should contain detailed application descriptions. software. System Testing – Technicians perform system tests to assess the functionality of an entire system. security. End-to-End Testing – End users and system technicians perform end-to-end tests to assess the interoperability of an application and other system components such as databases. Functional Testing – End users perform functional tests to assess the operability of a program against predefined requirements. software.testing methods are chosen and reports are prepared about bugs. System File Layouts – System file layouts describe collections of related records generated by individual processing applications. Additionally. Unit Testing – Programmers perform unit tests to assess the functionality of small modules of code. application. System Documentation – System documentation includes system flowcharts and models that identify the source and type of input information. training end users. or white-box tests. processing and control actions (automated and manual). and installing the product. hardware. (viii) System implementation phase: The implementation phase involves installing approved applications into production environments. Functional tests include black box tests. System documentation should include: System Descriptions – System descriptions provide narrative explanations of operating environments and the interrelated input. processing. or communication devices. Primary tasks include announcing the implementation schedule. and operating instructions. After this process the system again goes to development phase for correction of errors and again tested. and conduct post-implementation reviews. organizations should input and verify data. It includes making changes to improve a system’s performance. Integration Testing – End users and system technicians perform integration tests to assess the interfaces of integrated software components. and output functions of integrated application systems. such as sorted deposit transaction files. correct problems. Thorough documentation enhances an organization’s ability to understand functional. Primary tests include: Acceptance Testing – End users perform acceptance tests to assess the overall functionality and interoperability of an application. (vii) System documentation phase: Organizations should maintain detailed documentation for each application and application system in production. enhance security. which assess the functionality of a feature’s code. often the original. in order to further define master file processing requirements. and the nature and location of output information. and documentation to support its operational effectiveness. For example. which assess the operational functionality of a feature against predefined expectations. or address user . This process continues until the system is found to be error free. Management should circulate implementation schedules to all affected parties and should notify users of any implementation responsibilities. To ease the testing process debuggers or testing tools are also available. Parallel Testing – End users perform parallel tests to compare the output of a new application against a similar. programming documentation. configure and test system and security parameters. (ix) System maintenance and support phase: involves making changes to hardware. and control features and improves its ability to use and maintain the software.

. There is no definitively correct Systems Development Life Cycle model. Risk and security review should be done whenever a system modification is implemented to ensure controls remain in place. security. and emergency software modifications and software patches. Change management (sometimes referred to as configuration management) involves establishing baseline versions of products. Change controls should address all aspects of an organization’s technology environment including software programs. and implementation. operational standards and procedures. The above software development process are all vital for a system to get developed with quality and thus to achieve customer satisfaction which is the main objective of any software development process. and procedures and ensuring all changes are approved. network. The oldest model. regulatory compliance. that was originally regarded as "the Systems Development Life Cycle" is the waterfall model: a sequence of stages in which the output of each stage becomes the input for the next. and end-user personnel should be appropriately included in change management processes.requirements. Quality assurance. hardware and software configurations. Systems development phases Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are essential for developers. documented. organizations should establish appropriate change management standards and procedures. services. routine. and disseminated. There are several Systems Development Life Cycle Models in existence. but the steps can be characterized and divided in several steps. audit. Management should establish change controls that address major. These stages generally follow the same basic steps but many different waterfall methodologies give the steps different names and the number of steps seem to vary between 4 and 7. and are explained in the section below. analysis. and project management activities. such as planning. design. To ensure modifications do not disrupt operations or degrade a system’s performance or security.

The feasibility study is sometimes used to present the project to upper management in an attempt to gain funding. operational or organizational. phases may be combined or may overlap. and technical. Requirements gathering and analysis . Not every project will require that the phases be sequentially executed.The SDLC can be divided into ten phases during which defined IT work products are created or modified. However. Depending upon the size and complexity of the project. the phases are interdependent. Furthermore.[8] The MIS is also a complement of those phases. This phase is also called the analysis phase. it is also used as a reference to keep the project on track and to evaluate the progress of the MIS team. The tenth phase occurs when the system is disposed of and the task performed is either eliminated or transferred to other systems. The tasks and work products for each phase are described in subsequent chapters. Initiation/planning To generate a high-level view of the intended project and determine the goals of the project. Projects are typically evaluated in three areas of feasibility: economical.

Tolerates changes in MIS staffing. Hard to estimate costs. and active user involvement in the development process.The goal of systems analysis is to determine where the problem is in an attempt to fix the system. A comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of SDLC: Strength and Weaknesses of SDLC [9] Strengths Control. The advantages of RAD are speed. Design Strengths and weaknesses Few people in the modern computing world would use a strict waterfall model for their Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as many modern methodologies have superseded this thinking. Systems must be defined up front. Some will argue that the SDLC no longer applies to models like Agile computing. Increased development cost. This step involves breaking down the system in different pieces and drawing diagrams to analyze the situation. Requirement Gathering sometimes require individual/team from client as well as service provider side to get a detailed and accurate requirements. Ease of maintenance. which combines prototyping. Instead of viewing SDLC from a strength or weakness perspective. the world of technological evolution is demanding that systems have a greater functionality that would assist help desk technicians/administrators or information technology specialists/analysts. Evaluate costs and completion targets. Well defined user input. It should not be assumed that just because the waterfall model is the oldest original SDLC model that it is the most efficient system. SDLC MODELS Weaknesses Increased development time. Development and design standards. The SDLC practice has advantages in traditional models of software development. An alternative to the SDLC is Rapid Application Development. The disadvantages to using the SDLC methodology is when there is need for iterative development or (i. . web development or e-commerce) where stakeholders need to review on a regular basis the software being designed. breaking need to be created and attempting to engage users so that definite requirements can be defined.e. Rigidity. that lends itself more to a structured environment. Joint Application Development and implementation of CASE tools. Documentation. it is far more important to take the best practices from the SDLC model and apply it to whatever may be most appropriate for the software being designed. analyzing project goals. However. Monitor Large projects. project overruns. reduced development cost. Detailed steps. but it is still a term widely in use in Technology circles. At one time the model was beneficial mostly to the world of automating activities that were assigned to clerks and accountants. User input is sometimes limited.

Many different lifecycle models currently exist. The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project. The waterfall or the linear sequential model illustrates a sequenced systematic approach. pseudocode and other documentation. The lifecycle model is a foundation for the entire development process. Each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of time-to-release. including the following:  Project planning. business rules.Software development projects are complex.Prototyping model Incremental model. requirements definition: Refines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. including screen layouts. The lifecycle model describes steps to follow when developing software—from the initial concept stage to the release. System development lifecycle models is a set of traditional methodologies that were created to develop big and complex systems that demanded teams of architects. Consider how you decide what requirements and specifications the project must meet and how you deal with changes to them. and risk management. many developers adhere to a core set of development principles. process diagrams.  Implementation: The real code is written here. A major component of this field is the lifecycle model. analysts. Also consider when you need to meet these requirements and what happens if you do not meet a deadline. including:  Waterfall model  V-shaped model  Spiral model  Build and Fix  Synchronize and stabilize  JAD (Joint Application Development)  RAD (Rapid Application Development) . The stages in the development model can be characterized and divided up in different ways. Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the processes involved. maintenance. WATERFALL MODEL Waterfall model is the most well-known model in software development also known as the traditional software development lifecycle. from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. testers and users work together to create the millions of lines of custom-written code that drove the enterprises. Analyzes end-user information needs. and subsequent upgrading of the software.  Systems analysis. To deal with these complexities. These principles define the field of software engineering.  Systems design: Describes desired features and operations in detail. which starts with analysis and progresses through each stage to testing and maintenance/completion. . Good decisions can improve the quality of the software you develop and decrease the time it takes to develop it. programmers. feasibility study: Establishes a high-level view of the intended project and determines its goals. quality.

 Poor model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing. installation. bugs and interoperability. correction. The waterfall model in software development is best suited to environments with stable product definition. where the software is put into production and runs actual business. Integration and testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment. Advantages  Simple and easy to use.  Poor model for long and ongoing projects. goes on seemingly forever.  Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood.  Phases are processed and completed one at a time.  Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process. building a well-defined maintenance release of an existing product or porting an existing product to a new platform. for example. deployment: The final stage of initial development. Disadvantages  Adjusting scope during the life cycle can kill a project  No working software is produced until late during the life cycle. then checks for errors. the least glamorous and perhaps most important step of all. and moves to a different computing platform and more. This. additions.  Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects.  Maintenance: What happens during the rest of the software's life: changes. .  High amounts of risk and uncertainty.  Acceptance.

again. Advantages  Simple and easy to use.  Software is developed during the implementation phase.V-shaped MODEL The V-model is an internationally recognized development standard for IT systems which uniformly and bindingly lays down what has to be done[Procedure]. V-Shaped life cycle is also a sequential path of execution of processes.  Each phase has specific deliverables. Before development is started.  Model doesn’t provide a clear path for problems found during testing phases.  Little flexibility and adjusting scope is difficult and expensive. how the tasks are to be performed[Methods] and what is to be used to carry this out[Tools]. and unit tests are created in this phase as well. . The testing procedures are developed early in the life cycle before any coding is done. The right side of the V represents the testing where the system is validated against the specifications defined on the left side. The implementation phase is. so no early prototypes of the software are produced. Conventional V-Model represents the development process in the form of a V shape. The meeting point of the V represents the actual development. a system test plan is created.The low-level design phase is where the actual software components are designed. An integration test plan is created in this phase as well in order to test the pieces of the software systems ability to work together. Disadvantages  Very rigid. Testing is emphasized in this model more so than the waterfall model though. where all coding takes place. Requirements begin the life cycle model just like the waterfall model. during each of the phases preceding implementation. the path of execution continues up the right side of the ‘V’ where the test plans developed earlier are now put to use. The test plan focuses on meeting the functionality specified in the requirements gathering. like the waterfall model. The high-level design phase focuses on system architecture and design.  Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood. Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins. Once coding is complete.  Higher chance of success over the waterfall model due to the development of test plans early on during the life cycle.

project manager may adjust the number of iterations required to complete the software…. Depending on the model it may have 3-6 task regions (/framework activities) our case will consider a ‘6-task region’ model. The spiral model is favoured for large. . for large projects the reverse is true.. Conversely. In this model the software is developed in a series of incremental releases with the early stages being either paper models or prototypes. e. The evolutionary process begins at the centre position and moves in a clockwise direction.) • Each of the regions is populated by a set of work tasks called a task set that are adapted to characteristics of the project to be undertaken. There are no fixed phases such as specification or design phases in the model and it encompasses other process models.  The planning task – to define resources.  The engineering task – to build one or more representations of the application. install and provide user support (e. For example. expensive. time lines and other project related information..  The risk analysis task – to assess both technical and management risks. respectively. • Note that each passage through the planning stage results in an adjustment to the project plan (e. Each traversal of the spiral typically results in a deliverable. These regions are:  The customer communication task – to establish effective communication between developer and customer. prototyping may be used in one spiral to resolve requirement uncertainties and hence reduce risks. SPIRAL MODEL (Boehm’s model) This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. This may then be followed by a conventional waterfall development.g. and complicated projects. software used in radiation therapy machines. Subsequent traversals may then produce more sophisticated versions of the software. the first and second spiral traversals may result in the production of a product specification and a prototype. For small projects the number of tasks and their formality is low..  The customer evaluation task – to obtain customer feedback based on the evaluation of the software representation created during the engineering stage and implemented during the install stage.g.This model is used for systems in which reliability is very important.  The construction and release task – to construct. test.g. For example. cost and schedule are adjusted based on the feedback from the customer. Later iterations become increasingly more complete versions of the product. documentation and training). systems developed to monitor the state of the patients. An important distinction between the spiral model and other software models is the explicit consideration of risk.

Software is produced early in the software life cycle. This model should be considered for projects where risks are high. the angular component represents progress.In the spiral model. Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase. . Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise. requirements must be refined and user needs are very important. Doesn’t work well for smaller projects. Disadvantages     Can be a costly model to use. Advantages    High amount of risk analysis Good for large and mission-critical projects. and the radius of the spiral represents cost.

Instead the product was reworked a number of times to satisfy the clients. Requires little experience. standards enforcement or other non-coding activities. however it is unacceptable for large and complex systems.  Fundamental flaws in approach do not show up quickly. often requiring work to be thrown out. No means of assessing quality or identifying risks. This model is adequate for simple software programs (100 to 200 lines of code). In fact the model resulted in a number of project failures because the product was not constructed using proper specification and design. This model is of historical importance now. . documentation. This is a simple approach of product construction without specification or attempt of design.   Disadvantages   Dangerous.BUILD AND FIX Build-and-Fix Model is a “trial and error” approach. Bi 1 t uld s vr i n eso Mdf u t l o i y ni c so e i u t mr s s t fe ais i d Ue s Advantages No time spent on "overhead" like planning. quality assurance. Techniques used in the initial years of software development resulted into the term Build and Fix model.

"nightly build". Who processes it? b. Rather it includes sufficient elements to enable individuals to use the proposed system to determine what they like and don’t like and to identify features to be added or changed.The information flow defined as part of the business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the business. What information drives the business process? 2. and then improve the product. The overall strategy is to quickly introduce products that are "good enough" to capture a mass market. Business Modelling . The RAD approach encompasses the following phases: a. The characteristic of  . The features of this model are:  Many small teams (3 . Where does the information go? 5. "daily build".The information flow among business functions is modeled in am way that answers the following questions: 1. selling multiple product versions and upgrades. The prototype does not contain all the features or perform all the necessary functions of the final system. The process is also called a "milestone". with occasional innovations start with a "vision statement" select features and establish priority of features with user input • developers are free to innovate or adapt to unforseen competitive opportunities or threats continual testing during development The product is stabilized at 3 or 4 milestone junctures in the project lifetime thorough internal and external testing (beta sites) fix almost all errors detected "zero-bug" release at the last milestone. RAD (Rapid Application Development) or Rapid Prototyping or Evolutionary model ‘Prototype’ refers to a working model of an information system application. and "zero-defect" process. • a defect that "breaks" the build must be fixed immediately Features are evolved incrementally. Data Modeling .8 developers per team) work in parallel  changes are synchronize frequently so components will work together • developers check-in their code by a particular time so a new build (complete recompile) is done by the end of the day or the next morning. “Rapid Application Development (RAD) is an incremental software development process model that emphasises a very short development cycle typically 60-90 days”.SYNCHRONIZE AND STABILIZE Synchronize-and-stabilize model is to scale-up a loosely structured small-team ("hacker") style of product development. What information is generated? 3 Who generates it? 4.

 This is useful when requirements are changing rapidly. a prototype also defines many areas of the design simultaneously. Application Generation . The product is designed.RAD assumes the use of the RAD tools like VB. when the customer is reluctant to commit to a set of requirements or when no one fully understands the application area. e. deleting or retrieving data object. although the first may be a pre-production prototype. VC++. This means that risk is spread and each cycle produces a usable system. There is no way to know the number of iterations that will be required. implemented. This minimize the testing and development time. adjust the requirements. In all cases. "Maintenance" phases become subsequent cycles through the waterfall sequence. Delphi. It is more applicable to new systems than upgrading existing software. modifying. c. maintenance is no longer a stage. However. Testing and Turnover . The RAD works to reuse existing program components or create reusable components. d. . and revise the prototype several times until you have a clear picture of the overall objectives. INCREMENTAL MODEL In this model. many of the program components have already been tested. The developing and using organizations must be flexible and willing to work with evolving prototypes. Processing the descriptions is created for adding. Disadvantages   It is impossible to know at the outset of the project how long it will take. automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the software. etc. rather than creating software using conventional third generation programming languages.Since the RAD process emphasizes reuse. In addition to clarifying the requirements.e. Process Modeling . i.each object is identified and the relationships between these objects are defined. This model can be employed on most types of acquisitions. Prototyping is an effective tool for demonstrating how a design meets a set of requirements.The data objects defined in the data-modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. it is employed on medium to high-risk systems. You can build a prototype. Advantages  Customers can see steady progress. integrated and tested as a series of incremental builds Stepwise refinement and iterative enhancement (use prototyping as a means of refinement and enhancement of specification).

This is accomplished through a series of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions. JAD is thought to lead to shorter development times and greater client satisfaction. A working version of software is produced during the first iteration. through a series of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions. design. but which require functionality early in the project or which can benefit from the feedback of earlier cycles. Each iteration passes through the requirements.  More flexible – less costly to change scope and requirements.  Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled during its iteration.Incremental release is better than Waterfall but requires strict configuration management so each build is incorporated into the existing structure without destroying what has been already build and to avoid continuous change of requirements. both of which stem from the constant involvement of the client . Cycles are divided up into smaller. Two employees of IBM. In contrast to the Waterfall approach.  Problems may arise pertaining to system architecture because not all requirements are gathered up front for the entire software life cycle. JAD (Joint Application Development) This model involves the client or end user in the design and development of an application. Subsequent iterations build on the initial software produced during the first iteration. implementation and testing phases. Multiple development cycles take place here.  Each iteration is an easily managed milestone. so you have working software early on during the software life cycle. developed the JAD methodology in the late 1970s and began teaching the approach in to the 1980s. Chuck Morris and Tony Crawford. It is best used on low to medium-risk programs.  Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration. The Joint Application Development (JAD) methodology aims to involve the client in the design and development of an application. This model is good for projects where requirements are known at the beginning. making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Disadvantages  Each phase of an iteration is rigid and do not overlap each other. more easily managed iterations. Advantages  Generates working software quickly and early during the software life cycle.

They also provide some guide-lines for conducting JAD sessions. Its usage keeps expanding thus its definition keeps changing. The CASE functions include analysis.. It also refers to methods for the development of information systems together with automated tools that can be used in the software development process. it is. and programming. thus. and producing structured computer code in the desired programming language. the essence of JAD is the facilitated session. Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools . it is highly advantageous to use one. A developer may or may not use or apply SDLC. On the other hand. The term "Computer-aided software engineering" (CASE) can refer to the software used for the automated development of systems software. with client input consisting of a series of interviews. defect-free. The basic components of JAD sessions are recognized and agreed-upon by JAD practitioners. with the traditional approach to systems development. looks very promising. although some experts remain skeptical. Refactoring tools.throughout the development process. Learning from the lesson. in the field software engineering is the scientific application of a set of tools and methods to software which results in high-quality. Although different people might have different understanding and application of JAD. Data modeling tools. i. design. and  An engineering approach to the software development and or maintenance. highly recommended to properly plan the flow of activities in building a system through SDLC as one of the tools in management. start and finish building a system. The five phases of JAD are:  JAD project definition  Research on user requirement  Preparation for the JAD session  Conducting and facilitating the JAD session itself. CASE tools automate methods for designing. JAD is a useful process to gather cross function information and different opinions effectively. the developer investigates the system requirements and develops an application. but based on my experience. and  Predicting and obtaining approval of the final document that incorporates all decisions made. We did a system before where we didn’t plan much how we will execute. documenting. Source code generation tools. COMPUTER-AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE). regretted ever working with one another. and suffered too many expenses and too much time delay. Automated JAD. Some typical CASE tools are Configuration management tools.e. and maintainable software products. and Unified Modeling Language. SDLC is a systems approach to problem solving and is made up of several phases. Model transformation tools. computer code. especially used in conjunction with Group Supporting Systems. Two key ideas of Computer-aided Software System Engineering (CASE) are:  the harboring of computer assistance in software development and or software maintenance processes. The result was a complete catastrophe! We suffered “groping in the dark” syndrome. Properly following these guide-lines can increase the success of JAD sessions.

data element definitions and descriptions Ensures consistency • Repository is much more Database with linkages for all system development products and activities Integration Even across different CASE tools. and design information systems.Computer Associates • Oracle Designer – Oracle • Power Designer – Sybase. .and lower-CASE packages. CASE Tools • Visio 2000 – Microsoft on laptops • Visible Analyst . CASE Repository • Data dictionary .CASE tools automate tasks required in a system development effort and enforces adherence to the SDLC  Upper CASE tools – focus on activities associated with the early stages of systems development  Lower CASE tools – focus on the later implementation stage of systems development  Integrated-CASE (I-CASE) tools – provide links between upper. Structured refers to the fact that the techniques are step by step. allowing lower-CASE packages to generate program code from upperCASE package generated designs.Visible Systems • ER/Studio .Embarcadero • ERWin . with each step building on the previous one. analyze. CASE Types Full development – integrated I CASE Analysis & Design – Upper CASE Implementation & Maintenance – Lower CASE. STRUCTURED METHODOLOGIES Structured methodologies have been used to document. CASE Features • Diagrams • Documentation • Data Dictionary • Team Coordination • Prototyping • Code Generation • Reverse Engineering.

• give a precise (structured) definition. Characteristics of Structured Methods  used for requirements specification. Structured development methods are process-oriented. focusing primarily on modeling the processes. • are understandable by both users (clients) and developers. systems design • structure a project into small. progressing from the highest. The data are separated into entities . well-defined activities • specify the sequence and interaction of these activities • use diagrammatic and other modeling techniques. store. Logical System Specification (Business Systems Design)  broad specification from systems analysis • technical solutions to the requirements are evaluated • detailed logical ( non-technical ) design developed which shows clearly how the new system will operate within the business • narrative and system models used. modeling and documenting the data requirements of the system being designed. manipulate. These methods separate data from processes. most abstract level to the lowest level of detail – from the general to the public. • • • SSLC(Structured System Life Cycle) or (SSADM) SSADM techniques (structured system analysis and design methods) The three most important techniques that are used in SSADM are:  Logical Data Modeling o This is the process of identifying.Structured methodologies are top-down. The structured methodologies are:  Structured Systems Analysis  Structured Systems Design  Structured Programming. The procedures act on data that the program passes to them. A separate programming procedure must be written every time someone wants to take an action on a particular piece of data. and distribute data as the data flow through a system. Physical Design  Logical design converted to a physical (technical) one File specifications or database definitions Program specifications Screen and report specifications. or actions that capture.

It produces a model of data that supports the current services. modeling and documenting how data moves around an information system. Investigate current data. and describes them in the form of Data Flow Model. independently of the way the data are currently held and organized. . modeling and documenting the events that affect each entity and the sequence in which these events occur. The following steps are part of this stage: • • • • • Develop a Business Activity Model. or new facilities. A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is used to describe how the current system works and to visualize known problems. Analysis of the current system Also known as: feasibility stage.  Entity Behavior Modeling This is the process of identifying. the Data Flow Model represents the current services with all their deficiencies. This step is to identify and describe the structure of the system data. 1. Derive logical view of current services. Investigate current processing. At this point. and data flows (routes by which data can flow). No attempt is made to incorporate required improvement. external entities (what sends data into a system or receives data from a system). It also aims to identify the additional services to be provided by the new system and users of the new system. Business events and business rules would also be investigated as an input to the specification of the new automated system. documentation and design tasks concerned with the following. The objective of this step is to identify the problems associated with the current environment that are to be resolved by the new system. The objective of this step is to develop a logical view of the current system that can be used to understand problems with the current system.  Data Flow Modeling This is the process of identifying.(things about which a business needs to record information) and relationships (the associations between the entities). Data Flow Modeling examines processes (activities that transform data from one form to another). A model of the business activity is built. It investigates the information flow associated with the services currently provided. data stores (the holding areas for data). Stages The SSADM method involves the application of a sequence of analysis. Investigate and define requirements. Analyze the current situation at a high level.

additional events are identified. a number of business system options. Outline business specification Also known as: logical system specification stage. The following steps are part of this stage: • • • • • • • • Define required system processing. The selected option defines the boundary of the system to be developed in the subsequent stages. which cause existing functions to be updated. and new functions to be defined. It is used to describe selected parts of the required system in an animated form. Enhance required data model. The following steps are part of this stage: • • Define BSOs. system requirements are identified and the current business environment is modeled. Confirm system objectives. These options may be supported by technical documentation such as Work Practice Model. In the second part. The LDM of the current environment is extended to support all the processing in the selected business system option. Service level requirements for each function are also identified in this step. Its objective is to improve the quality of the required system LDM by the application of relational data analysis (also known as normalization). One of the options is selected and built. Develop required data model. This step is principally concerned with defining the detailed update and enquiry processing for the required system. To assist the management to make a sound choice. This step is to amend the requirements to reflect the selected Business System Option. in the user requirements. Develop user job specifications. . Develop specification prototypes. and need to be supported by outline implementation descriptions. BSO (Business Systems Options). This step is undertaken in parallel with the above step. 6 business options are presented. as they are identified.2. Select BSO. 3. They also require financial and risk assessments to be prepared. to describe the required system in terms of system data flows and to define the user roles within the new system. for demonstration to the users. A Work Practice Model is developed to document the understanding of the user jobs in concern. This step represents the final review of the requirements before the completion of the Definition of Requirements Stage. This step is concerned with identifying a number of possible system solutions that meet the defined requirements from which the users can select. During stage 1 and 3. During the parallel definition of data and processing. This stage consists of 2 parts. are prepared and presented to them. Detailed business specification Also known as: requirements specification stage. Develop processing specification. the requirements will have been recorded. In this part. Modeling consists of creating a DFD and LDS (Logical Data Structure) for processes and data structures that are part of the system. The first part is researching the existing environment. This step is concerned with the presentation of the BSOs to users and the selection of the preferred option. The purpose is to demonstrate that the requirements have been properly understood and to establish additional requirements concerning the style of the user interface. each describing the scope and functionalities provided by a particular development/implementation approach. LDM (Logical Data Model) and DFD. Derive system functions.

Select the most favorable TSO 5. 6. This is to complete the specification of the database enquiry processing and to define the error handling for each inquiry. Feasibility Study -. Additionally. steps and tasks: 1. technically feasible options are chosen. Define update processes. This step defines the structure of each dialogue required to support the on-line functions and identifies the navigation requirements. using the language and features of the chosen physical environment and incorporating installation standards.4. . 3. Requirements Specification -.the business area is analyzed to determine whether a system can cost effectively support the business requirements. 2. Logical process design Also known as: logical system specification stage. Select TSOs. The following steps are part of this stage: • • Define TSOs: Up to 6 technical options (specifying the development and implementation environments) are produced. This is to complete the specification of the database updating required for each event and to define the error handling for each event.detailed functional and non-functional requirements are identified and new techniques are introduced to define the required processing and data structures. The development/implementation environments are specified based on this choice.Physical design The objective of this stage is to specify the physical data and process design. In this stage. Define inquiry processes. logical designs and processes are updated. Logical data design Also known as: logical system specification stage. The following steps are part of this stage: • • • Define user dialogue. In this stage. Requirements Analysis -. The following activities are part of this stage: • • • • • • Prepare for physical design Learn the rules of the implementation environment Review the precise requirements for logical to physical mapping Plan the approach Complete the specification of functions Incrementally and repeatedly develop the data and process designs Or SSADM application development projects are divided into five modules that are further broken down into a hierarchy of stages. one being selected. both within the dialogue and between dialogues.the requirements of the system to be developed are identified and the current business environment is modeled in terms of the processes carried out and the data structures involved. the dialogs are specified as well.

via an internal process. and under what circumstances. On a DFD. Logical System Specification -. nor where the data will come from and go to.[2] based on Martin and Estrin's "data-flow graph" model of computation. or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. Physical Design -. TOOLS FOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN: Data flow diagram Data Flow Diagram example. data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink. but not what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system.technical systems options are produced and the logical design of update and enquiry processing and system dialogues. nor where the data will be stored (all of which are shown on a DFD). It is therefore quite different from a flowchart. A DFD provides no information about the timing or ordering of processes. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). in what order.a physical database design and a set of program specifications are created using the logical system specification and technical system specification. the original developer of structured design. allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed. . \ A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. which shows the flow of control through an algorithm.4. 5. Data-flow diagrams were invented by Larry Constantine.

defining different visual representations for processes. which shows the "interaction" (data flows) between "the system" (represented by one process) and "the system environment" (represented by terminators). How any system is developed can be determined through a data-flow diagram. There are different notations to draw data-flow diagrams. data stores. This approach "then continues on the subsequent subprocesses".[5] Level 1 (high level diagram) A Level 1 Data flow diagram for the same system. are accessed by but not maintained by this system. and external entities. and how the system will be implemented. 4.g. however. what the system will accomplish. The old system's dataflow diagrams can be drawn up and compared with the new system's data-flow diagrams to draw comparisons to implement a more efficient system. and the data flows between these processes and data stores". The system designer makes "a context level DFD" or Level 0. data flow. This level shows the overall context of the system and its operating environment and shows the whole system as just one process. and to identify the transaction data in the data model. The sponsor of a project and the end users will need to be briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution.[3] Developing a data-flow diagram Top-down approach 1. 3. Event partitioning approach Event partitioning was described by Edward Yourdon in Just Enough Structured Analysis.[4] A context level Data flow diagram created using Select SSADM. Each process is then decomposed into an "even-lower-level diagram containing its subprocesses". It does not usually show data stores. users are able to visualize how the system will operate. Data-flow diagrams can be used to provide the end user with a physical idea of where the data they input ultimately has an effect upon the structure of the whole system from order to dispatch to report. . e. data stores.Data-flow diagrams (DFDs) are one of the three essential perspectives of the structured-systems analysis and design method SSADM. With a data-flow diagram. until a necessary and sufficient level of detail is reached which is called the primitive process (aka chewable in one bite). In the course of developing a set of levelled data-flow diagrams the analyst/designers is forced to address how the system may be decomposed into component sub-systems. these are often shown as external entities. The system is "decomposed in lower-level DFD (Level 1)" into a set of "processes. 2. DFD is also a virtually designable diagram that technically or diagrammatically describes the inflow and outflow of data or information that is provided by the external entity. unless they are "owned" by external systems.

[2] Dynamic model : The dynamic model represents a state/transition view on the model. external entities and the data flows between them.e. data flow. Main concepts are states. Eddy and Lorensen as a method to develop object-oriented systems. Blaha. Or The entire OMT software development process has four phases: Analysis. It was developed circa 1991 by Rumbaugh.This level (level 1) shows all processes at the first level of numbering. A process model will have one. The purpose of this level is to show the major highlevel processes of the system and their interrelation. and events to trigger transitions. Premerlani. with attributes and operations. Most of the modeling is performed in the analysis phase. communication with customers. data stores. transitions between states. OMT has proposed three main types of models: • • • Object model : The object model represents the static and most stable phenomena in the modeled domain [3]. and actors. level-1 diagram. e. these can be broken down to more detail in the level 1. there must be the same external entities and the same data flows. The purposes of modeling according to Raumbaugh (1991) • • • • testing physical entities before building them (simulation). object design. Generalization and aggregation (concur-rency) are predefined relationships. visualization (alternative presentation of information). system design. OMT was developed as an approach to software development. Aggregation and generalization (with multiple inheritance) are predefined relationships. data store. corresponding roughly to data flow diagrams. i. and implementation of the software. and reduction of complexity. Actions can be modeled as occurring within states.g. Object-modeling technique The object-modeling technique (OMT) is an object modeling language for software modeling and designing. and only one. This level is a decomposition of a process shown in a level-1 diagram. and to support object-oriented programming.[2] . Main concepts are classes and associations. Main concepts are process.[2] Functional model : The functional model handles the process perspective of the model. as such there should be a level-2 diagram for each and every process shown in a level-1 diagram.[5] Level 2 (low level diagram) A Level 2 Data flow diagram showing the "Process Enquiry" process for the same system. the "inquiry" data flow could be split into "inquiry request" and "inquiry results" and still be valid. A level-1 diagram must be balanced with its parent context level diagram.

check with problem statement. STRUCTURED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Analysis is the study of a problem. 4. and implementation of the software. 3. Group classes into modules.. 5. Develop a state diagram for each class that has important dynamic behavior. object design. Specify optimization criteria. 4. and refine the three models: 1. The entire OMT software development process has four phases: Analysis. Add most important operations to the object model. 4. the focus is on the representation of enterprise models.e. Structured analysis is the use of graphical documentation tools to produce a new kind of functional specification – a structured specification. 2. iterate. Iterate steps to complete the analysis. Prepare an event flow diagram for the system. The recommended method incorporates the following activities (Rumbaugh et al. etc. A remark concerning the method is that it exclusively refers to activities using concepts from the modeling language. 3. Add associations between classes. attributes and operations are consistent and complete. Use data flow diagrams as needed to show functional dependencies. Develop a data dictionary for classes. 3. System analysis involves a detailed study of: . 6. Identify constraints. 2. and associations. 5. prior to taking some action. attributes. associations. i. Build a Dynamic Model: 1. Identify input and output values. Test access paths using scenarios and iterate the above steps as necessary. Describe what each function does.OMT is a predecessor of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Verify. based on close coupling and related function. 4. Identify object classes. usually leading to the specification of a new system along with its boundaries. 3. 5.. 2. Many OMT modeling elements are common to UML. Prepare scenarios of typical interaction sequences. The objective is to determine exactly what must be done to solve the problem. Develop a Problem Statement. classes. Organize and simplify object classes using inheritance. It is the detailed study of a business activity or area or application. 1991:261ff): 1. Identify events between objects and prepare an event trace for each scenario. attributes. 2. Verify that classes. Most of the modeling is performed in the analysis phase. system design. Build a Functional Model: 1. 7. Check for consistency and completeness of events shared among the state diagrams. 5. Hence. Build an Object Model: 1. Add attributes for objects and links. 2. 3.

while later DFDs may model a solution to the problem being analyzed. Analysts work primarily with their wits. several sets of DFDs are drawn. It is common practice for a designer to draw a context-level DFD first which shows the interaction between the system and outside entities. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD) A DFD is a structured. resources and products)  The expected information system (in terms of capabilities of IS required to meet the information needs of users. pencil and paper”.  Uses names and terms from usage world. Structured analysis tools help the system analyst to document the system specification of a system to be built.  Things that can occur in a physical flow – people. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). understanding and examining the system for achieving predetermined goals/objectives of the system. A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. and  To identify the users’ requirements in the proposed system. System analysis is carried out with the following objectives:  To know how a system currently operates. . Initial DFDs might model the existing system (flaws and all). and within it. For these solutions DFDs. The information needs of the organization and its end users  Existing information systems (their activities. diagrammatic technique for showing the functions performed by a system and the data flowing into. The main tools which are used for the purpose are:  Data Flow Diagram (DFD)  Data Dictionary  Process Specifications • Structured English • Decision tree • Decision table • Action diagram  Entity-Relationship diagrams (E-R diagram) and  State Transition diagrams. departments. In analyzing a business. System analysis means identification.  Show how things occur or physical processes – work processes rather than system processes.  Often used to describe or analyze the current system. Logical or conceptual DFDs can be used to represent business functions or processes. Physical DFDs represent physical files and transactions.  Show actual implementation in organization. a physical and logical DFD is drawn. physical objects such as packages. out of. Structured Analysis tools “Structured analysis is a set of techniques and graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a new kind of system specification that is easily understandable to the user.  Shows what happens rather than how it happens. This context-level DFD is then "exploded" to show more detail of the system being modeled.

 Just as a system must have input and output (if it is not dead). Data enters the system from the environment. which contains only one process box and the primary inputs and outputs. Allows clear perception without implementation details.Current Logical DFD . and data is produced as output from the system. but logical flows are harder to produce. Symbols for drawing DFD . simplified. WHAT the system does . so a process must have input and output. and so on. DFD Principles The general principle in Data Flow Diagramming is that a system can be decomposed into subsystems. and subsystems can be decomposed into lower level subsystems. processes can no longer be decomposed. data flows between processes within the system.Current Physical DFD HOW it does it WHAT it should do HOW it should do it .  Each subsystem represents a process or activity in which data is processed. At the lowest level. It is easier to perform analysis without limitations of physical devices.Required Physical DFD The 'Context Diagram ' is an overall.Required Logical DFD .  Each 'process' (and from now on. view of the target system. by 'process' we mean subsystem and activity) in a DFD has the characteristics of a system.

Indications that this has been done are the use of vague terms in the descriptive title area . and/or to be passed onto. a data flow at a particular level of a diagram may be decomposed to multiple data flows at lower levels. Furthermore. .General rules for DFDs External Entities – It is normal for all the information represented within a system to have been obtained from. The procedure for producing a Data Flow Diagram is to: 1. These reference letters are allocated as follows: 'D' . Multiple instances of the same data store are indicated by a double vertical bar on their left hand edge. 4. 3. In order to avoid complex flows. The addition of a lowercase letter to each entity on the diagram is a good way to uniquely identify them. followed by an arbitrary number. Data Stores – Each data store should be given a reference letter. in common with most of the other symbols used. Create a context diagram with system at center and external entities sending and receiving data flows. Data Flows – Double headed arrows can be used (to show two-way flows) on all but bottom level diagrams. avoid glossing over them.indicates a permanent computer file 'M' .indicates a transient store. 2. to avoid crossing data flow lines. Identify the business functions included within the system 'process' or 'update'. without really understanding their role.indicates a manual file 'T' . The most important thing to remember is that the description must be meaningful to whoever will be using the diagram. Identify and list inputs from/outputs to external entities. the same data store may be drawn several times on a diagram. like this. Where they are duplicated a stripe is drawn across the left hand corner. one that is deleted after processing. Identify and list external entities providing inputs/receiving outputs from system. Processes – When naming processes. an external source or recipient. These external entities may be duplicated on a diagram.

Confirm through personal contact sent data is received and vice-versa. Attempt to connect any diagram segments into a rough draft. Verify data coming out of a data store goes in. data transformation/processing) 8. Verify all data flows have a source and destination. 9. data storage. 13. A Data Dictionary is an organized collection of logical definitions and representations of all data elements that occur in a system. 6. Redraw to simplify--ponder and question result. Example DATA DICTIONARY A Data Dictionary is a repository of data about data. Review with "informed". 10. 12. 7. Explode and repeat above steps as needed.5. 11. Trace and record what happens to each of the data flows entering the system (data movement. The data dictionary is used to define the system clearly and precisely. A data dictionary is (like . Identify the data connections between business functions.

a data dictionary holds the following information:  Precise definition of data elements  Usernames. a data dictionary is a read-only set of tables and views. Within the context of a DBMS. For ex: Several tables may hold telephone numbers. used in the system. Amongst other things. Example Consider a data item yrs_in_co. Data dictionaries are usually separate from data models since data models usually include complex relationships between data elements. roles and privileges  Schema objects  Integrity constraints  Stored procedures and triggers  General database structure  Audit information  Space allocations. Each term is defined clearly and all the terms are listed alphabetically. using a data dictionary the format of this telephone number field will be consistent. it may include both semantics and representational definitions for data elements.any other dictionary) a compilation of all the terms. words. The data dictionary notation for this item would be: Name: yrs_in_co Alias: yrs_wrked Where used/how used: input to Employee_details process Description: number of years for which the employee has been working in the organization Additional information: maximum value 25 (since company was set up 25 years back). Contents of Data Dictionary        Data element description Data structure description Data flow description Data Store description Process description Entity description Glossary entries description Initially. Representation definitions include how data elements are stored in a computer structure such as an integer. The semantic components focus on creating precise meaning of data elements. data flows etc. When an organization builds an enterprise-wide data dictionary. PROCESS SPECIFICATIONS The Process Specification or miniature-specification (mini-specs) describes the exact events that take place inside a process. Its context is not unique to "business activity" but can be applied to . data dictionaries are sometimes simply a collection of database columns and the definitions of what the meaning and types the columns contain. One benefit of a well-prepared data dictionary is a consistency between data items across different tables. data stores. Data dictionaries are more precise than glossaries (terms and definitions) because they frequently have one or more representations of how data is structured. The data dictionary is a database in its own right. Data dictionaries are one step along a pathway of creating precise semantic definitions for an organization. string or date format.

ELSE THEN. UPDATE. CASE. IF ELSE. WHILE. READ. PUT. – Obtain a precise description of what is accomplished. END IF. loan will be granted. OPEN. DO WHILE. It is the use of the English language with the syntax of structured programming. SO. BEGIN. STOP. TRUE. It aims at getting the benefits of both the programming logic and natural language. – Validate the system design. END UNTIL. It is a detailed set of instructions outlining a business procedure that each elementary level business activity is expected to carry out. DO. The goals of producing process specifications are: – Reduce process ambiguity. FALSE. DELETE. including data flow diagrams and the data dictionary. • Reject all loan applications in all other cases. LT. FILE. EOF. EOT Example A bank will grant loan under the following conditions: • If a customer has an account with the bank and had no loan outstanding. NOT. LE. Use the following guidelines when writing Structured English:  Statements should be clear and unambiguous  Use one line per logical element  All logic should be expressed in operational. CREATE. • If a customer has an account with the bank but some amount is outstanding from previous loans then loan will be granted if special approval is needed. END. DO UNTIL. REPEAT. primitive bubble in a dtaflow diagram. It is the description of what’s happening inside each bottom-level. and ELSE  Repetition blocks indicated by keywords such as DO. THEN. Process specifications are commonly included as an integral component of a requirements document in systems development. IF. XOR. EXIT. conditional. and UNTIL. WHILE. EQUAL. UNTIL. THEN. END WHILE. AND. GET. and repetition blocks  Logical blocks should be indented to show relationship  Keywords should be capitalized Examples of common keywords START. The various tools that can be used to produce a process specification are: (i) Structured English: is used during the analysis stage of a project to identify business processes. Structured English consists of the following elements:  Operation statements written as English phrases executed from the top down  Conditional blocks indicated by keywords such as IF. ELSE.any organizational activity. GE. FOR. OR. The process specification defines what must be done in order to transform inputs into outputs. IF THEN. END REPEAT. CLOSE. WRITE. GT. IF customer has a Bank Account THEN IF Customer has no dues from previous account THEN Allow loan facility ELSE IF Management Approval is obtained THEN . ELSE IF.

describe. – Identify possible decision alternatives. . (ii) Decision tree: A decision tree is a diagram that represents the conditions and actions sequentially and thus shows which conditions to consider first. A decision tree is a tree in which each branch node represents a choice between a number of alternatives. which second. and each leaf node represents a classification or decision. and document decisions using a table. (iii) Decision table: A decision table is a table consisting of rows and columns and showing the various actions to be taken for different combinations of conditions. Another use of trees is as a descriptive means for calculating conditional probabilities. A decision tree is a special form of tree structure.Allow loan facility ELSE Reject ENDIF ENDIF ELSE Reject ENDIF. They are used to: – Describe the conditions. Example Let’s draw a decision tree to help a financial institution decide whether a person should be offered a loan. and so on. Decision tables provide a way to examine. Decision trees are constructed in order to help with making decisions.

In a LIMITED ENTRY decision table the conditions are expressed as simple YES/NO questions whereas in an EXTENDED ENTRY table the conditions have more than two possible states. In some cases. as shown below. Example The following example has eight simple rules because the matrix provides each of the three conditions with two possible values.– Indicate actions should be performed. Therefore the total number of rules in this example is (2*2*2) = 8. Four main problems that can occur in developing decision tables: – Incompleteness. especially when a given condition has little influence on the actions to be performed. They are pseudocode with square brackets of different kinds added in the left margin to emphasize the control structure. Decision tables help analysts ensure completeness and accuracy. – Contradictions. Decision tables are typically divided into four quadrants. and the entries specify whether (or in what order) the action is to be performed for the set of condition alternatives the entry corresponds to. – Redundancy. – Impossible situations. relation or predicate whose possible values are listed among the condition alternatives. Each action is a procedure or operation to perform. entire conditions thought to be important initially are found to be irrelevant when none of the conditions influence which actions are performed. Action diagram have five important characteristics. – Describe actions. They are: . Many decision tables include in their condition alternatives the don't care symbol. a hyphen. It is an example of a limited entry table. (iv) Action diagram: Action diagrams show program overview as well as detailed program logic. Using don't cares can simplify decision tables. A decision table helps to simplify and organize logic. There are two types– limited entry and extended entry. The four quadrants Conditions Condition alternatives Actions Action entries Each condition corresponds to a variable.

It is a particularly useful approach when:  The user has a tendency to express the policy carried out by a bubble in terms of a particular. and especially does not want to engage in arguments with the user about the relative merits of such algorithms. Example The following figure shows the action diagram for checking of students test results. but does not want to get involved in such details himself.  The systems analyst is reasonably sure that there are many different algorithms that could be used. A single technique extends from a general overview down to program coding level.     Relatively easy to learn and teach Suitable for automation Action diagram editor is available and particularly suitable for using with 4GLs Can be easily customized to reflect the syntax of different languages They are a tree like structure.  The systems analyst wants to let the programmer explore several such algorithms. idiosyncratic algorithm that he or she has been using for decades. (v) Pre/Post condition: Pre/post condition is a convenient way of describing the function that must be carried out by a process. The same tool can be used in different levels. Example . without saying very much at all about the algorithm or procedure that will be used.

as shown on the dataflow diagram • What relationships must exist between inputs or within inputs – ex: order details and shipping details with the same account number. “There is a customer-order with customer-account-number matching a customer-account-number in the customers store. Postconditions describe what must be true when the process has finished doing its job. you can think of the preconditions as a guarantee from the user: “I guarantee that when this process is activated the following things will be true. • The changes that will have been made to stores – The order will be appended to the ORDERS store. (OR) There is an order within the orders store with a shipping-date equal to the current date.” and the pre-conditions represent the “magic kiss” that will awaken the process and set it to work. Alternatively. • What relationships must exist between inputs and data stores – ex: the precondition might say. • What relationships must exist between different stores or within a single store – ex: There is an order in the orders store whose customer-account-number matches the customer-account-number in the customers store. choose another format. • The relationships that will exist between output values and the original input values – ex: The invoice-total will be calculated as the sum of unit-item-prices plus shipping-charges. (OR) The customer record will be deleted from the CUSTOMERS store. • The relationships that will exist between output values and values in one or more stores – ex: The on-hand-balance in the INVENTORY store will be increased by amountreceived. and the new on-hand balance will be produced as output from this process. one should let one’s own judgment and the user's reactions guide you.” Typically. This can be thought of as a guarantee: “I guarantee that when the process is finished the following will be true. the preconditions will describe the following: • What inputs must be available – These inputs will arrive via a flow connected to the process. if the user finds it difficult to read the precondition/postcondition specification.There are two main parts of the specification: Preconditions describe all the things (if any) that must be true before the process begins operating. • As with all the forms of process specification.” Postconditions typically describe the following: • The outputs that will be generated or produced by the process – ex: An invoice will be produced. It’s sometimes convenient to think of the process as a “sleeping princess. ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS (E-R DIAGRAM) .

ERDs show entities in a database and relationships between tables within that database. It is essential to have one of these if you want to create a good database design. There are three basic elements in ER models:  Entities are the "things" about which we seek information. An Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) is a snapshot of data structures.An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. . They also set the stage for the design of databases later on in the SDLC. The patterns help focus on how the database actually works with all of the interactions and data flows.  Relationships provide the structure needed to draw information from multiple entities.  Attributes are the data we collect about the entities. Data models are tools used in analysis to describe the data requirements and assumptions in the system from a top-down perspective.

as well as the human interface portion of many on-line systems. The basic consistency rule is: "A system's behaviour in any state must be the same no matter by which path the state is arrived at". a statetransition diagram is used to show the sequence of activities within the system. The statetransition diagram is a powerful modeling tool for describing the required behavior of real-time systems. If the entire system is represented with a one-bubble dataflow diagram. States: Entity symbols .Basic E-R No Example STATE TRANSITION DIAGRAMS (STDs) An STD is a way of describing the time-dependent behaviour of a system.

Transition conditions:  internal events or events external to the system. partition the diagram in several STDs. Drawing STD's:  Identify observable states of the system  Select the states with normal behaviour  Specify the conditions that mark a transition  Specify the actions to produce the observable behaviour in the destination state for each transition and  If the system is complex. Whereas systems analysis primarily . STRUCTURED SYSTEMS DESIGN Systems design is the evaluation of alternative solutions and the specification of a detailed computer-based solution. Transition actions:  actions in response to the events  triggering one-shot actions  synchronizing between different STDs and  producing control outputs. but a system's behaviour could be described by more than one state transition diagram.. A state is an observable mode of behaviour of the system.  At any time a particular STD can only be in one state. Example An example state-transition diagram for the automated teller machine now found in most banks. It is also called physical design.  .

namely:  Conceptual level (conceptual design or external design or general design) – In the conceptual design. or subroutine. systems design deals with the physical or implementation-dependent aspects of a system (the system's technical specifications). detailed and finalized to be called the system specifications. . The top-down structure of these modules is developed according to various design rules and guidelines. response time and run time)  Security – relates to hardware reliability. . It is a prerequisite for a detailed design. Theoretically this makes the modules reusable in future programs. Structured design was developed by Ed Yourdon and Larry Constantine.Modules should be highly cohesive. the feasibility of meeting the management objectives for the MIS is assessed and a broad-brush picture of the system is painted. This minimizes the effect that future changes in one module will have on other modules. subprogram. Structured design is considered a process technique because its emphasis is on the PROCESS building blocks in our information systemspecifically.  Data design – focuses on the design of the logical structure of the database and files to be used by the proposed information system.e.focused on the logical. Synonyms are top-down program design and structured programming. in other words. which is further refined. Structured design is a process-oriented technique for breaking up a large program into a hierarchy of modules that result in a computer program that is easier to implement and maintain (change).  Process design – focuses on the design of the software resources. that is. block. the programs and procedures needed by the proposed information system.Modules should be loosely coupled. It specifies HOW the system will accomplish the objective. implementation-independent aspects of a system (the requirements). System design is carried out at two levels. This technique deals with the size and complexity of a program by breaking up a program into a hierarchy of modules that result in a computer program that is easier to implement and maintain. Design a program as a top-down hierarchy of modules. A system is designed with the following objectives:  Practicality – design should be use-oriented  Flexibility – system must be responsive to change  Efficiency – perform jobs within the specified time (considering throughput time.  Physical level (physical design or internal design or detailed design) – The performance requirements specified by the conceptual design become inputs to the detailed design phase. A module is a group of instructions-a paragraph. i. It should stress on the following three activities:  User interface design – focuses on designing the interactions between end uses and computer systems. physical security of data and detection and prevention of fraud and abuse of data. modules should be minimally dependent on one another. each module should accomplish one and only one function. software processes. Structured design seeks to factor a program into the top-down hierarchy of modules that have the following properties: ..

and the communication interfaces between modules. they aid the programmer in dividing and conquering a large software problem. Types of Modules AFFERENT MODULE . transforms it. The process is called top-down design.Accepts data from subordinate modules and passes this data to superordinates. and passes transformed data to superordinate. which shows the breakdown of the configuration system to the lowest manageable levels.Exists solely to transform data into some other form. Each rectangular box represents a module. and lines that connect them. A structure chart depicts  the size and complexity of the system. . • Structure charts. TRANSFORM MODULE . or functional decomposition. An arrow joins two modules that have an invocation relationship. It is the process of deciding the way the components are to be interconnected to solve some well-specified problem.Accepts data from superordinate and passes it to subordinate modules. As a design tool. • Specifically. The lines represent the connection and or ownership between activities and subactivities as they are used in organization charts. Takes data from superordinate. The names of the modules are written inside the box. recursively breaking a problem down into parts that are small enough to be understood by a human brain. Structure charts are used to graphically depict a modular design of a program.Structured Design tools Structured design is the art of designing components of a system and the interrelationship between those components in the best possible way. the hierarchy and organization of those modules. EFFERENT MODULE . The tools of structured design are:  Structure charts  Flow charts  Nassi-Shneiderman diagrams  Transform analysis  Transaction analysis STRUCTURE CHARTS A Structure Chart (SC) in software engineering and organizational theory is a chart. that is. It is used to show the hierarchical arrangement of the modules in a structured program. A structure chart is a top-down modular design tool. constructed of squares representing the different modules in the system. however.  the number of readily identifiable functions and modules within each function and  whether each identifiable function is a manageable entity or should be broken down into smaller components. do not show the internal procedures performed by the module or the internal data used by the module. The primary tool used in structured design is the structure chart. they show how the program has been partitioned into smaller more manageable modules.

Example FLOW CHART A flow chart. and  Define. Symbol Symbol Name Symbol Description . standardize or find areas for improvement in a process There are four general types of flow charts. or communication. This makes them useful tools for communicating how processes work. namely:  Document flowcharts – showing a document flow through system  Data flowcharts – showing data flows in a system  System flowcharts – showing controls at a physical or resource level  Program flowchart – showing the controls in a program within a system. Flow charts are easy-to-understand diagrams showing how steps in a process fit together. A flow chart can therefore be used to:  Define and analyze processes. is a graphical representation of a process or system that details the sequencing of steps required to create output. and for clearly documenting how a particular job is done. A typical flow chart uses a set of basic symbols to represent various functions. and shows the sequence and interconnection of functions with lines and arrows.Takes data from one or more subordinates and passes it to other subordinate modules.  Build a step-by-step picture of the process for analysis. or flow diagram.COORDINATE MODULE . discussion.

As such. this flowchart symbol is Alternate Process used when the process flow step is an alternate to the normal process step. Terminator (Terminal Point. A Predefined Process symbol is a marker for another process step or series of process flow steps that are formally defined elsewhere. This is the most Process common symbol in both process flowcharts and business process maps.) The Data flowchart shape indicates inputs to and outputs from a process. the shape is more often referred to as an I/O shape than a Data shape. Oval) Data (I/O) . terminators depict a trigger action that sets the process flow into motion. etc. When used as a Start symbol. a Decision flowchart shape is used when there are 2 options (Yes/No. or some other process flowchart or documentation.(Alternate Shape Name) Terminators show the start and stop points in a process. As the shape name suggests. Indicates a question or branch in the process flow. Flow lines into an alternate process flow step are typically dashed. then it is best not to use this symbol since it implies a formally defined process. This shape commonly Predefined Process (Subroutine) depicts sub-processes (or subroutines in programming flowcharts). work instruction. No/No-Go. Decision Typically. If the sub-process is considered "known" but not actually defined in a process procedure. Show a Process or action step.

As the names states. In data processing Manual Operation flowcharts. Manual Input flowchart shapes show process flow Manual Input steps where the operator/ user is prompted for information that must be manually input into a system.the Document flowchart Document shapes any process flow step that produces a document. Multi-Document This shape is not as commonly used as the Document flowchart shape. you may still have use for the Punched Tape symbol . Manual Operations flowchart shapes show which process steps are not automated. Same as Document. PC user. this data flow shape indicates a looping operation along with a loop limit symbol (which is not supported by Microsoft Office.. If you're very good at stretching all the life out of a Punched Tape machine.used for input into old computers and CNC machines. any process step that is a Preparation Preparation process flow step. even when multiple documents are implied.Pretty self explanatory . machine operator).) This is the companion to the punched tape flowchart shapes. but a Manual Operation symbol rotated 180° will do the trick. except well.g. This shape is seldom used. Indicates a process flow step where information is displayed to a person (e. such as a set-up operation. Display Card . multiple documents.

reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem. this symbol is full sized and shows an Inspection point in the process flow. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part Limitations of using flowcharts  Complex logic: Sometimes.  Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed. AA) to show matching jump points. this symbol is typically small and is used as a Connector to show a jump from one point in the process flow to another. They are handy Connector (Inspection) for avoiding flow lines that cross other shapes and flow lines. flowchart becomes complex and clumsy.Process Flowchart: In process flowcharts. . Business Process Map: In process maps.  Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process.  Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation.  Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. Connectors are usually labeled with capital letters (A. Advantages of using flowcharts  Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. the program logic is quite complicated. which is needed for various purposes.  Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart. In that case.  Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase.  Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. problem can be analysed in more effective way. They are also handy for jumping to and from a sub-process defined in a separate area than the main flowchart. B.

These are generally more organized. Nassi-Shneiderman Notations Process – A process describes a program function as pseudocode. more structured. they are sometimes preferred as a tool for creating process specifications. . Example This is a flow chart for calculating n! (n factorial) NASSI-SHNEIDERMAN DIAGRAMS Nassi-Shneiderman (NS) diagrams (developed by Ike Nassi and Ben Shneiderman) illustrate algorithms and program functions as a flowchart. However. The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done. The main purpose of a Nassi-Shneiderman diagram is to create a logical structure (a blueprint) for the program. and it is not clear that the graphics add that much value. they do still require a nontrivial amount of graphics. for that reason. You can stack processes on top of each other to illustrate a sequence. and more comprehensible than the typical flowchart.

Parallel Process – Processes that are executed at the same time inside a trapezium created by drawing two diagonal lines in the upper and lower border of the table. Decision – The selection symbol is a rectangle divided into three parts by diagonal lines. The two outcomes don't need to be the same size. Case statement – List multiple cases next to each other in a table format. Write the condition or decision in the uppermost triangle and place the two possible outcomes on either side of the decision. TRANSFORM ANALYSIS (OR) TRANSFORMATION ANALYSIS . Parallel Process – Use loop notations when processes are repeated until a certain condition is met.

This strategy is useful when a DFD diagram contains processes that split an input flow into several discrete output flows. Transform analysis is the development of a structure chart based on a DFD that describes the input-process-output data flow. • Afferent data flow –incoming data • Efferent data flow– outgoing data flow • Central transform – set of DFD processes that are located between the input and output processes. Primary purpose of transform analysis strategy is to identify  the primary processing functions of the system  the high-level inputs to those functions  the high-level outputs of those functions. Example TRANSACTION ANALYSIS Transaction analysis is another design strategy for deriving structure charts from dataflow diagrams. user .Transform analysis is a design method appropriate for systems whose primary task is to receive a flow of similar input transactions and turn them into an output flow of data. Transaction analysis can be helpful in PART of the design process. It is a design strategy for deriving initial structural designs that are good with respect to modularity. This strategy requires a dataflow model of the problem to be created first using Structured Analysis. after having taken some action on each of the input transactions.

A TRANSACTION is defined (loosely) to be any element of data, control, signal, event, or change of state that causes, triggers, or initiates some action or sequence of actions. This strategy simply recognizes that data flow graphs of the form can be mapped into a particular modular structure. A transaction center (is a module) that must be able to:  get (obtain or respond to) transactions in raw form  analyze each transaction to determine its type  dispatch each type of transaction and  complete the processing of each transaction type. Steps in Transaction analysis STEP 1 – Identify the sources of transactions. * These may be apparent from the inputs to the DFD, or the design may recognize afferent, transform, or efferent modules that generate transactions. (Detected during transform analysis.) STEP 2 – Specify the appropriate transaction-centered organization. * Slide shown in class gave a good structure, but others are possible. STEP 3 – Identify the transactions and their defining actions. * define carefully the processing that must take place for each transaction STEP 4 – Note potential situations in which modules can be combined. * Try to detect when an intermediate-level module can be created from a functionally cohesive group of low-level modules. * Perhaps a module can be called by different transactions. STEP 5 – For each transaction, or cohesive collection of transactions, specify a transaction module to completely process it. * Avoid the temptation to group the processing of several transactions into one module. This should be avoided if the resulting module has low cohesion. STEP 6 – For each action in a transaction, specify an action module subordinate to the appropriate transaction module(s). * This is a factoring step (Factoring is the process of breaking functional components into subcomponents. The factoring process should be repeated until all bubbles in the DFD are represented in the structure chart). STEP 7 – For each detailed step in an action module, specify an appropriate detail module subordinate to any action module that needs it. * This continues the factoring step. Note several levels of detail modules are possible for large systems. Transaction analysis will be the guiding influence on the designer for most systems. There are numerous situations in which additional strategies can be used to supplement and occasionally even replace the basic approach of transform analysis. A great deal of usefulness of transaction analysis depends on how a transaction is defined.


STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING Structured programming (sometimes known as modular programming) is a subset of procedural programming that enforces a logical structure on the program being written to make it more efficient and easier to understand and modify. Structured programming frequently employs a top-down design model, in which developers map out the overall program structure into separate subsections. A defined function or set of similar functions is coded in a separate module or sub module, which means that code can be loaded into memory more efficiently and that modules can be reused in other programs. Almost any language can use structured programming techniques to avoid common pitfalls of unstructured languages. Unstructured programming must rely upon the discipline of the developer to avoid structural problems, and as a consequence may result in poorly organized programs. Most modern procedural languages include features that encourage structured programming. A structured program may be written out using pseudo code prior to being translated into whatever programming language that the program is to be written in. This pseudo code forms part of the program specification and is readable by anyone who understands structured programming regardless of whether or not they know the specific language in which the program has been written. Sequence

Structured programming provides a number of constructs that are used to define the sequence in which the program statements are to be executed. Consecutive

Statements within a structured program are normally executed in the same sequence as they are listed within source code. If a code fragment consists of three statements following one another then statement one will execute first, statement two second, and statement three last. To change from this straight consecutive execution sequence requires the use of one of the other structured programming constructs which are described below. Block Statements may be blocked together. A block of statements may be substituted wherever a single statement is allowed. The symbol or keyword used to indicate the start and end of each block differs depending on the programming language used. Subroutine

A subroutine is a code segment that has been separated from the preceding and following code. A subroutine usually consists of a series of statements that perform a particular task. The task performed is usually identified by the name given to the subroutine. Once a subroutine has been defined it can then be called from one or more places within the program. This allows a program to perform the same task a number of times without having to repeat the same code. A single call statement replaces (stands in for) all of the statements contained within the subroutine. Parameters can be passed to a subroutine that will supply the data required to perform the task and perhaps to return values for use by the subsequent processing. A subroutine can either be compiled with (internal to) the calling program or separately (external).

As soon as the condition is met. Until . For A for loop allows a statement to be executed a specified number of times. Loops Loops allow for the same statement to be executed a number of times in succession. While A while loop allows a statement to be executed until a given condition is met. A function works in the same way as a subroutine except in the way that it is called. A function can be compiled internally or externally. A function is usually called implicitly by embedding the function call into another statement in place of the returned value rather than having a separate call statement. execution continues with the statement following the loop.Function A function is similar to a subroutine except that a function always returns a value to the calling program. Some programming languages also provide functions built into the language itself. If the condition is met prior to executing the loop then the loop will not be executed. There are three different loop constructs that can be used depending on whether the number of repetitions is known and also (where the number of repetitions is not known and is dependent on a condition) whether the loop is allowed to be bypassed if the termination condition is met before the loop is first executed. This control variable in then incremented (or decremented) by a specified amount each time around the loop until a specified terminating value is reached at which time the statement following the loop is then executed. The for loop begins with a loop control variable assigned a specific initial value.

It allows organizations to place control of organization-wide database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. The DBMS accepts requests for data from an application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. Once the condition is met the statement following the loop will be executed. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models. maintenance. enforcing data integrity. The queries and responses must be submitted and received according to a format that conforms to one or more applicable protocols. management. Thus. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database.An until loop also allows a statement to be executed until a given condition is met but the condition will not be tested until after the loop has been executed once. a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. user can ask simple questions in a query language. When a DBMS is used. storage. information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's . and the use of the database with computer as a platform or of an organization and its end users. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation. Overview A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization. many DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. managing concurrency controlled. It provides facilities for controlling data access. such as the network model or relational model. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. and restoring database. In large systems. and retrieval of data in a database.

the data would be normalized into a user table. he described a new system for storing and working with large databases. For instance. some bit of information was used as a "key". in one of their offshoot offices that was primarily involved in the development of hard disk systems. Codd's idea was to use a "table" of fixed-length records. Linking the information back together is the key to this system. with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. their name. addresses and phone numbers for that user would be recorded with the login name as its key. data structure. In the navigational approach all of these data would be placed in a single record. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications.information requirements change. and unused items would simply not be placed in the database. Instead of records being stored in some sort of linked list of free-form records as in Codasyl. Sometimes DBMSs are built around a private multitasking kernel with built-in networking support although nowadays these functions are left to the operating system. he wrote a number of papers that outlined a new approach to database construction that eventually culminated in the groundbreaking A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. and transaction mechanisms: . A linked-list system would be very inefficient when storing "sparse" databases where some of the data for any one record could be left empty. various addresses and phone numbers. notably the lack of a "search" facility which was becoming increasingly useful. 1970s Relational DBMS Edgar Codd worked at IBM in San Jose. Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers. database query language. In the relational model. Hardware database accelerators. Records would be created in these optional tables only if the address or phone numbers were actually provided. related records are linked together with a "key". For instance. In 1970. In the relational model. information stored in the optional (or related) tables would be found by searching for this key. if the login name of a user is unique. This "re-linking" of related data back into a single collection is something that traditional computer languages are not designed for. DBMS building blocks A DBMS includes four main parts: modeling language.[1] In this paper. uniquely defining a particular record. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. are also used in large volume transaction processing environments. The relational model solved this by splitting the data into a series of normalized tables. He was unhappy with the navigational model of the Codasyl approach. with optional elements being moved out of the main table to where they would take up room only if needed. When information was being collected about a user. an address table and a phone number table (for instance). connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel. California. login information. In the relational approach. a common use of a database system is to track information about users. Database servers are computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software.

programming languages. and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device. Application Generation Subsystem contains facilities to help users to develop transactions-intensive applications. converts them into physical equivalent. and a member in any number of sets. The network model is a variation on the hierarchical model.Components of DBMS • • • • • DBMS Engine accepts logical request from the various other DBMS subsystems. change. security management. as in the programming language COBOL). It usually requires that user perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. and interfaces. concurrency control. Data Administration Subsystem helps users to manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery. It allows user to specify its logical information requirements. A record may be an owner in any number of sets. and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information. to the extent that it is built on the concept of multiple branches (lower-level structures) emanating from one or more nodes (higher-level structures). while the model differs from the hierarchical model in that branches can be connected to multiple nodes. The network model is able to represent redundancy in data more efficiently than in the hierarchical model. Sets (not to be confused with mathematical sets) define one-to-many relationships between records: one owner. Software tools within the data manipulation subsystem are most often the primary interface between user and the information contained in a database. (iii) Network Model – The network model (defined by the CODASYL specification) organizes data using two fundamental constructs. Data Manipulation Subsystem helps user to add. . many members. It facilities easy-to-use data entry screens. and change management. called records and sets. Data Definition Subsystem helps user to create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database. query optimization. Records contain fields (which may be organized hierarchically.

(0)1:M. As a result. F. where information about a particular entity (say. M:M). tables) in a relational database have to adhere to some basic rules to qualify as relations. thus. each tuple will contain a single value for each of its attributes. Second. Thus. or multiple columns can be grouped together into a compound key. any value occurring in two different records (belonging to the same table or to different tables). address or phone number. . an employee) is represented in columns and rows (also called tuples). Any column can be a key. The basic data structure of the relational model is the table. which can be used to uniquely identify each tuple in the table. Keys are commonly used to join or combine data from two or more tables. the "relation" in "relational database" refers to the various tables in the database. For example. in principle. Codd in 1970 as a way to make database management systems more independent of any particular application. in order to enforce explicit integrity constraints. The products that are generally referred to as relational databases in fact implement a model that is only an approximation to the mathematical model defined by Codd. And third. which facilitate fast retrieval of data from large tables. each similar to the one in the "flat" database model. One of the strengths of the relational model is that. A relational database contains multiple tables. Tables can also have a designated single attribute or a set of attributes that can act as a "key". and domains. A key that can be used to uniquely identify a row in a table is called a primary key. and a row is an actual instance of the entity (a specific employee) that is represented by the relation. each tuple of the employee table represents various attributes of a single employee. Keys are also critical in the creation of indexes. A relation is a table with columns and rows. relationships between records in tables can also be defined explicitly. The columns enumerate the various attributes of the entity (the employee's name. Yet. there can't be identical tuples or rows in a table. It is not necessary to define all the keys in advance. and the domain is the set of values the attributes are allowed to take. attributes. The named columns of the relation are called attributes. It is a mathematical model defined in terms of predicate logic and set theory. implies a relationship among those two records. a column can be used as a key even if it was not originally intended to be one. for example). by identifying or non-identifying parent-child relationships characterized by assigning cardinality (1:1. All relations (and. a relation is a set of tuples. the ordering of columns is immaterial in a table. Three key terms are used extensively in relational database models: relations. First. an Employee table may contain a column named Location which contains a value that matches the key of a Location table.(iv) Relational Model: The relational model was introduced by E.

By this definition. For normalization of data there are some normal forms like Domain/key normal form. as expressed by Christopher J Date. F. RDBMS products typically implement some but not all of Codd's 12 rules. Codd introduced the term in his wikt:seminal|seminal paper published in 1970. shared by many theorists and other strict adherents to Codd's principles. naming others Pseudo-Relational Database Management Systems (PRDBMS). Most popular commercial and open source databases currently in use are based on the relational model. Second normal form.RDBMS: Relational database management system A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model as introduced by E. many of the early implementations of the relational model did not conform to all of Codd's rules. i. In this paper and later papers he defined what he meant by relational. Fourth normal form. they often refer to some RDBMSs as Truly-Relational Database Management Systems (TRDBMS). The first system sold as an RDBMS was first sold in 1978. One well-known definition of what constitutes a relational database system is Codd's 12 rules. it is not relational. However. all commercial relational DBMSes employ as their query language. and Fifth normal form. F. so the term gradually came to describe a broader class of database systems.e. This view. Codd.First normal form. For clarification. A short definition of an RDBMS may be a DBMS in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables. (1970–72) and its followon (1973–79). even if it is not based strictly upon Relational model|relational theory. Micro DBMS (1969) and from IBM UK Scientific Centre at Peterlee. would disqualify most DBMSs as not relational. Third normal form. as a collection of tables with each table consisting of a set of rows and columns. Normalization A relational database aims to achieve database normalization|normalization of data. Historical usage of the term E. As of 2009. A second. At a minimum. theory-based school of thought argues that if a database does not implement all of Codd's rules (or the current understanding on the relational model. Normalization helps to reduce redundancy and update anomalies. Boyce-Codd normal form. The most popular definition of an RDBMS is a product that presents a view of data as a collection of rows and columns. these systems: • • presented the data to the user as relation (database)|relations (a presentation in tabular form. Alternative query languages have been proposed and implemented. can satisfy this property) provided relational operators to manipulate the data in tabular form The first systems that were relatively faithful implementations of the relational model were from the University of Michigan. notably the pre-1996 implementation of . Hugh Darwen and others).

in particular by ensuring that the database uses the same type system as the application program. object databases attempt to introduce the key ideas of object programming. creating a new programming model known as object databases. Common criticisms of SQL include a perceived lack of cross-platform portability between vendors. by defining an object-oriented data model for the database. and defining a database programming language that allows full programming capabilities as well as traditional query facilities. into the world of databases. the object-oriented paradigm has been applied to database technology. manipulate the structures in a relational database. At the same time. Structured Query Language (SQL) SQL is a programming language for querying and modifying data and managing databases. such as encapsulation and polymorphism. Based on this the commands can be broadly classified into following types. This aims to avoid the overhead (sometimes referred to as the impedance mismatch) of converting information between its representation in the database (for example as rows in tables) and its representation in the application program (typically as objects). updating. A database management system also includes management and administrative functions.  Data Definition Language  Data Manipulation Language  Transaction Control Language . SQL is the most powerful way of retrieving the data from DB. SQL – Structured Query Language is the set of commands that are used to create. These databases attempt to bring the database world and the application programming world closer together.Berkeley Ingres QUEL. SQL allows the retrieval. This also typically requires the addition of some kind of query language. A variety of these ways have been tried for storing objects in a database. SQL supports different types of operations. Others have attacked the problem from the database end. and deletion of data. (v) Object-Oriented Model: In recent years. SQL was standardized first by the ANSI and later by the ISO. both commercial and open source DBMSes have adopted some degree of standards compliance. insertion. inappropriate handling of missing data and unnecessarily complex and occasionally ambiguous language grammar and semantics. Most database management systems implement a majority of one of these standards and add their proprietary extensions. since conventional programming languages do not have the ability to find objects based on their information content. by making the objects manipulated by the program persistent. Also. With standardization of the SQL. Some products have approached the problem from the application programming end.

Naming conventions used in a database should also be standard and logical. It is a systematic way of ensuring that a database structure is suitable for general-purpose querying and free of certain undesirable characteristics—insertion. is the process of arranging data into logical. more manageable tables. There should be ease of use through the user's front-end tool (a client program that allows a user access to a database). organized groups of objects that can easily be maintained. NORMALIZATION Normalization is a process or set of guidelines used to optimally design a database to reduce redundant data. There are two goals of the normalization process: eliminating redundant data (for ex: storing the same data in more than one table) and ensuring data dependencies make sense (only storing related data in a table). along with optimal performance. Logical database design. maybe most importantly. It is a technique that is used when designing and redesigning a database. Remember that the end user is the person who ultimately uses the database. speed of queries. 4 represents the raw database. but this. Logical Database Design Any database should be designed with the end user in mind. update. also referred to as the logical model. data integrity. efficiency of database updates. This could be bad for security reasons. A database before normalization is one that has not been broken down logically into smaller. Session Control Language and  System Control Language. disk space usage. What Are the End User's Needs? The needs of the end user should be one of the top considerations when designing a database. Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. Some user-related design considerations include the following:  What data should be stored in the database?  How will the user access the database?  What privileges does the user require?  How should the data be grouped in the database?  What data is the most commonly accessed?  How is all data related in the database?  What measures should be taken to ensure accurate data? . and. cannot be achieved if the user's needs are not taken into consideration. The Raw Database A database that is not normalized may include data that is contained in one or more different tables for no apparent reason. Fig. and deletion anomalies—that could lead to a loss of data integrity. The logical design of a database should reduce data repetition or go so far as to completely eliminate it. Both of these are worthy goals as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored.

most database designers do not attempt to implement anything higher than Third Normal Form (3NF) or Boyce-Codd Normal Form.1NF) through the most restrictive (Fifth Normal Form – 5NF). First normal form (1NF) sets the very basic rules for an organized database:  Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table. which illustrates how the raw database shown in the previous figure has been redeveloped using the first normal form. more manageable tables: EMPLOYEE_TBL. These are referred to as normal forms and are numbered from one (the lowest form of normalization. . each column must contain only a single value and each row must contain the same columns. It’s important to point out that they are guidelines and guidelines only.Fig. in this case: EMP_ID. The stages of normalization are referred to as normal forms and progress from the least restrictive (First Normal Form .  Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column or set of columns (the primary key). referred to as first normal form or 1NF) through five (fifth normal form or 5NF). In practical applications. 2NF. More simply. Examine Fig 4. The primary keys are normally the first columns listed in a table. and PROD_ID. When each table has been designed. to be in 1NF. You can see that to achieve the first normal form. Instead of one large table. Fifth normal form is very rarely seen. CUST_ID. and 3NF along with the occasional 4NF are seen. and PRODUCTS_TBL. it becomes necessary to stray from them to meet practical business requirements.2. Occasionally. each having a primary key and ensuring that there are no repeated groups in any of the tables. 4 – Raw database The Normal Forms The database community has developed a series of guidelines for ensuring that databases are normalized. a primary key is assigned to most or all tables. Generally. First Normal Form (1NF) A relation is said to be in First Normal Form (1NF) if and only if each attribute of the relation is atomic. only 1NF. data had to be broken into logical units of related information. The objective of the first normal form is to divide the base data into logical units called tables. CUSTOMER_TBL. there are now smaller.

Notice that both tables contain the column EMP_ID.3 illustrates the second normal form. ADDRESS. and DATE_LAST_RAISE).  Create relationships between these new tables and their predecessors through the use of foreign keys. ZIP. The objective of the second normal form is to take data that is only partly dependent on the primary key and enters that data into another table. CITY. and PAGER). POSITION_DESC. LAST_NAME. PAY_RATE.  Remove subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables. POSITION. MIDDLE_NAME. PHONE. . This is the primary key of each table and is used to match corresponding data between the two tables. DATE_HIRE. Fig 4. The order information for a customer is dependent on each CUST_ID. but does not directly depend on the general customer information in the original table. the information that is only partly dependent on the EMP_ID (each individual employee) is used to populate EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL (EMP_ID. Personal employee information is dependent on the primary key (EMP_ID). What took place is similar to what occurred in the EMPLOYEE_TBL. 4. FIRST_NAME. EMPLOYEE_TBL split into two tables called EMPLOYEE_TBL and EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL. On the other hand. The second normal form is derived from the first normal form by further breaking two tables down into more specific units.Fig. Columns that were partly dependent on the primary key were directed to another table. CUSTOMER_TBL split into two tables called CUSTOMER_TBL and ORDERS_TBL.1 – 1NF Second Normal Form (2NF) Second normal form (2NF) further addresses the concept of removing duplicative data:  Meet all the requirements of the first normal form. STATE. so that information remained in the EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID.

4. EMP_ID. one table containing the actual employee pay information and the other containing the position descriptions. In the third normal form EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL is split into two tables. The third normal form's objective is to remove data in a table that is not dependent on the primary key. Fig.3 – 3NF . which really do not need to reside in EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL.  Remove columns that are not dependent upon the primary key. these normalization guidelines are cumulative.2 – 2NF Third Normal Form (3NF) Third normal form (3NF) goes one large step further:  Meet all the requirements of the second normal form. For a database to be in 2NF.Fig. 4. it must first fulfill all the criteria of a 1NF database. Remember. The POSITION_DESC column is totally independent of the primary key.

the possibility of inconsistent data is greatly reduced. Limitations of Normalization Some of the major limitations of the normalization process include the following:  More complicated SQL required for multi-table sub-queries and joins and  Extra work for DBMS which slows down the application. For example. Because duplicate data is minimized. Some of the major benefits include the following:  Greater overall database organization  Reduction of redundant data  Data consistency within the database  A much more flexible database design and  A better handle on database security. Security is easier to control when normalization has occurred. which simplifies data structures and conserves disk space. Lastly. whereas the name of the same individual reads STEPHEN R. Because the database has been normalized and broken into smaller tables. Denormalizing a database is the process of taking the level of normalization within the database down a notch or two. making everyone's job easier. Data redundancy is reduced. Data integrity is the assurance of consistent and accurate data within a database. security is also provided in the sense that the DBA can grant access to limited tables to certain users. A denormalized database is not the same as a database that has not been normalized. Organization is brought about by the normalization process.Benefits of Normalization Normalization provides numerous benefits to a database. . It is much easier to modify a small table with little data than to modify one big table that holds all the vital data in the database. Remember. you are provided with more flexibility as far as modifying existing structures. in one table an individual's name could read STEVE SMITH. Denormalizing a Database Denormalization is the process of taking a normalized database and modifying table structures to allow controlled redundancy for increased database performance. from the user who accesses tables to the database administrator (DBA) who is responsible for the overall management of every object in the database. Attempting to improve performance is the only reason to ever denormalize a database. SMITH in another table.

For these applications. and large data sets. to map the objects into a relational database and performance can suffer. seamless data distribution.the complexity must be tamed. It is difficult. 3. Architectures that mix technical needs such as persistence (and SQL) with the domain model are an invitation to disaster. it's as easy as 1. to map the objects into a relational database and performance can suffer. freeing you from persistence concerns. NO MAPPING LAYER It is difficult. and objects can be stored and retrieved faster. and expensive at run time. tree and network relationships as named bi-directional associations without having the need for JOIN tables. Denormalization may involve recombining separate tables or creating duplicate data within tables to reduce the number of tables that need to be joined to retrieve the requested data. have high concurrency requirements.for many applications. the most challenging aspect is controlling the inherent complexity of the subject matter itself . Modern O/R mapping . today's most challenging aspect is controlling the inherent complexity of the subject matter itself . time consuming. OODBMS (Object Database) Advantages Using an OODBMS / ODBMS (object database management system. However. a Versant OODBMS is the best answer. Versant's object database solutions (ODBMS) are designed to handle the navigational access. and expensive at run time.the complexity must be tamed. Hence.normalization can actually slow performance with its frequently occurring table join operations. expensive in development. and scalability often required by these applications: o o Object Database OODBMS FastObjects . 2. Versant's OODBMS solutions store objects as objects .NET OODBMS Why OODBMS solutions instead of traditional RDBMS? Where data handling requirements are simple and suitable to rigid row and column structures an RDBMS might be an appropriate solutiuon. time consuming.yes. And tamed in a way that enables continual evolution of the application as the environment and needs change. Versant's OODBMS solutions let you develop using objects that need only contain the domain behaviour. Versant's object database solutions are designed to store many-to-many. which results in less I/O and CPU time. COMPLEX DATA For many applications. Versant's object database solutions save programming time. object-oriented data management system) for data storage brings powerful advantages to applications that use complex object models. expensive in development. tree structures or network (graph) structures then Versant's OODBMS solutions will handle those relationships much faster than a relational database. For these applications. an OODBMS is the best answer: COMPLEX (INTER-) RELATIONSHIPS If there are a lot of many-to-many relationships.

freeing you from persistence concerns. OODBMS: Definition - O N An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS). DATA PROCESSING Batch Processing: Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. ABILITY TO COPE WITH CONTINOUS EVOLUTION The complexity of telecommunications infrastructure. FAST AND EASY may simplify many mapping problems. constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. simulations. however they don’t provide seamless data distribution or the performance of Versant's OODBMS solutions. B T A C On-line Processing: Transaction data entered directly into system. Versant's OODBMS solutions let you develop using objects that need only contain the domain behaviour. financial instruments and other domains must be tamed. B T HO AC F T A S C IO S R N A T N . And tamed in a way that enables continual evolution of the application as the environment and needs change. transportation networks. sometimes shortened to ODBMS for object database management system). Useful for less time-sensitive actions. is a database management system (DBMS) that S RE O T D T A S C IO F R N A T N IL . Architectures that mix technical needs such as persistence (and SQL) with the domain model are an invitation to disaster.

the objectrelational database management system (ORDBMS). types or classes.supports the modelling and creation of data as objects. the Object Data Management Group (ODMG). In their influential paper. There is currently no widely agreed-upon standard for what constitutes an OODBMS. to the extent possible. i. object identity. and OODBMS products are considered to be still in their infancy. The second one translates into eight features: complex objects. the idea that object-oriented database concepts can be superimposed on relational databases. The Object Management Group (OMG) has already standardized an object-oriented data brokering interface between systems in a network. An object-oriented database interface standard is being developed by an industry group. overriding combined with late binding. and it should be an object-oriented system. In the meantime. inheritance. The first criterion translates into five features: persistence.e. This includes some kind of support for classes of objects and the inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects. is more commonly encountered in available products. encapsulation.. The Object-Oriented Database Manifesto. Malcolm Atkinson and others define an OODBMS as follows: An object-oriented database system must satisfy two criteria: it should be a DBMS. concurrency. extensibility and computational completeness. . secondary storage management. recovery and an ad hoc query facility. it should be consistent with the current crop of object-oriented programming languages.

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