Network+ Training & Test Preparation Guide 3rd Edition

Network+

Copyright© 2009 by Specialized Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose is a violation of United States copyright laws. For further information, please write to: Publisher, c/o Specialized Solutions, Inc., 3910 Riga Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619. ISBN: 1-893596-44-3 This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, respecting the contents of this book, including but not limited to implied warranties for the books quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Neither Specialized Solutions, Inc., nor its authorized distributors, shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by this book. Furthermore, any mention or reference to any products does not constitute an endorsement by Specialized Solutions, Inc. 02 1 Specialized Solutions, Inc.

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Author: Specialized Solutions, Inc. Contributing Writers: Richard Harrison Garrett Smiley Maverick A. Bolen Editor: Susan Schmidt

Trademark Acknowledgments Brands and product names cited in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks held by their respective companies. Any use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................................................I INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................1 COMPTIA TEST OBJECTIVES FOR NETWORK+...........................................................................2 STUDY PLAN STRATEGIES ....................................................................................................18 HOW TO TAKE THE TEST......................................................................................................19 Who may take the test? ...............................................................................................19 How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success...................................................................19 Step 1 – Prepare for the Training............................................................................19 Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs).............................................20 Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam................................................................21 Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam.....................................................................21 ABOUT THIS COURSE...........................................................................................................23 CHAPTER 1 – NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS...................................................24 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING............................................................................................24 Benefits of Networking Computers.............................................................................24 Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN).................................25 The Client/Server Relationship...................................................................................26 Client/Server Networking............................................................................................26 Peer-to-Peer Networking............................................................................................27 BASIC NETWORK STRUCTURE (TOPOLOGY).............................................................................28 Bus Topology...............................................................................................................28 Star Topology..............................................................................................................29 Ring Topology.............................................................................................................29 SPECIAL TOPOLOGIES...........................................................................................................30 Hybrid Topologies.......................................................................................................30 Mesh Topology............................................................................................................30 Wireless Topology.......................................................................................................31 NETWORK ACCESS...............................................................................................................33 Token Passing.............................................................................................................33 Ethernet.......................................................................................................................33 Fast Ethernet...............................................................................................................34 HUBS AND CONCENTRATORS..................................................................................................35 Passive Hubs...............................................................................................................35 Active Hubs.................................................................................................................36 Hub-Based Networks...................................................................................................36 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................37 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................38 REVIEW QUESTIONS - CHAPTER 1..........................................................................................39 CHAPTER 2 - NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS (NOS).....................................40 WHAT IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM?.........................................................................................40 Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive Multitasking.............................................................41 WHAT IS A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS)?................................................................42 Peer-to-Peer LANs......................................................................................................42 Windows for Workgroups ......................................................................................42 i

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows 95/98........................................................................................................42 Windows ME...........................................................................................................43 Windows 2000 Professional....................................................................................43 Windows XP Home.................................................................................................43 Windows XP Professional ......................................................................................43 Windows 2003 Server.............................................................................................43 Windows Vista........................................................................................................43 Windows Server 2008.............................................................................................44 Warp Connect..........................................................................................................44 Other Peer-to-Peer LANs........................................................................................44 Server/Client Software................................................................................................44 Client Software........................................................................................................45 Server Software.......................................................................................................45 The Redirector (Requester).....................................................................................46 NOS PACKAGES.................................................................................................................47 Novell NetWare...........................................................................................................47 NetWare Directory Services (NDS)........................................................................47 NetWare File Services.............................................................................................48 NetWare Security....................................................................................................48 NetWare Print Services...........................................................................................48 NetWare Message Handling Service (MHS)..........................................................48 NetWare Interoperability.........................................................................................48 Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System...................................................48 Windows NT File Services......................................................................................49 Windows NT Security.............................................................................................49 Windows NT Print Servers......................................................................................50 Windows NT Services.............................................................................................50 Interoperability........................................................................................................50 Windows 2000 Server.............................................................................................51 UNIX Operating Systems............................................................................................51 Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service).................................................51 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................53 KEYWORDS EXERCISE....................................................................................................54 KEYWORDDEFINITIONCLIENT SOFTWARECSNWDSMNFATFILE SERVERGSNWINTEROPERABILITYMHSLINUXMACINTOSHMULTITASKINGNDSNON-PREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGNOSNTFSNWLINKPREEMPTIVE MULTITASKINGPRINT SERVERREDIRECTOR/REQUESTERSECURITYSERVER SOFTWAREUNIX.........................................54 REVIEW QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................54 CHAPTER 3- THE OSI MODEL AND COMMUNICATION STANDARDS...........57 THE SEVEN LAYERS OF NETWORK COMMUNICATION................................................................57 SEVEN LAYERS OF THE OSI MODEL......................................................................................58 Application Layer........................................................................................................58 Presentation Layer......................................................................................................59 Session Layer..............................................................................................................59 Transport Layer..........................................................................................................59 Network Layer.............................................................................................................60 Data Link Layer..........................................................................................................60 Logical Link Control (LLC)........................................................................................61 ii

Table of Contents Media Access Control (MAC).....................................................................................61 Physical Layer.............................................................................................................62 PROTOCOL STACKS..............................................................................................................64 Communication Between Peer Layers........................................................................64 OSI AND THE REAL WORLD.................................................................................................66 DEVICES AND THE OSI MODEL.............................................................................................68 Repeaters.....................................................................................................................68 Bridges........................................................................................................................68 Routers........................................................................................................................68 Brouters.......................................................................................................................69 Gateways.....................................................................................................................69 IEEE 802 STANDARDS........................................................................................................70 NETWORK DRIVERS AND THE OSI MODEL..............................................................................72 NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)..........................................................72 ODI (Open Data Link Interface).................................................................................72 PROTOCOLS AND OSI...........................................................................................................72 Protocol Binding.........................................................................................................73 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless....................................................................73 Routable vs. Non-Routable Protocols.........................................................................73 Networking Protocols and Stacks...............................................................................74 AppleTalk....................................................................................................................75 DECnet........................................................................................................................75 IPX/ SPX.....................................................................................................................75 SMB (Server Message Block)......................................................................................76 SNA (Systems Network Architecture)..........................................................................76 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)........................................................................76 IP (Internet Protocol)..................................................................................................76 UDP (User Datagram Protocol).................................................................................76 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)......................................................................................76 Telnet...........................................................................................................................77 NFS (Network File System).........................................................................................77 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)......................................................................77 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)...........................................................................77 NTP (Network Time Protocol)....................................................................................77 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)...............................................................................77 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)............................................................................77 X.25.............................................................................................................................77 XNS (Xerox Network System)......................................................................................78 Non-Routable Protocols..............................................................................................78 DLC (Data Link Control)............................................................................................78 LAT (Local Area Transport).......................................................................................78 NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)............................................................78 Other Protocols...........................................................................................................79 SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)...........................................................................79 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)....................................................................................79 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)................................................................79 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)........................................................79 ISO/OSI Standard.......................................................................................................79 ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)...............................................................79 iii

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DNS (Domain Name System)......................................................................................79 XDR (External Data Representation).........................................................................79 RPC (Remote Procedure Call)....................................................................................79 SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................81 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ...................................................................................................82 REVIEW QUESTIONS – CHAPTER 3.........................................................................................84 CHAPTER 4 - HARDWARE MEDIA AND PERIPHERALS.....................................86 NETWORK CABLING.............................................................................................................86 Coaxial Cable.............................................................................................................86 Thinnet.....................................................................................................................86 Thicknet...................................................................................................................86 Summary of Coaxial Cables....................................................................................87 Coaxial Connectors.....................................................................................................87 BNC Cable Connectors...........................................................................................87 N Connectors...........................................................................................................88 Transceivers.............................................................................................................88 Vampire Taps..........................................................................................................89 Twisted-Pair Cable.....................................................................................................89 UTP.........................................................................................................................90 STP..........................................................................................................................90 Twisted-Pair Connectors.........................................................................................90 AppleTalk................................................................................................................90 Distribution Panels..................................................................................................91 Fiber-Optic Cable.......................................................................................................91 IBM Cabling................................................................................................................92 Summary of Cabling....................................................................................................94 Media...........................................................................................................94 CABLING TERMS..................................................................................................................95 AWG (American Wire Gauge)....................................................................................95 Bandwidth...................................................................................................................95 Plenum Grade Cabling...............................................................................................95 Selecting Cables..........................................................................................................96 NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NICS)....................................................................................98 Preparing the Data.....................................................................................................98 Signals and Clocking..................................................................................................98 Signals.....................................................................................................................98 Clocking..................................................................................................................98 Network Addressing/MAC Address.............................................................................98 DMA (Direct Memory Channel).................................................................................99 Controlling the Data Flow..........................................................................................99 Configurable Options..................................................................................................99 IRQ (Interrupt Request).........................................................................................100 Base I/O Port Address...........................................................................................100 Base Memory Address..........................................................................................100 DMA Channel ......................................................................................................100 Boot PROM...........................................................................................................100 Ring Speed............................................................................................................101 Connector Type.....................................................................................................101 iv

...........................................................................................101 Fiber-Optic NICs...........................107 Satellite Station Networking.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Wireless NICs..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................118 Packet Components...................................................................................................................................................................118 Data.....118 Packet Structure...121 10BaseT (Twisted Pair).........123 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”)....................................................116 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS (FRAMES AND PACKETS).............................106 Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions........................122 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic).......101 DATA BUS ARCHITECTURE.....................................................................................................................119 Trailer....124 Token Ring (802........................119 NETWORK STANDARDS...............................121 Ethernet (802............122 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards................................................................................................................................................................107 Terrestrial Microwave...................................116 Token Passing........................................................................123 Other Ethernet Considerations.115 CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance)......................................................................................................114 ACCESS METHODS....................110 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.......................106 Narrow-Band Radio Transmission.........................................................................................................................107 SUMMARY.......................106 Microwave............................122 100VG-AnyLAN.................................................................116 Demand Priority..........................118 Headers......................................................................................................................................................................................111 CHAPTER 5 – NETWORK PROTOCOLS & STANDARDS.........................2).........................................................................................107 Cellular Networking.....................................3)..........................109 KEYWORDS EXERCISE..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Wireless Transmission Methods........................................................................122 10Base5 (Thicknet)......................................................................102 NETWORK PERFORMANCE.............................122 10Base2 (Thinnet)..............................................121 Logical Link Control (802.........................................................102 Laptops..............................107 Packet-Radio Networking.................................................................................................104 Why Wireless?................................................................5)....................................................................................................................................................................................105 Radio Transmission...............................................................................................................................................102 Standard Bus Types................................125 v .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)..............................................................................................................................125 How it Works......105 Infrared Networks................................................................123 Gigabit Ethernet.............................................103 WIRELESS NETWORKS......................................................................................................................107 Satellite Microwave.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...........................................143 Public and Private networks........................130 SUMMARY........................................................................138 The Network Goals............................................................................................................153 Cable to Computer............................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Making the Choice.........................................................................................................................................................129 ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network).........................................................128 AppleTalk...........158 vi ...............................................................................................................................................................128 LocalTalk.....................................151 NOS Selection..........151 Protocol Selection................139 DETERMINE NETWORK TYPE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................133 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5.............................................................................................................................................126 Beaconing...........................................................................................................................................................................................125 Source Address ...125 Access Control ...............................................................................138 The Customer..............................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Token Ring Connectors.................................................................................................................................................128 Token Ring Repeaters.........................................................................................149 Environmental Concerns..........................................149 Media Selection.................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Start Delimiter .....156 Card to Network.................................................................................................................125 Destination Address ....................................................................................................129 TokenTalk..........................................................................................................................................................................................153 Cable to Hub....127 Token Ring Fiber-Optic.................127 Token Ring Cabling...................................127 Token Ring Patch Cables.................126 Message .......................................................................................................126 Multistation Access Unit (The Hub)............................................................................................129 AppleShare................................................................................................................................153 Network Adapter Cards..............................................................................................................................................................141 When to Choose Peer-to-Peer....................................................................................................................................................128 Token Ring Adapter Cards...................141 When to Choose Client/Server................156 Adapter Card Compatibility........................................................................................................................156 Card and Computer............................................................................................................................................................................157 Computer Compatibility.............................................................157 Media Compatibility.....................151 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER.............................154 NETWORK AND HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY............................129 EtherTalk...............................................................135 CHAPTER 6 – NETWORK DESIGN.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Frame Control .................................................138 STARTING A NETWORK PROJECT...............143 DESIGN THE NETWORK.................................................................132 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.................................................................................129 Zones.......................................................................................................

.......................................172 ISDN .....................................176 SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................169 VLAN........................................................165 Gateway ................................................................................164 Repeaters ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 SONET .178 SSL.........170 Advanced WAN Environments................................................................................................175 Connecting Two Computers............172 MODEMS.........................................................................179 Troubleshooting a RAS setup......................164 Routers ................................................................................................................................172 SMDS.................................................................163 WHEN A LAN IS TOO SMALL...........................................172 SDH........................................................178 TLS............................................................................................................................................................................177 L2TP..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 X.................179 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ....................168 Circuit-switched Networks.................................159 Hard Work.............................................................................................................................................166 Carriers...........177 PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol).167 Digital Connectivity..........................................................166 WAN Overview....................................................177 IPsec.............................169 Packet Switching Networks............................................................................................................................................................................25..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................167 Analog Connectivity..........................175 RAS Protocols.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................165 CONNECTION SERVICES................................................................................................................................160 Minimum Requirements.............................................................................................Table of Contents PREVENTING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ........................................................................................................................................159 RESOLVING COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS..............................................................................................EXPANDING A NETWORK.............................................179 Limitations of RAS......................................................................................................................171 Frame Relay.......................................................178 ICA (Independent Computing Architecture)............................................................................................................173 REMOTE ACCESS COMPUTING (RAS)..................178 Kerberos........................159 Standards.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................162 CHAPTER 7 ..................................................................164 Bridges ...............................................................................................160 HCL and Windows 2000......161 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6....................................................................................181 KEYWORDDEFINITIONANALOG SIGNALBRIDGECARRIERCONCENTRATORCSU/DSUDIGITAL SIGNALDUNFRAME vii ................................................................................................................................................................................................................176 PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)..........................................................163 EXPANDING A LAN WITH HUBS......178 Installing and Configuring RAS.............................

.......................................................207 Binary Network IDDotted-decimal ID11000000 00100100192.....195 IP Gateway........186 INTRODUCTION TO TCP/IP .............186 TCP/IP PROTOCOLS.......................................02......................36..........................................................152 254How to Subdivide a Network..............................................................................................198 IPv4.........210 Default Gateway.........................................................................................................................36 (overall network address)11000000 00100100 001192..............182 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7........6411000000 00100100 011192....................................0...191 NAMING SYSTEMS .........210 DNS............................................................................196 ICS............................................................................................................................................................9611000000 00100100 100192.............................................199 Class B Addresses........................................................................................196 IP Proxy Servers...016.........................186 RFC (Request For Comments)....................................................199 Class D and Class E Addresses.............................................................208 TCP/IP CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS...................................................................................184 CHAPTER 8 – TCP/IP ESSENTIALS.............................................................................................195 DHCP..................................................................................25....................................................................................0........................................................205 Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet................................................198 IP Addresses..............................................................194 WINS......................................................................................38465..............................................................................36.......................................................................................................................................................................195 LMHOSTS file...........................36.....Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide RELAYGATEWAYHUBSICAIPSECISDNKERBEROSL2TPMAUPPPPPTPRASREPEATERROUTERS DHSLIPSMAUSONETSSLT1VLANX.................................................199 Class A Addresses......................................................................................0.................255......................................................................195 NETBIOS..........................................................................................................................................................................189 The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols...........................................................205 Determine the Network IDs ....................................................097..............................................012616..............................................................200 SUBNETTING..210 viii ....................................189 Other TCP/IP Protocols..................................................................255........................................................................................................................196 NAT.....................................203 ClassDefault Subnet MaskNumber of NetworksNumber of HostsA255........................................................................................36...........................................................195 BOOTP..........534C255..........................205 Define the Subnet Mask..................192Determine the Host IDs..........................................3211000000 00100100 010192............................................255.......................................................................................194 DNS.........................36..................................................................................................195 HOSTS file..................................................210 IP Address.........................210 WINS....................................199 IPv6 (IP Next Generation).................................12811000000 00100100 101192..............................................................197 TCP/IP ADDRESSING......................................................................................................777..............................................................................................205 Determine the number of Network IDs required.16011000000 00100100 110192.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................36........................216B255.........................................199 Class C Addresses.....................................................................196 NETWORK CONNECTION UTILITIES...........................................................

..........................................................211 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ..................232 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)................220 RARP.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................217 Communities..........................................................................226 SECURITY TECHNIQUES..............228 Backup Options...................................................220 NSLOOKUP.......................SNMP..............225 User-level Security..220 ARP.................................................................................................................. Differential............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 RAID 6 and Beyond............................................................................................................................................230 Disk Striping (RAID 0).............232 ix ...................................................................................................................229 Tape Backup..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................216 Management Software...............................230 Fault Tolerance and RAID...........................................................231 Storage Area Network (SAN)...................................218 ROUTE...............................................................218 NBTSTAT...........................................................220 IFCONFIG...............................................................................................214 CHAPTER 9 – TCP/IP UTILITIES....................218 NETSTAT..................................225 Share-level Security................................................................232 Fault Tolerance and Power ..............................................................................................................................................................231 Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5)............................................................Table of Contents DHCP...........................................................................................................................228 Backing up Data...........232 Network-Attached Storage........................229 Backup Software............216 Agent Software..................................................................................................232 Surge Protectors.........................................................................218 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS...............................................................................................225 USER AND SHARE LEVEL............................217 VALIDATION TOOLS............................................................................................................................................................220 IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG....................................................................229 Removable Disks.......................................................................................212 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.........................216 NETWORK MANAGERS .............................................................................................222 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................231 Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)..........228 Blocking Port Numbers...................................................................................................................................................................................224 CHAPTER 10 – NETWORK SECURITY................................................... and Incremental Backups...............................................218 TRACERT............................................................220 PING...................................................................................................................................................................217 EVENT VIEWER...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Full...228 Firewalls...................................................................................................................................220 KEYWORDS EXERCISE ............................................................................................................................................................230 Volumes................................................................................................................

.............246 Hardware Networking Tools......................................................249 Optical Tester......................................................................................257 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.................................................256 Performance.................................................................244 Test the Result ..........250 MAINTAINING AND TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS......................................................................................245 NETWORKING AND TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS ................................................256 Bandwidth and Throughput...........................................................241 Identify the affected area ....253 Cable Problems..........................................................................................................................243 Implement a solution ..............................................................................................................................249 Time Domain Reflectometer............................256 Name Resolution .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................235 KEYWORDS EXERCISE.....................245 Recognize the potential effects of the solution....................................................................................................................................................................................................................247 Media Tester..........................................................................................238 KEYWORDDEFINITIONDATA ENCRYPTIONDIFFERENTIAL BACKUPDISASTER RECOVERYDISK MIRRORINGDISK STRIPINGFIREWALLFULL BACKUPINCREMENTAL BACKUPNASPASSWORD SECURITYRAIDSANSHARE LEVEL SECURITYUSER LEVEL SECURITYVOLUMES.......................234 Disaster Recovery...................................................................................................................................241 Establish the symptoms: ..........................................................................................................................................................261 APPENDIX A – TECH SUMMARY....257 Latency......................249 Protocol Analyzer..246 Wire Crimper......................................................246 Punch Down Tool......................................................................................................253 Misbehaving Protocols.............................................................................................................233 Encryption..........................259 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11.............................251 TROUBLESHOOTING SCENARIOS .242 Select the most probable cause....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................263 x ....................................................................................245 Document the solution ....247 The Multimeter.............................................................................................................239 CHAPTER 11 – TROUBLESHOOTING A NETWORK....................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PASSWORD PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES.................................235 Viruses...246 Hardware Troubleshooting Tools..........................................................................................................................................................................257 Server/Workstation Limits.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................238 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................242 Establish what has changed.248 Test Cables.....................................................255 NIC Indicator Lights.........................................................................247 Tone Generator and Tone Locator..................................................................................................................260 CONCLUSION....................................................................................................................................................................241 BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING...................................................257 Application Efficiency.......................

..........302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 2..........................................................9TWO STP –26 AWG WIRE.......................................................................7NOT DEFINED8TWO STP – 26 AWG..........................................277 COMPUSERVE......................................................271 TCP/IP UTILITIES............. VOICE-GRADE CABLE...264 UTP CABLE CATEGORIES.................................................................271 TOPOLOGY REVIEW................3FOUR UTP WITH TWO TWISTS PER INCH – 22 OR 24 AWG WIRE –MAXIMUM CABLE LENGTH IS 45 METERS (148 FEET)....................................................................................................................................................281 TO REGISTER FOR THE NETWORK+ EXAMS.........................................................................................................FIBER OPTIC6TWO STP – 26 AWG WIRE........................................Table of Contents 5-4-3 RULE..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................283 APPENDIX F – CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS..............274 TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................265 IBM CABLE TYPES (TOKEN RING)..................................................CONNECT BETWEEN TERMINALS AND DISTRIBUTION BOXES OR BETWEEN DIFFERENT WIRING CLOSETS......................................................311 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 6 ............................................ BUT ADDS VOICE CAPABILITY ALONG WITH DATA................................................................5/125-MICRON MULTI-MODE FIBERS.277 APPENDIX C – NETWORK STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS.......................................277 MICROSOFT:..........................................269 SUBNET MASKING......................................................314 xi ..................280 ISO.......IEEE 802.................................................LOWER COST ALTERNATIVE TO TYPE 1 OR 2.................................................................................................281 APPENDIX E – GLOSSARY..........................................................................................................280 SAG........................................DATA PATCH CABLES.........................................266 IRQ ASSIGNMENTS...........................................................267 OSI MODEL.......................................263 COAXIAL CABLE TYPES................................................277 NOVELL...............................................................................................................................................................................303 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 3.......280 APPENDIX D – HOW TO REGISTER FOR THE EXAM................2SIX TWISTED PAIRS..........................................................306 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 4.....................265 TYPEWIRE SPECSUSES1TWO STP SOLID CORE 22 AWG WIRES – MAXIMUM LENGTH 101 METERS (331 FEET)..................SAME AS TYPE 1........................... TWO STP AND FOUR UTP – MAXIMUM LENGTH 100 METERS (328 FEET).... CANNOT BE USED FOR 16 MBPS TOKEN RING.............274 APPENDIX B – USEFUL WEB SITES......CONTAINS A SHIELD FOR USE UNDER CARPETS..........................................279 EIA..308 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 5................................................279 ANSI......................................................................................................................................................................................................................271 TRANSMISSION MEDIA..............................277 OTHER HELPFUL SITES.....................................................PLENUM GRADE...............................................279 CCITT........................................................................................................................................................................................................X STANDARDS..............................................................................................270 TCP/IP PORTS........................................................................................................................4NOT DEFINED5TWO 62..............................................................302 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 1...............................................................................................................................................................................................279 IEEE...............................263 ETHERNET CABLING..............

...............................320 INDEX........................................................................322 xii .........................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 7 ...........315 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8.............................................................................................317 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9............................................................................................318 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 10..........................................................................................................................................319 REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 11..............................................................................

Computer Graphics Experts. Technical Editors. Our staff consists of Microsoft Certified Professionals. It can be used in conjunction with the QuickCert Network+ video training series. Technical Writers. as a stand-alone textbook. We have carefully prepared this multi-media training material to provide you with the needed information in a logical. easy to follow format. our success is directly tied to the success our students have with our training programs. or as a textbook in a classroom environment. at QuickCert. We hope you enjoy your Network+ training program.Introduction Introduction This Training Guide is designed to meet all of the Network+ exam objectives. Remember. and Digital Video Studio Professionals. We are here to help with all of your training and certification needs! 1 .

” “This examination includes blueprint weighting. test objectives and example content.” The exam consists of 100 questions with a maximum allowable time of 90 minutes and you must achieve a score of 720 within the possible range of 100 to 900 to pass. The objectives are weighted in the following manner: NETWORK+ CERTIFICATION DOMAIN AREAS 1.0 Network Devices 4.org/resources/objectives.0 Network Security Total % OF EXAMINATION 20% 20% 17% 20% 12% 11% 100% 2 . Example concepts are included to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of the content of the examination.aspx dated 12/12/08: “The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from industry-wide job task analysis and validated through an industry wide survey.comptia.0 Network Media and Topologies 3.0 Network Technologies 2.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide CompTIA Test Objectives for Network+ CompTIA is an acronym for Computing Technology Industry Association The following excerpt is from http://certification. The results of this survey were used in weighing the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.0 Network Management 5.0 Network Tools 6.

Introduction The following is a further breakdown of the specific areas covered on the Network+ exam: 1.2 Identify commonly used TCP and UDP default ports TCP ports 3 .0 Network Technologies 1.1 Explain the function of common networking protocols TCP FTP UDP TCP/IP suite DHCP TFTP DNS HTTP(S) ARP SIP (VoIP) RTP (VoIP) SSH POP3 NTP IMAP4 Telnet SMTP SNMP2/3 ICMP IGMP TLS 1.

21 SSH – 22 TELNET – 23 SMTP – 25 DNS – 53 HTTP – 80 POP3 – 110 NTP – 123 IMAP4 – 143 HTTPS – 443 UDP ports TFTP – 69 DNS – 53 BOOTPS/DHCP – 67 SNMP – 161 1.g. evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies and addressing schemes Addressing Technologies Subnetting Classful vs. private 4 . CIDR. Supernetting) NAT PAT SNAT Public vs.4 Given a scenario.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide FTP – 20.3 Identify the following address formats IPv6 IPv4 MAC addressing 1. classless (e.

6 Explain the purpose and properties of routing IGP vs. dynamic APIPA) Addressing schemes Unicast Multicast Broadcast 1.5 Identify common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols Link state OSPF IS-IS Distance vector RIP RIPv2 BGP Hybrid EIGRP 1.Introduction DHCP (static.11 a/b/g/n o Speeds o Distance o Channels o Frequency Authentication and encryption 5 . EGP Static vs. dynamic Next hop Understanding routing tables and how they pertain to path selection Explain convergence (steady state) 1.7 Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards 802.

0 Network Media and Topologies 2. CAT6 STP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o WPA o WEP o RADIUS o TKIP 2. CAT5e. Non-plenum Properties: Transmission speeds Distance Duplex Noise immunity (security. UTP Multimode fiber. single-mode fiber Coaxial o RG-59 o RG-6 Serial Plenum vs. CAT5.1 Categorize standard cable types and their properties Type: CAT3. EMI) Frequency 2.2 Identify common connector types RJ-11 RJ-45 BNC SC ST LC 6 .

cross-over Rollover Loopback 2.3 Identify common physical network topologies Star Mesh Bus Ring Point to point Point to multipoint Hybrid 2.5 Categorize WAN technology types and properties Type: Frame relay E1/T1 ADSL SDSL VDSL Cable modem Satellite E3/T3 OC-x Wireless ATM 7 . differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards 568A 568B Straight vs.4 Given a scenario.Introduction RS-232 2.

6 Categorize LAN technology types and properties Types: Ethernet 10BaseT 100BaseTX 100BaseFX 1000BaseT 1000BaseX 10GBaseSR 10GBaseLR 10GBaseER 10GBaseSW 10GBaseLW 10GBaseEW 10GBaseT Properties 8 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide SONET MPLS ISDN BRI ISDN PRI POTS PSTN Properties Circuit switch Packet switch Speed Transmission media Distance 2.

configure and differentiate between common network devices Hub 9 .8 Install components of wiring distribution Vertical and horizontal cross connects Patch panels 66 block MDFs IDFs 25 pair 100 pair 110 block Demarc Demarc extension Smart jack Verify wiring installation Verify wiring termination 3.1 Install.0 Network Devices 3.7 Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics Peer to peer Client/server VPN VLAN 2.Introduction CSMA/CD Broadcast Collision Bonding Speed Distance 2.

4 Implement a basic wireless network 10 .2 Identify the functions of specialized network devices Multilayer switch Content switch IDS/IPS Load balancer Multifunction network devices DNS server Bandwidth shaper Proxy server CSU/DSU 3.3 Explain the advanced features of a switch PoE Spanning tree VLAN Trunking Port mirroring Port authentication 3.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Repeater Modem NIC Media converters Basic switch Bridge Wireless access point Basic router Basic firewall Basic DHCP server 3.

3 Given a scenario.2 Identify types of configuration management documentation Wiring schematics Physical and logical network diagrams Baselines Policies.Introduction Install client Access point placement Install access point o Configure appropriate encryption o Configure channels and frequencies o Set ESSID and beacon Verify installation 4. 11 . procedures and configurations Regulations 4. evaluate the network based on configuration management documentation Compare wiring schematics. physical and logical network diagrams.0 Network Management 4. physical and logical network diagrams. policies and procedures and configurations to network devices and infrastructure Update wiring schematics.1 Explain the function of each layer of the OSI model Layer 1 – physical Layer 2 – data link Layer 3 – network Layer 4 – transport Layer 5 – session Layer 6 – presentation Layer 7 – application 4. baselines.

history logs.6 Given a scenario.g.4 Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues using the following: Network monitoring utilities (e. connectivity software. packet sniffers.5 Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization Methods: QoS Traffic shaping Load balancing High availability Caching engines Fault tolerance Reasons: Latency sensitivity High bandwidth applications o VoIP o Video applications Uptime 4. implement the following network troubleshooting methodology Information gathering – identify symptoms and problems Identify the affected areas of the network Determine if anything has changed Establish the most probable cause Determine if escalation is necessary 12 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide configurations and job logs as needed 4. event logs 4. throughput testers) System logs. load testing.

7 Given a scenario. troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an appropriate solution Physical issues: Cross talk Nearing crosstalk Near End crosstalk Attenuation Collisions Shorts Open impedance mismatch (echo) Interference Logical issues: Port speed Port duplex mismatch Incorrect VLAN Incorrect IP address Wrong gateway Wrong DNS Wrong subnet mask Issues that should be identified but escalated: o Switching loop o Routing loop o Route problems o Proxy arp 13 .Introduction Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects Implement and test the solution Identify the results and effects of the solution Document the solution and the entire process 4.

0 Network Tools 5.1 Given a scenario. environmental factors) o Incorrect encryption o Incorrect channel o Incorrect frequency o ESSID mismatch o Standard mismatch (802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide o Broadcast storms Wireless Issues: o Interference (bleed. select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret the output to verify functionality Traceroute Ipconfig Ifconfig Ping Arp ping Arp Nslookup Hostname Dig Mtr Route Nbtstat Netstat 5.2 Explain the purpose of network scanners 14 .11 a/b/g/n) o Distance o Bounce o Incorrect antenna placement 5.

2 Explain common features of a firewall Application layer vs.0 Network Security 6.Introduction Packet sniffers Intrusion detection software Intrusion prevention software Port scanners 5. utilize the appropriate hardware tools Cable testers Protocol analyzer Certifiers TDR OTDR Multimeter Toner probe Butt set Punch down tool Cable stripper Snips Voltage event recorder Temperature monitor 6.3 Given a scenario. stateless 15 .1 Explain the function of hardware and software security devices Network based firewall Host based firewall IDS IPS VPN concentrator 6. network layer Stateful vs.

4 Explain methods of user authentication PKI Kerberos AAA o RADIUS o TACACS+ 16 .3 Explain the methods of network access security Filtering: ACL o MAC filtering o IP filtering Tunneling and encryption o SSL VPN o VPN o L2TP o PPTP o IPSEC Remote access o RAS o RDP o PPPoE o PPP o VNC o ICA 6.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Scanning services Content filtering Signature identification Zones 6.

HTTPS.Introduction Network access control o 802. FTP. RSH. SCP o TELNET. HTTP. RCP.5 Explain issues that affect device security Physical security Restricting local and remote access Secure methods vs.1x CHAP MS-CHAP EAP 6. SNMPv1/2 6. SFTP. SNMPv3.6 Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques Security threats DoS Viruses Worms Attackers Man in the middle Smurf Rogue access points Social engineering (phishing) Mitigation techniques Policies and procedures User training Patches and updates 17 . unsecure methods o SSH.

18 . such as the one suggested below: You can maximize your multi-media learning experience by using all of the courseware materials as you study for your certification. Make notes in the study guide as necessary for your understanding. Pause and rewind to review the concepts as often as necessary. Complete the questions and exercises at the end of each segment of this study guide and in the textbook. Use the Practice Exam Simulator to test your knowledge. To get the best results from your training. Use the “Help” button where available. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Study Plan Strategies The material in Network+ is not complicated. This combination of resources will provide a thorough understanding of the concept or function being presented. not all concepts and functions can be performed on a workstation. Hands-on experience is best. Practice the function on your computer. Suggestion: • • • • • • • Watch each video segment with the study guide in hand. it may seem so. if this is your first exposure to networking. use a study plan.

Introduction How to Take the Test Passing a certification exam takes more than just skimming through a book. CONGRATULATIONS. This method is based on utilization of several learning skills. Read through these suggested steps and modify it as necessary to meet your needs. except payment of the test fee. The Network+ exam was launched worldwide April 30. Prometric and VUE testing centers administer the exam. • • • How do you learn best (reading. How to Prepare to Ensure Exam Success There are many ways to prepare for the exam. The exam is targeted for technicians with 18-24 months experience in the IT industry. A typical candidate would have A+ certification or equivalent knowledge. The following is a suggestion you may find helpful. Who may take the test? Network+ is open to anyone who wants to take the test. Since most of us learn in different ways. German. This helps to ensure that a person who has earned the certification actually understands the concepts and functions of networking versus simply memorizing definitions. but A+ certification is not required. watching. Certification exams are becoming more and more comprehensive. The Network+ test is currently available throughout the world in English. There are no specific requirements. 1999. Step 1 – Prepare for the Training Obtain the best possible materials and instruction you can find. YOU’VE COMPLETED THE 1ST STEP BY SELECTING QUICKCERT TO BE YOUR TRAINING PARTNER! Evaluate your learning aptitudes. hearing or doing)? What time of day is best for you (night person/morning person)? What are your limits before you get bored (or fall asleep)? 19 . French and Japanese. there is no one method that will work for everyone.

you want to begin to understand. Re-read the test and review the video presentation. If you need to. Put it on your calendar and keep it! The time it takes you to read the text may be different from the time needed to watch the video or do the practice exercises.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Make a plan to learn. Make an appointment with yourself. You will be surprised at how much more sense it makes this time. 20 . You will also “pick up” some concepts that you missed the first time through. At this time. • Complete the course a second time. Based on your time to learn (and your schedule). Use the rewind button as often as necessary. If you don’t have any free time – MAKE SOME! Be committed to your plan! Step 2 – Do the Coursework (Text and Videos/CDs) Your objective is to get an understanding of the material and the scope of the course. just get a feel for it. Evaluate your active schedule – determine when you have some free time. Complete the entire course one time through using the following methods: • • Break the course down into bite size chunks (a chapter or two at a time). Watch the videos that correspond to the chapters you read. It is not necessary to memorize or even understand the material at this point. go though the entire course again. Read through the text to get an understanding of the material. Focus on the areas that you had trouble with the first time. This workbook will make this task much easier. Your objective is to own the information (make it part of you). Review the video presentation one more time if necessary. set aside the time to learn. What you learned in the later chapters may help you get a better understanding of the material the second time through.

You will be provided with a set amount of scratch paper or a small dry erase board for use during the exam. You will be asked to sign the form. Part of the registration process is payment of the exam fee. indicating that you understand the regulations and will comply with them. If you have never taken one of these computergenerated exams.com. Prometric and VUE have testing centers around the world. Evaluate the questions you missed. Continue retaking the practice exams and studying the areas that require improvement until you are consistently scoring in the 90% range on the practice exam. You will have the opportunity to take a sample test. To schedule your exam with VUE.com. • • • • Did you understand the questions? Did you misinterpret or read more into it than was there? Did you understand the material? Did you read the whole question? Study the areas that you are weak in. The test administrator will give you a Testing Center Regulations form. so one should be located near you. • • • 21 . call 877-551-7587 or go online to www. The test administrator will show you to your test computer and will handle any preparations necessary to start the testing tool and display the exam on the computer. including one photo ID.vue. which explains the rules you will be expected to comply with during the test.2test. it might be a good idea to take advantage of this feature. call 888-895-6116 or go online to www.Introduction Step 3 – Prepare for the Network+ Exam Place the practice exam simulator in your computer’s CD-ROM and select the exam you wish to take or practice with. You will be required to show two forms of identification. (such as a driver’s license or company security ID) before you take the exam. All scratch paper or boards are collected at the end of the exam. As you prepare for your certification exam it may be helpful to know what to expect when you arrive at the testing center: • • You will be asked to sign the logbook upon arrival and upon departure. (the sample test is unrelated to the Network+ exam) to give you a feel for how the test is conducted. Step 4 – Take the Certification Exam To schedule your exam with Prometric.

Make sure ALL questions are answered BEFORE you exit the test!) When you’ve completed the test and exit the system. You have 90 minutes. Trust your first instinct about an answer! Go back and answer any marked or unanswered questions. but be sure to read it in its entirety. Make sure to note if it is a multiple answer question and select the correct amount of answers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • It is a closed book exam. You will also receive a printed Examination Score Report indicating your pass or fail status from the test administrator. marked or skipped. (You don’t need to send them the score report. Do not read too much into the question. If you’re not quite sure. (That may not sound like much. If you don’t know the answer. you are given immediate online pass/fail notification and your score. Keep track of the time and pace yourself. you may call an authorized testing center to schedule a time to retake the exam. answer the question. guess. skip it. You may not use a laptop computer or have any notes or printed material with you during the exam session. If you positively don’t know the answer. An unanswered question is always wrong! Stay calm. Sometimes later questions will help answer earlier questions. you are given the ability to skip a question. mark it and come back to it. or if you are unclear about what you should do. but it really is plenty!) Usually. If the administrator does not do this. The testing center will notify CompTIA of your score and they will confirm your certification with you. which will enable you to see which areas require improvement if you didn’t pass. Before retaking the exam. you can see which questions are not answered. mark a question or answer a question. HINT . (At the end of the test when you have the opportunity to review. Please note: YOU MUST PAY FOR EACH EXAM RETAKE! 22 . ask the administrator BEFORE beginning the exam. Before you begin the exam the test administrator will tell you what to do when you complete the exam. put in extra study time in the objective areas that need improvement. (such as the RAID and SCSI Information) just before entering the exam site and then immediately upon starting the test.) If you don’t receive a passing score: If you do not receive a passing score. It lists your score by objective. If you know the answer. jotting down their notes on the scratch paper that the testing facility provides.Some people find it helpful to study the memorization type materials. At the end of the exam you will be able to see which ones are answered.

It is designed to be an effective study tool that will help you retain the information that is presented in the course. 23 .Introduction About This Course This study guide is divided into 11 chapters.

24 . This section focuses on what a network is and why they are used so extensively in today’s computer environment. and peripherals without using what is fondly known as the “sneaker net. files. A central file server also allows for an easier backup strategy to be implemented. It is very important that. It is much less expensive to purchase one network printer to serve everyone’s needs (or one department’s depending on the size of the network) than purchasing a printer for every user.” Real estate professionals would think of networking as a means to make more sales through talking to people about what they do. An affiliation of broadcasting companies is also called a network (you’ve heard of NBC?). as a networking professional. users can access programs. But for our purposes. Saving files to one location (usually the file server) makes it easy for everyone to gain access to the files that they need. Sharing applications ensures that all users are using the same programs (and versions) and makes it much easier to manage documents. Another advantage of networking is the ability to have a centralized location for document storage. peripherals.) Most companies network their office computers for the simple reason of economics. a central file server can keep unauthorized users from accessing confidential or sensitive files. Additionally. Through networking.” (Taking a floppy disk with the information that you want to share or print to the computer that can provide the desired service. After completing this chapter you will understand why networking is important and how it relates to the computer environment. and applications (resources). you understand exactly what a network is. a network is a system of connecting independent computers so that users may share data. You will also be able to identify the two major network configurations and describe the difference between a LAN and a WAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals This chapter introduces you to the basics of networking. Benefits of Networking Computers The main reason that we network computers is to be able to share resources. Introduction to Networking There are many different uses for the term “networking.

Even if the network is merely two computers connected by a cable to share information. or if its hundreds of computers spread throughout a high-rise office building. The Internet is the world’s largest WAN. There is really a third classification of networks: a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network). A WAN can connect networks in the same building or across the world. The main distinction between a LAN and a WAN is that a LAN is confined to a limited area whereas a WAN has no geographical limits.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) There are two basic structures of network types: • • LAN (Local Area Networks) WAN (Wide Area Networks) LAN WAN A network is classified into one of these groups based upon its size and function. A LAN is the basic (and smallest) starting point of any computer network. When LANs are connected they create a WAN. A MAN is larger than a LAN but is limited to a metropolitan area such as a city or 25 . it is still considered a LAN.

A mainframe will handle all the functions. if that same workstation happened to be connected to a printer that another user wanted to access. in Windows NT. one is designated as the primary server. It is important to know what a MAN is. efficiency in backing up the data. log onto the server to access the files or applications that they wish to use. However. but they are not common. Client/Server Networking In a server-based network there is a dedicated computer called a server that is the central location of resources. and is a client. Servers and clients are roles played by computers and users as they interact in their daily activity. The only true client/server relationship where the roles do not change is the mainframe computer. A server is a high-end computer that has a very large amount of storage. For example. that is capable of servicing clients who access shared files. These terms are not interchangeable. and expandability. A workstation is a computer workspace that is connected to a network. also known as clients. Since the client/server network is the most common choice of businesses today. the servers are all peers. there may be a dedicated server for file storage (called a file server). 26 . The disadvantages are greater expense and the complexity of installation. Usually in a network with multiple servers. The mainframe is always the server and anyone who accesses it is always the client. The Internet has replaced most MANs today.`` The advantages of this type of network are central administration. it would appear that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. including applications. that access would cause the workstation to become a server. since it would be serving the needs of a user (or client). network security. In Windows 2000 server and beyond. one for printing (print server). or a mail server (E-mail). including hard disk space and RAM. A network can be either a peer-topeer network or a server-based network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide county. Users. A large network may have more than one server. Also. For example. the primary server is called the PDC or Primary Domain Controller. when the user is getting information from the server. The Client/Server Relationship A network is classified by how it shares information. it is the role they play in the dynamic world of desktops and laptops that changes. one for applications (application server). configuration and management may be more challenging.

g. Peer-to-Peer Network 27 . The computers are simply cabled together. Windows 95 and up) they will be able to communicate via the network. A peer-to-peer network is simple and inexpensive to install. All of the computers on the network can act as either clients or servers depending upon the needs of the user. a peer-to-peer network is difficult to expand. and as long as each computer has an operating system capable of client/sharing (e. network security is unreliable. This type of network is most often used when fewer than ten computers are involved.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Client/Server Network Peer-to-Peer Networking In a peer-to-peer network there are no separate computers that act as servers. In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. Also. A disadvantage of the peer-to-peer network is that since users are responsible for their own systems’ security.

There are three standard topologies that a network professional needs to understand: • • • Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology The simplest and probably the most used form of network topologies is the Bus topology (sometimes called a linear bus). or segment. The signal is sent out on the cable and it travels from one end of the cable to the other. the network will go down and devices will not be able to communicate with each other. Setting up a network requires more than just cabling the computers together. A terminator absorbs the signal and stops signal bounce. This cable is called a trunk. design. and how a network will be managed are all potential problems that need to be considered when planning a network. and even how the cabling is run through a building. connectors. if the cable breaks or becomes disconnected. In a Bus network. If not prevented. you will need to know how to choose the network topology that will best suit the needs of your network. (Network Interface Cards. only the device whose address matches the address encoded in the signal will respond to the signal. The nodes (computers or devices connected to the network) are all connected along a single cable. 28 . the signal would travel back and forth along the cable and cause what is known as signal bounce. Devices only listen for data being transmitted. However. it prevents other devices from sending data. scheme. or diagram. are all determined by the topology used. To stop signal bounce. The Bus topology is a passive topology. As a network professional. also called Network Adapter Cards). Only one computer at a time can transmit data on a Bus network or signals will collide and the transmission will fail. how the computers will talk to each other (protocols). refers to its physical layout. a component called a terminator is installed at each end of the cable. they do not move the transmissions along. An electronic signal is sent out on the cable to all of the devices connected on the network. Different topologies have different cabling requirements. map. NICs. This means that the more computers that are connected to a Bus the slower the network becomes as devices are waiting to transmit or retransmit. While the signal is bouncing back and forth. Devices on a Bus topology communicate by sending data to a specific address on the network (a device’s address). future growth needs. backbone.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Basic Network Structure (Topology) A network’s basic structure. or topology. The type and capabilities of the equipment that will be used.

Ring Topology In a Ring topology. 29 . but the advantage is that if one computer (or the cable that connects one computer to the hub) goes down. If the hub fails. The Ring is not a passive topology like the Bus topology. Resources and files can be managed from one location. the entire network will go down.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Star Topology In a Star topology. A disadvantage is that if one computer fails. The signal is actually boosted and sent on along the cable when it passes through the computers on the network. the devices are connected in one continuous circle of cable. the rest of the network will still continue to function. Star Topology The hub used in this type of topology provides an excellent point for centralized administration. all devices are connected to a central point called a hub. making it much easier to perform administrative tasks such as data backups. it can affect the entire network. The data is transmitted around the loop in one direction and passes through each computer on the network. however. It requires a lot more cable than the Bus topology. There are no ends to terminate.

but the hubs in a Star Ring are connected in a star pattern by a main hub. This is where a network consists of several Star topology networks that are linked using linear Bus trunks. This gives us a physical star topology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Special Topologies In addition to the above topologies. These are the methods in which a network is actually wired. on the other hand. The Star Ring topology is similar to the Star Bus. 30 . This is very expensive to install but it is extremely reliable because of the redundant paths. most Token Rings are physical stars and logical rings. they operate like a bus topology and are therefore a logical bus. However. Mesh Topology In the Mesh topology every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. today’s networking professional will encounter many network topologies that are combinations of the above configurations. we have been discussing physical topologies. Also. So far. is how the network actually works. you will need to know the difference between a physical and a logical topology. Before you can understand some of these special topologies. For example. You will be able to see a physical topology. These are known as Hybrid topologies. most Ethernet networks today are wired using a hub. A logical topology. Hybrid Topologies The Star Bus topology is a hybrid of the Star and Bus topologies.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Wireless Topology A Wireless topology is one in which there aren’t any cables connecting the network devices to the LAN or one which the LAN uses wireless technology between access points (such as routers). The benefits of wireless technology will be discussed at length in Chapter four of this book. 31 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 32 .

It also uses the Bus topology discussed earlier in this lesson. The sending computer grabs the token and encodes it with addressing information for the receiving computer and sends it out on the ring. The sending machine then creates a new token to send around the ring that will be grabbed by the next device that wants to transmit data on the network. This is based on the media or wiring of the network. Token Passing Ethernet Ethernet uses a system known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Multiple Access means that more than one computer can be connected to the same cable. The two most common network standards are distinguished by their respective media access methods. Carrier Sense means the network card listens to the cable for a quiet period during which it can send messages. The method that is used for an individual device to be able to use the network party line is called media access. they are called Token Ring and Ethernet. It is passed along from device to device until it arrives at the computer whose addressing information matches the one encoded on the token. We will also cover access methods in more detail in the chapter “Network Protocols and Standards. With several devices connected to one media.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Network Access The topologies that we have been discussing describe the way in which the computers and other devices on a network are connected. we create a party line.” Token Passing Token passing is the method of sending data around a Token Ring topology. and the message is delivered. Collision Detection is the ability to detect whether messages have collided in 33 . The receiving computer then sends the token back to the sending computer to let it know that it received the message. A token is passed along from device to device until it is received by a computer that needs to transmit. Another aspect of networks that is related to topology is the way in which the network is accessed by individual devices.

thus avoiding possible transmission collisions. This differs from CSMA/CD by having each computer signal its intent to transmit before it actually transmits data. Fast Ethernet works on the same principals as Ethernet but operates at 10 times the speed of the original. Ethernet transmits at 10 Mbps and Fast Ethernet transmits at 100 Mbps. Ethernet can also use CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide transit (neither message will arrive at their destination and both will be retransmitted). 34 . Collision Detection Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet was developed to meet the increasing demands on networks.

not all hubs are the same and you must use one that is designed to meet the needs of the network. With a Token Ring. since they provide a common location for connecting the cabling of a network. Hubs can be classified as either passive or active. hubs come in a variety of names depending on their function. Today. They do not require any electrical power to function. The most common name used with Ethernet is a hub or a concentrator.Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Hubs and Concentrators More and more networks are using hubs and they are pretty much standard equipment in today’s networks. they are called MAUs (Multiple Access Units). Passive Hub – Patch Panel 35 . Just remember. Signals pass through the hub but are not regenerated or amplified. they are all the same. Essentially. Passive Hubs A passive hub acts as a connection point only.

They have many advantages over other types of networks: 1) If a cable breaks only the portion of the network on that segment is affected. 2) Centralized monitoring of traffic and activity along with diagnostic capabilities are available.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Active Hubs Most of the hubs used today are active hubs. Hub-based networks are being replaced by switch-based networks. They require electrical power to function. An active hub regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. which run more efficiently. 36 . 4) Expanding the network can be easily accomplished by using hubs. Active Hub Hub-Based Networks Hub-based networks are increasing in popularity. 3) A variety of cable types can be accommodated.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Summary In this chapter we learned that the main reason for networking (as it relates to computers) is the sharing of resources. Topology is a term we use to describe the connection of computers in a network. star. 37 . We also learned about the two basic network classifications of networks: the peer-to-peer network and the server-based network. A WAN is not geographically limited and the Internet is the world’s largest WAN. and ring. The three main types of topology are bus. A LAN is the smallest form and is the basic building block for larger networks. It is important to know the differences between these two classifications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. go back and review the chapter again. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. The two types of networks are LANs and WANs. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts.

Keyword Active Hub Application Application Server Bus Topology Client Data Fax Server File Server Hub Hybrid Topology LAN Mail Server MAN Media Mesh Topology Network Network Administrator Passive Hub Peer-to-peer Peripheral Print Server Definition 38 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.

Chapter 1 – Networking Fundamentals Keyword Resources Ring Topology Security Server Server-based Sharing Star Topology Token Passing User WAN Wireless Topology Definition 39 .

Name some advantages of a Server-based network. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions . What is a “sneaker net”? 4. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? 12. Name the three basic topologies. 8. 11. 10. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. 9. What is the key difference between a local area network (LAN) and a wide area network (WAN)? 2. Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. 40 . 7.Chapter 1 1. What is the main reason for networking computers? 3. 5. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? 6. Name two media access methods.

This chapter is all about the various operating systems that a networking professional needs to be familiar with. Even if you have the best network design composed of the best hardware in the universe. it will just sit there. Hardware resources such as RAM. and peripherals are all controlled by the operating system (the software). 41 . spreadsheet. what we are really talking about are network operating systems. The operating system is also responsible for the running of applications (e. hard disk space. We will also discuss their minimum requirements and interoperability capabilities. Some network operating systems are intended to work with an existing operating system that runs the computer only. The main objective is to make sure that the hardware and the applications are all compatible with each other. we will be referring to network operating systems.g. but without an operating system. processor time. and database programs). Today. In this chapter. if you don’t have the software to run it. A computer needed two sets of software in order to function in a networking environment. In this chapter we will explore the features and benefits of the more popular network operating systems that are available. when we refer to operating systems. What is an Operating System? Not that long ago.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Chapter 2 . You can get it all set up and turn on the power. When we are talking about operating systems. Network operating systems (NOS) are specialized operating systems designed to integrate computers in a networking environment. as well as the operating system.Network Operating Systems (NOS) Up to this point we have focused on the design aspects of networking. most networked computers run software that was specifically designed to run both the computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its networking functions. network operating systems were designed to operate on top of an existing operating system. and others are designed to run the computer as well as the network interfaces. word-processing. The differences between server and client operating systems as well as preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking will be covered as well. it is just a pile of metal and plastic.

Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the processor. Most operating systems appear to be performing multiple tasks by alternating between tasks until they are all completed. means that an operating system has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. In non-preemptive multitasking. A true multitasking operating system is able to process as many tasks as it has processors. Non-preemptive Multitasking Multitasking. Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. put simply. 42 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preemptive vs. the processor is never taken away from a task.

Windows 95 uses an icon called the Network Neighborhood for desktop access of the network. It is certainly the most economical of the networking choices. and you have a working network. Plug-n-Play technology has also made installing a NIC much easier. With NT the only drawback is that you will not be able to 43 . Peer-to-Peer LANs Many smaller networking environments utilize the peer-to-peer network configuration. Novell NetWare. Peer-to-peer LANs are an excellent choice for the network that has less than ten computers and no need of security (such as a small office environment). Windows 95 also performs very well as a client with both the NetWare and Windows NT operating systems. turning on the computer and answering questions. Windows for Workgroups is compatible (if in a limited way) with NetWare. Usually this type of network only shares files and peripheral devices. Windows 95/98 Windows 95 was the first Windows program to actually be an operating system. such as BSD UNIX. MS LAN Manager. Resources have to be publicly listed as available for sharing in order for other users to see (and therefore use) them. a group of computers was connected in a Workgroup. each workstation may act as either a client or a server depending upon whether it is accessing resources on another workstation or if another workstation is accessing its resources. To install a NIC with Windows 95/98 is as simple as installing the card. It is necessary to install the requester software (NetWare Client32 for Windows 95) with NetWare. Most of the operating systems in use today are already capable of managing this type of network. all you have to do is share any directories and peripherals to the network. All shared resources are arranged on a hierarchical basis and displayed in Network Neighborhood. Then. to communicate with other computers over a network. Instead. or a similar program. Windows 95/98 is also able to better identify NICs.1 that included the capability to run a peer-to-peer network. A peer-to-peer LAN is not a client/server-based network. Basically.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What is a Network Operating System (NOS)? A NOS is an operating system that includes other software. Its new graphical interface and networking capabilities made it a vast improvement over its predecessor. Usually only NICs and cabling will need to be purchased to implement this kind of network. This version included an E-mail program (Microsoft Mail) and a scheduling program (Schedule+) in its suite. Drive letters are assigned to shared directories and peripherals and a redirector routes the requests to the proper location of the resource. thereby allowing sharing of files and peripherals. Windows for Workgroups Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3.

It also supports Microsoft Management Console (MMC) and group policies. It is well-suited for editing home movies. Windows XP Professional Windows XP Professional edition is a very common client in the Microsoft’s OS family. and Vista Ultimate. like ME. Windows Mail. driver certification. It protects critical files and will allow you to revert your system back to normal if anything goes wrong. the home versions are unable to join a domain. It also uses System Restore. an enhanced media center. Enterprise. is a very common Microsoft NOS that can be used as a domain controller or a member server. designed for the business environment. Windows XP Home can not join a domain though. and much more depending on the version purchased. Vista Home Premium. is set up to be networked easily. IPsec and Kerberos support. Vista Home basic. based on Windows 2000 Server technologies. like Windows Defender. and Web. Help and support is improved from Windows 98 and home networking is made easier than ever. this OS adds features that would include being able to join a domain. This version of the Microsoft server family built in an additional security center. Like Windows XP. Enhanced networking is built in. Vista Business. Similar to Windows XP Home. This was also a benchmark in Microsoft's history because this was the first time a workstation was not released as the same time as the server. This server also came in four edition. Windows Vista Windows Vista comes in four different editions. which allows for safety with possible data loss. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server. Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional is the client counterpart to Windows 2000 server. It features file protection. Windows XP Home Windows XP Home edition is a newer edition of Microsoft’s OS for home users. It allows for faster user switching. remote OS installation. multilingual support. Windows Vista adds in many options to the OS. moving photos to the Web. Internet Explorer 7. EFS (Encrypting File System). Datacenter. like the rest of the client OS software mentioned here. and archiving music. It. peer-topeer support for Windows 9x and NT. 44 . a simplified visual design. that will automatically adjust the Windows Firewall.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide utilize NT’s advanced security features because Windows 95 is not compatible with the NTFS file system. Standard. User Account Control. Windows ME Windows ME is the client operating system that has followed the Windows 9x operating systems.

Other Peer-to-Peer LANs The following table lists other peer-to-peer LAN software and their manufacturers that the networking professional may come across: 45 . and focuses on performance. Microsoft went on to develop Windows NT and IBM released OS/2 Warp. Datacenter. Warp Connect is used to combine OS/2 Warp and WIN-OS/2 peer-to-peer networking. After this project failed to meet their expectations they dissolved the relationship. It takes advantage of 64-bit processing as well giving greater capabilities. and Web. Standard. Warp Connect OS/2 was a joint project with IBM and Microsoft.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 is a build upon Windows 2003 Server. supports remote clients. As with Windows 2003 Server. security. Windows Server 2008 had four versions. This provides a more reliable network with better security than Windows for Workgroups. It enhances reliability. Enterprise.

However. Inc. the computers act as both a client and a server. In a Serverbased network. it is necessary to have an operating system that can perform in this environment. the purpose of a network operating system is to connect all devices on a network (computers and peripherals) and to coordinate their usability.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Name 10NetPlus AppleTalk Easy Net GV LAN OS LANsmark LANsoft LANStep LANtastic NET/30 Network OSCBIS OS/2 Warp Personal NetWare POWERLan ReadyLink WEB Manufacturer Digital Communications Associates. Apple Computer LanMark Grapevine LAN Products D-Link Systems ACCTon Technology Hayes Microcomputer Products Artisoft Invisible Software Peachtree IBM Corporation Novell Performance Technology Compex WebCorp Server/Client Software In a peer-to-peer network. It also provides accessibility and security for all devices on a network. 46 . Some network operating systems require that different versions are installed depending on whether a computer is the server (provides resources remotely over a network) or a client (provides resources locally).

Data Protection As we already discussed. and to the server. Administrators set up and manage user accounts and passwords. In a network with multiple servers. the operating system has to have the capability to redirect (forward) the request away from the local bus. data protection is performed by a process called replication. most of the data is stored on the server. Network security is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 10. the server should be attached to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Replication is simply 47 . At the very least. Security Administrators can set up the accounts to determine who gets privileges to what resources and change them as needed (including denying access). the command is processed over the computer’s internal CPU via the computer’s local bus. The server keeps track of who is logged onto a network and what resources have been (or are being) accessed. server software includes services for the following: • • • Managing User Accounts Security Data Protection Managing User Accounts Servers make it possible to manage users from a central location. Server Software As their name implies. This makes it an excellent point from which to perform regular backups. The component that handles these requests is called the redirector.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) There are two types of networking software that must be considered: • • Client Software Server Software Client Software If you type a command for your stand-alone computer to perform a task. Servers exist to serve. Users are required to enter a password before they can log on and gain access. out onto the network. They process requests from clients for resources such as files and peripherals. Most network administrators provide some sort of fault-tolerance system on the server. Unlike most client software. if you were requesting resources or services that exist on a remote server. They are the storage facility for the bulk of the data in a network environment and as such are an excellent point from which to centrally manage a network. However.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide making a copy of the data stored on one server on another server. to resources. This makes the application program believe that it is simply working with a very large hard drive or with a local printer. if one server goes down. Basically. called drive designators. which opens the file or transfers the print job to the network printer. It does not need to know anything about networks. etc. This way. The Redirector (Requester) The redirector (in Novell NetWare this is called the requester) is responsible for forwarding requests away from the local bus and redirecting them to the server. 48 . If it is a local designator (drive C: for example) the request is passed on to the local bus. it is a section of code located in the network operating system that intercepts requests and determines if they are local requests. It does this by assigning drive letters. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to application programs. If it is a network designator the request is forwarded to the server. or if they need to be redirected to the server. the other server can take over immediately.

With this method. Unlike NetWare. or No Access may be set on the directory. NT 4. 49 . You must have administrative privileges in order to share anything on a Windows NT network. The attributes such as Read. the Windows NT Server may be configured to store each Workstation’s directories in order to provide centralized data management and backups. Windows NT has two versions: Server (the server software) and Workstation (the client software).51 followed. Server is much more powerful so that it may provide network management. The services provided by the server are more powerful and it is easier for programmers to develop software that takes advantage of NT’s server/workstation technology. This makes it more difficult to work in multi-operating system environments. The advanced security features of NT are not available if you choose the DOS file system (FAT . Microsoft Windows NT Network Operating System While NetWare was the network operating system of the 80s and early 90s. its popularity is being replaced by Microsoft Windows NT (NT stands for New Technologies). Windows NT Advanced Server in 1993. In this section.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) NOS Packages There are a multitude of network operating systems available for use.File Allocation Table) during installation. Today. A disadvantage of this is that anyone not using NTFS cannot recognize NTFS directories. The NT file system (NTFS) must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. you may assign directory and filelevel permissions to the data. In order to take maximum advantage of the security features in Windows NT.5 and 3. This type is performed by each Workstation or Server publicly sharing a directory on the network. With these versions. Change.0 uses the same interface as Windows 95. Windows NT’s first version was 3. Microsoft released the Windows NT operating system and a network operating system version. we will take a closer look a some of the more popular ones. Although Server and Workstation can both operate as either stand-alone or network systems. and is limited to the publicly shared files mentioned earlier. The NT technology actually evolved from a project that was jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft (OS/2). It is possible to use both the NTFS and FAT file systems as long as they are in different partitions on the hard drive. Files in Windows NT may be shared by using a simple file sharing method similar to sharing files on a peer-to-peer network. but it does have several advantages.1 (as in Windows 3.1. the differences between Server and Workstation began to manifest themselves and NT began to utilize network groups called domains. Windows NT 3. Windows NT File Services Like NetWare. allowing restricted access to individuals or groups. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Windows NT combines the computer and the network operating system into one. another method of sharing must be utilized. Full Control.1) and it used the same graphical interface as Windows 3.

Windows NT Services There are many services available in NT to manage network flow: Messenger Service monitors the network and provides pop-up messages for the user. Server Service provides access to network resources. 50 . A domain controller is assigned to each network. Even if you are installing a local printer. Workstation Service is the redirector service in NT. and user rights. The following is a list of services included with NT to ensure NetWare compatibility: NWLink is actually a clone of Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol and is used for communication between NT and NetWare.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Windows NT Security Security was a major concern in the development of NT. This is necessary because all NT workstations in a domain must connect to a NetWare server through a single contact point. This is a server that maintains and manages all accounts. Interoperability As Novell NetWare was the “big kid on the block” when NT came on the scene. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. except that you are asked if it is to be a network or local printer. you are given the option to share it to the network. Browser Service provides a list of all available domain and workgroup servers. Network performance will decrease as the number of computers accessing the gateway increases. Microsoft wanted to make NT as compatible with NetWare as possible. permissions. Windows NT Print Servers Any workstation or server may perform as a print server in NT. NT employs domains to deal with this problem. A printer need only be shared to the network to be accessible to anyone on the network. See Chapter 10 for more information on network security. Printing is as easy as selecting the printer that you want to use (assuming that you have the appropriate permissions). (Of course a user still has to be assigned the permission to access a resource. Remember.) Installing a network printer is just like installing a local printer. Rights must be assigned to users in order for them to use any resources or perform any tasks in NT. Alerter Service sends the notifications that are monitored by the messenger service. more than one printer can be installed to any machine. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server.

With more management tools. Group policies can be utilized with server 2000. In doing this. Probably the biggest feature in Windows 2000 server is the addition of Active Directory. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. it is a continuation of the NT platform. Its purpose is to move (called migrating) NetWare account information to NT’s domain controller. used as such. Even though UNIX was not designed as a network operating system it can be. but rely solely on the UNIX host for resources. clustering services. These terminals are not stand-alone computers. Software is 51 . Like in previous versions. it paved the way for other programs to be integrated like Share Point. and many other features founded in Windows 2000 Server. By enhancing security. Windows 2008 Server is extremely capable of handling the tasks.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) is the NT service that allows workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. This software does not come with NT and is purchased separately. UNIX is a bulky operating system. A UNIX system consists of a host (a central computer) with terminals for the users. improved security. Migration Tool for NetWare is a tool used to convert from NetWare to NT. Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Server is more widely used now than Windows 200 Server. Windows 2008 Server Windows 2008 Server is the newest NOS Microsoft has released. storage management. It is part of the GSNW service. It allows for a single logon to access resources anywhere on the network. general-purpose operating system. FPNW (File and Print Service for NetWare) is a utility that enables NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. Windows 2003 Server is widely used today. UNIX Operating Systems UNIX stands for UNiplexed Information and Computing System. Windows 2008 and 2003 Servers work well together supporting a myriad of application and support. It also offers an improved version of NTFS and fault tolerant versions of RAID on dynamic drives. and full support of a 64-bit system. and is. Active Directory. UNIX is a multi-tasking. which govern how an object and its child behave. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 server is the server-side OS to Windows 2000 Professional. It is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. Active Directory is a directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to both users and administrators. multi-user. Windows 2003 Server also reorganized system and network accounts to make deployment even easier.

however. VINES was originally based on UNIX and has a directory services application called StreetTalk layered on top. both at home and on the go. VINES is a great performer in multi-operating system environments. security. At one time. The Mac OS X is the most current operating system used in conjunction to the Apple computer (at the time of the writing of this book). A file redirector is used to allow the workstation to store and retrieve UNIX files as if they were in the original format. In conjunction with Xerox. StreetTalk provides directory.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide available. It is a publicly open system that has made it popular among enthusiasts already familiar with a UNIX interface. but has lost market share since the arrival of NetWare. Banyan VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service) Like Windows NT. as well as others. Linux has hundreds of distributions available. OS/2. Macintosh The Macintosh ("Mac") was developed by Apple Computer in 1984. and many other features associated with an OS. they developed what later came known to be the mouse and the first GUI display. TCP/IP. to convert the UNIX host into a file server. At its inception. Red Hat is probably the most widely used distribution. Like Novell NetWare. and the processor used in Apples today is called PowerPC. as well as file and printer sharing. or Macintosh System 7 for its operating system. and messaging services. Banyan VINES is a client/server-based network operating system. Macs are known for being used primarily in video or graphic production. but users also use them personally. The UNIX-based workstation can run DOS. it was an extremely popular network operating system. It uses a GUI (graphical user interface). 52 . UNIX. The multi-tasking UNIX host will run this software as just another application. but SUSE Linux became the new backbone for NetWare. Linux Linux is another operating system similar to UNIX. Linux was designed to be less expensive than UNIX. It is available on both Intel (PC) and PowerPC (Mac) platforms.

With the redirector. (UNIX. The function of the redirector is to determine whether a requested resource is located locally (on the client computer) or exists on the server (remotely). There still are numerous LANs that use a network operating system over a conventional operating system. Without an operating system a computer is just another pile of metal and plastic. etc. It is important for the networking professional to know the major network operating systems used today. the computers may function as either a server (when sharing resources to others on the network) or a client (when sharing the resources of another computer on the network). A key component in a network operating system is the Redirector (called the Requester in Novell NetWare). the client computers rely on the server for their resources. In a peer-to-peer network. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. It is also important that you to know the minimum hardware requirements for Novell NetWare and Windows NT. centralization of administration. Server and client machines typically use different operating systems.Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) Summary Operating systems are the lifeblood of the computer. Banyan VINES. and data backups. Windows NT has Server software for the server and Workstation software for client machines. Study through the chapter again if you need to. such as Novell NetWare and Windows NT. 53 . Network operating systems allow a computer to function in a network environment. Today. and at least be familiar with others. an application is unaware that it is working from a network. Novell’s NetWare allows for client machines to use a variety of operating systems. The redirector then routes the request to the proper bus accordingly. In a server-based network. The main advantages of the server-based network are increased security.). the most popular network operating systems also function as the operating system.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise 54 .

Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) EYWORDS Exercise Keyword Client Software CSNW DSMN FAT File Server GSNW Interoperability MHS Linux Macintosh Multitasking NDS Non-Preemptive Multitasking NOS NTFS NWLink Preemptive Multitasking Print Server Redirector/Requester Security Server Software UNIX Definition 55 .

Unlike NetWare. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? 8. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? 2. Define interoperability. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? 6. What is the purpose of the redirector? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions 1. Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. What is a domain? 56 . What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? 3. 10. 9. What is NTFS? 11. What is NDS? 7. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. 5.

What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? 18. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? 17. Describe a UNIX system. 15. Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. Chapter 2 – Network Operating Systems (NOS) What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 13.12. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 14. What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? 57 . 16.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 58 .

and which devices function at which layer. when not to transmit. We will also discuss the IEEE 802 standards as well as touch on various protocols and how they relate to the OSI Model. and how they will communicate if they are using different languages. and how to make sure that transmissions are received correctly by the recipient.The OSI Model and Communication Standards In this chapter you will learn about the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. Even how the physical media is arranged and connected. You will learn about which layer of the OSI model handles which function. These specifications were updated in 1984 to what we know today as the OSI model. The OSI Model was created after many of the protocols it represents were already in use. some of the information regarding these protocols may appear to be inconsistent with the OSI Model. how the data will flow (at what speed).Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Chapter 3. The OSI model is designed as a framework that allows communication between similar and dissimilar computer systems across a network. The OSI model represents these seven steps as seven layers. and how bits are represented on the medium are defined within these specifications. The International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications for connecting devices on a network in 1978. The OSI model and IEEE 802 Standards are a big part of the Network+ exam. There are seven steps required to prepare data for transmission between the sending application and the receiving application. The Seven Layers of Network Communication The Open Systems Interface (OSI) model is the most commonly referenced standard in the networking industry today. The purpose of these specifications is to describe how network hardware and software communicate with one another. The OSI model also defines how a device knows when to transmit. These specifications allow hardware and software manufacturers to develop products that are compatible with each other. These layers are used extensively in network environments and it is imperative that the networking professional understand the different layers and their functions. 59 . As a result. The OSI model defines the rules involving how network devices will contact each other. what it is and what its primary function is.

print. and messaging services. Error recovery may also be a function of the Application layer. This layer and the lowest layer (Physical layer) are the only layers that do not add a header to a packet before passing the data along.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Seven Layers of OSI The first thing you probably notice is we’ve listed the layers from the top down. 60 . These services include file. This model is usually represented in this way because we refer to the layers as upper and lower layers. depending upon their functions. Seven Layers of the OSI Model The following is a summary of the seven layers of the OSI model starting with the top layer: Application Layer This layer of the OSI Model defines how network services or applications interact with the network.

and ending connections.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. etc. and un-packaging the data for transport. 61 . This layer enables computer applications to communicate with applications on remote machines as if they were local. or access a network database. The presentation layer acts as a translator between an application’s native format and the network. These checkpoints ensure that all data is sent (or received) and make it possible to limit retransmissions in the event of a network failure during transmission. The Session layer organizes data synchronization and also inserts checkpoints in the data. protocol conversion. Sessions may be established using simplex. It is also responsible for security and other functions that allow two applications to communicate over the network. This is the layer that allows users to send E-mail. or receive. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network. is The Session layer controls the communication between the two computers and determines who can transmit.) character set conversion. (so that an IBM compatible computer may communicate with a Macintosh. This is not the actual application or program. As its name implies. Session Layer The Session layer organizes the flow of data between devices. Transport Layer The Transport layer is responsible for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. This layer is responsible for establishing. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. In short. it presents data to the application layer. it will break the data into packets. managing. Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. and prepare it for its journey. bit ordering. The Session layer uses a name lookup service such as NetBIOS to identify and establish sessions between two computers. Only the data after the last transmission will have to be retransmitted after a failure. interpreting graphics commands. It provides a logical connection between the two devices. and then the Presentation layer of the receiving computer translates the data back into a format that is compatible with the computer. The Transport layer is also responsible for packaging. half-duplex. The redirector is responsible for making network services appear to be local services to a computer. This layer is also responsible for data compression. This connection called a session. transfer files across the network. and data encryption. or full-duplex communication. The network redirector operates at this layer. and when. add any addressing information and error correction information.

especially on large intranetworks where there may be more than one way to reach a destination. If using a connection-oriented protocol.518 bytes and the smallest is 64 bytes. It is responsible for resizing them before being sent to the destination computer. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. it will be un-packed. Network Layer The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. delivery of packets is not guaranteed. error free manner. stripped of its addressing information. the Transport layer will sort out the problems and request that missing packets be retransmitted. This is accomplished through various error control and other protocol-dependent features. For example. The Network layer is responsible for communication between computers via their IP addresses. and error free. This layer is also responsible for breaking packets into smaller chunks. IP and IPX are Network layer protocols. Connectionless protocols are faster.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Transport layer is responsible for delivering data that is in sequence. When the data is received. It receives a packet from the Network layer and 62 . they will be broken into smaller packets. the largest frame size on an Ethernet is 1. The sending computer does not send any more data until it receives the acknowledgement for the previous transmission. but connection-oriented protocols are more reliable. without duplication. if they are larger than the largest acceptable frame size on a network. This layer makes routing decisions for transmissions that are further away than a single link. and then assembled and sent up to the Session layer. they will be combined together. all data packets will be sent and retrieved in an orderly. UDP is a connectionless protocol. it will retransmit after a specified amount of time. TCP and UDP are Transport layer protocols. This layer is responsible for communication from NIC to NIC. For example. If they are too large. If the sending computer does not receive an acknowledgement. In an ideal world. if the packets are too small. If using a connectionless protocol. Once the data is reassembled. checked for errors. This layer also reassembles the data before passing it up to the Transport layer on the receiving side. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. Should an error occur. however. the Transport layer is responsible for the guaranteed delivery of packets. The Transport layer of the destination computer reassembles the data (returns it to its original state) and checks for errors and duplications. Routers and NICs function on this layer. It translates logical network addresses into physical machine addresses and determines the best route to the destination computer. This controls network congestion. Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. the destination computer will send an acknowledgement that the data was received. The Transport layer accepts packets from the Session layer and repackages them.

The IEEE Committee thought that the Data Link layer needed to be further defined. It is the Data Link layer that determines whether the message is for an individual computer or not. NetBIOS or NetWare and may also assign sequence numbers to frames and track acknowledgements. It adds a trailer to the frame that includes the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). it is not unheard of for these addresses to be duplicated even with these precautions having been taken. Token Passing. If it is. The first 3 bytes (6-digits) identify the manufacturer. the data is sent out on the wire to all computers. Although quite rare. The manufacturer is assigned blocks of numbers to assign to NIC cards. The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6 byte or 48 bits) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer. In addition. The IEEE 802.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards packages it into what is called a frame. the Data Link layer is responsible for error-free transmissions. The LLC sub-layer provides SAPs (Service Access Points) that are used by other computers to transfer information to the upper OSI layers. The three main types of access methods are Contention (CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA). Its header includes the hardware address of the sending and destination NIC cards. If the Data Link layer in the destination computer comes up with the same value when it receives the frame. it assumes the data was not damaged in transmission and sends an acknowledgement to the sending computer. The combination of these numbers assures that each NIC that is manufactured (by any vendor) will have a unique MAC address. Logical Link Control (LLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the upper of the two sub-layers. 63 . In a broadcast network such as Ethernet. If it is not. it discards it. It identifies a line protocol. Media Access Control (MAC) The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer controls the way that multiple computers share the same media channel. It uniquely identifies devices on the same medium.) It also includes control information such as frame type. such as SDLC. segmentation information and routing information. and Demand Priority.2 standard defines how this takes place. (they are the vendor code that is assigned to a manufacturer by the IEEE Committee) and the last 6-digits identify the NIC (host). The CRC is simply a calculation that assigns a value to the frame. The frame is accepted by the Physical layer of all of the computers on the network and passed up to the Data Link layer. (These addresses are hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturers. The way that a network shares the channel is called its access method. It is responsible for connecting two computers on a network and maintaining that link. They accomplished this by splitting the Data Link layer into two sub-layers. MAC addresses are copied to RAM when a NIC is initialized. The Logical Link Control layer is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. This sub-layer communicates directly with NICs using the MAC address. the destination computer will ask for a retransmission. If the calculation does not check out. it accepts the data and passes it up to the next layer.

Switches. It is the only layer of the OSI model that communicates directly with its peer on another computer. and receivers all operate at the Physical layer of the OSI model. Devices such as repeaters. transceivers.ch/. Note: For more information on the OSI Model. It specifies such things as how many pins a network connector will have. It converts the data into the raw bits and signals (1’s and 0’s) that are actually transmitted over the network medium. which are intelligent hubs that use MAC addresses to send packets. and determines when and how data may be transmitted. The physical characteristics of a network will affect the specifications of the Physical layer. Physical Layer The Physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model. It identifies the NIC. Point-topoint communication is where one computer communicates with one other. The Physical layer is not concerned with the contents of the packets. an Ethernet network using UTP would have different specifications than an Ethernet network using Fiber Optic cable. and what each one will do. it is only concerned with the physical elements of the network and the transmission and reception of signals. Multipoint communication is where one computer talks to two or more computers. 64 . For example. It is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Here is an example of a MAC address: 00-00-13-35-FD-AB Bridges operate at the Data Link layer.iso. The Physical layer of the receiving computer converts the bits back into frames. work at the Data Link and Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridges are devices that connect network segments and filter data using MAC addresses. visit www. Point-to-point and multipoint connections are addressed at the Physical layer. synchronizes the data. passive hubs (or simple active hubs).

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 65 .

The Presentation layer passes the modified packet down to the Session layer. Even though the data is passed down through the sending computer’s layers. In this way even completely dissimilar systems running different operating systems will be able to communicate. the Application layer is not the actual application. (Remember. and up through the receiving computer’s layers. This is accomplished by each layer (with the exception of the top and bottom layers) adding a header to the message (or removing it on the receiving end) before passing it down (or up) to the next layer. 66 . As the packet travels up through the layers. TCP/IP is a common example of a protocol stack. simply a support layer to allow applications to perform network functions. the process of moving through the layers is reversed. For example: You send a request for services to the server. The Physical layer does not add a header. When it arrives at the Application layer of the destination computer. These subtasks are stacked in such a way that together they complete a whole task. Each protocol receives services from the layer directly below it. the data is back in its original form so that it may be interpreted and the request processed. This is called a protocol stack. In order for computers to communicate with each other they need to be using the same protocol stacks. The affect of this layering is that communication is seemingly only taking place between the associated layers of the two computers. and provides services to the layer directly above it. it simply converts the packet into a bit stream and sends it out onto the network medium. each layer is responsible for performing certain functions. over the network medium. which also adds a header and passes the packet down to the Transport layer. in effect there is a logical or virtual connection made directly between the two associated layers. When the destination computer receives the data. or suite.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Protocol Stacks When more than one protocol is necessary to accomplish a task.) The request is in the form of a packet. This process continues until the packet reaches the Physical layer. You are communicating directly with the Application layer. The request is then passed to the Presentation layer where a header is added to the message. each layer strips its peer’s header before passing the packet up to the next layer. In addition to adding or removing headers. The header information actually contains instructions for its peer on the receiving computer. protocols can be layered so that specific protocols handle their appropriate subtasks at specific layers of the OSI model. Each protocol will communicate with its peer or equivalent on the other computer. Communication Between Peer Layers Most network models utilize this layered architecture.

but the following table lists the other names that might be associated with them at the various layers: Physical LayerSignals or Bits or Data Stream into FramesData Link LayerFrames into PacketsNetwork LayerFrames or Datagrams into SegmentsTransport LayerSegments into dataSession LayerDataPresentation LayerDataApplication LayerData into Data Files or Messages 67 . they are sometimes referred to by different names at different layers.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Note: Packets (also called service data units) are made up of data and headers acquired from upper layers. The term packet is appropriate to all of the layers. Because of this.

you will need to know the seven layers of the OSI model. we can better understand how they communicate across the layers. Data will travel from one computer to another on a network from the Application layer to the Physical layer on the sending computer.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide OSI and the Real World When working with the OSI model. This communication will take place as long as both computers are using the same protocols. then to the Physical layer on the receiving computer and back up to the Application layer. the OSI Model is not real. as in the case of the TCP/IP protocol. some of the components or layers may actually do the work of several layers of the OSI Model. The various layers of the protocol are communicating as though they have virtual connections. In fact. Also. The following mnemonics are commonly used to help remember the layers: 68 . This means that if you were to attempt to map a protocol or a standard directly to the OSI model. you must keep in mind that it was created after many popular protocols had already been developed. By relating various protocols to the OSI model. Flow of Data As part of the Network+ Certification program. it would not match. Its purpose is to provide a graphical image of how network protocols work together to provide communication between two computers.

The specifications describe how components are supposed to function. Without them we would not have nearly as many software or hardware packages available to us. etc. Keep in mind that it isn’t actually the layer that performs the task. This is so that different types of computers with different types of hardware and software can communicate. you do need to remember the different layers and what task each layer is responsible for. it is the appropriate hardware or software that does the work. 69 .Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Mnemonic Away Pizza Sausage Throw Not Do Please OSI Layer Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All People Seem To Need Data Processing Mnemonic No matter how you memorize the layers. These specifications make it possible for hardware and software manufacturers to create products that will function in different computing environments. The OSI model simply defines which functions need to be completed at each layer and which protocols are to be used at each layer. because each product would have to be specialized towards each type of computer or operating system.

As electrical signals travel across a network medium the signal weakens as a result of resistance from the cabling itself. routers. A repeater reconditions and re-times these signals so that they can travel further or across LANs. The first is a static router.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Devices and the OSI Model As a networking professional. Most routers today support multiple protocols such as: TCP/IP SNA SLIP X. Routers are similar to bridges except that they make intelligent decisions about routing a signal to its destination. They rely on MAC addressing to forward messages to their destination. This weakening is known as attenuation. Routers Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI model. It regenerates or amplifies a signal across LANs. as well as where in the OSI model they operate.25 IPX/SPX SNAP PPP PPTP XNS Protocols DECnet The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • NetBEUI DLC LAT There are two different types of routers: static routers and dynamic routers. The networking professional needs to be familiar with these devices. and gateways are the most common devices that are used to expand a network. Bridges connect two separate networks to form one logical network. Programmers usually deal with the upper layers and decide what protocols. the routing information is permanent and requires an administrator to change. These are the layers that have the most to do with hardware devices and other components that you can change. Repeaters A repeater operates at the Physical layer of the OSI model. bridges. Each static router has its own table that defines all routes connected to it. Data Link layer and the Network layer. on the other hand. you will usually be working in the first three layers of the OSI model: The Physical layer. With these routers. Repeaters. will search its connections and 70 . are going to be used when they write a program. A dynamic router. Bridges A bridge operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. etc.

71 . The gateway translates between the two networks so that they may communicate. A gateway connects two computer networks that use different protocols. if a packet is received from a computer using a nonroutable protocol such as NetBEUI. However. Since the routing information is in a constant state of change it is dynamic. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. It is a device that combines the functions of the bridge and router. Brouters A brouter operates at both the Data Link and Network layers of the OSI model. but usually in the Application layer).Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards automatically update the routing information. If a routable packet is received the brouter will route it using a routing table (make intelligent decisions of how best to route the data). the brouter will bridge the packet based on its MAC addressing. Gateways Gateways operate in the upper layers of the OSI model (from the Transport to Application layers.

3 802.7 802. and if you would like more information on them. Inc.6 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IEEE 802 Standards In 1980 the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. February 1980). visit IEEE’s web-site at http://www.4 802.org There are also many other web sites that discuss these standards. These standards were prepared before the OSI standards.standards. 72 .8 802. but the two sets of standards were designed to be compatible. a little surfing might be in order.1 802.5 802.9 802.ieee. The following table lists the 802 standards by category: (The ones you need to know are the ones in bold!) Number 802. (IEEE) formed a committee to create standards for LANs.2 802.10 802.12 Defines Internetworking Logical Link Control (LLC) Carrier Sense with Multiple Access and Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Broadband Technical Advisory Group Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group Integrated Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks Demand Priority Access LAN. This project is known as the 802 project (named for the year and month the project started. 100BaseVG AnyLAN If you would like more information on these standards.11 802.

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards 73 .

which allows any NDIS-compatible protocol stack to function with any NDIS-compatible driver. This is because of the way they work within the OSI layers (on top of one another). Two sets of standards have been developed to define the interfaces between the NIC and the driver. This way more than one protocol stack can be bound to a single NIC. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) NDIS was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com Corp. 74 . and it defines the interface between the Data Link layer NIC driver and the network transport protocol. This vendor-neutral interface provides a boundary between a protocol and the driver. but is designed for use with Novell NetWare and Macintosh environments. Protocols and OSI Protocols are the rules that govern communication between computers. and hence. The driver allows communication between the operating system and the NIC. They also handle error checking and acknowledgments of transmitted data. It defines a way to bind more than one protocol to a single driver. which will allow a NIC to support multiple protocols. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors (such as Microsoft and Novell) to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. ODI (Open Data Link Interface) ODI was co-developed by Novell and Apple and serves the same purpose as NDIS. the network. The protocols used to communicate in a network environment are called protocol suites or stacks. the NIC also needs a device driver to function. However.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Drivers and the OSI Model Just like every other device in a computer. Network protocols are responsible for addressing and routing communication over a network. The NIC driver operates at the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. NDIS and ODI are incompatible with one another.

it is not uncommon for more than one LAN to be connected together using a device called a router. but connection-oriented is more reliable. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. it will then attempt to communicate with the second protocol. If that fails. You have no confirmation (unless they call you back) that they got the message. In a connectionless scenario. In a connectionless communication. and in full. the data is simply sent and assumed to be received. Protocol Binding In order to function.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Network protocols work at various layers of the OSI model. Protocols that are able to route messages across these devices are called Routable. It is the protocol operating at a certain OSI layer that defines that layer’s function. In today’s LANs however.) The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first. (This is useful if your network communicates with another entirely dissimilar network. This form of communication protocol guarantees the delivery of data. Connection-Oriented vs. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. Non-Routable Protocols In the early days of networking. The receiving computer acknowledges that it received the data that was sent. Connectionless communication is faster. Connectionless Communication between computers may be connection-oriented or connectionless. You speak directly to your friend who either agrees or disagrees to come. For example. It is possible to bind two protocols to one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/SPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. if TCP/IP is bound first. Routable vs. In connection-oriented communication. it would be like calling your friend and simply leaving a message on their answering machine. Protocols that are unable to send messages across routers are called Non-Routable. Network protocols reside in the lower layers of the OSI model and handle the addressing and routing functions of network communication. There is no guarantee that the message was delivered. LANs were usually just one network that served a single company or department. Application layer protocols provide support for application-to-application functions in the upper layers of the OSI Model. the operating system will attempt to communicate using TCP/IP first. the sending and receiving computers actually establish a connection to communicate. Connection-oriented would be like dialing up your friend to ask them to come to a party. The network layer protocols also are responsible for error checking (CRC) functions. Transport layer protocols reside in the middle layers of the OSI model and are responsible for establishing sessions and ensuring that data is sent and received error free. 75 .

76 . Networking Protocols and Stacks The following are common routable networking protocol stacks. The networking professional should be familiar with the more common ones and should also know which are routable and which OSI layer they function in. It is important that the networking professional know the difference between routable and non-routable protocols and which protocols are routable.25 XNS Protocols The following is a list of NON-ROUTABLE protocols: • • • DLC LAT NetBEUI Non-routable protocols cannot be used in routed environments (such as the Internet).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following is a list (in alphabetical order) of some routable protocols: • • • • • • • • • • • • AppleTalk DECnet IPX/ SPX PPP PPTP SLIP SMB SNA TCP/IP UDP X.

It uses the MAC address and is non-routable. NCP (NetWare Control Protocol) – This control protocol resides at four different layers of the OSI model. IPX/ SPX Even though Novell NetWare 5. AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) – This provides connection between two computers at the Transport layer. At the Session layer it establishes and 77 • • • • • • . DECnet This is Digital Equipment Corporation’s protocol stack. It resides in the Network layer. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. this protocol takes into consideration link speed and network traffic to make more efficient routing decisions than RIP. It is a routable protocol. This is the NIC driver in the IPX/SPX suite. It resides in the Network layer. MLID (Multiple Link Interface Driver) – Resides in the Data Link layer in the MAC sub-layer. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops needed to reach a destination. It is a routable protocol that can also use TCP/IP and OSI protocols. LSL (Link Support Layer) – Also resides at the Data Link layer and provides the interface between the MLID and the upper layers. This stack consists of: • • • • AppleShare – This provides Application layer services for Macintosh.) SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) – Is a Transport layer protocol and is a connection-oriented protocol. (If data must cross a router SPX is used. In addition to hop count. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) – This manages file sharing. This stack has many protocols within it: • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) – Works on the Network layer of the OSI model and provides connectionless service. Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) – This provides transmission of packets across a network.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards AppleTalk This proprietary protocol stack allows Macintosh systems to operate in a network environment. At the Application layer it handles application interfaces.1 has incorporated TCP/IP into its design. regardless of speed. At the Presentation layer it handles data translation. the majority of NetWare networks function with this proprietary protocol suite. and handles file and print services. NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) – This Network layer protocol is also a routing protocol.

It is less capable than FTP because it uses UDP rather than TCP. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is used for file sharing between computers on a TCP/IP network. while APPN provides Network and Transport layer connections. A datagram is a kind of packet that has minimum overhead. and connection-oriented error control services. TCP and IP. It is also layered on IP like TCP. Missing packets and out-of-sequence data is not checked and no acknowledgements are sent. APPC supports Transport and Session layer services. then TFTP would be advisable over FTP. • SAP (Service Access Protocol) – This Application layer protocol is used on servers to broadcast (at specified intervals) the location and services that are available from that server. It is faster than TCP because it is connectionless. It is used to upload and download files on the Internet and between two computers. It also contains several others that the networking professional needs to be familiar with. NWLink – This Transport layer protocol is Microsoft’s version of IPX/SPX. 78 . At the Transport layer it handles sequencing. TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for transferring files quickly and more simply than the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). We will cover TCP/IP extensively in Chapters 8 & 9. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP/IP suite contains two major protocols. IP (Internet Protocol) IP is a connectionless protocol. making it connectionless. The two main protocols in this stack are APPC (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications) and APPN (Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking). so the application must do the error checking and retransmission if necessary. If you do not need to use passwords. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) UDP provides the datagram service in TCP/IP.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide controls sessions. SNA (Systems Network Architecture) This protocol suite is used with IBM mainframes and AS/400 systems. TCP is responsible for adding header information that contains error checking and flow control information. • SMB (Server Message Block) This Microsoft protocol operates at the Presentation layer and is used for communication between the server and the redirector. FTP is an Application layer protocol and is available for nearly every operating system. No error checking exists and delivery is not guaranteed. TCP functions at the Transport layer of the OSI model and is a connection-oriented protocol. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and is responsible for addressing packets and routing them over the network. flow control. It is routable and provides support for NetBIOS names.

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) – This is a simple routing protocol that counts the hops that will be needed to reach a destination. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Like RIP. instead of only the number of hops. it also takes into consideration the network speed and traffic and makes routing decisions based on the best route. ARP will first check its list and if a matching address is not found. In addition. NFS (Network File System) Sun Microsystems developed NFS as a file and drive sharing system. It chooses the route with the fewest hops. The second part 79 . It is designed to be reliable and allows for scalability.25 network. It is an Application layer protocol. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP keeps a table of matching MAC and IP addresses. this is also a Network layer protocol. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) SMTP is an Application layer protocol that is responsible for sending E-mail from the sender’s server to the recipient’s E-mail server. but in addition. The first specification refers to the DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). It resides in the Network layer. OSPF counts the number of hops to the destination computer. but in reverse.25 is a packet switching protocol that is sometimes referred to as a public data network (PDN) because it is sometimes used by more than one organization.25 X. X. which can be unreliable due to the quality of phone lines. NTP (Network Time Protocol) Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used in a networked environment to synchronize computer clock times. The local computer acts as a display only and all processing occurs remotely. X.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Telnet This Application layer protocol allows a user to log on and run applications remotely. The computer that has the corresponding IP address will respond by sending its MAC address. This is the host on an X. A sending computer must know the MAC address of the destination computer in order to send data. It uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond. It uses standard telephone lines and switches.25 is also an equipment specification. it will send out a “discovery packet” over the network. without regard to speed. It operates like a combination of Telnet and FTP and allows users to access files and drives on remote computers as if they were local resources. RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a related protocol that performs the same function. ARP will add the information to its table for future use. This is really a type of network that is owned by telephone companies who charge organizations for use.

it is installed only on the print server and communicates directly with the printer. but in between. Data is routed via the best connection at a given time. which is an advantage if using older MS-DOS-based systems. DLC (Data Link Control) DLC operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. It may be used with bridges. This means that routes change as conditions change. but is primarily used today for backward compatibility with existing networks. It is bulky and slow and has largely been replaced by TCP/IP. It is typically used between a DECserver and a VAX minicomputer. This also means that they may not be used to connect to the Internet. only printing functions.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide of the specification is the DCE (Data Communications Equipment). XNS (Xerox Network System) XNS is a proprietary protocol developed by Xerox for their Ethernet LANs. The DTE acts as an endpoint for communications and the DCE acts as an entry point for the DTEs. the X. Non-Routable Protocols The following protocols are non-routable. This is not an actual protocol and is not used to perform networking functions. Instead. It is fast. asynchronous terminal traffic over a LAN.25 network is sometimes referred to as a cloud. This protocol is not used for data communication. it is out of the administrator’s control. 80 . Data goes in and comes out. This means that they may not be used with networks that use routers to connect multiple LANs. Because of this. NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) This non-routable protocol works at the Transport layer of the OSI model. It was originally used to connect IBM mainframes to HP network printers.25 functions take place at the Physical and Network layers and normally interface with a protocol called LAPB (Link Access Procedures-Balanced). This is an older packet switching network that uses switches and circuits. LAT (Local Area Transport) This protocol does not have a Network layer and that is the reason it is non-routable. Packets from the same transmission are routed via the best route (and don’t necessarily follow the same route) and are reassembled at the receiving end. It is a DEC protocol used for interactive. X. easy to configure and small.

administration. The main improvement is that it allows clients to connect remotely from over the Internet. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Devices using TCP/IP use SNMP for controlling network communications. This management protocol interfaces with network analyzer software making it easier to manage complex networks. It maintains a database and provides name-to-address mappings for applications. SLIP is not used as much as PPP. or DHCP. it detects congested areas and links that are down. DHCP. Like a traffic report on your radio. RPC is used by the redirector to determine if a resource is local or on the network. It operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and performs connection services and flow control services. SNMP is used extensively with intelligent hubs. and others as well as TCP/IP. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) This is an extension to the PPP protocol. enabling it to use the Internet as a backbone for NWLink and NetBEUI. This protocol supports IPX. PPTP encapsulates TCP/IP. It makes the remote resources appear local to the computer. ISO/OSI Standard This is a complete standard with each layer having a protocol (or protocols) mapped directly to it. file transfers. XDR (External Data Representation) XDR handles translation and operates at the Presentation layer. SLIP requires static IP addressing and doesn’t support data encryption. NWLink and NetBEUI. It provides full networking functions at every layer of the OSI model. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) This protocol was developed to replace the SLIP protocol and alleviate some of its limitations. It also supports data encryption. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS translates names that humans understand into names that the computer understands. NetBEUI. It handles session establishment. Users can establish secure encrypted access to their corporate networks via Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that PPTP establishes. 81 . and connection release. It does not support IPX. NetBEUI. It provides machineindependent data translations that may include encryption and data descriptions. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is used in error-handling and control procedures.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Other Protocols The following are some protocols that the networking professional needs to be familiar with: SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) SLIP supports TCP/IP connections made over serial lines. and notifies upper layers to route around them. RPC (Remote Procedure Call) RPC operates at the Session layer of the OSI model.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: TCP/IP is such an important protocol that we will be covering it in depth later in the text. 82 .

Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Summary In this chapter. 83 . For example. It is important to note that memorizing the OSI model will not only help you pass the test. but also help you to narrow down problems when troubleshooting a network. if you can get to the server through a router. The OSI model is an invaluable tool to the networking professional. you know that networking is taking place and that you have functionality up to layer three. we learned about the OSI model and its importance in networking. We also learned what type of devices function at various levels of the OSI model and how these devices interact with each other.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.x Standards Application Layer Bridge Brouter Data Link Layer Gateway LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC (Media Access Control) Network Layer Non-Routable Protocol OSI Physical Layer Presentation Layer Protocol Stack Repeater Routable Protocol Router Session Layer Transport Layer Definition 84 . Keyword 802.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? 85 . Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. 10. A network adapter card operates at the _____ layer of the OSI Model. managing. 6. 4.Chapter 3 – The OSI Model and Communication Standards Review Questions – Chapter 3 1. 3. Who developed the OSI model? 2. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. and ending connections? 12. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? 11. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. What is a MAC address? 13. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. 7. 5. What is the function of the Application Layer? 9. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? 8.

Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 18. Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? 21. Will this work? Why or Why not? 86 . without duplication and error free? 15. What are NDIS and ODI? 19. What are they? 16. Describe protocol binding. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 14. 20. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. 22. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. What is the function of a Gateway? 17. Which is faster.

and easy to install. It uses a BNC (British Naval Connector) “T” connector to connect directly to the NIC. and other hardware and peripherals.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Chapter 4 . It also has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. 87 . Xerox). Network Cabling Although wireless networks do exist. It uses a device called a transceiver to connect the Thicknet cable to the NIC via a drop cable. which is more commonly known as a DB-15 connector. or DIX (Digital. along with connectors. The drop cable is connected to the NIC’s AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port connector. The effect of hardware on network performance will be key to your networking operation. network adapter cards. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable is fairly inexpensive. (and we’ll cover them later in this chapter). There are several cabling options. Thinnet Thinnet is about ¼-inch thick and is flexible and easy to install. How to properly configure and use network adapter cards. it is less susceptible to EMI than UTP. but fortunately for the networking professional there are only three major types that you need to understand. There are numerous kinds of cable. It has a maximum segment length of 185 meters (about 606 feet) and a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. Its copper core is thicker than Thinnet and can carry signals farther (maximum segment length is 500 meters or about 1650 feet). Thicknet Thicknet is about ½-inch thick and fairly rigid. It can transmit voice. a braided metallic shield called the ground as well as an outer cover. Because it is shielded. light.Hardware Media and Peripherals This chapter explores network media. 10Base2 (Thinnet) and 10Base5 (Thicknet) in a Bus topology. and the hardware aspect of network operations. It consists of a copper core (either solid or stranded) surrounded by plastic foam insulation. most networks utilize some type of cable to carry transmissions on the network. Coaxial cable is used in Ethernet Networks. and learning how wireless networks function are among the topics we will cover in this chapter. and data over longer distances that UTP or STP. video. flexible. which we will address here. Intel. Understanding how different network topologies interact with different types of cable is essential.

Thicknet is often used as a backbone to connect several Thinnet networks. UsesTypeImpedan ce – Ohms 10Base5 ThicknetRG-850 10Base5 ThicknetRG-1150 10Base2 ThinnetRG-5850 Cable TVRG-5975 ARCnetRG-6293 Coaxial Connectors British Naval Connectors (BNC) are used in both Thinnet and Thicknet networks to connect the cable to the computers. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages. Summary of Coaxial Cables Not all coaxial cables are the same. They are specified based on their impedance. It is expressed in ohms. it is not as easy to install. 88 . BNC Cable Connectors The BNC cable connector that is used to connect cable segments is the T connector. It is attached directly to the NIC. It is more expensive than Thinnet but does offer longer segment lengths. In order for the network to operate at peak performance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Because it is thicker than Thinnet. It is either soldered or crimped to the end of the cable. As a networking professional you will need to be familiar with the different types and their uses. BNC T Connector The BNC T connector is used to connect the network interface card to the cable. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. as well as how they are attached to the cables.

A transceiver is a device that transmits and receives signals on a network medium. The transceiver has a port for an AUI connector (AUI port connectors are also called DIX connectors or DB-15 connectors). N Connector Transceivers The computers in a Thicknet network do not connect directly to the cable as with Thinnet. The BNC terminator is a connector that has a resistor built in that performs this function. It is soldered or crimped onto the cable to make the connection. and an AUI cable. BNC Terminator Both ends of the cable must be terminated to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. It is common to connect a Thinnet LAN to a Thicknet backbone using a transceiver. One of the terminators must be grounded.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals BNC Barrel Connector The BNC barrel connector is used to connect two lengths of Thinnet cable together. Thicknet uses a device called a transceiver. BNC Connectors N Connectors Thicknet uses N connectors that screw on. 89 . and is used to connect the device to the network. Both ends of the cable need to be terminated with one end grounded. This cable is called a drop cable or a transceiver cable.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Transceiver Vampire Taps Although transceivers can be connected by cutting a cable and splicing N connectors and T connectors on the transceiver. These clamp-on transceivers are often referred to as vampire taps because they utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. These twists help prevent crosstalk and sensitivity to EMI. Instead. this is so time-consuming that it is not the common approach. most networking professionals use a clamp-on transceiver. 90 . The telephone wire we have all seen in our homes is an example of twisted-pair cabling. This cable type consists of two insulated strands of copper wire that are twisted around one another. There are two types of twisted-pair cables: Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP). It is flexible and easy to install and is the least expensive of all the cable types. Vampire Tap Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair cable has become the most popular type of cable used in networks today.

up to 100 Mbps. The following is a summary of UTP cables. it is more sensitive to EMI. Since it is unshielded. This results in less sensitivity to EMI. less crosstalk. Category 5 UTP has a transmission speed of up to 100 Mbps. The quality of UTP is based on the number of twists per inch in each pair of wires. Currently. Category 3 cabling has a transmission speed of 10 Mbps. An RJ-11 jack has four 91 .Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cabling is the less expensive of the twisted-pair cable types and hence the most popular. and a higher bandwidth. UTP wire typically consists of eight wires or four pairs. An RJ-45 connector looks just like a common telephone jack (RJ-11) only larger. Twisted Pair Cabling Twisted-Pair Connectors UTP and STP are usually connected with RJ-45 connectors. It has a maximum segment length of 100 meters. there are six categories. Category 1 2 3 4 5 5e 6 7 Maximum Data Rate Less than 1 Mbps 4 Mbps 16 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 155 Mbps 1000 Mbps Uses Doorbell Wiring Token Ring and Voice 10BaseT and Token Ring Token Ring ATM and Gigabit Ethernet ATM Extremely fast broadband Extremely fast broadband STP Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cabling is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs.

The pin location is a color-coded slot into which the wire is punched down using a punch tool to make the proper connection. The plug-ins are not the same. it is not as common as UTP or Coaxial. The front of the patch panel is where the patch cable with the RJ-45 connector is plugged into a port (a port is a female plug for the RJ-45). 92 . However. This is an excellent way to organize network cables. Jack couplers and wall plates are also commonly used in UTP installations. It also supports much longer segment lengths (several miles). These patch panels act like a switchboard where cables are connected and organized. Wall Plates for RJ-45 Fiber-Optic Cable Fiber-optic cable is the ideal cabling for networking. RJ-45 Connector AppleTalk AppleTalk networks utilizing STP cabling uses a DIN-type (DB-9) connector. It supports extremely high bandwidths and is not subject to EMI or RMI. An RJ45 is too large to fit into an RJ-11 (telephone) jack. The wire is assembled in the back of the patch panel in what is called the pin location. Distribution Panels Distribution racks and shelves are sometimes used to create more room for cables when floor space is at a premium. as it is the most expensive and most difficult to install of all the cabling types. Expandable patch panels (sometimes called punch down blocks) are also used with UTP installations. They come in various sizes up to 96 ports and support transmission speeds of up to 100 Mbps (and beyond).Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide connection points where an RJ-45 jack has eight.

(The core can also be made up of plastic. IBM Cabling IBM has its own special cabling for use on their Token Ring networks. They do not conform to the same specification as used with standard UTP. Signals are sent along the cable as pulses of light. IBM cabling is based on its Type. Because of this feature. which is easier to install. the data cannot be tapped or stolen. which reduces signal loss. SC Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) ST Connector (for Fiber Optic Cable) Because data is transmitted as light and not as electrical impulses. This cladding reflects the signal back into the fiber. but plastic core fiber-optic cannot carry the signals as far as glass. fiber-optic is used in networks that need a secure media that transmits at high speeds over long distances. The following is a summary of IBM Types: 93 . One strand transmits and one receives. it consists of two separate strands enclosed in a plastic jacket for strength.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Fiber-optic cable consists of a glass core surrounded by a coating of cladding (layer of glass or plastic).) Because data only passes in one direction over fiber-optic cable.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 94 .

Not Defined Two 62. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2. The connector that they developed is unique in that any connector can connect to another as opposed to having “male” and “female” connectors as with other types of connectors. Six twisted pairs. Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire – maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Plenum grade. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). IBM has developed its own cabling complete with its own standards and specifications. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fiber Optic Data patch cables. An IBM connector is sometimes called a hermaphrodite. Contains a shield for use under carpets.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Type 1 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet).5/125-micron multimode fibers. Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. IBM Connector 95 . Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG Wire Two STP –26 AWG Wire Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Same as type 1 but adds voice capability along with data.

96 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Summary of Cabling The following table summarizes the specifications for network media: Media Bandwidth (Mbps) Nodes/ Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Note: We will discuss Infrared later in this chapter.

• Simplex vs. This space is used to circulate air through a building. 10-gauge wire is heavier than 14-gauge wire. The signal flow is bidirectional. a pager can receive a message. For example. these fumes would end up circulated throughout a building in the event of a fire.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Cabling Terms The following are some terms that you will encounter when working with network cabling: AWG (American Wire Gauge) AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. 97 . Coaxial cable comes in two grades: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Plenum. the wire thickness increases. Both you and the party you are talking to can send and receive at the same time. but cannot send a message. An example would be a CB radio transmission where only one person can talk at a time. • Plenum Grade Cabling A plenum is the space between the ceiling and the floor above. Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways. PVC gives off poisonous smoke and gas when burned. Typical STP and UTP wires are 24-gauge. Bandwidth is measured in megabits per seconds (Mbps). Full-Duplex allows for two-way simultaneous transmissions. It is used with digital and utilizes TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). The signal flow is uni-directional. Duplex • • Simplex refers to one-way communication only. Broadband There are two techniques that are used to transmit signals over cable: • Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. the telephone utilizes full-duplex transmissions. It is used with analog and utilizes TDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). As the AWG wire number decreases. For example. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. fire codes are very specific about what types of cabling can be run in this space. Because this space does circulate air through a building. PVC is used for the outer cover and the insulation in Polyvinyl Chloride grade cabling. If this type of cable were used in the plenum. (send and receive) but only one at a time. Bandwidth Bandwidth is a term used to measure the ability of a network medium to transmit data. Baseband vs. For example.

A networking professional must be aware of local fire codes regarding plenum cabling. such as: • • • • • Budget Network Traffic Security Needs Size/Distance Environment The installation parameters need to be considered as well. there is no need to use heavy duty cabling when another type would be more cost-effective. local fire codes will need to be addressed. There are many factors that you must consider if you are to meet your networking objectives.) Will the cable be installed in noisy areas where EMI will be a factor? (If installing the cable near equipment or fluorescent lighting. For example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Plenum grade cable is insulated and jacketed in special materials that give off a minimum amount of smoke and fumes. attenuation could have an affect on network performance if you use cabling on a large network where long cable runs are a factor.) 98 . how will the cable need to be installed? (If there are tight corners.) Will plenum grade cable need to be purchased? (If installing cabling in the plenum. shielded cable might be more appropriate. Plenum Grade Cables Selecting Cables As a networking professional you will need to determine which kind of cabling medium to use for a given network. the flexibility of the medium should be considered. On the other hand.) How long will the cable runs need to be? (If the network will be small.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Is crosstalk going to be a factor for security issues? (If security is an issue on the network and the data to be transmitted needs to be secure. but not least.) Is future growth of the network expected? (Expandability for future growth is easier to achieve if it is planned for in advance. cost.) Transmission speeds and last. fiber-optic cabling might be appropriate to avoid any tapping. are issues that will need to be addressed when planning your network. Building a low-cost network that doesn’t do the job won’t win you any brownie points in the long run! 99 .

Data traveling via a computer’s bus is traveling in parallel because the bits are traveling along side-by-side. This is how the NIC keeps track of how much data has been sent or received. Signals and Clocking In order to understand how a NIC works. which constantly vary in one or more values. NICs are used to connect the computer to the network. The purpose of this card is to translate the data that the computer can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Cards (NICs) Network Interface Cards or NICs. Preparing the Data Computers carry data internally via data pathways called buses. data is moved along in groups.) This card is installed into an expansion slot on every computer on the network and the cable is connected to the card’s port. most buses are 16-bit or 32-bit. Digital: Signals that are simple 1’s (on). This is known as serial communication. We’ll discuss the different data bus architectures a little later. and controls the flow of data on the network. are also known as Network Adapter Cards. you need to have a basic understanding of signals and clocking. or 0’s (off). 100 . It makes the physical connection to the network. Clocking Clocking is the method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. handles network addressing. Today. This is known as parallel communication. Because these paths are side-by-side. The NIC takes data coming from the computer in parallel form and converts it into serial data so that it can be sent along the network cable. Signals There are two types of signals: Analog: Signals or waveforms that frequently take the form of sine waves. Signals are sent in a continuous flow that represents the start and stop of a data frame. Network cabling moves data in a single data stream. This informs the other computers on the network of its location. Older computers had 8-bit buses which meant that data could be sent 8-bits at a time. (And of course to translate it back again. Network Addressing/MAC Address The NIC is also responsible for encoding the signals it sends out on the network medium with its unique address. Analog data has an infinite number of possible states.

they agree on common parameters so that the data is sent at a speed that can be handled by the slowest card. Some of these settings are configured by using DIP switches or jumper settings. When this occurs. the two cards start sending and receiving data. such as: 101 . Most computers utilize Direct Memory Access (DMA) and the computer assigns some of its memory space for use by the NIC. the NIC may need to be configured. Plug-and-Play cards configure themselves to be compatible with the operating system so that they may utilize the system’s resources. Once all of these parameters are agreed upon. DMA allows the NIC to access the computer directly without having to go through the CPU. a NIC will send data over the network to the receiving card. Before transmission actually takes place the NICs agree on the following points: • • • • • • The maximum size of the groups of data to be sent. This makes transferring data much faster. the data is sent to the card’s RAM (buffer) until it can be processed. The time intervals between data chunks. The amount of time between confirmations. The NIC signals the computer to send the data that it wants to transmit and the computer’s bus moves the data from memory to the NIC. Data often moves faster than a NIC can process it. This communication takes place so that both the sending and receiving cards can agree on data flow and confirmation parameters. Configurable Options In order for the computer to communicate with the NIC. If one card is faster or more sophisticated than another card. Controlling the Data Flow Before transmitting. The speed of the transmission. Other cards will need to be configured manually. DMA (Direct Memory Channel) The NIC must be able to communicate with the computer in order to prepare data for transmission on a network medium.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Each NIC has a unique address that is hardwired onto it by the manufacturer. The operating system and the NIC need to have compatible resource settings. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) committee assigns blocks of these unique numbers to each manufacturer. How much data each card can hold before overflow occurs. The amount of data that will be sent before a confirmation. and some are set using software.

Without a hard or floppy disk. Since computers usually boot from information contained on a hard or floppy disk. These hexadecimal port numbers define a channel between a device and the processor. Only devices like NIC cards that need to efficiently move data are assigned DMA channels. Check your system’s documentation to determine its current IRQ settings. It contains the necessary connection software to use and is often used for diskless workstations. Check your system’s documentation for assignment and availability of base I/O port addresses. Each device must have a unique base I/O port number. The main concept to understand is that the NIC is set up to use an IRQ that is not already assigned to another device. DMA Channel Configuration of DMA channels is similar to IRQs. while others do not use RAM addresses at all. this 102 . certain IRQs are almost always used for specific devices. The good news is that unlike an IRQ. IRQ3 and IRQ15 may also be used if IRQ5 is already assigned. Typically IRQ5 is used for the network adapter card. The most important thing to remember about IRQs is that no two devices can use the same interrupt. Base I/O Port Address This is the channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (like a NIC) and the CPU. See Appendix A for common IRQ assignments. See Appendix A for common address assignments. This is sometimes referred to as the RAM start address. not all devices need one. Having an IRQ conflict (more than one device sharing an IRQ) can cause problems. In some network environments computers do not have any floppy or hard disks for security reasons. data cannot be downloaded and stolen. Boot PROM Boot Prom’s (Programmable Read Only Memory) function is to allow the NIC to boot up and connect over a network. Base Memory Address The base memory address marks the location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ (Interrupt Request) The Interrupt Request (IRQ) line is used by the NIC (and other devices) to contact the CPU. Some NICs have settings that allow you to specify the size of the buffer. The main difference is that there are only eight DMA channels available. This buffer area is used to store incoming and outgoing data frames. In practice. These IRQ lines are part of the system hardware and each device needs its own line.

Fiber-Optic NICs Due to the high-cost of fiber-optic adapter cards. If the correct ring speed is not set a computer will not be able to connect to the network and may even cause the network to fail. Ring Speed In Token-Ring networks the ring speed must be set on the NIC. Connector Type Your NIC may automatically adjust to use the kind of connector that you are using (BNC. 103 . They usually use a type of antenna (omnidirectional) and an antenna cable. or you may have to configure it manually. Wireless LANs are discussed later in this chapter. The two speeds available are 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. RJ-45. Special software is usually needed to connect a wireless NIC. Wireless NICs Wireless NICs are used to connect wireless network systems to the computer.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals chip. (called a remote boot PROM) is located on the NIC. or both). and performs the boot function remotely over the network. they are usually only used in special cases where high-speed direct computer to fiber-optic cable connections are required.

Micro Channel is a data bus developed by IBM that requires licensing to be used by manufacturers and isn’t used much.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data Bus Architecture A data bus is a group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. including network connectivity. but can be a 64-bit bus. Today most buses are either EISA or PCI. They are also called PC-Card Buses. They are generally 32-bit buses. With this card comes the same expandability enjoyed by desktop PCs. Standard Bus Types There are six data bus architectures found in Intel-based computers: The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is an 16-bit bus. 104 . Micro Channel (MCA) is a 32 bit bus. The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is a 32-bit bus. Laptops PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers. The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a 32-bit bus.

Most cards offer features that are designed to improve network performance: Utilizing Direct Memory Access (DMA) improves network performance by allowing the computer to move data directly to the NIC’s buffer without going through the CPU. The data would then move directly to system memory leaving the CPU free to process other tasks. the NIC would be a bottleneck. Both EISA and MCA NICs offer Bus Mastering. Shared Adapter Memory is a method by which a NIC contains RAM that it shares with the computer as if it were actually installed in the computer. thereby bypassing the CPU. Shared System Memory is a method by which the NIC utilizes a portion of the computer’s memory to process data. Without this feature. This type of card is expensive. This is especially true on a bus network because computers must take turns using the cable. but investing in one can increase network performance by 20 to 70 percent. Some NICs have onboard microprocessors that eliminate the need of the computer’s CPU to process data. it is important that it is configured correctly and optimally.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Network Performance The speed of the NIC will affect network performance. Network traffic travels faster than most NICs can process data. 105 . thereby improving network performance. RAM Buffering holds data in RAM chips that are located on the NIC until it can be processed. This is a method by which the NIC takes temporary control over a computer’s bus. Because of the effect that the NIC can have on network performance.

e. Wireless networks use wireless access points to “connect” the network devices to each other. or open reception areas where the cables would be visible. but usually the wireless components are members of a wire-based LAN. the office.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless Networks The term wireless network implies that it is a network that doesn’t use any cabling. Doctors make rounds all over the hospital and are often not at their desks when they need to access their computers. This is misleading as most wireless networks utilize a system that consists of both cabling and wireless components. This would include historical buildings where local codes would not allow renovations. They function just like other access points (i. Extended Local Area Networks . Wireless networks can be classified into three basic categories: • • Local Area Networks (LANs) – There are fully wireless systems. With wireless systems. Wireless networks are more portable than cabled systems. • Why Wireless? Wireless networks are useful if you need to provide a temporary network where running cabling would not be cost effective. They are also useful to create a backup system for an existing network. In some applications it is crucial that the network never goes down. A wireless system can help ensure that the network will still function even in the event of cable breaks. Sometimes wireless systems are used to connect to remote locations or including ocean dwelling oil platforms. Outdoor installations often utilize wireless systems. Mobility is another reason wireless networks are created. a company needs to connect two networks located in two nearby buildings. – routers). Mobile Computing .Cellular and satellite technologies are increasing the popularity of wireless networking. Wireless is also an option for areas where installing cabling would be impossible or unsightly. making them ideal for uses that require frequent moving. For example. or on the road. People who are constantly on the move are able to access their networks whether they are at home. 106 . a user can access from anywhere in the building. but through the use of an infrared or radio medium.Wireless networks are frequently used to connect two LANs.

Infrared networks typically broadcast at 10 Mbps. The effective distance between a transmitter and a receiver is limited to about 100 feet. you have used infrared transmissions every time you use your TV’s remote control. Infrared is not sensitive to radio-frequency interference.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Wireless Antennae Wireless Transmission Methods There are four basic methods of wireless transmissions: • • • • Laser Radio Microwave Infrared Believe it or not. they are also fairly immune to eavesdropping. These signals need to be rather strong because they can be affected by light sources. such as windows. and because the transmissions are tightly focused. This involves using infrared light to carry signals to a receiver. Infrared transmits very fast because of its high bandwidths. Infrared Networks There are four types of infrared networks: • • • • Reflective Infrared Line-of-Sight Infrared Scatter Infrared Broadband Optical Telepoint 107 .

the message is broken into parts (called chips). The signals can be broadcast via two methods: hopping. The transmitter and receiver are tuned into the same frequency and thus it does not require line-of-sight transmission. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission This is sometimes called single-frequency radio and is similar to broadcasting from a radio station. Line-of-Sight Infrared With this type of infrared system. it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. the signal is beamed towards a central unit. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. Scatter Infrared Transmission rates are slower with this type as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. uses broadband technology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Reflective Infrared With reflective infrared. the available frequencies are divided into hops and the transmitters and receivers “hop” from frequency to frequency for a predetermined length of time. there must be a direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. which are then transmitted over separate frequencies. The signal can be blocked by heavy concrete or metal walls. ceilings. In the direct sequence modulation method. It does. etc. which then routes the signal appropriately. however. Radio Transmission Radio transmission wireless is popular with a high bandwidth at 10 Mbps. In the hopping method. as the name implies. Spread-Spectrum Radio Transmissions Because spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. or direct sequence modulation. Broadband Optical Telepoint Broadband Optical Telepoint. 108 . This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. but unblocked it can enable mobile computing over a limited range. until it reaches the receiver. require an FCC license and is subject to eavesdropping. Transmission speeds with this high-end type are competitive with cable-based systems.

Terrestrial Microwave This is used for earth-based communication such as between two buildings. The packets sent are called Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and this form provides very fast communication. These network-style packets are encoded with source and destination address information. Satellite Microwave This is a very expensive technology and is utilized by very large corporations who pool the billions of dollars required to develop and launch a satellite. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit over shorter distances. Signals are beamed up to the satellite and then sent back down to the appropriate receiver. Cellular Networking Cellular networking is achieved via the cellular phone network. 109 . It is used for line-of-sight communication. This form of microwave communication is used to transmit globally. mobile computing is a growing technology that provides a nearly limitless range for traveling users of this type of network. Satellite Station Networking Microwave is currently the most common of the long distance transmission methods in the US. or across large flat open areas like bodies of water or deserts.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Microwave Due to microwave transmission capabilities. There are three forms of mobile computing: • • • Packet-Radio Networking Cellular Networking Satellite Station Networking Packet-Radio Networking Packets are sent via a satellite. and only the destination device can receive and read the packet.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 110 .

RJ-45. Laser. Twisted Pair. Wireless networking is the trend of the future. it is important to understand the concepts associated with wireless networks. The four basic wireless types are: Infrared. receives. This device is called the network interface card (NIC) and provides the physical connection to the network. and controls data flow over the network. Finally. we took a look at the future. As a network professional. The networking professional also must know the maximum segment lengths for each cable type.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Summary The first part of this chapter covers the various aspects of network media or cables. Fiber-Optic cable uses pulses of light to carry signals. Coaxial comes in two types: Thinnet and Thicknet. transmits. 111 . Radio. As a networking professional. etc. and Fiber-Optic. After looking at network cabling we took a look at the hardware that acts as the intermediary between the cabling and the computer itself. it is important for you to be able to configure the network card for optimum performance. Twisted Pair can be Unshielded (UTP) or Shielded (STP). AUI. It prepares. The networking professional must know the types of connectors used for each cable type: BNC. and Microwave. There are three primary types of cabling: Coaxial.

Keyword Analog Signals AWG Bandwidth Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband BNC Connector Boot Prom Broadband Buffer Cellular Networking Clocking Coaxial Cable Digital Signals DMA (Direct Memory Channel) EISA Bus Fiber-Optic Cable Full-Duplex Half-Duplex IRQ ISA Bus Laser Transmissions 112 Definition . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals Keyword MCA Bus Microwave Transmissions Narrow-Band Radio Network Adapter Card Network Interface Card PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Plenum Reflective Infrared Ring Speed RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio Spread-Spectrum Radio Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Transceiver Unshielded Twisted Pair Definition 113 .

What is the purpose of a transceiver? 5. How is a vampire tap connected? 6. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? 9. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 8. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 3. What is the most expensive cable type? 13. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 4 1. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 2. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? 7. What is the most popular of the cable types? 10. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? 12. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? 11. What is the least expensive of the cable types? 114 .

18. and full-duplex communication? 19. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? 24. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? 25. Describe broadband. 15. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? 21. Describe baseband. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? 26.Chapter 4 – Hardware Media and Peripherals 14. what are the two ring speeds available? 22. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? 115 . What is the difference between simplex. What is the function of a network adapter card? 20. half-duplex. 17. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? 23. What does AWG stand for and what is it? 16. In Token Ring networks. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 116 .

in this case. IPX/SPX IBM’s Systems Network Architecture. you saw how each layer of the OSI Model has different protocols that define how the information travels. You will develop an understanding of Ethernet networks and the IEEE standards for Ethernet. thus. In Chapter 3. are still important technologies that the networking professional needs to comprehend. AppleTalk and ARCNet networks are also included in this chapter. AppleTalk and ARCNet architecture. as well as how Token-ring networks function. they do not map directly to the OSI Model. You will also know how Token Ring networks function and what hardware is required to make them function. You will also understand how networks send data and what information is included in the frames that are transmitted across the network medium. The way these protocols interact is called a protocol stack. we laid the groundwork for understanding networking and we looked at the different networking topologies and cabling options. In this chapter. over a network. SNA Digital’s DECnet Apple’s AppleTalk The OSI Model was created at a later date than some of the aforementioned protocols. Protocols function at three basic levels: • • Application protocols provide support for application-to-application interaction and data exchange. or frames. After completing this chapter. A protocol is a language that computers use to communicate with other computers. Access methods used by various network protocols will also be discussed. along with the way data is transmitted over a network in packets. you will have a working knowledge of the different network architectures and the access methods that they use. we will discover how Ethernet works. Ethernet is one of the most popular networking architectures. while not as popular as Ethernet. Transport protocols ensure that data is sent to the correct destination without errors. The following main protocol stacks are the most important: • • • • • Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP Novell NetWare’s Protocol Suite. 117 .Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards In previous chapters. This chapter explores the various protocols used in network communication.

In some instances. handle addressing. The rules for determining how a computer may send or receive data on the network is called the access method. If it “senses” (carriersense) that the cable is free. the data may collide and be destroyed (or partially destroyed). This is because computers on the network compete with each other for the chance to transmit data on the cable. The access method that a system uses is designed to prevent simultaneous sending of data along the cable. segments are not able to sense collisions beyond that distance.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide • Network protocols route information. however. While there is data traveling on the cable. Due to attenuation. Occasionally. There are three primary access methods: • • CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) or CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Token Passing • Demand Priority CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) CSMA/CD is known as a contention method. The access method organizes the sending and receiving of data. This sounds time-consuming. Network protocols also set the standard for communicating in different network environments. With CSMA/CD each computer on the network checks the network cable for traffic. in order for it to be used with a network computer. 118 . This will ensure that a dominant access method being used by one computer doesn’t override access to the cable causing the network to fail. two protocols may be bound to one card. it will send data. All computers on the network need to utilize the same access method in order to be consistent in the way that the data is handled. also known as the network interface card (NIC). two computers will transmit data at the same time and the data will collide. no computer will transmit data. The order in which the operating system will use the protocol is determined by the order in which the protocols are bound to the NIC. Access Methods In a network. If two or more computers were to send data at the same time. The Collision Detection aspect of CSMA/CD causes the two computers to stop transmitting and then attempt to retransmit after a specified period of time. and check for errors. multiple computers are contending with each other for access to the network media. There is a distance limitation of about 2500 meters with the Collision Detection capability. A protocol must be bound to the network adapter card. but in actuality this all happens fast enough that users are usually unaware that they are using a contention access method. as in the case of TCP/IP or IPX/SPX.

Demand priority is more efficient than CSMA/CD because there is only traffic between the sending computer. router. It then adds some data to the token indicating that it received the data and releases the token back out onto the ring.) Demand Priority The demand priority access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN. hub. Because only one computer at a time may transmit. addresses. Greater network traffic can dramatically slow down the CSMA/CD access method. Data is transmitted in frames. If either the source (sending) or destination (receiving) computer detect errors in the data that was transmitted. it must wait until it possesses the token. It has been addressed in the IEEE 802. (Some recent versions of the Token Ring network have the capability to pass two tokens around the ring. the frame would be resent.12 standard and is based on the hubs and end-nodes being the two components that make up a 100VG-AnyLAN network. Token Passing The token passing access method is used on networks that utilize the ring topology. An end node in a 100VG-AnyLAN could be a computer. the more users who are connected to a network. The header information that is added to the token includes sending and receiving addressing information. CSMA/CA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) This access method is not as popular as CSMA/CD because the sending computer will transmit its intent to transmit before sending out data. A token is circulated (a token is a special type of packet) around the ring from computer to computer. The source computer takes the token and confirms that the data it transmitted was received. It will add additional header and trailer information to the token as well as the data that it wishes to transmit. The hub is responsible for verifying that all end-nodes. It then creates a new “free” token and releases it back out on the network to be used by any computer that needs to transmit. this is not a contention method and there are no data collisions. The hub manages network traffic by searching for requests to transmit from all the nodes connected to the network.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Naturally. A computer in a Token Ring network must possess a token in order to transmit. Sending out messages that it is about to transmit increases network traffic and slows down network performance. A computer that is waiting to transmit will take control of a free token. If a computer needs to transmit data on the network. When the computer is ready. The trailer includes error control information. the denser network traffic becomes. The destination computer grabs the token and receives the data. instead of broadcasts over the 119 . switch. or bridge. the token is released back out onto the network and continues around the ring until it reaches the destination computer. and links are functioning. The token continues around the ring until it arrives back at the source computer. and destination computer.

If the two transmissions have the same priority level. which enables quartet signaling) computers can send and receive at the same time. but it is possible to configure so that certain types of data receive priority when there is contention. Contention can occur with demand priority if two computers transmit at exactly the same time.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide entire network. (four pairs of wires are used. they are serviced at the same time by alternating between the requests. Because of the cabling method used with this access method. If the hub receives two transmissions simultaneously. the one with the highest priority is serviced first. 120 .

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards

Network Communications (Frames and Packets)
As we’ve discussed previously, data needs to be processed into a form that can be transmitted across a network medium. Data files tend to be quite large, and if they were sent out onto the network medium in this form they would overload the network cabling and slow the network dramatically. Another reason for not transmitting data in such large chunks is error detection. Data is broken down into small chunks called frames or packets. (The terms frames and packets are often used interchangeably, but we will use the term packets.) Data is converted to packets in order for it to be moved across the network medium more quickly. Also, if there is a transmission error, only a small portion of the data is affected (and needs to be re-transmitted). The destination computer receives the packets and reassembles them in the correct order to translate it back into the original message. The sending computer breaks the data into packets and adds information to each packet in order to make it possible for the receiving computer to reassemble them in the correct order. This information allows for error checking after the data has been reassembled. Packet Structure Packets may contain: • • • Files, information, or messages. Computer control data such as service requests and commands. Session control codes to indicate the need of a retransmission.

All packets contain: • • • • • • The source address of the sending computer. Instructions for the network indicating how to transmit the data. Instructions that tell the receiving computer how to reassemble the data. The data to be transmitted. The destination address of the receiving computer. Error checking information such as Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) information.

Packet Components Headers Headers are attached to each packet. The header contains information such as an alert signal to announce that a packet is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses, and clocking information. 121

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Data This part of the packet contains the actual data that is to be transmitted. Depending upon the network, packets can be various sizes, usually from 512 bytes to 4Kilobytes. Most files are much larger than this so many packets will be made up to complete the transmission. Trailer The information in the trailer can vary depending upon the communication method or protocol used in a network. Usually, the trailer contains the error checking information. CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and attached to the packet. When the packets are reassembled at the destination computer, the calculation is run again. If the results are the same, the computer assumes that the packets all arrived intact. If there is a discrepancy, the CRC asks the source computer to retransmit.

A Packet

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Network Standards
Network standards can best be described as the physical and functional characteristic of a network. Protocols that are used with the OSI model define the rules of communication. The standards define the means of communications. For example, in a railroad, data (in this case passengers and freight) are moved in various cars. There are rules or protocols that govern how the cars are loaded and the origination and destination points. However, it is the rails and switches that govern the actual movement of the trains (data). These provide the standards for the railroads. Not all railroads are the same (some are electric, some are diesel, some are wide gauge, and some are narrow gauge), but all railroads that are built to the same standards can exchange cars (data). In this section, we are going to look at different standards for networks. Standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model. Logical Link Control (802.2) the Logical Link Control layer, as addressed previously, is one of two sublayers of the Data-Link layer and is concerned with managing traffic over the physical medium. The LLC has the ability to track acknowledgements, but its primary function is maintaining the network link by identifying a line protocol, like NetBIOS (Windows) or NetWare (Novell). Ethernet (802.3) Ethernet is a non-propriety network architecture that was originally developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs. The original version was a 2.94 Mbps network system that would connect over 100 computers on a one-kilometer cable. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard and is a method for computers and data systems to connect over shared cabling. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology (10BaseT and 100BaseT use the star topology and 10Base2 and 10Base5 use a bus topology), and typically transmits at 10 Mbps. It is a baseband system and utilizes the CSMA/CD access method. It is probably the most popular network architecture used today. It can be installed with Thinnet coaxial (10Base2), Thicknet coaxial (10Base5), or Twisted Pair cable (10BaseT and 100BaseT). There are a number of Ethernet IEEE standards. The following are the four that transmit at 10 Mbps: • • • • 10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseFL

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Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 10BaseT (Twisted Pair) The “10” in 10BaseT indicates that it transmits at 10 Mbps. The “Base” indicates that it uses Baseband technology (single channel). And the “T” indicates that it uses Twisted Pair cabling. While 10BaseT can and does work with STP cabling, it is most commonly created with UTP cable. 10BaseT has a maximum segment length of 100 meters (Twisted Pair wiring maximum segment length) and it is connected using RJ-45 connectors. If the segment must exceed this limitation, repeaters can be used for longer distances. The maximum number of nodes per network is 1024 and the minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseT uses the star topology. 10Base2 (Thinnet) 10Base2 uses Thinnet (coaxial) cable with BNC connectors in a Bus topology. As its name implies, it transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The “2” stands for 2 times 100 meters, indicating its maximum segment length. The actual maximum segment length, however, is 185 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 30. The maximum number of segments containing nodes per network is 3. (There may be five segments but only three may be populated.) This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 90. The minimum distance between nodes is .5 meters. 10Base5 (Thicknet) 10Base5 uses Thicknet (coaxial) cable, BNC connectors and a transceiver. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology in a bus topology. The “5” stands for 5 times 100 meters, meaning 10Base5 has a maximum segment length of 500 meters. The maximum number of nodes per segment is 100 in a 10Base5 system, and the maximum number of segments is 5 with 3 being populated. This makes the maximum number of nodes per network 100. The minimum distance between nodes is 2.5 meters. 10BaseFL (Fiber Optic) 10BaseFL is the specification for running Ethernet over fiber-optic cable. It transmits at 10 Mbps using baseband technology. The main use for this specification is for long cable runs. The maximum segment length for 10BaseFL is 2000 meters. 100 Mbps IEEE Ethernet Standards The IEEE committee has introduced new specifications for 100 Mbps Ethernet standards that can meet the demands of today’s high-bandwidth applications. These applications include video, document and image storage, and computer aided design, to name a few. The two Ethernet standards for 100 Mbps are: • • 100BaseVG-AnyLAN Ethernet 100BaseX Ethernet (Fast Ethernet)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 100VG-AnyLAN In 100VG-AnyLAN the VG stands for Voice Grade. It is known by at least four names: 100VG-AnyLAN, 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. When you see any of these terms, they are referring to the same thing. The IEEE specification 802.12 is the standard that defines this technology. It is basically a way of transmitting Ethernet frames and Token Ring packets. This uses a star topology over fiber-optic and Category 4 and 5 twisted pair cable at a data transmission rate of 100 Mbps. It can support the demand priority access method as well as an option for filtering address frames at the hub for added privacy. 100BaseVG requires its own hub and cards, and the longest cable length is 250 meters. (It can be extended longer but it requires special equipment.) 100BaseX (“Fast Ethernet”) Fast Ethernet (as 100BaseX is sometimes called) is simply an extension to the existing Ethernet 10Base Ethernet standard. It uses Category 5 twisted pair cable or fiber-optic cable in a Star Bus topology, using the CSMA/CD access method. There are three different specifications: 100BaseT4 (this uses UTP four-pair Category 5) 100BaseTX (this uses UTP or STP two-pair Category 5) 100BaseFX (this uses two-strand fiber-optic) As you know, the 100 means that it transmits at 100 Mbps and the Base means it uses baseband technology. The T4 means that it uses four-pair twisted pair cable, the TX means it uses two-pair twisted pair cable, and the FX means fiber-optic cable is used. Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), and provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). Gigabit Ethernet is currently being used as the backbone in many larger networks. Because of its intense speed, Gigabit Ethernet is carried primarily on fiber optic cable, although copper can be used with much shorter distances. ATM competes, to some degree, with Gigabit Ethernet, but that will be referred to later in this book. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is also on the horizon.

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It also works in the UNIX environment. 127 . by joining with either a router or a bridge. It is also compatible with operating systems such as: • • • • • • • • • Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows 98 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups Microsoft LAN Manager IBM LAN Server AppleShare Novell NetWare Ethernet networks may be segmented in order to improve performance.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Other Ethernet Considerations Many communication protocols are compatible with Ethernet including TCP/IP.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Token Ring (802. Data collisions are avoided because only one computer is transmitting at a time and no other computer is allowed to transmit unless it possesses the token (which won’t be released until the previous computer is finished). This is so that no other network computer will try to possess it to transmit data. IBM introduced Token Ring around 1984. It is not as popular as Ethernet. While the token is in use by a computer to send data. Like Ethernet. The token is actually a stream of data that allows a computer to transmit data on the cable. The Token Ring access method. The physical ring is in the hub and the logical ring represents the data’s path between the nodes. and it has a transmission speed of 4 or 16 Mbps. it uses the baseband technology. A computer cannot transmit data in a Token Ring environment unless it possesses the token.5 standard. The data frame is a different type of frame than the token. How it Works Basically. and 3). This token will travel around the ring until a computer signals that it needs to send data. more than the cable design. Frame Control The information here determines whether the frame is being transmitted to all computers on the network or one specific “end station” computer. the network creates a token when the first computer comes online. Each computer on the network acts as a repeater and regenerates the signal as the token/data frame passes through it. is what sets Token Ring apart. 2. Access Control This sets the frame priority and is also where it is encoded to let the network computers know whether the frame is a token or a data frame.5) The Token Ring architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. The name Token Ring implies that the physical layout is that of a ring. primarily in IBM mini and mainframe systems. The sending computer encodes the data frame with information such as: Start Delimiter This marks the start of the frame. The computer that wants to transmit takes possession of the token. Destination Address This is the address of the receiving computer. it is known as a data frame. 128 . but is still used today. Actually. The cable used is STP and UTP (IBM types 1. it is a star ring with each node connected to a central hub.

The network will then attempt to diagnose and repair the problem without disrupting the entire network. Message This is the data or file to be transmitted. This computer. Assuming that the frame acknowledges that the transmission was successful. the active monitor performs a process known as beaconing.5 standards say it travels clockwise. Or. The IEEE 802. while IBM says counter-clockwise. 129 . Whether it travels clockwise or counter-clockwise is a matter of convention. The beacon is passed from node to node around the ring.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Source Address This is the address of the sending computer. the old frame is removed and the computer creates a new token and releases it back out onto the ring. if there were errors. Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) This is information for error detection. Beaconing In a Token Ring environment. as well as its own address. This signal contains the address of its upstream neighbor. has the responsibility of making sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. Every seven seconds the active monitor will send out a beacon. the Token Ring network initializes it so that it may join the ring. Note: Data travels in only one direction on a Token Ring network. The frame is then released back out onto the cable where it travels back to the sending computer. the first computer to come online is assigned to monitor network activity. As each new computer comes online. it would indicate that the data needed to be retransmitted. The active monitor investigates any frames that have traveled the ring more than once and ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at any one time. After encoding the data frame. the sending computer releases it out onto the network where it travels around the ring until it reaches the destination address. It then encodes the frame with information indicating that it received the data and there were no errors detected. The receiving computer copies the data into its buffer. Its address is checked to confirm that there are no duplicate addresses on the network and the other computers on the ring are notified of the new computer’s active status. To accomplish this task. If a computer doesn’t receive a beacon when expected. it will notify the monitor that it didn’t receive an expected signal. called the active monitor.

IBM states that it is only 46 meters. Media filters convert cable connectors between the adapter card and the telephone jack (RJ-45/RJ-11) and reduce line noise. The maximum distance between two MAUs is 152 meters. the failure of one computer will bring down the rest of the network. but some vendors state that it is as much as 152 meters. Type 3 cable is connected with RJ-45 (8-pin) connectors if using four-pair or RJ-11 (4-pin) if using two-pair. Token Ring Cabling STP or UTP is used to connect each node to the hub. it is only about 45 meters. Using the RJ connectors allows for one cable run to connect both data and telephone equipment. just as in other networks that use a hub. as there are no male and female ends. Most Token Ring networks use IBM Type 3 UTP cabling. Token Ring Patch Cables IBM Type 6 cable is used for patch cables in a Token Ring network. such as: • • • MAU (Multistation Access Unit) MSAU (Multistation Access Unit) SMAU (Smart Multistation Access Unit) A Token Ring network can be expanded to have as many as 33 hubs. The minimum distance using either STP or UTP is 2.5 meters. Using STP. each ring can connect up to 260 computers. Each node is connected to the hub via a cable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Multistation Access Unit (The Hub) The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub. Token Ring Connectors Token Ring networks use MIC (Media Interface Connectors) connectors for Type 1 and Type 2 cable. There is some contention as to the maximum distance from the computer to the hub using Type 3 cable. Type 6 130 . the internal ring converts to an external ring at each connection point. These patch cables extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Type 1 has a maximum distance from the computer to the hub of 101 meters. This is known as a hermaphroditic connector. The faulty node is then disconnected from the ring so as not to affect the rest of the network. When a computer is connected. The Type 6 cable has a maximum distance of 46 meters between the computer and the hub. MAUs can sense when one of the connected computers fails. This hub is known by a few names. Using STP. the maximum distance from the computer to the hub is 100 meters. Using UTP. In a pure token passing environment. Using UTP. but types 1 and 2 may also be used. each ring can connect up to 72 computers. Instead the connectors can be flipped over to connect to one another.

Token Ring Repeaters Just as in other network environments. Although it is not nearly as popular as the Ethernet or Token Ring architectures. 131 . care must be taken that all cards on the network are compatible. A 16 Mbps card can slow to 4 Mbps. but a 4 Mbps card cannot speed up to 16 Mbps. Therefore. thereby decreasing the number of transmissions needed for data transfers. AppleTalk AppleTalk is the network architecture used in a Macintosh environment. AppleTalk is included with the Macintosh operating system software. therefore network capabilities are built into all Macintosh computers. Token Ring Fiber-Optic Using fiber-optic cabling in a Token Ring network can increase the range up to ten times that of copper. Patch panels are used to organize patch cables. Token ring cable lengths may be increased by using repeaters. Token Ring Adapter Cards A Token Ring has two transmission speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards may also be used to increase the length of Type 3 cable or for connecting computers directly to the hub. hubs may be up to 730 meters apart with Type 1 or Type 2 cable and up to 365 meters apart using Type 3 cable. Using a pair of repeaters. The 16 Mbps card allows for a larger frame length. it is still an environment that you may be dealing with as a networking professional. Token ring networks are well suited to fiber-optic cable. All cards on the network need to be set at the same speed.

A zone is a named Subnetwork that users may access simply by selecting it.5 Standard) environment. Digital Equipment Corporation’s VAX™ computers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. Since Macintosh builds-in the hardware for LocalTalk in every computer. AppleTalk can be used by non-Macintosh computers such as IBM compatible computers. AppleShare also provides a print server. it is very inexpensive to initiate. The client software for AppleShare is also included in the Apple operating system. or Fiber-Optic cable in a Bus topology. mainframe computers. EtherTalk EtherTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC. it will store it to use each time it goes online. It will then broadcast the chosen address to determine if any other computer online is using the address. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks such as Token Rings. UTP. 132 . When a computer goes online in a LocalTalk network. The TokenTalk NB card is used to attach to a Token Ring network. As such. the device assigns itself an address. AppleShare The file server on an AppleTalk network is called AppleShare. This is useful for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. EtherTalk may be implemented on Thinnet or Thicknet coaxial cable. This address is chosen at random from a range of available addresses. LocalTalk LocalTalk uses STP. by using zones. Apple has always been open to third-party development. Zones LocalTalk networks may be joined together using zones. so it is not used as often as Ethernet or Token Ring. and even some UNIX computers. LocalTalk performance is rather limited. TokenTalk TokenTalk is simply a way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802. If it is not being used by another computer. It uses the CSMA/CD access method and can connect a maximum of 32 devices.

the token is passed in numerical order. ARCNet can use twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling. It is a simple and inexpensive network architecture that may use a Bus or Star Bus topology. If computer #1 is at one end of the network and Computer #2 is at the other. a token is needed in order for a computer to transmit data. 133 . These hubs may be passive. the maximum cable distance is 244 meters. but it can be adequately charted to the 802. ARCNet was developed before the IEEE 802 specifications. the source address and up to 508 bytes of data.4 standards (Token Bus LAN).Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards ARCNet ( Attached Resource Computer Network) In 1977 Datapoint Corporation developed the ARCNet technology. or smart. Just like other token-passing access method architectures. A later version. This distance drops to only 305 meters if using the Bus topology. ARCNet transmits data in packets. but is normally installed using RG-62 A/U coaxial cable. If using either the Star or Bus topology with UTP and RJ-45 or RJ-11 connectors. the maximum cable distance between the computer and the hub is 610 meters. Obviously.5 Mbps. These packets contain the destination address. It uses a token-passing access method that transmits at 2. If using an active hub in a Star topology. has a data transmission rate of 20 Mbps. the token still passes in numerical order. active. this can really slow a network down if the computers are not in order. with coaxial cable and BNC connectors. ARCNet utilizes hubs. called ARCNet Plus. Instead of the token traveling around a ring. The ARCNet Plus architecture can hold up to 4096 bytes of data.

Interference can be lessened by their ability to function in their own band (in the GHz range. The capacity to use wireless technology is there for large-scale deployments as well.11) IEEE 802. 134 . Speeds up to 144 Mbps will be available within wireless networks (LANs to be more specific).11 is the latest generation of enterprise-class wireless LAN technology.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Wireless (802. Wireless technology is discussed in further detail in chapter four. generally).

but as a networking professional you will encounter them. and clocking information. Therefore. Be sure to complete the following exercises and review questions. etc. The 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet architectures will be even more prevalent in the future. as well as the different cabling schemes and cable distances.3 standards. If you are having trouble with any of these concepts. it is still a common architecture and is said to be increasing its market share by as much as 20% per year. Be sure that you understand how this architecture works. 10Base5. It is important for the networking professional to understand the characteristics of each access method. It is extremely important that you understand the different cabling schemes and their connectors as well as the maximum segment lengths for all of these different architectures. Packets will include information to identify the source address. go back and review the chapter again. Packets consist of three components: the Header. which is where the error checking calculation is located. the source and destination addresses. As a networking professional you will encounter this type of network most often. the Data. Most packets also include error checking or CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) methods to check the reliability of the packets received. and 10BaseT. which includes an alert signal that a computer is transmitting. 135 . The popular Ethernet architecture is defined in the IEEE 802. it is important that you are knowledgeable about the different types of Ethernet such as 10Base2. and the access method (such as CSMA/CD. Data is sent out on the network in smaller chunks of data called packets (or frames). Managing network data is all about traffic control. It is important that you understand their specifications and access methods as well. destination address and the actual data that is being transmitted. Token Passing and Demand Priority) is the governor of how traffic is controlled on a network. and the Trailer.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Summary This has been another information intensive chapter and we covered a lot of information on the different networking architectures. Although Token Ring is not as popular as Ethernet. CSMA/CA. AppleTalk and ARCNet architectures may be used less than Ethernet or Token Ring. If it were sent out in one continuous stream it would quickly bring network traffic to a halt due to the large size of the data.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Access Method AppleShare AppleTalk ARCNet Beaconing CRC CSMA/CA CSMA/CD Demand Priority Ethernet EtherTalk Frames Header Hub LocalTalk Multistation Access Unit Packets Patch Cable Smart Multistation Access Unit Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk 136 Definition .

Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards Keyword Trailer Zones Definition 137 .

What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? 10.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 5 1. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? 4. 3. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? 8. What are the three primary access methods? 2. 5. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? 12. Describe how data is transmitted in the Token Ring architecture. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 11. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? 6. CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. How is data transmitted over the network cable? 7. What sort of information do packet headers contain? 9. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? 138 .

What is a SMAU? 21.Chapter 5 – Network Protocols & Standards 13. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? 18. What is the purpose of AppleShare? 24. What type of access method does an ARCNet network utilize? 25. 22. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? 20. Describe a MIC connector. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? 16. 19. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 14. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? 23. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 15. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 17. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? 139 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 140 .

This is well and good if you are designing a network for your own use. for example. However. Then we will study in more detail network adapter cards. this is a Macintosh-based company. (demographics). you need to approach the project as if it were for someone else. The customer’s likes. For most of us this will be a rare event since most companies already have a network and are working with expanding or increasing the performance of what they already have. (If not. and goals. This is especially true if you will be maintaining or upgrading this network in the future. We will start by looking at what it takes to layout a network from scratch. etc. You could design the best high-speed low-cost Windows system that was ever imagined. The Customer Obtaining a clear understanding of your customer and their needs is essential when designing a network. Most importantly. whoever is assigned the upgrade project will be forever in debt to you. rather than a client’s. we will consider hardware compatibility. 141 . who has them. etc? If. pay attention to details. how they are installed and how to troubleshoot them. Even if this network is your own. your design will not work for them. you are not designing for yourself. Starting a Network Project A unique opportunity for any network professional is to design a network from beginning to end. Finally. are there any printers or scanners. This will give you the discipline to ask yourself the right questions and to begin the process of documentation. but if your customer is a Macintosh user. The facility – how big is the building(s) and what is the layout of the various offices? Current level of technology – how many computers do they have. dislikes. in many cases. As a network professional. Hardware compatibility is a major consideration in network design and is often the source of troubles when expanding or upgrading networks.Chapter 6 – Network Design Chapter 6 – Network Design In this chapter we are going to put to use many of the terms and concepts that we studied in earlier chapters of this training guide. The most important aspect of creating a new network is to document everything that you do. The following is some suggested information that you should gather about your customer: The basics – name. The product – this is very important as a graphic arts client will have different needs than an engineering firm or a law office. address. you certainly don’t want to design a network around Windows. There are two things that you will need to know.) The place to start a new network is with a pad of paper and a pencil or two. you will have a lot of knowledge and expertise with networks. The size of the company and the portion of the network affected.

or will it meet the requirements of the latest technology? How much traffic do you anticipate now and in the future? A business office moving 1000 documents and spreadsheets across a network will generate far less traffic than a graphic arts or engineering office moving 1000 large imaging files. Once you collect this information. Your document should include a summary of all the information you collected. You will need this information as you make decisions in the next few steps. the same 1000 documents could be as little as 30 MB. There are many intermediate drawing packages that are available. etc. With this information in hand. only documenting the facility and the requirements of the network. or as complex and as expensive as AutoCAD. Is an Internet connection needed now or in the future? Will it be for all users or just a select few? What additional services will the network need to provide? Sharing of resources. or as much as 8 MB for the same image scanned (black and white) at 300 dpi uncompressed (even more if color or grayscale). if the file is compressed. A good intermediate program is Visio 2002. This program provides simple templates for both facilities and network components. or as large as 8 GB. you are now ready to begin the designing of the network. you are not documenting your network. For example. Remember. The following are some questions to consider: Will this be a simple LAN or a complex WAN with Internet and remote users? What are the future needs? Is this network to start small and expand later. files services. So. a textonly MS Word file will be approximately 30 KB of data while a single page image file will average 50 KB. This can be a simple program like Microsoft Paint.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The Network Goals In addition to the customer’s needs. 142 . You may want to consider using a drawing program to create a layout of the facility. at this time. This can be done using any word processor or spreadsheet program. prepare a design document. you must get a clear definition of goals of the network. print services.

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all computers are equal. they do not require a high-power computer with lots of speed and processing power. Keep in mind that you may not be able to mix two different operating systems without additional software or upgrading to a client/server network. The commitment of management and users. They can provide services to the network and use services provided by others. The first is the type of network you will be designing. You will need to take careful consideration of the information collected in the first step to assist you with this decision. if a colleague has a color printer and you don’t. This means that every 144 . The decision that you make at this time will have an affect on the hardware and software choices that you make in the future.” That is. This sharing is on a directory level. Most personal computers today will have more than enough power to successfully operate in a peer-to-peer environment. Peer-to-peer networks are economical to setup and implement. Peerto-peer networks do provide some security in the form of allowing you to select what you want to share to the network. In a peer-to-peer network. The following lists the information that you will need in order to choose your network type. The level of security required. may cause problems in the future. you can share it to the network and anyone who has access to the network can send work to it. As long as you have the original software disk (CD). The most prominent are simplicity and cost. Also. Likewise. This can range from none to very high. First. You may need to install the software. not all nodes may need the same level of security. you will need to start making some decisions. if you have a printer connected to your computer. Are they committed to the change or are they going to resist the change? When to Choose Peer-to-Peer There are many reasons why you would want to choose peer-to-peer. If you do not have this information or need more details. but most operating systems like Windows 95 and up and Macintosh OS X are “network ready. you will have no problem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Determine Network Type Once you collect all the information described above. as generally it is not installed during a standard installation. Here you will have two choices: peer-to-peer or client/server. For example. go back and get it. The wrong choice now. The type of business and how that will affect network traffic. The disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks are security and limited network size. You may have to add network cards and cabling. The number of nodes (computers and other resources) on the network. Are they able to handle a sophisticated network or must the network be transparent to them? The available budget (both now and in the future). Skill level of the network users. you can send work to it if you need color printing (assuming that they share the printer to the network). they include the necessary software and protocols for file and print sharing.

This centralized file system also makes for easy transfers of files throughout the company. if anyone is using a resource on your workstation. have high-power processor. a peer-to-peer network may be the perfect solution.Chapter 6 – Network Design file in the directory will be available to the network. but what is often overlooked is the cost to administer the network. you will also need to consider the disadvantages. For these people. all that is needed is one or two knowledgeable people to act as administrators. While there are many advantages. Another advantage of server-based networks is that the servers are never turned off. This means that if you need to use the color printer that is connected to the print server. You can connect more workstations. instead of backing up individual workstations. When to Choose Client/Server On a client/server network (also known as server-based networks). information can be made available to them through a RAS (Remote Access Server) connection. the general rule is that peer-to-peer networks should be limited to about 10 workstations. Last but not least. In a small network where everybody knows each other and security is not an issue. server-based networks are scaleable. 24-hours per day. administration can be a full-time job for one or more people and may even require the skills of a certified 145 . if employees need remote access. only a network administrator can create a user name and assign permissions to that user. Using a file server to maintain all of the company-wide files. In a peer-to-peer situation. they will also be using your processor to do their printing. slower processor and/or has limited memory (RAM). is another advantage of a server-based network. must less the workings of a network. any user can log on to a workstation (with a new name and password) and gain access to the network. The most prominent disadvantage is the cost to install and operate the network. Also. This means that one or more computers are designated as servers and provide the resources for the entire network. In small networks. Before you can use any resource. such as your printer. and expand as your needs expand. As for size. Most employees have little or no knowledge of the workings of computers. etc. In a strict peer-topeer network. a client with a limited budget may consider this type of network as a starting point or entry-level network. It is obvious that server-based networks will require better and higher-powered hardware. the network must operate transparent to them. you must have both the authorization to use the network and permission to use the resource. this will take part of their normal workday will be taken up to react to any problems and maintain existing accounts. The more sophisticated the network. These server-based networks provide a central database that manages access to all the resources as well as the network itself. all network resources are usually centralized. Also. In large networks. you will not need to worry if Mary is on vacation and her computer is turned off (since she is the only one in the company that has a color printer). This means that you can start small with one server and a few workstations. The result will be a slow-down of performance on your workstation. the performance of the network will be better than in a peer-to-peer network. This will be especially true if your workstation is using an older. Remember. In a server-based network. and lots of memory. but there will most likely be reductions in network performance as stations are added. Perhaps the most significant aspect of using server-based networks is security. the more knowledgeable the administrator needs to be. Since these computers are larger.

the answer will be very obvious. with open access to the global community. be sure to follow a disciplined procedure: Collect all your information. as long as the global community does not see them.0. get more.0 146 . If you are not sure you have enough information. Making the Choice Making that final decision is often difficult. Each network operating system supplier has their own certification program such as Microsoft’s MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) and Novell’s CNE (Certified Novell Engineer). which would limit its access to those outside of the company.0 172. When you are sitting on the fence. In some cases. let us define the difference between the terms public and private network. present each case to the client and let them make the final decision. If all else fails.168. A public network would be the Internet.0. Public and Private networks In addition. Once you have made this decision. This decision will be the basis for the rest of your network design. You can use certain IP addresses privately within your own intranet. A private network would be a corporate network or an Intranet. stick with it and move forward.16.0. Prepare a case (on paper) of the pros and cons of each.0. in others it could go either way. These “private” addresses cannot be used on the Internet: 10.0 192. since your organization will more than likely need access to the Internet and networks outside of their LAN.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide network professional.

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The following page shows an example of what an inventory sheet might look like. you must add new hardware. Also. The documenting of existing equipment includes two components: hardware and software. Use it as a starting place to build your own. The best approach is to make an inventory sheet for each piece of equipment. use this sheet to define your proposed new equipment. if you are creating a new network and have no inventory to work with. ask him or her to show you. That person is you! Be sure to take a small toolkit and a flashlight with you. On the other hand. if all or part of a network already exists. Feel free to use this as a starting place for developing your own customized form. Some of the information you need may be inside the machine and you will have to remove a case or two. don’t just simply ask someone what he or she has. this is a detailed inventory that requires someone that is knowledgeable in computers and networks. Network Equipment Inventory Sheet Item Number: ___________ Type of Equipment: o Computer o Printer o Telecommunication o Other If Other: _______________________________________ Location: Identification: Make: Model: Serial #: ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Computer: Processor (Type and Speed) RAM Hard Drive(s) Monitor Video Card Modem 148 . Remember. whether hardware or software. This form should identify the equipment and its specifications. you can skip this section. When taking this inventory. The following is an example of an inventory sheet.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Define the Starting Place If you are designing a network from the ground up and literally starting with a blank piece of paper. you will need to make a detailed inventory of the materials you already have. You may also want to take an inventory as part of your initial evaluation.

etc.) # of Free Slots Network Card ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Printer: Installed RAM Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Network Compliant (Yes/No) Peripheral: Type of Device Interface (Parallel or SCSI) Telecommunication: Describe the device and its function. Software: If this device uses software. describe each program. Name of Program:(Operating System) __________________ Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Name of Program: Version Number: Licensing Information: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 149 .Chapter 6 – Network Design Connected Peripherals Bus Type (ISA. PCI.

150 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide ____________________ Original Disk (CD) Available: ____________________ Use additional paper if necessary.

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and collect all of the documentation you have been working on. This might be a good time to start identifying each node with a name and number. make a drawing of the facility and each network node. it will make future documentation easier. By assigning them a number now. Start with the location of existing equipment (if any) then draw the location of the new equipment. or the software drawing program that you used to create the layout of the facility.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Design the Network At last we should have enough information to start designing our network. It is time to get out that pencil and paper. It is the most labor-intensive of all the processes and the most costly to replace. Using the inventory sheets and the objectives of the network. A Network Layout Media Selection Media selection is an aspect of installing a network that should not be taken lightly. The most important aspect of media selection is to be sure that the media you choose will meet the 152 .

Cable Grade – Local fire codes. 153 . (up to 2 kilometers – 6562 feet) choose fiber optics. The following are several other factors that must be considered before making your final choice: Topology – If you use a physical star topology. hub location is critical for determining cable lengths. if you are not sure if expansion is in your future. Environment – If all or part of the network is in a hostile environment (corrosive manufacturing) you should consider alternatives like fiber optics. 5-4-3 – If your installation is Ethernet. It may be more cost effective to purchase a large quantity of plenum grade rather than a mix of plenum and standard grade. it would be worthwhile to spend a little more now and install CAT 5 than to replace it in 2 to 3 years. a small network with only a few workstations sharing files and printing will probably work fine with CAT 3 UTP cables. may require that you install plenum grade cables for part or all of your installation. However. consider Thinnet coaxial cable. Noise – If all or part of the installation is located in an industrial environment (vibration and noise). In most environments this will be no problem. you will need to install CAT 5 UTP to be able to take advantage of its 100 Mbps speed. If you intend to use UTP or STP cables. Cable lengths must be considered. Therefore. However. These cables are inexpensive and if all computers are in the same proximity. you will need to remember that all cables must originate from the hub. repeaters and nodes. or just good common sense. a simple bus topology with each computer in a series will save on the budget (don’t forget to terminate each end). For example. and the run from the server room to the maintenance shop is 400 meters (1312 feet). you might consider CAT 3. Realistically. for long term use and eventual upgrade to 100 MHz. Cable Type – If your goal is to save money now and you don’t need a high-speed network. The 10 Mbps speed of this media will handle this workload without problems. where money is no object and security is critical or you have long distances to cover. you must make sure that the longest connection (computer to computer. CAT 5 is the UTP of choice. If economics are a major concern and you are designing a small LAN. if you are going to have hundreds of computers or transfer large quantities of large files. you will need Thicknet coaxial cables. On the high end. In addition. you may need to install fiber optics at least in that area. or uses lots of electrical or electronic equipment that generates EMI (electromagnetic interference) or RFI (Radio Frequency Interference).Chapter 6 – Network Design performance criteria of the network. such as in an imaging environment. It will cost a lot more to upgrade later. you must comply with requirements of the 5-4-3 rule for number of segments. or hub to computer) does not exceed 100 meters (328 feet). the cost of CAT 5 is not significantly more than CAT 3. but if this is a large facility.

it may not be prudent to recommend the change to Windows NT/2000. and RFI. If the customer has always used Novell NetWare and is satisfied with the performance. are usually what is found in the office environment where most networks are installed. However. such as a surge suppressor and an uninterruptible power supply. such as NetBEUI are simple and work well with peer-to-peer networks and small LANs. 154 . and should have a method to ensure that clean power is available. Constant temperatures of around 70° F. it will work. Fortunately. Most larger companies will have a dedicated room for their server (the Server room). which can cause corrosion. It is not strictly necessary to have a dedicated room for the equipment. The next choice is whether to use a routable or non-routable protocol. Note: Never place any electronic equipment directly in front of a space heater or other heat source. the same conditions that are good for people are often ideal for computers. Like us. low-humidity.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Environmental Concerns A major concern that is often overlooked when designing a network is the actual environment that the computers will be operating in. high-humidity. on the surface. and fluctuating line-voltages from the incoming power source. they are sensitive to temperature changes. which can generate damaging ESD. it doesn’t really matter. as this can cause premature failure of the equipment. As long as it is configured well and meets the needs of the customer. which is kept at the ideal temperature for the equipment. On the other hand. Therefore. but it is important that the room be well ventilated and climate controlled. These routable protocols are more difficult to configure. if you intend to work with a larger network or WAN. with a relative humidity of 30 percent. Most network operating systems today are robust and will operate transparent to the users. which requires the use of routers. The equipment should be shielded from ESD. you need a routable protocol such as TCP/IP. sometimes the customer will make the choice for you. NOS Selection Choosing the network operating system is a matter of user preference. Protocol Selection The most important issue with selecting a protocol is to use the same protocol throughout the network. and this is also the ultimate atmosphere for a computer. Less than ideal conditions will also decrease the life expectancy of your equipment. The non-routable protocols. Variable temperatures. EMI. can all cause a computer to fail or behave erratically. but are not limited.

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if using CAT 3 or CAT 5. 156 . is that you do not have to install a computer on every outlet. The next step will be a patch cable that runs between the network adapter card and the outlet. The type of outlet will depend on the type of cable. This way. To keep these organized. Each cable is in turn connected to one of the outlets and a patch cable is then used to connect it to the hub. This is just a strip of RG-45 connectors.” This is a centrally located room or closet that will house the primary server and hub. In most cases.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Putting it all together Installing the media is a task that is often best left to someone who specializes in cable installation. So let’s assume that you or your specialist has run all the cables. All the cables will be brought to one location. One advantage of using CAT 3 or CAT 5 cable in a star topology from a hub. you can install future or optional locations in preparation for expanding. you will most likely need to install a wall outlet. it will be a wall plate with an RJ-45 outlet. There are a few more components that need to be installed. Connecting to a computer Cable to Hub The connection of the cables to the hub will usually take place in the “server room. Cable to Computer Depending on the selection of cable. the cables are connected to a patch panel. This way you can identify each location. Make sure that either you or the specialist marks each cable at both ends. The hub will know that the cable is not connected and will simply ignore it. These outlets will make for a nice and neat installation and will make the room ready to connect a computer to the network. One thing to remember about these patch cables is that their length must be considered as part of the overall length of the cable.

Therefore you must know the requirements of each. Because it must connect to both the computer and the media. Once that is done. That part is the network adapter card. there is one more part of the Physical layer that must be installed.Chapter 6 – Network Design Connecting to a Hub Network Adapter Cards Installing the cabling for a network is literally installing the Physical layer of the network. Actually. we must select a card that is compatible with both. there are three things to consider: • • • Network Compatibility Media Compatibility Computer Compatibility Connecting to a NIC 157 . This card is a circuit board with all the electronic circuitry and components necessary to physically connect to the computer and the media.

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This section will look at compatibility issues. Therefore. On one side of the circuit card are a group of gold “fingers” that fit into the slot to provide the electrical connection. Some network cards provide diagnostic lights. There are four types of cards that you will encounter (ISA. The actual connection between the card and the bus is called an expansion slot because of the way the cards are installed. Resolving these issues is actually quite simple. and expansion projects. If you are installing a Token Ring network. Building across-theboard compatibility for hardware and software at the design stage will simplify future maintenance and troubleshooting. The different types of cards are designated by the orientation and number of these connections. so you will have to check the documentation to be sure of their meaning. Not all cards are the same. The adapter card (NIC) must be able to communicate on the network using the same standards and protocols as the other components. but only at 10 Mbps. a 10 Mbps card (10BaseT) will work on a 100 Mbps network (100BaseTX). or three) that indicate the status of the card. In general. Adapter Card Compatibility A network card acts as the interface between the computer and the network. Laptops generally use PCMCIA cards. When installing an Ethernet network. Network cards are designed to meet the standards of the bus. An Ethernet card simply won’t work on a Token Ring network. Before purchasing a network card. administration. you must have Token Ring cards. The best way to find out is to remove the case and look. but requires some knowledge of the inside workings of a computer. The processor (CPU) in a computer will communicate with the expansion cards through the expansion bus. and PCI). the number of connectors and the speed at which data can be moved will change. two. Also. These are little LEDs (one. Micro Channel. a green light indicates that a proper network connection exists and a flashing yellow light 159 . there are compatibility issues on both sides of the interface. but only at 10 Mbps. but in the long run this will add significantly to the cost and time requirements of maintenance. which can be a useful tool. EISA. Depending on the vintage of the computer. Making incompatible components work together is possible in most instances. In addition to being compatible with the network. the card must be compatible with the computer. you will have to know the type of expansion slots used in the computer and whether or not there are any free slots.Chapter 6 – Network Design Network and Hardware Compatibility Network compatibility is a key consideration in network design. the speed of the card is important. Note: Laptops and proprietary computers will have special cards designed to fit their architecture. This bus is a group of parallel conductors that carry digital information to and from the CPU to all parts of the computer. Card to Network Network adapter card compatibility is simple. Some of the newer 100BaseTX cards will work on a 10BaseT network.

Install the appropriate drivers for the card. The details of installation will vary depending on the type of computer and the operating system installed. You need to configure the card to work with your network software. you can usually download them from the manufacturer’s web site. it only means that the proper connection has been established between the card and the network. Media Compatibility Media compatibility is the ability of the cabling to physically connect to the card. Now the network adapter card is installed. Finally. but you are not finished yet. Each card must be configured for a different network. Card and Computer Installing a network adapter card is not any different than installing any other expansion card in a computer. you may need to download a new driver in order to make it work or to increase its performance. You still need to bind the card to the network protocols that you are going to use. In most cases with a new card. the computer may not boot. Drivers are usually supplied with the network card. Understanding the installation process is the key to preventing conflicts. you may still have to manually set some jumpers or switches. this will be done with the installation software or by the operating system. be sure that no other device has already been assigned the IRQ or I/O address. If there are any conflicts. Note: Many computers that are designated as servers or gateways can have more than one network card installed. For 160 . you will need to check the documentation for the network operating system that you are using. the card should have an RJ-45 connector. Connect the network cabling. Many operating systems already include drivers for most network cards. For Thinnet or Thicknet. Note: If you must remove the case. the card must have a coaxial BNC connector. In addition.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide indicates that data is being transferred. Some STP cards require special connectors. Configure the IRQ and I/O address. If you don’t have the driver or want to make sure that you have the latest driver. be sure to follow ESD (electro-static discharge) procedures. Hint: you may not want to put the case back on until you have confirmed that the card is working. the following is a generic procedure that defines the key points that you must follow: Purchase the card. Physically install the card. Since describing the installation of a network adapter card for every system is beyond the scope of this training course. Remove the case and install it into a free expansion slot. Keep in mind that a green light does not mean that the computer is properly configured and you can use the network. If you must do this manually. In the case of UTP. First ensure that it is compatible with your system (network and computer). If your system is not Plug-n-Play. if you upgrade your operating system.

the graphics arts department may be Macintosh-based. A typical problem encountered with highly departmentalized companies is that each department has its own preferences. and possibly three. Many growing companies purchase their computers only as needed and will select the best buy of the day. The bottom line is to be sure to look before you buy. If you encounter this type of situation. While this makes good sense to the accounting department. However. as some individuals will not want to change their way of doing things just to have a network. the engineering department may be PC-based. You may have to connect some older “legacy” hardware with some new high-speed high-tech machines. the decision may end up with the company’s management and you will have to work with it. different connectors allowing for multiple installation scenarios. Computer Compatibility Computer compatibility is often a serious problem encountered when installing a network in an existing facility. These types of problems can be more personal in nature. some manufacturers will provide two. it can create havoc when you have to connect them and actually have them communicate. 161 .Chapter 6 – Network Design example. it is your responsibility to point out the strengths and weaknesses of each scenario. AppleTalk employs a DIN-type connector and IBM Token Ring uses a DB-9 connector. To increase marketability of their cards. as well as possible solutions. For example. and the administrative department may just be thankful for having whatever they could get their hands on.

By defining the standards to which the network must comply. Standards are one way in which hardware and software suppliers can develop a product and be assured that it will work with the products of other suppliers. you are going to have your work cut out for you. Unless you are very lucky and are installing a new network. Hard Work Hard work and attention to detail are your only allies when it comes to setting up a network from an existing system. you will be assured that any new additions will function properly. and detail both its hardware and software. 162 . Your only recourse is to document every computer and piece of hardware that must be connected to the network. if installed. with identical computers that were purchased from the same supplier. you should be able to predict potential hardware compatibility problems and take action to prevent them. each component will work with the others. Standards Earlier in this training course. you will need to establish the standards for your network. This will most likely require that you remove covers and identify components such as the modem and the network card. With this done. As the network designer or administrator. With this information in hand. and knowledge of the network operating system.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Preventing Compatibility Problems There are really only two methods of resolving compatibility issues. They are hard work and standards. boot up each computer and note the operating system and any installed software. As long as the system is designed to meet the same standards. You will also need to know the type of processor and the type and number of available expansion slots. we learned about network protocols and standards. that were identically configured.

These are the bare minimum requirements to run the system. You should always confirm the availability of drivers before purchasing an unknown device.Chapter 6 – Network Design Resolving Compatibility Problems No matter how careful you are. An operating system such as Microsoft Windows 2000. when upgrading from Windows 95 to Windows NT. A good example is Windows 95. The networking industry is in a constant state of change and unless you want to be left behind. Most manufacturers will also publish suggested minimum requirements. The first thing you need to do is determine if the original disks/CD that came with the device has the drivers to match the new operating system. there are several web sites that specialize in downloading drivers. If the operating system was released after you purchased the device. and 2008 is hardware dependent. These will be somewhat higher than the required minimum and are what you need to operate the system at a normal performance rate. The later Windows operating systems require a mouse as one of the minimum requirements. the Internet is the answer. 163 . Microsoft says that you do not need a mouse to run this operating system. 2003. If drivers exist. Also. all you need to do is install the Windows NT drivers for the offending hardware. network card and/or printer no longer work. you will be able to locate and download them from the manufacturer’s web site. you will need to check the manufacturer’s recommendations for the minimum requirements to operate. sooner or later you will encounter compatibility problems. it most likely will not work with Windows 2000. have you ever tried it? You can run Windows 95 without a mouse by using only keystrokes. 2003. 2003. This is a true statement. or hardware compatibility lists. Most hardware compatibility problems are resolved by installing the latest drivers. Drivers for a particular device are not always available for all operating systems. or to confirm whether or not your existing hardware will work with the Windows version you have. For example. you can get it from one of Microsoft’s web sites. you find that your modem. More than likely. you probably do not have the necessary drivers. but your proficiency will be very low. If you want the latest list. Some devices do not have drivers for all operating systems. and 2008 will make a check during installation. however. In this case. It is considered an advanced operating system and will not work with all hardware. These requirements by no means indicate what you should purchase. you will need to upgrade. Minimum Requirements When evaluating or considering an upgrade or change of an operating system. If you were to purchase an econo-version of a computer or one that is highly proprietary. and 2008 To help alleviate compatibility issues some manufacturers provide HCLs. or 2008. only that if you don’t meet these requirements. the system will not run. 2003. HCL and Windows 2000. you will need to check the HCL for that product. This list will ship with the NOS package (on the CDROM) and 2000. To assist in making an informed purchasing decision.

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However. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. Why should you refuse this offer? 8. Was this a good purchase? 9. but they are not all the same. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? 5.Chapter 6 – Network Design Review Questions Chapter 6 1. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? 165 . 7. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? 4. he intends to expand the network in the future. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? 6. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? 3.

An unmanaged switch can just be plugged in and connected. it maps out where nodes are located and instead of broadcasting the packet to all nodes. For example. A managed switch can be configured to separate out ports so that traffic can not go from one port to another.” you may also hear them referred to as: • • • • Concentrators MAU or MSAU– Multistation Access Unit (Token Ring) Patch Panel SMAU – a Smart MAU Hubs can be either active or passive. sooner or later. Passive hubs do not use external power and are used only to concentrate the cables in a common location.Expanding a Network No matter how well you design a network. In addition to being called “hubs. for expanding networks is to use a hub. 166 . Active hubs can be used to extend the length of network cabling by connecting them in a series. Expanding a LAN with Hubs and Switchs A less common method. to larger hubs that can connect many more computers. A switch is effectively a powered hub with logic built in. There are several different types of hubs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 7 . it will be too small. it can target the packet directly to its destination. from simple five-connector hubs used to connect five devices. today. you cannot use an Ethernet hub on a Token Ring network. A switch the most common method for expanding a network today. Switch can be either managed or unmanaged. With this logic. This chapter will discuss several techniques for expanding a network. A managed switch typically will have a console port on the back or front where configuration can be made with a tool like hyperterminal or a command prompt and telnet to the switch. A hub is a device that acts like the central station for all computers on the network. called VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network). An active hub will require power and will often provide some form of signal conditioning (amplifies weak signals). This greatly reduces the collision domain. It will operate without any configuration.

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thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cable lengths. Repeaters A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable length on a network. When the time comes to make a serious expansion to a LAN. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Bridges work in the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Repeaters work in the Physical Layer of the OSI model. You are just plain tired of your old system and want to get your system updated. Long waits to access a printer or file. you will have to employ one or more different pieces of hardware. have increased response times. the simple hub just won’t do the job. Depending on the objectives of the LAN. Fortunately. such as databases. there are several other devices that can be used to expand a network. They do however.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide When a LAN is Too Small There are several reasons to consider expanding a LAN: • • • • Too much network traffic. but has one additional feature. Traffic-generating applications. 168 . A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN. thus reducing the traffic for each segment. They do not translate or filter any information. Repeater Bridges A bridge does the same things as a repeater. amplify the signal.

It is an entrance to another network that controls traffic on your network. Router Gateway Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. For example.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Bridge Routers A router has all of the features of a bridge. 169 . Routers can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic on the local segment. the NetBEUI protocol is not routable. but it can switch packets across multiple networks. Not all network protocols will work with a router.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide

Gateway

Connection Services
When expanding a network beyond the local area cable boundaries, it is likely that you will need to connect to a third party’s cabling system. An example of such a system is the telephone company. When considering which connection service to use, be sure to take into account your throughput, the distance the data must travel, and the cost of the service. Carriers Carriers are the companies that we contract with to carry our data over long distances. They are providing the cabling, microwave, and satellite connections. When thinking of a carrier, we most commonly think of our local telephone company or one of the long distance carriers. Keep in mind that there are many carrier companies that provide many different services at a variety of rates. Be careful when choosing a carrier. Be sure to compare them on an equal basis and look for hidden costs. Just because the cost looks good, does not mean that it is the best value. When thinking of telephone lines, there are two levels of service to consider. The first is public dial-up network lines. These are our standard telephone connections. With dial-up networking, each computer must use a modem and establish a direct connection. Typically, these connections are slow and not very reliable. Some of the newer digital services will claim to have a speed of 56 Kbps, but connecting at this rate is rare. The second choice is leased, or dedicated, lines. These powerful full-time dedicated connections do not use a series of switches to complete the connection. Speed for leased lines can reach 45 Mbps.

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Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network WAN Overview When the physical capabilities and distance limits of a LAN need to be exceeded, items such as bridges, routers and communications services are used to create a WAN. These physically larger networks will appear to function the same as a LAN. Most WANs are a collection of LANs. WAN links can include any of the following: • • • • • Cable Television Coaxial Systems Fiber-Optic Cable Microwave Transmitters Packet Switched Networks Satellite Links

Those using a WAN link to connect LANs will need to use CSU/DSUs. A CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) is a hardware device responsible for changing the frame type from whatever the LAN is using into a frame that will work on the WAN. It also changes the frame type back when frames are sent back. The CSU is responsible for both the signals received from the WAN, as well as those transmitted to it. The DSU is responsible for converting both the input and output between the frame types between the LAN and the WAN. It can regenerate the signal, if necessary, and deals with timing issues. You can also use ISDN adapters if you are using ISDN PRI for WAN connectivity. Communication between LANs will involve one of the following technologies: • • • Analog Digital Packet Switching

Analog Connectivity Analog communication is the one that we are most familiar with. It is based on PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). There are two types of PSTN: dial-up lines and dedicated analog lines.

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Analog Signal The dial-up lines can be further classified as: Line Type Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Digital Connectivity When you need a faster, more secure line than can be provided by an analog connection, you need DDS (Digital Data Service). The primary reason for using digital lines is that they are 99% error-free. Basic voice. Voice with some quality control. Voice/radio with tone conditioning. Data applications below 1200 bps. Basic data. Voice and data over trunk circuits. Voice and data over private lines. Voice and data over trunks between computers. Voice and video. Application relays.

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Digital Signal T1 is the most widely used type of digital line. It is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions. It can be used to transmit digital voice, data, and video signals. The following table lists the most common connection types:

Connection Type T1 T3 E1 E3 XDSL

T1/E1/OC1 Channels 1 28 1 16 N/A

Voice Channels 24 672 32 512 N/A

DATA RATE (MBPS) 1.544 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 34.368 Mbps Varies depending ISP; faster download than upload 51.8 Mbps 155.52 Mbps Either 155.520 or 622.080 (can reach 10 Gbps)

OC-1 OC-3 ATM

1 3 N/A

N/A N/A N/A

The T1 and the T3 standard are American, whereas the E1 and the E3 are the European standard.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Circuit-switched Networks Circuit-switched networks set up a continuous direct connection between the individual calling and the one being called. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the telephone lines are the most common example of this type of network. Obviously, since the infrastructure of the phone line we use today was created long before the advent of the personal computer and the Internet, this particular type of network is not suited for most companies’ business needs. Plus, analog phone lines do not lend themselves to error checking, compression, and encryption; all things that are a necessity for information transferred from location to location, especially information between businesses. It may be simpler to use the phone line to transfer data, but the end-to-end connection that has to take place is time-intensive.

Circuit-switched Network Packet Switching Networks Packet switching is a means of providing fast, convenient, and reliable network messaging. A packet switched network takes each piece of data to be transmitted and breaks it down into small packets. A packet contains information such as the destination and source addresses, error control information, and the actual data to be transmitted. Each packet is then individually sent from the source to the destination where they are reassembled into the complete data. Both local and long distance carriers offer a LAN-to-LAN digital dial-up service called switched 56. This is a 56 Kbps connection that can be used on demand, thus eliminating the cost of a leased line. If you don’t need continuous high-speed connections, this may be a cost-effective alternative. However, you will need to install CSU/DSU so that you can dial-up another switched 56 site.

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Packet Switching VLAN Virtual LANs (VLANs) can be viewed as a group of devices on different physical LAN segments that can communicate with each other as if they were all on the same physical LAN segment. It is best understood as a “logical” LAN, which lays out hosts (computers, printers, etc.) by another means apart from how they are connected physically and geographically. An administrator might set up a VLAN based on certain departments within their company, or by the specific use of the computers, or any other logical means. This allows the administrator the luxury of modifying the VLAN, whether it be adding computers or adjusting resources, without having to change the physical picture of the network. This type of network is most closely associated with a “campus environment.”

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it will provide a secure network that is immune to interference.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide VLAN Advanced WAN Environments If the existing services available do not meet the needs of your WAN. ATM .2 Gbps. As well as the common voice and data. twisted pair. you might consider some of the advanced WAN technologies. It was designed specifically for Token Ring networks and has a maximum ring length of 100 Kilometers (62 miles).Asynchronous transfer mode is an advanced packet switching system. ATM can be used with FAX. It only provides speeds up to 64K and bandwidth is fixed. so you get the bandwidth whether you need it or not. It will support 500 computers and run at 100 Mbps. One of these may just provide you with the necessary bandwidth and speed that you need. media limited. It is. FDDI . it is a good choice for LANs that require large bandwidth and high speeds. or fiber optic. ATM is relatively new and will require special hardware and bandwidth to reach its full potential. Because it is fiber optic-based. is an older packet switching protocol that utilized telephone lines and it is good for use with voice. video.25. However. While not a good choice for WANs. ATM is not media dependent and will operate on coaxial. they currently operate at as high as 622 Mbps with most commercial boards operating at 155 Mbps. It uses a 53 byte cell. in actuality. audio. 176 . This means that the choice of media will limit the maximum speed of the network. however. It uses transmission links only when needed.25 X.Fiber Distributed Data Interface is the basis of fiber optic communication. These systems are designed to operate at a throughput rate of 1. and imaging. X.

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network was one of the early digital services. within one transmission frame. like OCx with SONET. and one 64 Kbps D-channel for control.84 Mbps (OC-1) all the way up to 40 Gbps (OC-768). It uses Synchronous Transport Modules (STM). it is “dropped” meaning it is discarded. SMDS SMDS .25 packet switching technology that it is based on. a call. Internationally. It includes a set of signal rate multiples for transmitting digital signals on optical fiber (OCx). which is intended for use by large businesses. It is capable of transmitting voice.6).Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Frame Relay Frame Relay is an improved version of the X. SONET SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) is a fiber optic-based technology that specifies the speeds at which the equipment can multiplex signals from sources into high-speed carrier devices.Switched Multimegabit Data Service offers high bandwidth at speeds of up to 34 Mbps. It carries all the bits from say. it is the European equivalent of SONET. SDH SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. This service is provided by some local companies and works well for MAN installations (compatible with IEEE 802. If a frame is found to have an error. has two 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (128 Kbps). which is intended for use in the home or small business.25. and one 16 Kbps D-channel for control. ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface). ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface). while using copper telephone wires. The data-rate can vary anywhere from STM-1 (155 Mbps) up to STM-64 (10 Gbps). has twentythree 64 Kbps B-channels for data or voice (1. frame relay is fast because it does not attempt to correct errors.544 Mbps). which was designed for voice. To be more precise. and focuses on the home and business market. as well as the retransmission of the information in any “dropped” frames. much like E1 is to T1. it is considered the equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network. Unlike X. This technology is designed for use in LANs connecting to WANs. Error checking is something that is left up to the services on the end points of the connection. data and video at rates ranging from 51. 177 .

due to the physical characteristics of copper wire and the effects of 178 . A modem is a device that makes it possible to communicate long distances over standard telephone lines or cable. Speeds will range from very slow speeds of 300 bps to 56. However. FAX modems will send and receive data at speeds up to 14. or over long distances. Convert the parallel digital data into serial digital data.400 bps. and media. Modems transmit data at various speeds. Modems are available in both internal (standard expansion card) and external (connected to a serial port and has its own power supply) versions. connecting a few computers together to form a local area network requires cabling and network cards. The Baud rate equals the frequency in cycles per second that can be transmitted via telephone lines. Some of the basic functions of a modem are to: • • Convert digital signals used by computers into analog signals that can be transmitted via telephone lines. network cards. the Baud rate was equal to the bps.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Modems Expanding a network requires an understanding of the additional devices necessary to make the connections. The name is derived from the words MOdulate and DEModulate. As we have already learned. The problem with these devices is that they all have limitations that prevent long distance communication.600 bps. Originally modem speeds were measured in terms of Baud. With early modems. requires some additional hardware that will overcome the limitations of the cables. To increase our network beyond a few computers. These speeds are measured as bits per second.

The following is a list of common “V” ratings: Standard V. it will be classified by its “V” rating. The next leap that will overcome this barrier in modem communication will take place with fiber optic cables and digital services.600 Backwards compatible with earlier V. 56.32 V. 179 . Backwards compatible with earlier V.32terbo. 4.200 Not officially a standard yet. To overcome this and increase the speeds of data transmission via modems. This limit cannot be exceeded without encountering signal distortion. With this change. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.42 V. 14.32terbo V.FastClass.22bis V. We are already seeing this technology with the new cable modems and ISDN services. Sometimes included with the purchase of a computer.32bis V. Today. designers learned how to place several signals within one cycle. there is a limit of 2400 Baud. the term Baud is disappearing and being replaced with bps. etc. modems – error correction standard. modems.600 bps. Will only communicate with another V. 57.400 High-speed version of the V.32 standard. 19. modems have reached a new technology limit of 56. times as fast as the Baud rate.600 56K modem standard – resolved competition for standard between US Robotic X2 and Rockwell K56 Flex standards. a given Baud rate could transmit data at 2.800 Improved V. 28. When purchasing a modem.34 V.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network transmitting signals over long distances. Therefore.90 bps 2400 9600 Notes An old standard. 8.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 180 .

when you access your Internet connection from your computer at home (via a modem connection) you are establishing a dial-up connection –you are the client. Both computers will have to run compatible software so that one will act as a server and the other as a client. or RAS (pronounced RAZ) connection. When connecting two computers in close proximity (same room or building). all you need to do is connect a cable between a COM port on each computer. The trick is that you cannot use just any cable with 9-pin female connectors. so this cable eliminates that part of a modem connection. This is a specially wired cable that actually replaces the modem.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Remote Access Computing (RAS) One of the most common forms of expanding a network is through a Remote Access Server. Windows 95/98 has an accessory called a direct cable connection. There are many off-the-shelf software packages that will perform this type of communication. You must use a Null-Modem cable. The difference is how each computer is being utilized. For example. RAS Connection Connecting Two Computers Establishing a remote connection can be either between two computers or between a remote computer and a network. you can connect any two Windows-based computers and share data with only a cable connection. A system running Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98 will allow only one inbound connection. In addition. or directly via COM ports and a cable. the COM port provides the parallel to serial data conversion that is necessary to complete a connection. Dial-up networking is the client-side of the connection. Also. You may be more familiar with the term dial-up network (DUN). either via modems and telephone lines. A COM port is a 9pin male connector (it can be 25-pin but this is not as common as the 9-pin) on the back of the computer. while a true server like Windows NT Server will allow 256 inbound connections. the computer is acting as a server or gateway to a network and will receive calls via a modem from other computers. On the other hand. Any two computers can be connected. 181 . Let’s first look at connecting two computers. Actually. By running this accessory and following the simple instructions provided. Since the two computers are directly connected. The difference between a simple computer (Windows NT Workstation or Windows 95/98) and a RAS server (such as Windows NT Server) is the number of inbound connections. there will be no need to connect to telephone wires or dial a number. the server that you call (your Internet Service Provider) is providing a RAS connection to you – it is the server that is providing the connection to the Internet for you. both of these terms mean the same thing. With RAS.

in this case. but is still in use with some systems. On the client side. the server will answer the phone and allow the connection if you are an authorized user. the RAS software must be installed and running. On the server side. This is a relatively old standard (1984). From this accessory. so you may be required to install it first. RAS/DUN supports various connection protocols to ensure proper connections and security. both computers must be using the same protocol. Windows (95/98 and NT) has an accessory called Dial-Up Networking. While this was the protocol of choice for a 182 . your computer will have to make the phone call and provide the necessary security authentication information to the server. you will use a modem to establish the connection. Direct Cable Connection Making a RAS connection to a server is similar to a direct connection but. the client computer will establish the connection via DUN software. With this in place. These protocols are: • • • • • • • • • SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) SSL (Secure Socket Layer) TLS (Transport Layer Security) Kerberos (Greek mythology – three-headed canine who guards Hades’ gates) ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) SLIP (Single Line Interface Protocol) Serial Line Interface Protocol is a standard protocol for connections using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). you can set up the proper configuration for the connection and dial the appropriate number.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: This accessory is not part of the default setup. RAS Protocols In order for any connection to work. The server you are contacting may be an individual computer or a server that provides access to a larger network. Normally.

RAS and Security. it was not enough. and DECnet. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) The Point-to-Point Protocol was designed as an upgraded protocol to SLIP. With the rapid growth of the Internet and remote communications. . in today’s networks it has several disadvantages. It’s only supported by RAS clients. Encrypted Connections.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network long time. both 183 Secure transmission over TCP/IP networks. It supports only TCP/IP. It supports encrypted passwords. Some of these disadvantages include: • • • • • It requires a static IP address for each node. meaning that the computers. PPTP includes all the specifications of PPP plus: • • • • • IPsec IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework of open standards for security at the network layer of the OSI model. It cannot encrypt logon information. It provides security. the limits of SLIP caused many problems. It is designed to protect IP packets as well as to provide defense against network attacks. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is the new player and provides enhancements over PPP. It provides data compression and error control. It is used in conjunction with VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) and remote access for users who need access to resources on a private network. AppleTalk. It is based on an end-to-end security model. Some of these improvements include: • • • • Support for TCP/IP. VPN (Virtual Private Networks). It transmits in text only. IPX. It enables highly private network links over the public Internet. Even with all the improvements of PPP. NetBEUI. PPP was intended to overcome these limitations and is very common today.

ESP. AH only authenticates the user. It is transparent to the user. It functions at the Data-link layer of the OSI model and is used in conjunction with VPNs. limited RAM. Windows 2000 uses this type of security. it only establishes the user’s identity at logon. and Macintosh computers. Unlike PPTP. IPsec allows for either ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) or AH (Authentication Header). Kerberos Kerberos is a secure method for authenticating a request for a service in a computer network. Here is a summary of RAS security functions: Auditing 184 . ICA can be used with Windows. In addition to providing remote sharing of information. are the ones aware of the IPsec transmission. usually a user’s credit card number. a bare-bones operating system (such as Windows CE). It uses a key to encrypt the data. discussed here in the next chapter. you must implement or enable them during configuration of the RAS server. or virtual proof-of-identity cards so the user can request a service from a server. which is the highest security method. ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) ICA is a remote connection established using Citrix software (like WinFrame or MetaFrame) and a thin client environment. and a processor in the range of 200 MHz to 300 MHz. certificates (like X. It is included in both Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator and it is a complimentary addition to HTTPS. it does not require IP connectivity. TLS TLS (Transport Layer Security) is the evolution of SSL. RAS provides several layers of security.509) and preshared keys can be used for authentication in conjunction with IPsec. It allows a user to request an encrypted ticket. Linux. As with all security measures.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide sending and receiving. It combines Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) with PPTP. L2TP Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is the next version of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Kerberos V5. authenticates the sender of data and encrypts the data as well. It does not provide authorization. It can work with SSL and uses Triple DES encryption (three 56-bit keys). UNIX. Thin clients are computers with no hard drive. SSL The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for addressing the security of an Internet transmission between a client and a server.

and you don’t need a fulltime connection. you want to keep the costs down. As a networking professional. Be sure to check everything including the RAS configuration. you will have to carefully go through all the configuration parameters and check every one. If it does not work the first time. you can restrict the numbers that RAS will call. it is not always the solution for every network. This feature can also be used to ensure long distance charges are charged to the company rather than the caller. you will need to collect data on the type of connection you intend to make and the specifics of the computer hardware and network. This provides for additional authentication. Are there any client protocols that will have to be enabled? • What are the security requirements of the connection/network? Troubleshooting a RAS setup While not usually complicated. Callback Security One method of providing both security and cost control is to require the server to callback anyone that attempts to logon. installing RAS can be frustrating. In addition. The type of communication port you intend to configure. PPTP Filtering PPTP filtering will filter out any packets that are not PPTP. 185 . Before installation. therefore ensuring that the connection is legitimate. and thus more security. This audit can include who signed on and when they signed on. This is a great benefit for those who travel for business and need access to the network. you will need to understand both its strengths and weaknesses.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network The server can create and maintain an audit trail of all connections. By requiring RAS to call back to the client that is requesting a connection. You should consider RAS when your bandwidth is less than 128 Kbps. Limitations of RAS As good as RAS is. If another software package has “control” of the modem. the modem configuration. and any other software that might use the modem. Installing and Configuring RAS Installing RAS on a server is dependent on the network operating system installed on the server. All it takes is one number or check mark out of place to prevent the connection from working properly. your new RAS system may not be able to gain access. Security Host A security host is a separate server that works between the RAS server and the client. you will have to collect all the information from your operating system supplier to ensure that you have everything necessary. At a minimum you will need to know the following: • • • Your modem specifications including having the appropriate drivers for your network and/or computer operating system.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 186 .

Keyword Analog Signal Bridge Carrier Concentrator CSU/DSU Digital Signal DUN Frame Relay Gateway Hubs ICA Ipsec ISDN Kerberos L2TP MAU PPP PPTP RAS Repeater Router SDH Definition 187 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Keyword SLIP SMAU SONET SSL T1 VLAN X.25 Definition 188 .

Name three RAS protocols. Name four forms of RAS security. 4. 189 . 9. a router. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? 3. a bridge. A form of digital line that is capable of 1. What are the two components of remote network accessing? 8. Name three advanced WAN environments. What is analog communication? 5. and a gateway. Define a repeater. 7.544 Mbps transmissions is called? 6. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? 2. 10.Chapter 7 – Expanding a Network Questions Chapter 7 1. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps.

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which will be discussed later in the chapter. The TCP/IP protocol suite includes a number of protocols. as well as Internet standards. TCP/IP is an open protocol and is considered to be an industry standard. TCP is built on top of IP (Internet Protocol). TCP/IP was designed to accommodate a large internetworking environment comprising several different types of computers. It is also used with Ethernet networks. and is usually seen in the combination. These standards. It is important for the networking professional to know that this is the protocol that is used on the Internet and that it can be used with almost any network operating system. The TCP/IP suite consists of four layers. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the most common Transport layer protocol (based on the OSI Model). Full duplex means that data can travel in both directions at once. Transport. TCP/IP. it has evolved into the protocol of the Internet. Although RFCs are not true standards (they are documents that describe work in progress). Internet and Network Interface. From this beginning. some are considered to be Internet standards. TCP/IP was developed by the Department of Defense agency (DARPA) in the 1960s as part of a military research project. intranets. This is the most common protocol suite that the networking professional will be working with. and the Internet.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Introduction to TCP/IP TCP/IP is the Internet protocol. RFC (Request For Comments) A series of documents called RFCs (Request For Comments) serve as the standards that were used in the development of TCP/IP. The four layers are: Application. and were even built into the Berkeley Standard Distribution. SNMP. TCP/IP is a routable protocol that provides full duplex connections. Also. and is in fact. these protocols were available on UNIX early on. 191 . such as SMTP. the recognized standard for internetworking altogether. are the responsibility of the IAB (Internet Activities Board). Each layer maps to one or more layers of the OSI model. TCP/IP is now the standard on all versions of UNIX. Its popularity is largely attributed to the fact that it is not owned by a specific vendor. and FTP. known as BSD UNIX.

There are actually five protocols that work within these layers to provide network connections.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP and OSI The four layers that make up TCP/IP provide a guideline for this model.Transmission Control Protocol UDP – User Datagram Protocol IP – Internet Protocol ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol ARP – Address Resolution Protocol 192 . These five protocols are: • • • • • TCP.

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or into even smaller units of measurement called datagrams. A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device. The following list provides a few examples: For: FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Use Port 21 23 25 80 110 194 . Its job is to ensure that data transferred from one computer to another reaches its destination intact. Let’s take a look at them. However. Port numbers are generally predetermined and correspond to a specific service that is running on a machine. they can be retransmitted in a timely manner.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Protocols As a network technician. TCP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) functions at the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. TCP operates by first establishing a connection-oriented session through the use of ports and sockets. Let’s take a look at how this works. Should lost or corrupted packets be detected. TCP breaks data into tiny chunks. The Top Five TCP/IP Protocols As mentioned earlier. On a TCP/IP network. It will then use the concept of sliding windows and acknowledgements to ensure fast and accurate data transmission. This data exchange can be verified at various checkpoints. and for the Network+ exam. called packets. you will need to know the various protocols and how they relate to the OSI model. you will not have to be an expert on the workings of TCP/IP. It then routes the information to its destination. there are five major protocols used within TCP/IP. Port numbers for some protocols are better known than others. and reassembles the data. the origination point and destination point of the computers between which data travels are called ports.

Telnet. UDP packets are delivered through ports and sockets and do not require the opening of a session. i. 195 . IP Internet Protocol (IP) is the Network layer part of TCP/IP.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials The sending computer’s address is called the source port number. consist of a unique 16-bit numeric address ranging from 0 to 65. Connection-Oriented Communication means that direct communication is established between two machines. The advantage of UDP over TCP is speed and is often used when transmitting streaming audio or video. Transmission speed is increased by sending a window of information at a time without having to get an acknowledgment back for each packet. The private or dynamic ports are associated with the range from 49152 through 65535. A socket is the combination of an IP address and a port number. meaning that it establishes an end-to-end connection and starts transmitting without swapping control information.e. When you open a dial-up connection to the Internet. TCP will retransmit the data. a port is different from a socket. UDP transports data. IP merely routes the data. Sliding windows are used to increase the speed of data transfer. Acknowledgements are used to ensure the reliability of the data being transmitted.535. The addresses. and the receiving computer’s address is called the destination port number. If the transmission has not been successful. Although the terms. Both machines have a sending and receiving window to buffer the data flow. but does not acknowledge delivery. Both machines keep track of the data so that any packets not received can be resent. This communication is called a session and is used to provide guaranteed delivery between the two machines. This allows a receiving machine to collect packets out of order and hold them in a buffer until all packets in a specified group are received. For each packet sent. and a checksum.. Think of it as a return receipt like the one you get from the Post Office when you want to be sure that a package has been delivered. nor does it check for errors. HTTP. “port” and “socket” are often used interchangeably. TCP tells IP that the data has arrived at its destination. The registered ports are associated with the range from 1024 through 49151. The IP header is necessary so that gateways are able to determine where to route the datagram. inserting its own header into the datagram when it is received from TCP. The IP header consists of the source and destination addresses. etc. The port number identifies the application associated with the data. IP is connectionless. the protocol number. The well-known ports are associated with the range of possible port numbers from 0 through 1023. and specify a certain protocol. you are automatically connected to the correct port for that particular data type. or port numbers. an acknowledgement of receipt is returned. UDP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol residing on the Transport layer of the OSI Model. FTP. which is responsible for moving the data from its origination point to its destination point.

ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet layer. which what you use when you send out mail. This cache contains a list of all the devices that it is communicating with. It is more advanced than POP3 because you can use folders and mailboxes on the server. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). ARP The Address Resolution Protocol is responsible for keeping track of the mapping of IP addresses to physical addresses. a protocol for transferring e-mail between points on the Internet. or access multiple mail servers. Other TCP/IP Protocols In addition to the top five. it will be broken down into a manageable packet size for transport. the receiving computer performs the calculation. This defines the number of hops a packet can make before it is discarded.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Note: A checksum is simply a calculation that is performed on data by the sending computer. Time to Live – provides TTL data. The checksum is the answer that is derived from this calculation. TCP/IP uses several other protocols: POP3 Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3) allows the client computer to retrieve E-mail from a POP3 server using a temporary connection. IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is also a protocol for accessing email from your local server. POP and IMAP allow a client to pull their mail from a server. Your Internet server holds your incoming email until users logon and download it. Fragmenting and Reassembly – if data packets are too large for the underlying network. It is responsible for errors and messages regarding delivery of IP datagrams. run searches. 196 . The following are key elements of IP: Addressing – provides the address of both the sending and receiving machines.exe command in Windows or the /sbin/arp command under UNIX. the data is assumed to have arrived intact. When the data arrives at the destination computer. If the checksum is the same. Routeability – provides routing information from one network to another. whereas POP or IMAP are client to server. Each device on the network maintains an ARP cache. Broadcast – provides broadcast addressing within a network segment. SMTP is server to server. The contents of a cache can be displayed by using the ARP.

It does. using SSL as a sub layer underneath HTTP. provide for secure transactions on the Internet. The user accesses a special directory hierarchy containing public access files. a security-enhanced version of HTTP.” The password is the user’s E-mail address. as well as SSL. allow for the use of X. Files may then be uploaded or downloaded between the computers. SHTTP SHTTP. such as web pages. by typing in a user name. the HTTP port. allowing access to a secure Web server. or the word “anonymous. is not the same as HTTPS. however. An easy way to think of it is SMTP stands for “Send Mail To People. HTTPS. HTTPS HTTPS (Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is a Web protocol that encrypts and decrypts. 197 .” SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the Internet protocol that manages nodes (individual computers) on an IP network. It uses port 443. usually over the Internet. FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a client-server protocol that allows a user to transfer files from one computer to another over a TCP/IP network.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a server-to-server protocol that acts under the control of the message transport system.509 digital certificates for authentication of a user. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a client-server protocol that is used on the World Wide Web (www) to access HTML documents. SMTP is used to transfer E-mail between computers. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. the secure SSL port instead of port 80.

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DNS functions like a telephone directory. the domain Bigcompany. commerce. 199 . Internet domains are established in a hierarchical order.33. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) consists of a hostname and a domain name. A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose.com may have an IP address of 192.238. A domain name server is a computer that "remembers" the user-friendly names of the other computers and their IP address numbers. These domains require suffixes such as . Understanding the difference between these two worlds and how to work in both of them is an important part of networking. education. DNS Domain Name Service (DNS) is a network service that translates host names to IP addresses over a TCP/IP network. It is also common practice for various companies to register domain names for you. such as government. or interest. For example.49.edu for educational institutions. This allows users to simply remember the userfriendly name while the domain name server remembers the numbers used by the network computers. Remember. we are working in two worlds.com for businesses or .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Naming Systems Naming conventions and addressing is a large part of networking and TCP/IP. The network administrator defines and configures the DNS settings using a standardized lookup table. The Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC. also known as Network Solutions) controls the top-level domains. the computer world of numbers and our world of user-friendly names. The network administrator need only remember the host and domain names.

200 .edu .tv is gaining in popularity. (.pro .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The following table lists some Internet domains: .au. leaving the responsibility for error-checking up to the application.xx Commercial Organizations Networks (The backbone of the Internet. .com.Bigcompany.Bigcompany.mobi are gaining in popularity. Also.it or in Australia www.info . WINS In a Windows-based network.it or in Australia www.net . which receives financial benefit from the registration fees.com .gov .com. in Italy might be http://www.org . the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is used to resolve NetBIOS computer names to their IP addresses. NETBIOS NetBIOS defines a session-level interface and a session management/data transport protocol so computers can converse in session mode or send messages without connection in datagram mode.mil .biz . which receives financial benefit from the registration fees. Tuvalu is a small country. Big Company Inc.au.com. Also. For instance. Big Company Inc. This is a dynamic service and requires that the workstation register with the WINS server each time it logs on to the network.tv and .Bigcompany.mobi is for mobile compatibility) Tuvalu is a small country. in Italy might be http://www.com.) Educational Institutions Non-profit Organizations Non-military Government Organizations Military Government Organizations Businesses Professional Information services Two Letter Country Code For instance.Bigcompany. .

If the demand for connections is low (there are spaces available). For example. and a default gateway if needed. There are four node types: B-node (broadcast). When not needed. A lease can be renewed. subnet mask. This is to prevent one user from monopolizing the connection. you will sooner or later come up with a number shortage. In smaller isolated networks. In this case. To accomplish this. the lease will be renewed without interruption. This means that it is permanently assigned. It predates DNS. it could connect a LAN to the Internet. However. the client will send a request for renewal. the address can be leased to another host. it must be assigned a static IP address. It predates WINS and is rarely used today. a second request will be sent at 87. P-node (peer-peer). IP address assignment is not a big problem and each workstation or device can have a static address. IP addresses can be dynamically assigned. the lease will expire and the address will be assigned to another user. M-node (mixed – B and P) and H-node (hybrid – P and B). That is. This means that they will expire after a specific amount of time. It would be difficult to find if it were constantly changing. To resolve this. IP Gateway A gateway is used to connect two networks with dissimilar protocols. as the number of addresses required increases. HOSTS file HOSTS file is a static text file that maps host names to IP. It must be manually created and changed. Each host will lease an address only for the period of time required. the original user will have to wait for an opening before getting another lease and a new IP address. 201 .Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials A NetBIOS name is a unique 16-byte address (only 15 can be used for the actual name) used to identify a NetBIOS resource on a network. It must be manually created and changed. In order for a gateway to work with the Internet. When the term of the lease is at 50%. If not renewed. BOOTP BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that is used by diskless workstations to obtain their IP addresses (as well as the server’s address and its default gateway) from a BOOTP server. you will need to use Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP).5% of the lease. If all addresses are being used. BOOTP was the foundation of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP Assigning IP addresses is like assigning telephone numbers. Notice that the IP addresses are leased. Upon logon a DHCP server will provide a client with an IP address. sooner or later we will run out of numbers. LMHOSTS file LMHOSTS is static text file that are used to look up and resolve NetBIOS names and IP addresses. assigned on an “as needed” basis.

IP Proxy Servers Earlier. who think they are communicating directly with one another.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Connection Utilities NAT NAT (Network Address Translation) is the translation of an IP address used within an organization internally (private IP address) to an IP seen by the Internet (Public IP address). it serves many clients through only one connection. It contains DHCP. we talked about the client/server relationship in terms of the roles of various users and servers. NAT also acts as a firewall. like a LAN.e. NAT. 202 . ICS allows multiple users to fully utilize that connection by performing different tasks at the same time. The proxy server is a liaison between the two parties. It can also work in conjunction with Routing and Remote access. Proxy Server ICS ICS allows computers within a network. and DNS. In the case of a proxy server. The user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. depending on the direction in which the communication is traveling at any given time. the proxy server. The proxy server may function in the role of the server or the client. It allows for use of one public IP address for many private IP addresses. since it keeps the private IP addresses hidden from the outside world. to share a single connection to the Internet. Compare this to a “he said-she said” scenario where an intermediary delivers the message between two parties who do not speak directly to each other. i.

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This IP address is a 32-bit binary number. they are broken down into four octets. An octet is a group of eight binary digits and a period or “dot” separates these octets.296 (4. Network computers require a unique IP address so that the other computers on the network can identify them and be able to communicate with them.8. Although that is easy for a computer. let’s now take a look at IP address numbers.967. 4th octet: And finally the value of our 4th octet is 194. it is not easy for us.00001000. So the dotted decimal address of our example is 33.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Addressing IPv4 Enough talk about IP address names. It is important that the networking professional have a basic understanding of these classes. The result is called a dotted decimal number. If a network is internal and does not access the Internet. 3rd octet: The value of the 3rd octet in our example is 8. Each of these octets represents a number from 0-256.294.11000010 Each octet represents a number between 0-256: 1st octet: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Adding the values assigned to the “1” positions gives us a value of 33 for the first octet. the administrator may assign an IP address to each computer (as long as the number is unique). A basic knowledge of the binary numbering system is required to understand network addressing: The 32-bit binary number: 00100001001001110000100011000010 Broken down into four octets: 00100001. 204 . Internet IP addresses. Imagine how difficult it would be to have to remember a combination of 32 1s and 0s for each address.39. To simplify these addresses.00100111.2 billion) different numbers. are assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and these IP addresses are further divided into classes.194. A 32-bit binary number can represent (232) or 4. however. 2nd octet: The value of the 2nd octet is 39.

(A host may be any device on the network.194. Depending on the assignment. Class C Addresses These are the most common and are used for smaller networks. the network is divided into classes. The first two octets identify the network (Network ID) and the last two octets identify the host (Host ID). An example of a Class C IP address would be 193.39. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class B address is always 1 (10000000). there are 16.39. B and C.39.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials IP Addresses The dotted decimal number is further broken down into two components. Class B Addresses This class is assigned to medium sized networks.39. In this class the first three octets are used for the Network ID and only the last octet is used for the Host ID. The class can be determined by the value of the first octet.194 would be the Host ID. The example we used to define a dotted decimal address of 33. only the first octet is used for the Network ID and all three remaining octets identify the host (Host ID).194. The class of the IP address determines which octets identify the Network ID and which octets identify the Host ID.777. Within classes.8 and the Host ID would be 194. In this case 129.194 where the Network ID would be 193.8. Class D and Class E Addresses Class D cannot be used for networks (multicast) and Class E IP addresses are reserved for future use. you should pay special attention the Classes A.) The first octet in a Class A address is always a number between 1 and 126. There are five common classes: A through E.214 possible Host ID numbers. Likewise. The leading bits in the binary representation of a Class C address are always 11 (11000000). The first octet (33) would identify the network (Network ID) and the rest of the octets would identify the host (Host ID) 39. The octet(s) on the left represents the Network ID (Network ID) and the octet(s) on the right represents the Host ID (Host ID).39 would be the Network ID and 8. Since a Class A Network ID uses the remaining three octets to assign numbers for the Host ID. An example of a Class B IP address would be 129. The first octet of a Class C address is always a number between 192-223.194 would be an example of a Class A address.8. The two octets in the center can be either assigned to the Network ID or the Host ID.8. Class B uses two 205 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit = 0) (leading bit = 1) (leading bits =11) . For the Network+ exam. The leading bit in the binary representation of a Class A address is always 0 (00000000). Class A Class B Class C Class A Addresses If the network applying for Internet IP addresses is extremely large.8. The first octet in a Class B address is always a number between 128 and 191. the first octet on the left is always part of the Network ID and the last octet on the right is always part of the Host ID.

This is the loopback address.126 128 . Use the following table to memorize the different classes: CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C 1 . you must petition the official Internet authorities for the assignment of a network address. there are only 65. there are some IP addresses that are reserved for special purposes: Addresses that begin with 127 and 224 through 255 are used for testing purposes and are not available.191 192 . Also. Some IP Addresses are reserved for special purposes: If: All Zeros All Ones 127 Network ID This Network All Networks Local Node Host ID This Node All Nodes IP Address Default Route for RIP Broadcast It is important for the networking professional to be able to identify whether an IP address is a Class A. Note: The existing shortage of addresses has made it impossible to obtain a Class A address for a long time. the Network ID of 127 designates the local node and allows that node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide octets for the Network ID and two octets for the Host ID. This 206 . (For example. Class C has a large number of Network IDs and only a few Host IDs. if a network is going to be connected to the Internet. Class B . with the least number of Network IDs. Class C uses three octets for the Network ID and only one for the Host ID. so there are only 254 addresses available for hosts.used for medium-sized networks.534 possible Host ID numbers. As we mentioned earlier.0. Class B IP addresses are all in use and no longer available.used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Class C IP addresses are still available. B or C address.223 In addition.1) Class A . specifically 127. Class C . You can see that Class A has the largest number of hosts.used by very large networks. All in use and no longer available.

This happens to supercede the rule about one zero having to be left in a field. as well as ease of configuration and security built right in. but at least one must be left in each 16-bit field. The 207 . IPv6 uses format prefixes (FP). It uses 128-bit addressing. Rather than having “classes” like IPv4. however. IPv6 (IP Next Generation) IPv6 (IP Next Generation) is the latest IP technology. It does. An example of IPv6 is as follows: AAAA:BBBB:0000:0000:0000:0081:FFFF:DDDD A shorthand version of the previous IPv6 address: AAAA:BBBB:0:0:0:81:FFFF:DDDD Leading zeros can be taken out. VA 22070 You can also E-mail to hostmaster@internic. The benefits of IPv6 include improved scalability. the following address 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005 can be represented in their compacted form by :: ::5 You cannot. A double colon can be used to represent multiple contiguous fields of zeros. as compared to IPv4. however. It uses eight 16-bit pieces with colons as separators as opposed to the full stops used in IPv4. IPv6 uses hex numbers (0 to 9. which are variable-length fields that comprise the high-order bits. use the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address. and they are responsible for the assignment and regulation of IP addresses. Contact InterNIC at: Network Solutions InterNIC Registration Services 505 Huntmar Park Drive Herndon. then A to F) instead of decimal because of the length of the new addressing scheme. which only uses 32-bit addressing. It would make it unclear as to what was represented. demand high bandwidth.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials organization is called InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center).net. For example. You can compact multiple fields of zero beyond the previous example. to define the address type.

is an address for a group of hosts within a scope and has a FF00::/8 prefix. Here is an example of a Unicast address: 1070:0:0:0:7:777:300F:754B Unicast addresses can be broken down further into four sub-groups: Global aggregatable address. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses have zeros in the section beyond the normal IPv4 32-bit address (0:0:0:0:0:0:A:B:C:D or ::A:B:C:D) Anycast is an address for a set of interfaces that typically belong to different hosts and is delivered to the closest one. Multicast. Unicast is an address for a single host.1 with IPv4. Link-Local addresses use the FE80::/10 prefix and are used by hosts on a local link. The Loopback address in IPv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1. which replaces broadcast. since they can be used to limit traffic to a domain.0. All in all. It is also available through many networking devices. Link-local address and IPv4-compatible address. An aggregatable global address uses a fixed prefix of 2000::/3. Ipv6 is integrated into Windows Vista and Windows 2008 server. A Site-local address uses the prefix FEC0::/10 and can be regarded as private addresses. IPv6 allows for a multitude of IP address possibilities for the future of networking.0. Finally.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide address types are Unicast. and Multicast. Site-local address. just like 127. Anycast. 208 .

Default Subnet Masks 255. By using a subnet. Before looking at binary addition.777.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Subnetting Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address down into meaningful and manageable groups (network and host). bits can be borrowed from the host portion of the IP address.0.0. A subnet mask is an IP address (dotted-decimal number) where all ones represent the network portion of the IP address and all zeros represent the host portion of the IP address. 255.255.00000000. Subnet masks with full octets (255) are the default subnet mask. The number of octets that contain 0s determines the maximum number of available hosts within the sub-network.0. all the traffic within a building or campus will be kept locally except when it needs to go to another subnet.255.255. You can use a subnet mask that does not completely use all the bits in an octet.0.0 255. Bit borrowing will be addresses fully in the next section.0. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. The router acts as a filter. For example.255. have all 1s to the left and all 0s to the right. The router uses binary addition to make this determination. a subnet mask can be 255.0 (Class A). Since a router connects each subnet. For example: 11111111.255.0 (Class C). A subnet works by taking the IP address and dividing it into the network portion and host portion.216 hosts) Class B (65. only the traffic that is not local will pass through. lets look at subnet masks.0 Class A (16.0 In regards to classes.255.255. Even though this may be understood working within the boundaries of classes.00000000 or 255.0. a large university may have a network spread over several building and perhaps remote campuses. In this example.0 255. 209 . You must however.0. you can reduce the overall network traffic.11111111. By using a concept called subnet masking.0 (Class B).534 hosts) Class C (254 hosts) Note: You cannot use IP addresses with all 1s or all 0s. or 225.

39.00000000. Since the subnet mask only goes 3 bits into the second octet. thus reducing the traffic on the rest of the network. it recognizes the first 11 bits as the network portion of this address.8.7.0.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide The purpose of a subnet mask is to determine the network portion of the IP address. add through leaving only the digits for the network portion or 33. using our previous example of 33. let’s add it to the subnet mask of 255.0. Those 11 bits equal a network portion of 33.194.11000010 (33. 00100001.00000000 (255.194. a router can determine if a message is for a destination on the local network or for a machine on a remote segment.0.0.194 is determined by the zeros in the subnet mask. The remaining 21 bits in the IP address is the host portion This equals 7. while the Host ID 0.8.00000000.8.0. By using this method.32.11100000.32. The following tables summarize IP addresses and subnet masks: 210 . Therefore in our example the Network ID is 33.32 and the Host ID is 7. The network and host portions do not break down neatly into octets since the subnet mask does not take up a complete second octet.194.00001000. This is done with binary addition.0) Noticing that all the places that have ones. It is common in TCP/IP to omit the trailing octets in the Network ID and the leading octets in the Host ID.224. which uses a certain logic to determine the network portion of the address.0. Any local addresses will not pass through. Remember. the results will be the actual network portion of that IP address (not necessarily the default network portion determined by its class).8. If you add the IP address to the subnet mask. for binary addition: 1+1=1 1+0=0 0+0=0 Now.224.194) 11111111.00000000 (33.0) equals 00100001.8.00100111. separating it from the host portion of the address.00100000.39.32.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Subnet Mask and Network Classes Class A B C IP Address 001. Determine the number of Host IDs per subnet.0 255.a. A unique host ID is required for each TCP/IP computer network interface card.0 255.152 Number of Hosts 16. A unique network ID is required for each subnet and each wide area network. you will need to start with the network ID supplied by InterNIC.777.0 255.0 Number of Networks 126 16. To begin this process.216 65.0.b.0.a. There are several reasons to divide a network in this manner. each TCP/IP printer network interface and each router interface on each subnet.a.c to 191. Be sure to include some room for growth of the network.b.0. We will use an InterNIC ID of 211 .b.255. it will require an address for each subnet.a. Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment. Define the Subnet Mask The goal is to define one subnet mask for the entire internetwork that gives the desired number of subnets and allows enough hosts per subnet.0 Maximum Networks and Hosts per Class Class A B C Default Subnet Mask 255. • • • • Connect physically remote local networks. Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring).c to 223.255.0.384 2.255.c 128.097. There are steps to follow when subnetting: Determine the number of Network IDs required.255.b.a.c 192.255.255. If a router is connected to two subnets.c to 126.0 255.a.534 254 How to Subdivide a Network The process of subdividing a network into logical units is called subnetting or subnetworking. Allows an unlimited number of hosts to communicate.c Default Subnet Mask 255.0.b.0.b.

255.252.255.0.224.248 255.255.128 255. With this number.240 255.255.0 255.000 hosts. The following table shows the subnet mask created by borrowing bits and how it will affect our network.255.248.382 Hosts 16. First. We do this by using bits from the next octet or octets as part of our network addresses that we assign.255.255.0 255.192 255. we will notice that this is a Class B network and therefore the default subnet mask will be 255.255.254.255.255.255.255.382 8190 4096 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 212 .0 255.255.0 255.224 255. As we begin to subnet.255.240.0 255.255.0 255. we have one network with approximately 65.255.36.255.255.0.255.255.252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4096 8190 16. Class B Subnet Mask (2 to 14 bits borrowed) 255.192.0 255.255.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 191. we are increasing the number of network addresses that we can use and decreasing the number of host.

255.240 255.255. The number 18 will now be in binary (10010). the question is how many bits of the third octet do we need to use? After examining our network requirements.255. you can use the calculator supplied with Windows.255. Change the mode to binary (Bin).248 255. 213 . We already know that the first two octets will be 10111111 00100100 from this ID.224 255. let’s add 4 more for future expansions. 2. Make sure that the decimal mode (Dec) is selected. Now we get out our Windows calculator.255. Make sure that it is in scientific view (that’s the big calculator).252 Bits 2 3 4 5 6 Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 To make this easy.255.255. 1.192 255. For this example.255. giving us a total requirement of 18. 3. Just to be on the safe side. lets keep our network ID of 191.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Class C Subnet Mask (2 to 6 bits borrowed) 255.255. Enter the value of 18.255. we determine that we will need 14 subnets to meet our current needs.36 as assigned to us by InterNIC.

Also notice that had we chosen 14 (no allowance for growth). To keep things simple.248. The following table shows the six subnets created when using the three bits of the third octet: 214 . let’s look at the subnets for the subnet mask of 255. instead of selecting the next subnet on our list. Count the number of binary digits (5). Determine the Network IDs One you determine the number of subnets required and the subnet mask.000 hosts each. we would have had to reconfigure the entire network.0 and the network address of 192. you can determine the available Network IDs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 4.0. the subnet mask would be 255.255. For this example.224. Had we needed to add a new subnet.255. This will actually allow us up to 30 subnets with 2.36. This will be the number of bits required for the third octet. our answer would have been to use 4 bits and we would have been limited to a maximum of 14 subnets.

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223 216 . the sending computer will send the message to a router for delivery.255.255.36.0. or one that is located on a remote network.000 or . The sending computer checks the octets of the destination address against its own to determine if the destination computer is on the local network or a remote network.255.255.64 192.126 128 . this means that the number starts with .0 255. (If the sending computer and the destination computer have the same subnet mask.0. up to and including the remaining digits not used with the subnet ID. For example.96 192.0. This indicates that the Network ID is located in the first octet of the network address. these are reserved for broadcast addresses. indicating that the Network ID is contained in the first two or three octets respectively. The only restrictions are that you cannot use .32 192. they are on the same network.0 255.) NETWORK CLASS CLASS A CLASS B CLASS C DEFAULT SUBNET MASK 255.0.36.36. and continues up to one less than the subnet ID of the next subnet.36.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Subnets (Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 111) Binary Network ID 11000000 00100100 11000000 00100100 001 11000000 00100100 010 11000000 00100100 011 11000000 00100100 100 11000000 00100100 101 11000000 00100100 110 Dotted-decimal ID 192.0.0.255. If it is different.0 CLASS ID 1 . In dotted-decimal format.160 192. The zeros indicate the location of the Host ID.0 and the default Class C subnet mask would be 255.36. on a Class A network the default subnet mask would be 255. Summary of Subnets Subnet masks are used on TCP/IP networks to determine whether a message is for a computer that resides on the local network.0.128 192.255. A Class B network default subnet mask would be 255.191 192 .36.192 The host ID can be assigned as any number starting with the last digit of the forth octet (00000001).36 (overall network address) 192.001 in the last octet.0.255.

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you may specify a particular IP address. and enter the information in the appropriate fields. The appearance of these dialog boxes may vary depending on which operating system you are using. or click the radio button next to “Obtain an IP address automatically. Next.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Configuration Concepts The Windows Registry database contains the TCP/IP configurations. IP Address Here. Only administrators who have detailed knowledge and experience working with the Registry should attempt to change the default TCP/IP parameters in Registry Editor. and click Properties. Click the radio button to enable DNS. other TCP/IP settings may be established or changed by first clicking on the Network icon in the Control Settings window. in addition to other hardware and software configurations. click the Protocols tab.” and the computer will capture one from the DHCP server. However. DNS You can enable or disable DNS. 218 . right-click on TCP/IP Protocol. This opens the TCP/IP Properties window and you can now click on the appropriate tab and enter your configuration information.

It also includes the DNS configuration. and subnet mask configuration. Whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway.Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Default Gateway Type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network. This information includes the TCP/IP address configuration. default gateway. On some screens. DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used on a TCP/IP network to send configuration data to clients. WINS maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses. you will need to type in the specified default gateway. WINS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is central to Microsoft’s networking topology. 219 . Use the “New” and “Add” command buttons to add a new gateway to the list of installed gateways.

Keyword ARP BOOTP Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Default Gateway DHCP DNS FTP HOSTS file HTTP HTTPS ICMP ICS IMAP4 IP IP Address LMHOSTS file NAT NetBIOS Octet POP3 Definition 220 . Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Essentials Keyword Port Number Proxy Server SMTP SNMP Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP UDP WINS Definition 221 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 8 1. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? 3. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. What is an FQDN and give an example? 6. 12. 10. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? 2. What is the purpose of DNS? 5. 4. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? 11. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? 8. What is a domain? 7. What are five reasons to use subnetting? 222 . Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? 9.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities One of the advantages of using TCP/IP as your network protocol is that it comes with several utilities that you can use to validate and troubleshoot the network. Network Managers . In addition.SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an open protocol that allows third party software vendors to create products to manage networks. From the database and the software interface. the administrator can create reports and charts that define the status of the network. Using one of these products. It is run on a single computer and is used to access any SNMP devices and collect data. The following are several SNMP managers: Hewlett-Packard Open View IBM NetView InterMapper (Macintosh) MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher – UNIX) NetMinder Sun Net Manager Cisco Work SNMP utilizes three elements for the complete system: The management system software The agent software Communities Management Software This is the primary software package that is used by the administrator. The data is then compiled in a database called a MIB (Management Information Base). 224 . you can obtain several third party software packages that will help you manage a network. you can remotely monitor any SNMP compatible device.

This command will capture any errors and problems that occur on the agent device and send it to the manager. It will respond to commands issued by the management software. Get-next: request the next value in a sequence. The three commands are: Get: request data from the device. 225 . Set: sends a configuration value to a device. The value of using communities is to limit the number of managers and agents. Validation Tools TCP/IP provides several command-level tools that can be used to validate various parameters within a network. Communities Communities are logical groups consisting of at least one manager and agent (usually several agents are assigned to one manager). An additional SNMP command is the trap. These commands can be entered from a DOS prompt.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Agent Software The agent software resides on the SNMP compliant device. therefore providing a level of security. A community can also restrict access.

Note in the graphic below that an icon indicates that the event is critical (a stop occurred). shows every router interface that a TCP/IP packet passes through on its way to its destination. and TCP/IP events and errors.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer Event Viewer is a Windows utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. serious (!). NBTSTAT This command will display NetBIOS over TCP/IP statistics. Netstat -a shows all connections and listening ports. Netstat -e shows Ethernet statistics. 226 . ROUTE The ROUTE command will show you the routing table and allow you to make edits to it. NETSTAT This command will display all the TCP/IP protocol statistics. Netstat -r shows the content of the routing table. TRACERT. Nbtstat -r provides names resolved by both broadcast and the WINS service. and normal (i). TRACERT A Trace Route command-line utility. but did not cause a stop. Nbtstat -n provides local NetBIOS names. Nbtstat -R both purges and reloads the remote name cache table. Netstat -s shows statistics on a per-protocol basis. Nbtstat -c provides the remote name cache with the IP addresses. This includes critical system errors.

clicking Run.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Hint: Use these line commands by clicking the Start button in your taskbar. and typing in either cmd or command. 227 .

Ping -t performs a continuous ping and ping -n pings the IP address more than once. NSLOOKUP This command is used to troubleshoot DNS problems and can display the DNS entry for a given IP address. For example. and will often respond even when higher-level TCP-based services cannot. Arp -a displays the current ARP entries (resolved IP to MAC addresses) on your client. RARP RARP accomplishes the reverse of the ARP by using the known MAC address to find a host’s IP address. the IP of a host might be 192.1.12. IPCONFIG/WINIPCFG These commands are the same. IFCONFIG IFCONFIG displays the status of the network interface configuration. NSLOOKUP -h shows CPU and operating system information for the domain. IPCONFIG is entered from a DOS prompt and WINIPCFG can be used from RUN on the START menu. Arp -s is used to change the IP address of a device.” Ping works at the IP level. and you would use this IP to find its MAC address or its physical address. ARP ARP will allow you to find the physical address (MAC address) of a computer by using the IP address of that computer. NSLOOKUP a shows aliases of clients in the domain. The following three are the most common and are covered in more detail in the next chapter. which might be 0000-05-67-FF-33. You should use this command when you want to verify a user’s configuration or if there are problems reaching a remote host. PING The lowest level test to find out if a remote host is “alive.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TCP/IP also provides several useful troubleshooting tools. and will display the current configuration of a computer.168. 228 . NSLOOKUP -t shows all records of the type specified. NSLOOKUP -d shows all records for the domain. NSLOOKUP -s lists well-known services of clients in the domain.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword ARP Event Viewer IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Management Software NBTSTAT NETSTAT NSLOOKUP PING RARP SNMP TRACERT Definition 230 .

In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network. 3. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate statistics of your network. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? 2. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. List as many as you can.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Review Questions Chapter 9 1. 231 . each device will need to be _________ compliant.

motivated by curiosity. Most network security breaches are the work of someone from inside the company. All users will have access to the network and to their own files (documents they themselves have created). data encryption. As you might have already deduced. or at least have your plan intact. User and Share Level Users will have different levels of access. can deliberately damage your network. or anyone who has access to your network for that matter.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 10 – Network Security Security is a vital aspect of a network that cannot be ignored. Limiting access via passwords can prevent an inexperienced user. depending on the roles they play in your company. and firewalls are critical parts of your network. A good plan will include the following considerations: • • • • Size of network Scope of network Type and amount of usage of the network Who will have access to what User-level Security All employees should be assigned user names and passwords. Users should be held responsible and accountable for the security of their individual workstations. creating chaos and costing thousands. The best time to set up your network security. Privacy and confidentiality are important to most users. If the user is not able to trust that the documents he or she creates are safe from outside access. the results can be devastating. is right up front. There are a number of reasons for maintaining a secure network. as well as the levels of permission necessary for these individuals to do their jobs. Very few users will have access to administrative features. Once a company’s files have been set up for maximum access. Whether the sabotage is malicious. of dollars. or an irresponsible prank. such as setting up E-mail addresses and initial passwords. the network administrator has complete responsibility for anything that happens to the network. Most users will also be able to access shared files. anyone can get into any file and do anything to it they want to do. unless safeguards are built in. Although corrupting and deleting files accidentally can cause serious problems. A disgruntled employee. Therefore. Password practices and procedures. from wandering into unprotected areas and inadvertently corrupting or deleting files. before you set up the network. or even millions. he or she must develop a plan that will meet the needs of their particular network. Select a basic security model that will meet the needs of your network and customize it as your needs change. you must also be prepared for the possibility of malicious intent. the user will be inclined to 232 .

The systems administrator should have an assistant or backup person who will have total access to the system. It creates an atmosphere of confidentiality. This way. a gesture of respect for the user and the system. User-level security requires the user to logon using a Username and password. They can then copy the file to a local drive or a personal folder on the server. However. where the administrator can easily retrieve it. In a manner similar to the signature on a document. such as a template or another type of file. 233 . This way. User Logon Share-level Security With the share-level security model. users can access a shared resource. among other things. the file can be accessed by anyone who has the password and knows how to use it to access the shared resource. passwords are assigned to network resources rather than to users.Chapter 10 – Network Security be less attentive to personal security. should the administrator be unavailable at a time when administrator access is required. Information on the shared drive cannot be changed by anyone other than the person who created the file. the user can edit the file as necessary. and cultivates a conscientious attitude toward security. while the original file remains intact. A roadmap of all user names and passwords should be kept in a secure place. authentication confirms that messages received truly originated from their stated source. Password protection is. A verification method called “authentication” verifies the identity of a person or process.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Security 234 .

you will be responsible for choosing the type of firewall that best meets your network’s needs. if you wanted to block Internet traffic from entering your intranet. you would block port 80. Files need to be backed up daily. Gateway hosts (also called bastion hosts) create fortified areas in the network’s security perimeter. by forwarding application traffic through the firewall. 2003 and 2008 Server all have Windows Firewall built into the OS. Some will be more suitable to your system than others. It is an important part of a network security plan. but they are not particularly effective if your goal is to protect trade secrets or other types of proprietary information. and work at the application level.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Security Techniques There are a number of techniques and practices that will enhance the security of your network. They can permit or deny traffic at a certain level. Protocol-specific application proxy firewalls may provide increased access control. Firewalls A firewall is designed to prevent access to your network from outside the company. If you are accessing the Internet from your network. Your security needs will determine which techniques will best meet your system’s needs. A firewall will need to be part of your security plan in order to prevent unauthorized access from outside of your network. Backing up Data Another integral part of network security is your backup system. Firewalls can trace calls and locate the computer trying to break in. This is great for internal protection. For example. Windows XP. you will most likely be using E-mail. As the system administrator. or they can be configured to suit your specific security needs. Network protection should be a hardware based firewall. Firewall Blocking Port Numbers You can block port numbers for security purposes on your firewall or router so as to allow only specific traffic into your network. and even more often on larger networks. or auditing. at the very least. This needs to be handled in such a way 235 . they can be host-based. Some firewalls will only allow E-mail to pass through. Vista.

In addition. Another more common form of backup is to a tape drive. It may make more sense to have two medium-sized servers. so if one goes down the other can maintain network operations. the other can take over without compromising network operations. let’s discuss the various backup methods that are available. offer server equipment with multiple hard drives that mirror each other. called the backup medium. While planning your backup strategy. Remember. you know how important a backup plan is to the safety of your network’s data. plan to fail. As you might guess. those who fail to plan. Backup Options Before we discuss the different RAID fault tolerance strategies. As a computer professional. the second server should serve as a backup to the first. Ideally. and your company’s files and directories will be safe and available when you need them. it is still a viable option. range from 1. and how often backups will be performed. Most file server manufacturers recognize the need for data redundancy and thus. 236 . If anything happens to one. you must answer important questions about what to backup. Large-capacity disks include such options as the removable optical disk.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide that production will not be interrupted. how the backup information will be tested. which uses laser technology to read and write information onto a removable disk that has capacities of 128 MB to 650 MBs. There are several options available. Although slower than RAID. Nothing will save you time and stress like an effective and thorough backup strategy in case the worst happens and your system crashes. for performing and storing data backups: Removable Disks There are two categories of removable disks: Small-Capacity and Large-Capacity. Floppy disk capacities today.44 MB for the standard floppy disk to up to 250 MB capacities for ZIP disks. the small-capacity category includes the floppy disk. your plan will need to include information about who will be in charge of performing the backups. so make sure not to neglect this important part of network security. and are more commonly known as RAID. where you will keep the backup information (on-site or off-site). rather than one larger server. These multiple disks are called disk arrays. This backup medium is suitable for small companies. and the procedure to follow for recovery.

The Full backup. as its name implies. Back It Up Backup Software Software programs or utilities are available that make backing up data easier and more efficient. as only the data that has changed since the last backup will be copied. It is a named portion or chunk of disk space. Differential and Incremental. An archive bit is used to identify the files that have changed. Full. A volume can be part of a disk or an entire disk. Fault Tolerance and RAID The ability of a system or component to continue normal operations. is called fault tolerance. will backup all data on the network. but usually these won’t have the features available on a third-party backup program. The tape backup method is inexpensive and simple to implement. both the differential backup tape copies and the last full backup tape copies will need to be used. the last full backup and the most recent incremental backup tapes will be needed. despite the presence of hardware or software failures. This type of backup is usually performed weekly. The Differential backup is used for backing up only the files that have changed since the last full backup. Volumes Volumes are a way to organize storage disks so that the network operating system can store data on a disk. This usually involves some 237 .Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Tape Backup This is probably the oldest and most popular backup medium in use today. This method also uses an archive bit to identify which files have changed. Differential. When recovering from a failure. Most operating systems come with a backup utility. The Incremental backup is used for daily backups. This will reduce the amount of time needed to perform backups to the server. This method will take the largest amount of storage media. It also has large capacities of up to 50 GB for some systems. and Incremental Backups There are three backup types available: Full. To restore. but will be the easiest to restore from.

the data in the stripe set is lost and cannot be retrieved. Using an additional bit for every 8bits of data.) Disk Mirroring (RAID 1) Disk mirroring or disk duplexing involves using one or more mirrors of a hard disk.Striped array with rotating parity (disk striping with parity) NOTE: The acronym for RAID has also been referred to as: “Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. and utilizes different means of dealing with security issues at this level. data is not lost.Mirrored arrays (disk mirroring) RAID 2 . support either disk mirroring or disk duplexing.Parallel array with ECC (disk striping with ECC) RAID 3 . including Novell NetWare. this one uses the parity method of ensuring that the data stored is really the same data that was sent. so that segments can be written to multiple disk drives (or other physical devices) in a round-robin fashion is called disk striping. This technique may be applied in either software or hardware. This method does not identify which part (bit or bits) of the transferred data is inaccurate. and is a standard feature of RAID systems. this relatively inexpensive technique can be very useful. such as a single file. Disk Striping With Parity (RAID 5) The most common of RAID strategies.Parallel array with parity (disk striping with ECC stored as parity) RAID 4 . The data is written to two separate hard disks in order to preserve the data in the event of a device failure. This method does provide fault tolerance. However. if anything happens to one of the drives. in that if one disk fails.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide degree of redundancy. 238 .Non-redundant striped array (disk striping) RAID 1 . (Provides no fault tolerance. Several operating systems. only that some part of it is.Striped array with parity (disk striping with large blocks) RAID 5 . The following are common RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) specifications: RAID 0 . If your processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can keep up.” Disk Striping (RAID 0) The segmentation of logically sequential data. parity protocols check transmitted data for errors in transmission.

It functions faster. it offers better performance. It is assigned an IP address and it is attached to a LAN. which provides for even more fault tolerance. since it is not dependent on another computer. An Interactive UPS (also called an “intelligent UPS”) connects to the computer's serial port and provides information. RAID-10 is comprised of an array of stripes (each stripe equals a RAID1 array). surges. such as battery time remaining. 239 . is like RAID-10. A RAID system is the most common example of a centralized SAN. as you might guess. Like RAID-10. Cost. RAID 7 offers a real-time operating system and the functionality of a standalone computer. SANs are channel attached whereas NASs are network attached. but it is treated just like any node on the network and is subject to all the positives and negatives of that identity. Surge Protectors Surge Protectors. This. the best tools seem to be the more expensive ones. are power strips that provide protection from voltage spikes. A decentralized SAN connects multiple hosts with many storage systems. SAN traditionally have been used for the purposes of archiving data that is needed but infrequently used. In this case. which allows for better performance. It also has a bare-bones OS (microkernel) for processing I/O requests. Network-Attached Storage Network-attached storage (NAS) is hard disk storage (RAID) like SAN. however. RAID-53. is not being used commercially at the moment to an large degree. A centralized SAN generally ties many hosts together into one storage system. but uses a striping scheme where each stripe is a RAID-3 array of disks. but at a greater cost. The equipment described below is among the best available: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) A UPS is battery powered. and each type provides power for a different length of time. and sags in the power supply. and guaranteed to provide power to a computer in the event of interruptions in the incoming electrical power. Storage Area Network (SAN) A SAN (Storage Area Network) is a back-end network connecting storage devices (generally by using SCSI). A SAN can either be centralized or decentralized. Fault Tolerance and Power You need to protect your network from data loss due to power surges and failures. There are several tools on the market that will help prevent data loss from power fluctuations. also called surge suppressors. is an issue.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities RAID 6 and Beyond RAID-6 includes a second disk striping with parity scheme. allowing the computer to shut down before complete loss of power. There are different types of UPS devices.

Evaluate your security policy on a regular basis to ensure that it is up to speed. and numbers. So. Policies that spell out password procedures should be given to all users so they will know what is expected of them. Passwords should be changed frequently in high-security networks. 240 . There is no reason for anyone other than the user to access the user’s files. The most effective passwords are ones that are the maximum number of characters long and use a combination of letters. Passwords should be changed at certain designated times. such as when an employee leaves. personnel records and other confidential data should change their passwords at least every 30 days. Some “classified” networks require password changes every day. he or she will know how to accomplish the task. No one. and discourages them from wandering into unauthorized areas. If the network administrator needs to use the workstation. Users working with sensitive information such as budgets. no matter who they are. include characters.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Password Practices and Procedures A network administrator may encrypt password information that is automatically sent to the server when users log on to the network. should be given the opportunity to look through another person’s desk while they are not there. The importance of users logging off and locking their workstations when they are not physically using them cannot be stressed enough. management must randomly check to make sure that the policy is being adhered to. an effective password policy is one in which passwords change on a regular basis. This is known as a security audit. This holds users accountable for their actions on the network. Password security is compromised if a user writes his or her password down where it might be seen by others. but most networks can get by with changing their passwords every 30 days. and troubleshoot before the trouble starts.” What this means is that if the employees leave their workstations (for any reason) they are required to clean off their desks or workstations and lock documents. but are easy enough that users can remember them. away. numbers and symbols. symbols. In order for this policy to be effective. so why make them available by not cleaning off your electronic desktop when you leave your workspace? Many large companies implement a “clean desk policy. etc.

It was invented in 1977 by Ron Rivest. the Internet is not the securest of environments. A VPN is a network that uses the Internet to connect remote users to an internal network. RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) uses both a public key and a private key. Encryption is used to scramble passwords on an internal network so that they may not be stolen during logon. 241 . Encryption converts regular text into ciphertext by combining the original data with one or more “keys” known only to the sender and recipient. Without encryption the Internet would be a hotbed for high-tech thieves who could tap into it and steal information and credit card numbers. The name comes from their initials. The recipient’s public key is used by the sender to encrypt the message. This method uses a 56-bit private key. The entire security of RSA depends on the difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. These keys are numbers or strings of characters combined with the original text to create an algorithm. other than the person for whom the message was intended. Encryption is also used to encrypt E-mail transmissions. and Leonard Adleman. DES (Data Encryption Standard) is the fastest and easiest method of sending an encrypted message. Adi Shamir. because the sender and receiver use the same key to decrypt the data. DES was developed by IBM and is now the most commonly used Private Key encryption system used. It is also used to secure data over VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). and the recipient’s private key is used to decrypt it. RSA is a public-key cryptosystem for both encryption and authentication. and most recently has been used extensively for online commerce (e-commerce) and online banking. can understand the message. This practice is called cryptography and the system is called a cryptosystem.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Encryption Data can be encoded at the sender’s end and decoded at the recipient’s end so that no one. Even with encryption.

Skipjack was originally designed to be integrated onto a chip known as a clipper chip. Prevention should also be addressed in the plan. There are four basic types of viruses: File Infectors: These attach themselves to executable files and spread to other files when the program is run. which identifies and authenticates the sender and message data using public-key encryption. Many viruses are simple annoyances. Viruses Viruses are those nasty little programs that can wreak havoc on a computer and its data. software from unknown origins. It should keep the mission-critical functions first and foremost. They will write themselves into memory any time the computer is booted. It is similar to DES. so as to allow the business or organization to quickly resume their activities. Boot Sector: These replace the master boot record (or boot sector on a floppy). PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is based on Public Key encryption and was developed to encrypt E-mail messages. If the receiver wishes to respond. Disaster Recovery A disaster recovery plan (DRP) lays out how an organization or business is to deal with disasters. EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard) is known as skipjack and uses an 80-bit key. Public Key encryption uses the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and is a one-way type of encryption method. but the use of the 80-bit key makes it much more complex. 242 . files downloaded from the Internet. much less a day. Ensuring the integrity of your network infrastructure to the best of your ability. it is not a completely secure encryption method. will ensure a much quicker recovery. As the name implies.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Extra data appended to a message. Most viruses are written by hackers who are trying to show off. It is designed to offset or minimize the effect of a potential disaster on the business or organization. it is imperative that all possible disaster scenarios be addressed. but some of them can cause irreparable harm to files. both on location and at backup sites. The sole purpose of a virus is to replicate and make life miserable for computer users. and in this method of encryption both parties have the same key. The recipient of the response would then use their private key to decrypt the message. is called a digital signature. Symmetrical Keys are known as Private Keys. Initially. the Public Key method must be used. Since the financial impact on a business can be severe if even down for an hour. in order to send the same key to both parties. The sender encrypts the message using a public key and the receiver decrypts it using a private key. Viruses can be caught from various sources including: shareware. the message is encrypted using the original sender’s public key. and bulletin boards.

but when loaded. many viruses and macroviruses are transmitted over the Internet. Use extreme caution when you download files. Unfortunately viruses have become a way of life in the computer world. Be careful when reading floppies of unknown origin or using your disk on unfamiliar machines. The most secure protection against Internet-distributed viruses is to make sure you have an antivirus program running at all times (or at least when you’re downloading and first running new files). If the computer has a BIOS setting that allows you to disable boot-sector writes. With this in mind. These attach themselves as executable code to documents and run when the document is opened. 243 . Hundreds of viruses are written each month. Unfortunately while macros are very valuable. they mean that when you open a document you are running a program. It used to be true that you couldn’t get a virus from opening a document. there are several measures you can take to prevent or at least minimize the damage: Purchase an antivirus program—there are several good ones on the market. Keep your anti-virus program updated. Many viruses are transmitted by floppy disks. just from running a program. Macro Virus: The biggest nuisance now is macro viruses (such as those that infect Word documents).Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities Trojan Horses: These appear to be legitimate programs. (They can also attach to some kinds of E-mail). they will go to work on the system. especially if they come from sources other than a manufacturer’s Web site. These days. (prevents applications from writing to the boot section of the hard disk). Make sure it is compatible with Windows. enable it! This setting must be disabled before installing Windows. Trust no one when it comes to loading programs on your machine.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 244 .

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book.Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords. Keyword Data Encryption Differential Backup Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping Firewall Full Backup Incremental Backup NAS Password Security RAID SAN Share Level Security User Level Security Volumes Definition 245 .

What does the acronym RAID stand for? 5. What are the six common levels of RAID? 6. 3. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? 246 . What is the function of a firewall? 4. passwords are assigned to __________.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 10 1. In a share level model. What are the two requirements of user level logon? 2.

Chapter 9 – TCP/IP Utilities 247 .

Being an effective troubleshooter does not come automatically with networking knowledge (even though it is implied). Don’t assume that just because you are the expert. you are looking for the cause. if you are the expert. it is well defined by the person who calls and complains. “as reported. identify the affected area. select the most probable cause. Establish the symptoms: Defining a problem is not always as simple as it sounds. They always fail in the middle of a job. In order to do this. test the result.” is really just the symptom and not the true cause. a pen (or pencil). This added frustration often leads to confusion and stress. establish what has changed. This chapter will focus on the application of these facts to solve problems. Remember. Without a complete understanding of the problem (the entire problem) you can spend a great deal of time working on the symptoms instead of the cause. computers never fail at a convenient time. After all.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Being a computer and network professional automatically implies that you are a troubleshooter. What you must learn is how to approach a problem in an organized and methodical manner. you will most likely be called when there is a problem. troubleshooting comprises perhaps the single largest aspect of working with computer and network hardware and software. But is it really defined? Frequently the problem. They may not know the technical reason for the failure. To make matters worse. The majority of this course has focused on the facts and science of networks. For those who must endure the struggle. you must be organized. The first step is the most critical and often the most ignored. The only tools required for this phase are a pad of paper. and good listening skills. or when there is a deadline and the user must have it fixed now. As a troubleshooter. They are as follows: establish the symptoms. the operator doesn’t know what caused the problem. In most cases. not the symptom. Basic Troubleshooting As mentioned. troubleshooting is more of an art form than a science. For some technicians troubleshooting comes naturally. but they often hold the keys to the problem. Troubleshooting is an art and can be learned. This chapter will begin with some basic troubleshooting techniques. The user of the computer or network is your best source of information. a habit of applying a methodical and determined approach will soon result in it becoming second nature for you. If fact. Be sure to listen carefully to your client or co-worker. so that you can focus on the things that might be the cause of the problem. you must be able to quickly and confidently eliminate as many alternatives as possible. Remember. recognize the potential effects of the solution and document the solution. It is proper use of all the parts that will make your next troubleshooting exercise easier. while for others it is a struggle. Let’s take a look at an eight-part approach that will lead to successful troubleshooting. you may know how the computer and network runs and can find the technical cause of 248 . implement a solution. not when all is well. and progress on with some specific tools you can employ to simplify the process.

or help them focus on what was going on when the problem first occurred.) Show me how to create the error. Sometimes. you have isolated the problem to the keyboard or its cabling. Are you the only one having the problem? Did anyone else use this computer? The list of questions could go on forever. Do not make the questions too technical. 249 . This will take time and patience. network or computer moved. have to ask some specific questions to jog their memory. Ask a few questions to help identify the problem and list the events as they occurred before the failure. One thing that might help in such cases is to tell the user to not do anything with the computer when the problem recurs. If it is an operatorinduced problem. but to call you. If possible. it is important to observe how it is created. you will be able to identify the best questions for the situation. the failure occurs. recent software upgrade. With a little experience. Establish what has changed The most difficult problems to isolate are the intermittent ones. Isolating the problem is the art of eliminating what you know from what you don’t know. have someone demonstrate the failure to you. however. screen changes. You may. The user will need to keep detailed records of what is being done before. The purpose is to narrow the search down to one or two general categories. but the operator was there before (and after) the problem started and may recall the events that led up to the failure. The best you can do is to eliminate any obvious problem and work towards the more complex. and most importantly. the process of elimination is all that you can do. There is no particular approach to follow and there is no substitute for experience. These never seem to occur when you are present.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network the failure. and when. lights. and so forth). Identify the affected area The next step involves the process of isolating the problem. if a keyboard is not working and you connect a known good keyboard to the computer and it works. Describe any changes in the computer (noise. The only way to resolve these is to be able to re-create the set of circumstances that causes the failure. as well as the results. For example. Be sure to observe the failure yourself. That way the “evidence” is not disturbed. do not intimidate the user. You may want to create a form with these questions (and others specific to the situation) for taking notes: When did you first notice the problem? What has changed since the computer was last used? (New Software. You will need to create your own list based on the situation.

Starting from the top. The general procedure for isolating network problems is to start globally and work to locally. Once a plan is created. Jumping around and randomly trying things can often lead to more serious problems. create a new plan based on what you discovered with the previous plan. Be sure to refer to any assumptions you may have made. isolate the problem to: A WAN or LAN A segment of a LAN A workgroup or domain A server or workstation A workstation or user 250 . Start with the most obvious or easiest solution to eliminate. is the problem occurring on more than one workstation or is it only on one? If you determine that the problem is only on one workstation and the cabling and network card are working properly. Document every action and its results. It requires two simple steps. it is important to follow it through. In the case of a network problem. the first step in isolation is to separate a network (hardware) problem from a workstation problem. Do not make any assumptions. you can “see” other computers in the network neighborhood. If you must make any assumptions. You may have to refer back to them later. then you know for sure that the network is physically working. write them down. but you cannot receive any E-mail. If the first plan is not successful (it won’t always be). For example. but something must be wrong in the E-mail software or configuration. then you need to further isolate the problem to determine which program is experiencing difficulty. If for example. Write down your plan! The first step of any plan should be document and back up.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Isolation of a problem requires a structured approach. make a plan and follow it. Select the most probable cause Make a Plan and Follow it from Beginning to End Create a planned approach to isolate the problem based on your knowledge at this point. and move forward.

you must be very careful to treat the cause and not the symptoms. you must do three things: Formulate a correction (write down what you think will resolve the problem). In these situations. This will keep you removed from the problem and eliminate the “it always works for the expert” syndrome. and not the hardware or the system. However. if an operator is afraid of computers in general. This means to have the operator duplicate the problem while you watch – do not tell them how. For example. Note: If the problem is software-oriented. Implement a solution After locating or at least narrowing the problem to a few possibilities. it may require some additional effort. as well as the one that is causing problems. the problem may be caused by the operator. start looking for specific hardware: Routers Hubs/Concentrator Cabling or Connections Adapters Software related problems could also be isolated to several causes: Protocols Authentications As often as not. Implement the solution. In these cases. Here are a few suggestions for isolating the hardware/software from the operator: Have another operator perform the same task on their own workstation. if the problem is software or configuration related. With hardware. 251 . Frustrated and confused operators can lead to further problems.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Once the search has been narrowed. It is important to use another operator. be sure to record the “before” and “after” changes. To resolve these types of problems. either repair or replace the defect. repair or replacement is usually all that is needed. Test the correction (make sure that the changes work). you must be careful as to how you resolve the problem while not alienating the operator. Resolving operator-induced failures is more difficult than hardware induced failures. no amount of training or instruction will solve a problem until that general fear is removed. Confirm that the operator is using standard operating procedures.

The reality is that the time you spend after the repair can save repeat service calls and shorten the time-cycle for future service calls. the problem. Document the solution Finally. you are wasting your time and should be working on the next problem. and share experience. Keeping a copy of the repair procedure in your technical library may come in handy in a year or two when the problem (or one like it) happens again. This means to document (in writing) the symptoms.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Now we want to separate the true professional from the amateur. The basis for this policy is that once the system is running. Confirmation of the repair can save you a return trip to repeat the fix or to correct a problem that you created. there is no substitute for experience. In troubleshooting. This is one way to build. Many troubleshooting and repair services operate on the fix and run principle. Recognize the potential effects of the solution Make sure that the fix did not create other problems. 252 . You must look at every new problem as an opportunity to expand that experience. maintain. Confirmation means to make sure that the problem no longer exists. or a follow up call just to make sure all is well. and the repair. Test the Result No repair is complete without confirmation that the job is done. document the problem and the repair. Confirming the repair may include some form of feedback from the user. You have not done a professional job if the repair was completed at the expense of something else. Ask the user to test the solution and confirm satisfaction.

The narrow nose with its serrated jaws is used for pulling or coiling wire. let us quickly cover some tools used to setup the network cabling. Hardware Networking Tools Before we get into the tools that are designed specifically to troubleshoot and ensure the integrity of your network. Wire Crimper Punch Down Tool Punch down tools are used to “punch down” cabling to “blocks” in your wiring rack. Wire Crimper The wire crimper is a versatile tool that strips and cuts copper wire as well as crimping solderless terminals. They secure the connection between the wires and the block. Punch Down Tool 253 . a network troubleshooter will need a few tools to make the process of troubleshooting easier. Networking tools can be divided into two categories: hardware tools and software tools.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Networking and Troubleshooting Tools Just like a good computer repair technician.

The red wire is the positive probe and the black wire is the negative or ground probe. These devices are generally used when you make your own cabling. In a wire for example.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Hardware Troubleshooting Tools Hardware troubleshooting tools are used to confirm the integrity of the cabling. and continuity. which will indicate a complete circuit by either a light or a sound. Network cabling is. They can check for continuity and how the pin outs line up. which is one of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. The purpose of continuity testing is to confirm a complete electrical circuit. it is to check to see that a wire is not broken. When you connect both leads of the meter to each end of the device you are testing. Some meters will let you test for current as well. With it you can test various electronic components. When working with network cabling. There are several tools we can use to check for open and shorted wires. but only low amounts (less than 10 amps). These failures are like a water pipe that is broken (open) or has a leak (shorted). the resistance reading for continuity would be zero – meaning that current is flowing without resistance. it is still possible to test for continuity. A good cable will provide continuity or current flow from one end to the other. A shorted conductor means that the current is flowing to ground or another cable instead of being isolated. the resistance reading will be infinity or maximum – meaning that no current is flowing. you can have only one of two problems. For example. in principle. whether it be RJ-11 or RJ-45. Media Tester Media testers are usually devices used to test the cabling. All you need to do is use the resistance setting and test the device. We will start by looking at a multimeter. we will have to know how to test for continuity. resistance. If the test is negative (no light or noise). a pair of wires with probes (one black and one red). 254 . The Multimeter The name multimeter was derived from its ability to measure several different parameters. very easy to troubleshoot. and a switch for adjusting the range of settings to be measured. Most will consist of a digital or analog meter or display. Most multimeters have a “continuity” setting. the circuit is broken. An open conductor means that the cable is broken and the current will not flow from one end to the other. You can test for AC and DC voltage. If your meter does not have a continuity setting. If the wire is broken. as well as the electrical power in the computer. Since it is made up of wires. A bad cable will be either open or shorted. a positive test (the light comes on or it makes a noise) means that the circuit is complete.

and test at the other end. several pairs of wires at one end (the hub or patch panel). this is not a problem. Telephone and phone wiring companies use two tools. However. The problem when using this tool for testing continuity of a network cable is the length of the cable. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied. The tone locator is a receiver that is set to the frequency of the generator. it will emit a tone. If both ends are in the same location. However. if the cable is a hundred feet long and spans the length of a building. these tools are often called a fox and a hound. called tone generators and tone locators. This applies a signal on the wires. there are more often than not. When used together. to find pairs of wires in a bundle.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Network Tester Tone Generator and Tone Locator A multimeter is a universal tool and almost any electrical or electronic technician will have one. The question then becomes which pair goes to which room? Solving these problems with continuity testing can take a long time unless you are just lucky. 255 . You can use a pair of wires (very common in network cables) and connect the two wires at one end. The tone generator is connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). testing for continuity will require an additional wire. thus locating the wires.

The Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is used to find breaks and shorts in network cabling. and therefore back to the network card. They will monitor network traffic. because they look just like patch cables but are not interchangeable.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Tone Generator Test Cables One method of isolating problems is to use a special cable to remove a workstation from a network and simulate that it is still connected. These cables can be used to connect two computers into a single network eliminating any other network hardware. the location of any break or short can be determined. The transmit wire on one connector is connected to the receive wire on the other (and vice versa). Software analyzers. you will know that the network card and the protocol stack are functioning. By calculating the time it takes a signal to travel the length of a cable and to be reflected back. but is double-ended. A loopback cable is just what the name implies. Many protocol analyzers will include a TDR as one of their functions. Two such cables are the hardware loopback and the crossover cable. are usually a PC with a special network card. Time Domain Reflectometer For those who are serious network troubleshooters. It has the transmit and receive wires connected. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is used to monitor and analyze network traffic. If you are able to send a signal and have it return. Any signal placed on the transmit wire will loopback to the receive wire. there are advanced tools that may well be worth the time and investment. also called packet sniffers. capture packets and generate reports. Be careful when using a crossover cable. It is a single-ended cable that connects to a network card. 256 . A crossover cable is similar to a loopback.

OTDRs also calculate the locations of breaks by the amount of time it takes for a signal to travel the length of the cable and back. 257 .Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Optical Tester Optical Testers or optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR) are essentially the same as a TDR. but used for fiber optic cabling.

Common Mode Failures Loss of Data Network Security Violations (Insufficient Rights or Permissions) Reduced Bandwidth 258 . the network. or a disk resource. An example would be a network card that begins to continually broadcast useless information and overloads the network. If data transfers are incomplete or inaccurate.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks Maintaining and troubleshooting networks differs from operating system to operating system. the traffic is not moving. Common mode failures are generated when one component of a LAN causes the entire LAN to fail. check to ensure all network cabling and connectors are intact. This is sometimes called a broadcast storm. Reduced bandwidth is just like a traffic jam. Therefore. and a stuck caps-lock key can cause errors. Authentication Probable Cause Usually these are authentication errors. you will need to refer to the operating systems’ manuals for detailed troubleshooting procedures. but can be caused by a disconnected cable. Anything that breaks the integrity of the data on a network is a break of security. You can’t access a resource unless the administrator of the network has allowed you to do so. A bottleneck is any resource that limits the rate at which network traffic can be moved. Some passwords are case-sensitive. Often these are caused by typos when entering user names and passwords. due to either excessive traffic or a bottleneck. For some reason. A common failure is for a user to be unable to logon. It could be the processor. The following table provides some generic troubleshooting concepts: Network Troubleshooting Situation A single workstation does not connect to the network.

and moves information. tasks like backing up drives or moving large amounts of data can be done at night. so does the traffic. If slow loading persists even after defragmenting. You must defragment the drive. As networks grow. Traffic Overloads Unauthorized Software 259 .Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Slow Loading of Programs and Files Fragmentation occurs when the operating system saves. check for memory bottlenecks. For example. the network slows down. deletes. When the amount of traffic exceeds the ability of the network to carry it. You must manage software distribution to ensure users are not loading non-licensed software and computer viruses onto the network drives. These problems can be addressed by segmenting the network and scheduling non-critical work for after hours.

0. but looks better and includes the MAC address of the network adapter card. Remember this address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Troubleshooting Scenarios The following summarizes some possible scenarios that you may encounter and how to provide a solution: Misbehaving Protocols You have just installed a new workstation and are unable to see any other workstations or servers on the network. This will test the protocol stack in the computer. because as a network professional. you will use it often. The loopback address is 127. TRACERT allows you to trace the “hops’ (routers encountered) that a packet takes to its destination. PING. These commands work from a command prompt. If you are using TCP/IP. open the TCP/IP Control Panel to use these utilities. and TRACERT commands to test the network. On a Windows 95/98 computer. This command will give the same results as IPCONFIG from DOS. The first step is to PING the loopback address. It also lets you know the time that it takes. you can confirm your hardware and protocols by using the IPCONFIG. PING the Loopback Address The next step is to use IPCONFIG to get details about your workstation.0. On a Macintosh system. This comes in handy if you need to see where exactly on the Internet your packet is going. you can use the WINIPCFG command from the RUN dialog box in the START menu. 260 .1.

6.48.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Notice that the IP address of this computer is 195. your dialog box will look like the following.55. This command is only for Windows 9x and ME and will not work on a Windows NT/2000 system. WINIPCFG. 261 . WINIPCFG You can now PING that address to determine if the network card and protocol stack for the computer are working properly. If you are using Windows.

48. If at any stage. The biggest problem with them is that we often assume that since they worked yesterday. or the computer you are PINGing is not using the TCP/IP protocol. you have encountered a problem. they must be okay. With each step. Cable Problems Cabling problems are simple: either they work or they don’t. PING Found a Problem If you are unable to reach a host computer. the server. Here are some suggestions when you suspect cable problems: 262 . use the ipxping command. Poor connections and loose connectors cause most cable problems.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide PING 195. then there is a problem with the protocol. you will be testing a larger portion of the network. and so on. For the IPX/SPX networks.6 Continue the process by PINGing another workstation. Usually this means you have the wrong IP address.55. It could simply mean that it is not logged on to the network. you receive a message like the following.

The difference between HOSTS and LMHOSTS is that HOSTS is used in place of DNS and LMHOSTS is used in place of WINS. but are starting to get complaints that “the network is slow. To resolve this problem. Beyond that. In general. Check the indicator lights on the adapter card. you can find them on the host in the systemroot\system32\driver directory.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Any time a computer was moved and it suddenly stops responding to the network. 263 . That location is the DNS (Domain Name Server). Somewhere in the system is a table or database that provides the translations from number to name and vise versa. we need to look at four limiting factors on performance. These are ASCII text files that are used to statically map local and remote hostnames and NetBIOS names to IP addresses. If no lights are on.” With nslookup. the first thing to do is find out what has changed. How do you determine the problem? One network problem encountered is name resolution. you can be sure that the network is not being detected. If present. Name Resolution You are testing a new workstation and are unable to see the workstation by its domain name. have two names. NIC Indicator Lights Many network cards have from one to three LED lights (green or yellow) next to the cable connector. Another place to look for name resolution problems (on a local LAN) is in the HOSTS and LMHOSTS files. If there is a sudden change in performance. while green lights indicate that all is well. One is the IP address number. you will need to use a TCP/IP utility called “nslookup. they will indicate whether or not the card can detect the presence of a network and when data is being transmitted. Performance You think that your network is performing without problems. If these files are being used. Any new hardware or applications (including upgrades) are always good candidates for the problem. you can connect directly to the DNS and access the information stored there. (which the computers like) and the other is the IP address name (which we humans like). we learned that workstations. respectively. Earlier. or hosts. Replace any suspect drop or patch cables with a known good one. These lights can be seen from the back of the computer.” What are you going to do? These problems are often difficult to resolve because there are a vast number of possibilities as to the cause. You know that the IP connection is good because you can PING the IP address. suspect a loose or disconnected cable. The actual function of each light will depend on the manufacturer and you may have to check the documentation that came with the card for details. they will let you know if the card is working and if it can access the network.

if any one component is performing poorly. you will know the high. or maximum speed that traffic can move. This may require the requestor to continue to resend its request. but can be measured and will affect performance in large networks. An application will have to be designed to take advantage of burst mode in order to use it. are negligible. everything slows down. The bandwidth is the number of packets that can move past a point at any given time (also measured in Mbps). Resolving performance problems can be easy. Therefore. A server with a memory deficiency will have to write information to a disk cache. if the traffic gets too congested. The performance of a network will only be as fast as the slowest link in the entire system. Routers and switches that connect any two segments of a network can cause these delays. From this information. You can think of a network as a super highway and the vehicles as being packets of information. if you are experiencing slow printing. for the most part. at a later date. Latency delays. you can print the same document at different times throughout the day and record the time it takes to print. This can slow down data transfer. This means that for a small amount of time. The answer lies in creating a performance baseline. Application Efficiency Any application that was not designed to work over a network will be unable to take full advantage of network protocols. Just like our highway. Server/Workstation Limits Nothing will slow down a network more than a sluggish server. after you identify the problem. slow. 264 . is the throughput and is measured in Mbps (Megabits per second). Reading and writing from a disk is much slower than from memory. A server that is operating its CPU at 100% will have to delay processing of each request until it completes its current request. and average time to print the document. but are interrelated.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Bandwidth and Throughput Bandwidth and throughput are not the same thing. The speed limit. some network operating systems will allow for burst mode operation. Then. the more packets that can be moved). To create a baseline. A baseline is simply a record of performance criteria at a given time. it can send data at a faster than rated speed. you will need to run a series of tests and record the performance. Latency Small delays in packet movement that is caused by devices is called latency. it will affect the entire network. you can re-test the printer performance under the same conditions and determine if things have changed. For example. adding to the network load. For example. Think of the bandwidth as the number of lanes on the highway (the more lanes. The trick is knowing how the network performed when it was good and how it performs now.

etc. Windows Performance Monitor 265 .Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network The key to monitoring network performance is statistics. With this tool. With this activated. you will need to use some software called performance monitor for the server or network statistics software for the network itself. Similar software packages (usually as part of a network analyzer) will collect data for packets/sec. percent of network utilization. you can monitor and collect data for a variety of events. Network statistics will come from two sources – the server and the network. To collect these statistics. you will be able to monitor such events as processor time. available memory. Windows NT has a built in performance monitor as part of its administrative tools. etc.

Hint: There’s a glossary in the back of this book. Keyword Bandwidth IPCONFIG Latency Media Tester Multimeter Performance Monitor PING Punch Down Tool TDR Throughput Tone Generator Tone Locator WINIPCFG Wire Crimper Definition 266 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide KEYWORDS Exercise Define each of the following keywords.

but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office. What is the loopback IP address? 7.Chapter 11 – Troubleshooting a Network Review Questions Chapter 11 1. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? 4. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? 10. You have located the cable in question #3. What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? 267 . What tool would you need to find the short? 5. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. What utility can you use to confirm that the protocol stack is good? 6. and think it might be shorted. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? 8. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? 2. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? 3. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? 9. You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slowly. After repairing a problem.

be sure to review any areas that need improvement. and don’t forget to use the Glossary. start taking the practice exams that are on the CD-ROM that was included with this course. the best thing about a self-study course is that you are able to review it as much. and as often. When you are ready to schedule your exam. We hope that you have enjoyed your Network+ training journey as much as we have enjoyed providing it to you. you are ready to sit for your certification exam. we’d be happy to hear from you! Remember. so if you have any questions. We love to hear from our students. 268 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Conclusion This concludes our Network+ Training & Test Preparation guide. Thank you for allowing us to be your training partner and please let us know if we can help with any of your future training needs. our success is directly tied to the success that our students have with our training and certification products. as you like. be sure to refer back to the beginning of this book for tips on what to expect at the exam site. at Specialized Solutions. When you are consistently achieving scores in the 90% range. After taking a practice exam. or if you just want to let us know how you are doing. To measure your retention of these materials. Remember. The following “Appendix A” is an excellent source of review material.

Conclusion 269 .

They are specified based on their impedance. Coaxial Cable Types Not all coaxial cables are the same. Maximum of 4 repeaters. Uses 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base5 Thicknet 10Base2 Thinnet Cable TV ARCnet Type RG-8 RG-11 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 Impedance – Ohms 50 50 50 75 93 270 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix A – Tech Summary The following tables summarize key information found in this course: 5-4-3 Rule When installing Ethernet cabling. • • • Maximum of 5 segments in a series. It is expressed in ohms. all electronic components must operate at the same impedance. you must conform to the 5-4-3 rule. In order for the network to operate at peak performance. Only 3 segments can contain nodes. Using the wrong cable will cause poor performance and/or failure of the network. Impedance is a unit of measurement for resistance to AC voltages.

Description Stranded wire core. Broadband transmission.Appendix A – Tech Summary Cable RG-58 /U RG-58 A/U RG-58 C/U RG-59 RG-6 Solid copper core. ArcNet networks. Larger in diameter and rated for higher frequencies than RG-59. Repeaters Max Segments with Nodes 3 3 3 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet UTP Bus Bus Star 10 10 10 5 5 5 4 4 4 hubs 271 . but also used for broadband transmissions. RG-62 Ethernet Cabling Cable Type Topology Max. such as cable television. Length (meters) 500 185 100 Speed Mbps Nodes Per Segment 100 30 1024 Max Segments Max. Military specification of RG-58 A/U.

Fiber Optic Data patch cables. but adds voice capability along with data. Two STP – 26 AWG wire. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 272 . Cannot be used for 16 Mbps Token Ring. Not Defined Two 62. two STP and four UTP – maximum length 100 meters (328 feet). Four UTP with two twists per inch – 22 or 24 AWG wire –maximum cable length is 45 meters (148 feet). Four twisted pairs with three twists per inch. Type 1 2 Wire Specs Two STP solid core 22 AWG wires – maximum length 101 meters (331 feet). Plenum grade. Uses Voice ONLY 10 Mbps Data grade up to 16 Mbps. Four twisted pairs with 4 twists per inch. Data grade up to 100 Mbps. Uses Connect between terminals and distribution boxes or between different wiring closets. Two STP –26 AWG wire. Voice-grade cable. Not Defined Two STP – 26 AWG.5/125-micron multi-mode fibers. IBM Cable Types (Token Ring) IBM has created its own standards for their Token Ring Networks. Four twisted pairs with 5 twists per inch. Contains a shield for use under carpets.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide UTP Cable Categories Category 1&2 3 4 5 Wire Specs Suitable only below 4 Mbps. Six twisted pairs. Same as type 1. Lower cost alternative to type 1 or 2.

They also divide the Data Link Layer into two sub-layers: Logical Link Control and Media Access Controls.x Standards The IEEE 802 standards work in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI Model.9 802.6 802.7 802.1 802.4 802.10 802.12 Basis of Standard Internetworking Logical Link Control Sub Layer CSMA/CD Ethernet Token Bus LAN Token Ring LAN Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) Broadband Technologies Fiber Optic Technologies Hybrid Voice/Data Networks Network Security Wireless Networks High Speed LANs 273 .3 802.2 802.11 802.Appendix A – Tech Summary IEEE 802. 802.8 802.5 802.x Standard 802.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide IRQ Assignments IRQ assignments can vary from computer to computer. there are some that are always the same and some that can be changed. The following is a standard configuration for IRQ settings: IRQ 0 1 2/9 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 Function System Timer Keyboard Controller Available COM2. COM3 LPT2 Floppy Controller LPT1 Real-time Clock Available SCSI/available Available Math Coprocessor Primary IDE Secondary IDE Available for Change No No Yes Usually Usually Usually-Often used for NICs. No Usually No Yes Yes Yes If no math coprocessor No Usually 274 . however. COM4 COM1.

LPT3 280 to 28F 290 to 29F 2A0 to 2AF 2B0 to 2BF 2C0 to 2CF 2D0 to 2DF 2E0 to 2EF – COM2 300 to 30F – Network Adapter Card 310 to 31F – Network Adapter Card 320 to 32F – Hard Disk Controller (For PS/2 Model 30) 330 to 33F 340 to 34F 350 to 35F 360 to 36F 370 to 37F . The following are common address assignments: 200 to 20F – Game Port 210 to 21F 220 to22F 230 to 23F – Bus Mouse 240 to 24F 260 to 26F 270 to 27F .Appendix A – Tech Summary In addition to IRQs you may have to set the Base I/O address.LPT2 380 to 38F 390 to 39F 3A0 to 3AF 275 .

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3B0 to 3BF – LPT1 3C0 to 3CF – EGA/VGA 3D0 to 3DF – CGA/MCGA (also EGA/VGA in color video Modes) 3E0 to 3EF 3F0 to 3FF – Floppy Disk Controller OSI Model 276 .

x.x.x.534 254 277 .0 Number of Networks 126 16. x.777.255.x.255.214 65.x.Appendix A – Tech Summary OSI Model and Connectivity Devices: Layer Number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Routers Bridges NICs.255.x to 126.x 128.x Default Subnet Mask 255. Hubs.x to 191.x 192.x.x to 223.x.x. Subnet masks are assigned according to the following three classes: Class A B C IP Address 001.x.152 Number of Host 16.0 255.0.0. Repeaters Switches Brouter Computers Gateways Devices Subnet Masking Subnet masks are used to divide an IP address into its network address and host address.x. x.384 2.097.0.0 255.

Used to see the entries in the Address Resolution table (uses IP addresses to find MAC addresses).1) to test the IP architecture and configuration. the subnet address. If all is well.0. Displays the basic local host configuration – IP address. Common ports are as follows: Service FTP TELNET SMTP HTTP POP3 Port 21 23 25 80 110 TCP/IP Utilities TCP/IP provides many tools for troubleshooting networks. and default gateway. Here are some command-line utilities: IFCONFIG IPCONFIG Shows the user’s network interface configuration. Sends a test packet to a specified address. Uses a MAC address to find an IP address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide TCP/IP Ports A port is a virtual outlet that can be opened on a network device.0. PING ARP RARP 278 . it will return. the subnet mask. Use the loopback address (127.

) Used to verify entries on a DNS server. ROUTE ADD to add entries and ROUTE DELETE to remove entries. Used to check the status of current IP connections.Appendix A – Tech Summary ROUTE Used to see the local routing table and to add entries to it. 279 . Used to verify the route to a remote host. In a star topology. NBSTAT NETSTAT TRACERT NSLOOKUP Topology Review In a bus topology. all computers are connected in a series. (Pronounced Trace Route. Used to check the resolutions of NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses. Use ROUTE PRINT to display contents. all computers are connected to a hub.

In a mesh topology. all computers are connected to each other. 280 .Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide In a ring topology. all computers are connected in a circle.

Used to capture packets on a network and analyze them. Protocol Analyzer 281 .Appendix A – Tech Summary Transmission Media Media UTP STP Coaxial Thicknet Coaxial Thinnet Fiber Optic Infrared Bandwidth (Mbps) 4-100 16-155 10 10 2000 1-10 Nodes/Segment 1 Varies 100 30 1 NA Maximum Nodes per Network 1024 260 300 90 1024 Varies Maximum Cable Length (meters) 100 100 500 185 2000 32 Troubleshooting Tools Hardware Volt/Ohm Meter Cable Tester Oscilloscope Uses Used to test voltages. and continuity of electronic devices and circuitry. TDR – checks and locates breaks in cables. Used with TDR to locate cable breaks. resistance. Also called a network analyzer. An electronic device that graphically displays frequency and magnitude of analog signals. Can also be used for precise voltage measurements.

Used to provide information for network baselines. hubs.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Software Performance Monitor Uses Use to monitor and graphically display various performance parameters found on workstations. servers. interface cards. Displays or prints a list of events. Event Viewer SNMP 282 . routers. and networks. Simple Network Management Protocol – used to monitor network devices (servers. and bridges).

Appendix A – Tech Summary 283 .

compuserve.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix B – Useful Web Sites Microsoft: http://www.net 284 .warriorsofthe.novell.com CompuServe http://www.com Novell http://www.microsoft.cnet.com http://www.com Other Helpful Sites http://www.

Appendix B – Useful Web Sites 285 .

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization of industry and business groups who develop trade and communication standards.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations The networking industry is full of standards and committees making new standards. This is a common code for basic characters and numbers. let alone the networking industry. EIA The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a group of American manufacturers of electronic equipment. This appendix will summarize several of the important standards used in the network industry. Perhaps the most well known standard is the RS-232 standard for serial communication via DB-9 and DB-25 connector. As its name implies. In the computing industry. 286 . it is perhaps best known for the development of the ASCII character set. For additional information. ANSI This is one of the most common standards in the computing industry. ANSI also is the United States representative on several international organizations like ISO and CCITT (see below). it is responsible for establishing standards for communication. It is prominent in developing standards for the interface between data processing equipment and communication equipment. Perhaps the most famous standards are the “V” standards for modems and Faxes. CCITT The CCITT (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie) is an international organization also known as the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. search for these organizations on the Internet.

287 . ISO The International Standards Organization (ISO) is responsible for establishing international standards for all services and manufactured product. See Appendix A for a summary of the 802. its emphasis is on SQL or the Structured Query Language. As long as both are SQL compliant. As you may guess from its name. Be careful to not get ISO and OSI confused.Appendix C – Network Standards Organizations IEEE The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. the data can be smoothly transferred.x sub-committees. SAG SAG or SQL Access Group is working in conjunction with ISO to develop interoperability standards. A major ISO contribution to the network community was the development of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model. These standards are used for equipment operating in the Physical and Data link layers of the OSI Model. The one that is important to networking professionals is called the IEEE 802.x committee. Inc. the IEEE is subdivided into committees. Since they cover a wide variety of equipment. This is a common platform for transferring data from one database application to another.) publishes many standards for electrical and electronic equipment.

or by requesting an invoice be sent to you or your employer. and may be obtained by calling Prometric or VUE.com for VUE. Payment must be made each time you take the test. Payment is made at the time of registration. Prices subject to change without notice. go to www. please have the following available: Social Security Number or Testing ID Two forms of ID (one with photo) Mailing address and telephone number. The test is available to anyone who wants to take the test. Vouchers and coupons are also redeemed at this time.vue. credit card or voucher.2test. Tests are given at both Prometric and VUE Authorized Testing Centers.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam To Register for the Network+ Exams Register for the Network+ Certification Exam by calling 1-888-895-6116 for Prometric or 1-877-551-7587 for VUE. When you call. Date you wish to take the test. Method of payment. either by credit card. 288 . To register via the Internet. Individuals may retake the test as often as they like.com for Prometric or www.

Appendix D – How to Register for the Exam 289 .

Application Server ARCNet ARP Attenuation AWG Bandwidth 290 . these three terms are often used interchangeably. The highest layer of the OSI Model. A continuously variable signal.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix E – Glossary Access Method ACK Active Hub Analog Signal AppleShare AppleTalk Application Application Layer A way of accessing the network. The file server on an AppleTalk network. program. or a circuit or device designed to handle such signals. or computers on the network (nodes). Attached Resource Computer Network Address Resolution Protocol The signal loss due to the physical properties of copper wire that happens over distance. Regenerates or amplifies a signal when it is passed through. Software. The Apple networking protocol. The difference between the lowest and highest transmission channel frequencies. usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). so they can communicate with other applications or nodes. Acknowledgment message confirming receipt of the data packet. it supplies functions to applications. American Wire Gauge AWG is the standard that describes wire thickness. or bits per second (bps). opposite of digital. A dedicated server for applications. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases.

User computer “being served” by another computer. Companies contracted to carry our data over long distances. IP Address used by medium-sized networks. A form of mobile computing. A bus driver. An area of memory that holds information for a peripheral device until it can be processed. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable or medium. Class C IP addresses are used for smaller networks that do not exceed 254 hosts. Hardware that connects one network with another. A LAN in which all workstations are connected to a single cable. such as Microsoft. Uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. The location in a computer’s RAM of the beginning of the buffer area that is reserved for use by the NIC. 291 Buffer Bus Topology Carrier Cellular Networking Class A IP Address Class B IP Address Class C IP Address Client . IP Address used by very large networks. The signal flow is uni-directional. Can also refer to a class of memory registers and devices that match data transfer speeds between computers and hardware (peripherals). A process used to identify any area on the network that may be experiencing problems. these are all in use at the present time.Appendix E – Glossary Base I/O Port Address Base Memory Address Baseband Beaconing BNC Connector BOOTP Boot Prom Bridge Broadband The channel through which data flows between a computer’s hardware (such as a NIC) and the CPU. or DEC. British Naval Connector BOOTstrap Protocol Boot Programmable Read Only Memory is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. GM. such as IBM.

Cyclic Redundancy Check. or transmitted with a group of data in order to detect data corruption. which is. using a specific protocol. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Carrier Sense NetWare Changes the frame types between the LAN and WAN Information. at the sender’s level and then decoded at the recipient’s level. Data that is encoded for security reasons. Concentrator Cooperative Multitasking CRC Crosstalk CSMA/CA CSMA/CD CSNW CSU/DSU Data Data Encryption 292 . itself. The signal bleed that occurs between individual wires in a cable. or Cyclic redundancy Code. A form of multitasking. surrounded by a tubular piece of plastic. Same as a hub. as recognized by a computer and transmitted across a variety media. Client Software Clocking Coaxial Cable Software used by the client. is a number derived from. The method used by the NIC to count and pace the number of signals that it sends and receives. or language. in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide called a server. to allow other tasks to run. from computer or network to another. stored. An electrical cable consisting of a solid piece of metal wire surrounded by insulation.

It performs error checking and re-transmits frames that were not received correctly. Also called data striping. Domain Name System Default Gateway Demand Priority DHCP Digital Signal Disaster Recovery Disk Mirroring Disk Striping DMA (Direct Memory Access) DNS 293 . so that one can take over for the other if it fails. in a round-robin fashion. Baseband uses digital signals over a single frequency. The Data Link layer splits data into frames. this is the dividing into segments of logically sequential data.) Being able to recover data from a disaster. for sending on the Physical layer. which are large areas of data that are split into smaller non-contiguous blocks.A method for leasing and maintaining that lease for IP addresses and related information to clients. It also receives acknowledgement frames. DMA allows a device to read and write memory without intervention by the CPU. It is the last stop before the data packets are placed on the media for transmission. the second disk can locate the next segment while data is being transferred from the first disk. When you type the IP address of the gateway routers you have installed on your network.Appendix E – Glossary Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is the second lowest layer in the OSI model. A limited form of bus mastering. (Simple “on” or “off” signal. such as an individual file. whichever one appears first on the list is considered the default gateway. so that the segments can be written to multiple disk drives. The use of two or more hard disks that “mirror” the main one. This access method is designed for the 100 Mbps Ethernet standard 100VG-AnyLAN Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . If the processor is capable of reading or writing data faster than a single disk can supply or accept it.

A local area network (LAN) recognized as the industry standard. An improved version of X. File Allocation Table A server on a network that is configured to provide both incoming and outgoing fax services to the entire network. A set of programs running on a network’s gateway server that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and allows only authorized packets to be transmitted or received. Dial-up Networking Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus that converts the PC bus from 16-bits to 32-bits. File Transfer Protocol Data can travel in both directions at once. A group of bits containing address information. error detection. A Windows NT utility that will allow you to log any events and errors. A computer that acts as a translator. with a very large amount of storage space for shared files. A way to run AppleTalk on coaxial cable using an EtherTalk NB NIC.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide DSMN DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is another add-on utility that is used to integrate user and group account information between the two operating systems. that enables two DUN EISA Bus Ethernet EtherTalk Event Viewer FAT Fax Server Fiber-Optic Cable File Server Firewall Frame Relay Frames FTP Full-Duplex Gateway 294 . Optical fibers carry digital signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. and other control information. A network’s central computer. sent over a communications channel.25 packet switching technology.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol HyperText Transport Protocol Secure The center of a cabling system or a network with star topology architecture. to communicate with each other. It precedes the actual data. RFC 792. Internet Protocol This 32-bit host address defined by the Internet Protocol in STD 5. using different protocols. GSNW Half-Duplex Header Gateway Service for NetWare Half-Duplex can send transmissions both ways (send and receive). Text files that are used to look up and resolve names to IP addresses. HOSTS is used for DNS and LMHOSTS is used for WINS. RFC 791. but only one at a time. or ring topologies. is usually represented in dotted decimal notation.Appendix E – Glossary networks. A network topology that combines bus. and other information. The portion of a packet that contains source and destination addresses. DOS command that tells you the IP address for your 295 HOSTS and LMHOSTS files HTTP HTTPS Hub Hybrid Topology ICA ICMP ICS IFCONFIG IMAP4 Interoperability IP IP Address IPCONFIG . defined in STD 5. and informational messages related to IP. star. Internet Connection Sharing Shows the user’s network interface configuration Internet Messaging Access Protocol The ability of software and hardware to communicate. is an extension to the Internet Protocol (IP) that allows for the generation of error messages. Independent Computing Architecture Internet Control Message Protocol. even though there may be multiple machines from multiple vendors. test packets.

” Server used for E-mail. A system for user authentication Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Local Area Network A wireless network standard that uses laser beams for the transmission of data. a device to attach multiple network stations in a star topology. Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards that allows a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice. The MAC address is the address that is hardwired onto the NIC by the manufacturer. a 32-bit bus. Industry Standard Architecture refers to the bus architecture used in the IBM PC. it’s “hardware address. Multistation Access Unit in a Token Ring network. Media Access Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer. and video data sources. IPsec IRQ A security protocol that works at network layer Interrupt Request causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Micro Channel Architecture. internally wired to connect the stations into a logical ring.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide computer. introduced by ISA Bus ISDN Kerberos L2TP LAN Laser Transmissions Latency LLC LocalTalk MAC Mail Server MAN Management Software MAU/MSAU MCA Bus 296 . Logical Link Control – a sublayer of the Data Link Layer AppleTalk networks are usually called LocalTalk. across a network connection. Metropolitan Area Network The primary software package used by the administrator. The time it takes for a packet to go from sender to receiver. data.

totally incompatible with the original PC bus. Message Handling System – A standard defined by ITU-T as X. Network Attached Storage Network Address Translation NetBIOS Statistics NetWare Directory Services Names used with WINS. protocol as well A group of computers linked together for the purpose of sharing resources. The individual who has complete responsibility for maintaining a network.400 and by ISO as Message-Oriented Text Interchange Standard (MOTIS). Single Frequency Radio. Tool used for testing the continuity and pin-outs of a cable Every device is connected to every other device by separate cables and has redundant paths. MHS provides the functions for global E-mail transfer among local mail systems. Also known as a network interface card. Media Media Tester Mesh Topology MHS A method of data transmission. Performing multiple tasks simultaneously. A type of hub. Provides the physical connection to the network cable. The transmitter and receiver are tuned to the same frequency. A wireless network standard that uses microwave signals for data transmission.Appendix E – Glossary IBM for its PS/2 computer line. One of the most basic tools for electronic troubleshooting. 297 Microwave Transmissions Multimeter Multistation Access Unit Multitasking Narrow-Band Radio NAS NAT NBTSTAT NDS NetBIOS Network Network Adapter Card Network Administrator . Much like your local radio station. among others. and is used by CompuServe. The actual ring in a Token Ring network is in the hub.

A “packet” may also refer to a frame or datagram. All the computers on the network can act as either a client or server. A user has to enter a password to gain access to the network or to shared resources. A protocol that cannot be routed or passed through routers on a network. The hardware that is used to construct the network plays an important role at this layer. The network layer handles all the routing information as packets travel from one network to another. Acts as a connection point only.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Layer An adapter circuit board installed in a computer that provides a physical connection to a network. including network connectivity. A generic term used to describe a unit of data. depending upon the needs of the user. A packet actually refers to Application layer data units (APDU). A Windows NT service that allows for interoperability with the NetWare NOS. Each part of an IP Address that contains eight bits of data is called an octet. depending on the protocol. A 32-bit architecture bus for PC expansion cards. Non-Routable Protocol NOS NTFS NTSTAT NWLink Octet OSI Packets Passive Hub Password Security Patch Cable PCI Bus PCMCIA Card Peer-to-Peer 298 . Network Operating System NT File System A TCP/IP utility command that will return information regarding the status of a network. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. They extend the connection between the computer and the hub or between two hubs. Refers to the OSI (Open Systems Interface) Model.

many third-party applications are available. A group of protocols that are used to communicate between computers on a network. which means that a process can take control of the CPU and check for other processes. this feature has a different scheme called cooperative multitasking. and running on TCP/IP. converting character sets and encrypting data. The Presentation layer formats data exchange. The Physical layer is the lowest layer in the OSI Model. The OSI model is the ideal protocol stack. Dedicated server for printing. A hardware device. A way of testing the server to see if it is alive and functioning. The space between the ceiling and the floor above. such as a printer or scanner. This layer determines the interface hardware and the medium that will be used to transmit the data from the Data Link layer. Defines a channel between a device and the processor. Although included as part of Windows NT. Peripheral Physical Layer PING Plenum Port Number POP3 PPP PPTP Preemptive Multitasking Presentation Layer Print Server Protocol Stack 299 . Post Office Protocol 3 Point-to-Point Protocol Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Introduced in version 3. and even if a process takes full control. The preemptive feature allows NT to hand out slices of CPU time.1. allowing incompatible processes in the Application layer to communicate with the Session layer. other processes will still run.Appendix E – Glossary Performance Monitor A software tool that is used to monitor the performance of a network server.5 of Windows 3. used to circulate air through a building.

Used to increase cable distances in network environments. In Token-Ring networks. which then routes the signal appropriately. For example. A protocol that can be routed over the internet or through routers on a network. the devices are connected in a continuous loop. In a Ring topology. The signal is beamed towards a central unit. The services or peripherals that are shared over the network. Used for “punching” down wire to a block Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks Uses a MAC address to find an IP address. A service provided by Windows NT that allows most of the services provided by a network. Will hold up to 4 pairs of conductors. the proxy server. For example. i.e. Flat cable with 2 or 4 conductors. Connector used with standard telephone wire. Connector used with UTP and STP network cables. Storage Area Network Punch Down Tool RAID RARP RAS Redirector/Requester Reflective Infrared Repeater Resources Ring Speed Ring Topology RJ-11 Connector RJ-45 Connector Routable Protocol Router SAN 300 . the ring speed on the NIC is set to either 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. the user is connecting to the Internet via a secondary source. including support for dialup and logon. to be accessed via a modem.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Proxy Server One that serves many clients through only one connection. redirects a print job from the local port to the network printer. Redirects a call from one port to another. A device that forwards packets between networks.

A computer on a network that provides services to other computers. ceilings. the Internet standard protocol defined in STD 15.Appendix E – Glossary Satellite Microwave Scatter Infrared A wireless network that utilizes microwave signals to transmit data. The effective distance of the signal is limited to about 100 feet. connection establishment and release. Transmission rates are slower with this type. normally used on Ethernet. Simple Network Management Protocol. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The system used to protect data on a network from unauthorized use. Smart Multistation Access Unit Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transfer E-mail between computers. as opposed to duplex. The Session layer handles such things as security authentication. is software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP). as the signal is designed to bounce off of walls. data transfer. to be used over a serial link. Allowing files to be shared from one computer to another. until it reaches the receiver. Narrow-Band Radio Transmission Serial Line Internet Protocol. Software that resides on a server. was developed to manage nodes on an IP network. RFC 1157. SNMP is not limited to TCP/IP. usually over Ethernet. Synchronous Optical Network 301 SDH Security Server Server Software Session Layer Sharing Shielded Twisted Pair Simplex Single-Frequency Radio SLIP SMAU SMTP SNMP SONET . etc. A type of cable in which pairs of conductors are twisted together to prevent possible cross-talk from nearby wiring. A uni-directional data channel. acknowledgments (ACK). defined in RFC 1055.

The maximum speed that “traffic” can move.5 Standard) environment. If the hub fails. This type of transmission is commonly used to connect multiple LAN segments together. so it is less susceptible to eavesdropping. that uses a large diameter. such as bodies of water or deserts. Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol. The SSL Star Topology Subnet Mask Subnetting TCP/IP TDR Terminator Terrestrial Microwave Thicknet Thinnet Throughput Token Passing Token Ring TokenTalk Tone Generator 302 . A LAN topology that uses an access method called token passing. The process of subdividing a network into logical units. measured in Mbps (Megabits per minute). Connected to the wires at the known location (the room with the outlet). the official protocol of the Internet. A form of microwave communication used for earthbased communication between two buildings.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Spread-Spectrum Radio Spread-spectrum broadcasts over a range of frequencies. the entire network goes down. An Ethernet cable variant commonly known as 10base5. a router can determine what addresses are local and what addresses are for other subnets within the network. A connector that has a built-in resistor in order to absorb signals and eliminate signal bounce. Secure Sockets Layer A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central workstation called a hub. Time-Domain Reflectometer – A cable tester. this applies a signal on the wires. Using binary addition. rigid coaxial cable with multiple shielding and an impedance of 50 ohms. A type of coaxial cable whose maximum segment length is 185 meters. An access method used in a Token Ring topology. Maximum segment length is 500 meters. or across large flat open areas. A way to run AppleTalk in a Token Ring (IEEE 802.

The Transport layer is responsible for packaging (and un-packaging) the data for transport. defined in STD 6. Virtual LAN Wide Area Network A command used to display the current configuration of a Windows computer. The “hound. Tool for stripping and cutting wire TRACERT Trailer Transceiver Transport Layer UDP UNIX Unshielded Twisted Pair Vampire Tap VLAN WAN WINIPCFG Wire Crimper 303 . Twisted network cables that do not have any shielding. and for the errorfree delivery of the transmitted data. A major operating system that is primarily used on minicomputers and has many features that are favored in the engineering and scientific environments. When the receiver is placed in close proximity to the wire that has the signal applied.” Trace Route command in NT allows you to specify a remote host and report back on each subsequent router and the times it takes to traverse those routers in a command line interface. RFC 768 is a connectionless protocol. thus locating the wires. Used on transceivers. A device that transmits and receives data. Connectors that utilize sharp teeth to pierce the cable jacket to make the connection. like TCP. which. User Datagram Protocol. The part of a data packet that contains the error corrections information. it will emit a tone.” Tone Locator A receiver set to the frequency of the generator. Additionally named traceroute in UNIX environments.Appendix E – Glossary “fox. is layered on top of IP.

using zones Zones 304 . A named Subnetwork used for expanding the LocalTalk network or for relieving traffic on a larger network. resolve and also release the mapping of their network NetBIOS name to an IP address.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide WINS SERVER A way for Microsoft hosts to register themselves. AppleTalk can incorporate other types of networks. such as Token Ring.

Appendix E – Glossary 305 .

Access can be denied to unauthorized users (security). and manage (each user manages their own computer) for a small number of workstations (10 or less). such as data. Files are easily accessed by all users. Name some advantages of a Server-based network. What does MAN stand for and why is it no longer in use? Metropolitan Area Networks have been replaced by the Internet. It is confined to a limited area. Simple to install. A WAN is created by connecting LANs together. A WAN is not geographically limited.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The following are the questions found at the end of each chapter along with the correct answers. inexpensive to install (no need to buy expensive server). Review Questions Chapter 1 1. 306 . What is a “sneaker net”? The “old fashioned” way computer users shared resources by taking a file on a floppy disk to the computer that had the services they needed to use. 3. 6. configure. Name some disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. What is the key difference between a local area network and a wide area network? A LAN is the basic building block (and smallest) of a network. and peripheral devices. loss of performance occurs if expanded over 10 workstations. Workstations need to be close together (in a relatively small area. 4. 5. What is the main reason for networking computers? To share resources. 8. Dragging a printer from computer to computer for users to utilize is another form of a sneaker net. Name some advantages of a Peer-to-Peer network. No security. applications. 2. data backups can be more easily and routinely performed. Name some advantages of having centralized documents. 7. like one office).

Preemptive multitasking means that the operating system can take control of the processor without a task’s permission. Non-preemptive multitasking is when the task decides when it is done with the CPU. 9. Can be expanded as network grows. 2. File and resource security available to limit unauthorized access. Expensive to install (will need to purchase expensive server). Review Questions Chapter 2 1. Name the three basic topologies.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Centralized location of resources (server). Name some disadvantages of a Server-based network. The three basic topologies are: Bus. Increased performance on large networks. Some NOS function as the operating system that runs a computer’s stand-alone functions as well as its network interfaces. more difficult to manage (needs an administrator). and Ring. Star. Name two media access methods The access methods are CSMA/CD CSMA/CA. What is the difference between a physical and logical topology? Physical topologies are the actual wires and hardware that we can see. and Demand Priority. 11. Logical topologies represent the way that a networks functions. 10. They represent what the topology looks like. Ease of data backups. What is the difference between preemptive and non-preemptive multitasking? Multitasking means that a computer has the ability to perform more than one task at a time. Token Passing. 12. What is the difference between an operating system and a network operating system? Network operating systems are specialized operating systems designed to function in a network environment. In non-preemptive multitasking the CPU is never taken from a task. More difficult to install and configure. 307 . Centralized administration.

550 MB of free hard drive space. What is NDS? NDS (NetWare Directory Services) is the core of the NetWare operating system. 4. 64 MB RAM. 10. 9. It is a hierarchically organized database that provides security. What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Novell NetWare version 5? Pentium Class or Higher CPU. Windows NT combines the operating system and the network operating system into one. redirecting them to the server. What is NTFS? NTFS is the file system in Windows NT and it must be utilized in order to take full advantage of NT’s security features. 7. name service. routing. It is designed as an operating system that will overlay multi-operating system environments. 6. 5. 308 . Windows NT combines the _____________ and the ___________________ into one. NetWare is a reliable operating system that provides excellent performance and security. The purpose of the redirector is to make network resources look like local resources to the application. web-publishing. servers. Purchasing NetWare requires a type of licensing. and file and print services. groups. What happens when the number of users exceeds the number of licenses? The number of users on a NetWare network may exceed the number of licenses. Organization of network resources such as users. management. 8. What is the purpose of the redirector? The redirector (in Novell NetWare it is called the requester) forwards requests away from the local bus. messaging. but only the licensed number of users will be allowed to log on at any one time. Interoperability describes the ability of an operating system to interact with other operating systems. Unlike NetWare. Define interoperability. NetWare is designed as an operating system that will overlay _____________ environments. and volumes is also handled with NDS.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3.

125 MB free hard drive space. It is possible to convert a UNIX host into a file server using software. 12 MB RAM. DSMN (Directory Service Manager for NetWare) is used to integrate user and group account information between NT and NetWare. multi-user. UNIX is a multi-tasking. GSNW (Gateway Services for NetWare) provides the gateway between an NT domain and the NetWare server. 16. 12. A UNIX system consists of a Host (or central computer) with terminals for the users. What type of computer was developed by Apple computer in 1984? The Macintosh 18.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 11. Because all of its functions are file based. 16 MB RAM. general-purpose operating system. NWLink is a protocol based on Novell’s IPX/SPX and is used for communication between the two systems. CSNW (Client Services for NetWare) allows NT workstations to use file and print services on a NetWare server. What is a domain? NT uses domains in order to accomplish its security goals. What are the minimum hardware requirements for Windows NT Server? 476DX-3 CPU. 14. These terminals rely solely on the Host for services and are not stand-alone systems. it is a very bulky operating system. 110 MB free hard drive space. Describe a UNIX system. FPNW (File and Print Services for NetWare) allows NetWare clients to access NT file and print services. 15. What are the minimum hardware requirements for a Windows NT Workstation? 486DX-33 CPU. A domain is simply a group of workstations with a shared security database. Migration Tool for NetWare is used to convert NetWare accounts to NT.1 that includes the ability to run a peer-to-peer network.What type of network would utilize Windows for Workgroups as an operating system? Windows for Workgroups is a version of Windows 3. What OS is similar to UNIX and is a publicly open system? Linux 17. 309 . Name some of the services and protocols that Microsoft included with Windows NT to ensure interoperability with NetWare. 13. The UNIX host will run this software as just another application.

and ending connections? The Session layer 310 . Network. The ____________ layer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical functions of transmitting data over a network. Data Link layer 5. Data compression takes place at the __________ layer of the OSI. Network Layer 6. What is the function of the Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is the translator for the network. Data Link. and Physical 3. Which OSI layer is responsible for NIC to NIC communication? The Data Link layer 8. Presentation. A bridge operates at the ________ layer of the OSI model. A network adapter card operates at the _______ layer of the OSI model Network layer 4. A router operates at the _________layer of the OSI model. Presentation layer 7. Session. Transport. Which OSI layer is responsible for establishing. 11. This is not the actual application or program. It translates data into a format that is compatible with the network and back into a format that is compatible with the computer. Who developed the OSI model? The OSI model was developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 9.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 3 1. simply a support layer that allows an application to use the network by acting as a translator. managing. 2. What is the function of the Application Layer? The Application layer is responsible for communication between a user’s application and the network. Application. Name the seven layers of the OSI model. Physical 10.

311 . Describe protocol binding. What is the function of a Gateway? A gateway translates between two networks that use different protocols. What is a MAC address? The MAC address is another name for the 12-digit (6-byte) hexadecimal address that is hardwired on the NIC by the manufacturer.2 18. 13. What are NDIS and ODI? They are Network Adapter Card interface specifications. Which OSI layer is responsible for delivering data in sequence. a protocol must be bound to the NIC. 17. Which OSI layer makes routing decisions? The Network layer 14. This way more than one protocol can be bound to a single NIC. The purpose of these standards is to allow operating system vendors to write multiple drivers for the same NIC. Which IEEE standard defines the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer? 802. but connection-oriented communication is more reliable. NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification) was co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com. Which is faster. 20. What are they? The Logical Link (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer 16. This binding process is what links the protocol stacks to the NIC driver. A computer with special software serves as a gateway and allows for communication between completely dissimilar networks. It is possible to bind two protocols the one NIC (such as TCP/IP and IPX/IPX) or to have two NICs with one protocol bound to each one. connection-oriented communication or connectionless communication? Connectionless communication is faster. It is a computer’s physical address. without duplication and error free? The Transport layer 15.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 12. while ODI (Open Data Link Interface) was co-developed by Novell and Apple. The Data Link layer has been split into two sub-layers. They are incompatible with each other. 19. In order to function. The order in which these protocols are bound to the NIC determines which one the network operating system will attempt to use first.

Name as many routable protocols as you can remember. XNS 22. How is a vampire tap connected? They utilize sharp teeth that puncture the cable to make the connection. Review Questions Chapter 4 1. Fire codes usually call for special cable in this area because PVC cable gives off poisonous gas and fumes when burned. which would end up being circulated throughout the building. What is the purpose of plenum cabling? Plenum grade cabling is used in the plenum (the space between the ceiling and the floor above. which is used to circulate air in a building). 5. What is the purpose of a transceiver? A transceiver is a device that both transmits and receives data on a network. What is the transmission speed of category 5 cabling? Up to 100 Mbps 312 . DECnet. What is the maximum segment length of Thinnet? 185 meters 2. TCP/IP. What is the maximum segment length of UTP? 100 meters 8. What type of connectors are used with Coaxial cable? BNC connectors 4.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 21.25. SLIP. SNA. SMB. AppleTalk. You have expanded your NetBEUI network into two segments and are using an intelligent router to optimize network traffic. IPX/SPX. What is the maximum segment length of Thicknet? 500 meters 3. PPTP. 6. 7. Will this work? Why or Why not? No. NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol. PPP. UDP. X.

13. However. What is the most popular of the cable types? UTP is the less expensive of the twisted pair cable types. a CB radio. Half-duplex communication can send or receive. The AWG wire number decreases as the wire thickness increases. which results in less sensitivity to EMI and crosstalk. and it is not subject to EMI or eavesdropping. and full-duplex communication? Simplex communication is one way. half-duplex. What is the most expensive cable type? Fiber-Optic cable is the ideal cable type for networking. What is the least expensive of the cable types? UTP is the least expensive of the cable types. For example. 18. making the signal flow unidirectional. making it the most popular cable type. Broadband allows two or more channels to share the bandwidth of the cable. Which twisted pair cabling is less sensitive to EMI? STP is insulated with a foil mesh between the wire pairs. List some advantages of fiber-optic cable. 15. What type of connector is used with twisted pair cable? RJ-45 connectors 12. 14. 10. Describe baseband. For example. What is the difference between simplex. Fiber-optic supports extremely high bandwidths. It is also flexible and easy to install.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9. segment lengths of up to several miles. 17. 16. Baseband uses the entire capacity of the cable as a single channel. For example. Describe broadband. What does AWG stand for and what is it? American Wire Gauge (AWG) is the standard that describes wire thickness. It is also flexible and easy to install. but not at the same time. it is the most expensive and most difficult to install. a pager. 11. the telephone. can receive but not send. What is the function of a network adapter card? 313 . 19. making it the most popular cable type. Full-duplex can send and receive signals at the same time.

Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Network Adapter Cards or Network Interface Cards (NICs) are used to connect the computer to the network. Which is the most secure type of radio wireless network? Spread-Spectrum Radio is more secure than Single-Frequency Radio (Narrow-Band Radio) because it broadcasts over a range of frequencies instead of just one. (They make the physical connection to the network.) NICs translate the data that computers can understand into signals that can be transmitted over the network medium and back again. 24. Where would you expect to find a PCMCIA card? PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) cards are credit card sized expansion buses that are used in portable computers (laptops) to provide the same expandability enjoyed by desktop computers. Radio. Which microwave transmission type is used to transmit globally? Satellite microwave is used to transmit globally. What are the four basic wireless transmission types? Infrared. and Microwave 25. remote boot PROM allows the computer to boot using information located on a remote computer. In Token Ring networks. 22. 26. What are some of the reasons you would need to install a wireless network? To create a temporary network. including network connectivity. what are the two ring speeds available? In a Token Ring network if the correct ring speed is not selected a computer will not be able to connect to the network. Terrestrial microwave is used to transmit over shorter distances. for areas where running cable would be impossible or unsightly. Computers usually use information located on a floppy or hard drive to boot up. 23. High-security networks sometimes use diskless workstations to make it impossible for data to be downloaded and stolen. 314 . 21. Laser. 20. to backup a cable-based network. to provide a mobile network environment. The two choices available are 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. In what type of network would you expect to find boot PROM capabilities? Remote Boot PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is used on networks that utilize diskless workstations. outdoor installations and to connect to remote sites such as a ship or oil platform.

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 5

1. What are the three primary access methods? CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA, Token Passing, and Demand Priority 2. Describe the difference between the two different contention methods CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA. CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection and CSMA/CA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. Both CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA listen to the network cable to determine if it is free (Carrier Sense), if no data is traveling, a CSMA/CD computer will transmit. If there is another computer on the network that transmitted at exactly the same time, a data collision will occur, and both sets of data will be destroyed. CSMA/CD detects that a collision has occurred and waits a specified amount of time before re-transmitting. With CSMA/CA the process is much the same except that instead of just transmitting when it senses that the cable is free, it will send a signal that it is about to transmit. This will cause any other computer that was about to transmit to wait and so data collisions are avoided. This extra step can slow down network traffic, so CSMA/CA is not the most popular of the two contention methods. 3. Why isn’t token passing considered a contention method? A computer on a token passing access method network must possess the token in order to transmit data. Therefore, only one computer at a time will transmit in this kind of architecture, and so, no contention. 4. Describe how data is transmitted in Token Ring architecture A token, which is a special kind of packet, is circulated around the ring from computer to computer in a Token Ring network. A computer that wants to send data onto the network waits until the token is passed to it and takes possession of it. The transmitting computer encodes the token with the data that it wants to transmit, as well as header and trailer information that contain the destination and source addresses, as well as error control information. It then passes the token back out onto the ring where it travels on until it reaches the destination computer. The destination computer copies the data into its buffer and adds some acknowledgment information (or re-transmittal information if it detected errors) and releases the frame back out onto the network where it travels back to the source computer. Assuming that the data was transmitted error-free, the source computer removes the “used” frame from the network and creates a new “free” token to release back out onto the network.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 5. What happens if two computers using the demand priority access method transmit at exactly the same time? If the hub receives two transmissions at exactly the same time the one with the highest priority is processed first. If the two transmissions have the same priority level, they are processed at the same time by alternating between the transmissions. 6. How is data transmitted over the network cable? In packets or frames. (Small chunks of data at a time.) 7. What is CRC and what part of the packet is it usually located in? CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) is a mathematical calculation that is calculated at the source computer and included in the trailer of the packet. When data arrives at the destination computer, the calculation is redone and if it calculates as it did at the source computer it is assumed that the data arrived intact. 8. What sort of information do packet headers contain? The header contains information such as an alert signal that announces that data is being transmitted, the source and destination addresses and clocking information. 9. What does the “T” in 10BaseT indicate? The first part indicates transmission speed (10 means it transmits at 10 Mbps), the second part “Base” indicates that it uses baseband (single channel) technology and the last part indicates the cabling type, or maximum segment length in the case of coaxial cable. (“T” indicates Twisted-pair). 10. What is the maximum segment length in 10Base2? 185 Meters. The “2” in this case means 2 times 100 meters, but in the case of Thinnet coaxial cable the maximum segment length is 185 meters. 11. What type of connectors are used in 10Base5? BNC connectors 12. What type of cable is used in 10BaseFL? Fiber-Optic 13. Name the two main 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards. 100VG-AnyLAN, also called 100BaseVG, VG, and AnyLAN. The VG stands for Voice Grade. 100BaseX is sometimes called Fast Ethernet. It has different specifications depending upon the type of cabling used (hence the “X” in the area that indicates cable type). 14. Which IEEE Specification defines Ethernet? 316

Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers The IEEE 802.3 standard 15. Which IEEE Specification defines Token Ring? The IEEE 802.5 standard 16. What are the two transmission speeds of Token Ring? 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps 17. How are data collisions avoided in the Token Ring architecture? A computer must posses the token in order to transmit data. Since no other computer can transmit while one computer has the token, data collisions are avoided. 18. Describe beaconing as it applies to Token Ring architecture. The active monitor (which is the first computer to go online) is responsible for monitoring network activity to make sure that frames are being sent and received accurately. It also ensures that only one token is traveling the ring at a time and investigates any frames that have traveled around the ring more than once. It does this by transmitting a signal every seven seconds. This signal is called beaconing and it travels from computer to computer. If a computer doesn’t receive an expected signal from its upstream neighbor it will notify the monitor that a problem may exist. 19. Which way does data travel in a Token Ring network? Which way data travels in a Token Ring network is a matter of convention. IEEE 802.5 says it travels clockwise, while IBM says that it travels counter-clockwise. It can be either depending upon how it is set up. The main thing is that data only travels in one direction on a Token Ring network. It is more commonly set up to travel clockwise, however. 20. What is a SMAU? SMAU stands for Smart Multistation Access Unit. This is a hub that has all of the features of an active hub (regenerates or amplifies the signal) with additional capabilities such as certain network management functions. A SMAU may have the capability to shut down a connection that is producing errors thereby allowing the rest of the network to function. 21. Describe a MIC connector. MIC (Media Interface Connectors) are connectors that have neither male nor female ends. Any connector can be connected to another MIC connector. They are also called hermaphrodite connectors.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 22. How does a computer on a LocalTalk network obtain its address? When a computer first comes online in a LocalTalk network it randomly selects an address from a range of allowable addresses. It then broadcasts the address to determine if any other computer on the network is using it. If no other computer is using the address, it stores it to use each time it connects to the network. 23. What is the purpose of AppleShare? AppleShare is the name of the file server on an AppleTalk network. It also provides a print server. 24. What type of access method is utilized by an ARCNet network? Token-passing. 25. How does data flow in an ARCNet network? The token is passed around the network in numerical order. It first goes to computer #1 and then #2, etc. It does this even if computer #1 is at the opposite end of the network from computer #2.

Review Questions Chapter 6

1. What are the two tools required to initiate a network design? All you need to start a network project is a pencil and some paper. 2. What are the two areas of concern when starting a network project? You will need to consider the customer and the network goals. 3. What are the two most prominent reasons to choose a peer-to-peer network? The best reasons for using peer-to-peer are its simplicity and low cost. 4. What is the number one reason for choosing a client/server network? The number one reason for using a client/server network is security. 5. Is NetBEUI a good protocol to use with a large WAN? No, NetBEUI is a non-routable protocol and will not interface with routers.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 6. Your client is installing a small Ethernet network and trying to save money at the same time. However, he intends to expand the network in the future. Give one reason why you should recommend that he spend a little more now and install CAT 5 cabling instead of CAT 3. It will be less costly to install CAT 5 now than to replace the CAT 3 later when the network needs to be upgraded from 10 MHz to 100 MHz to handle the higher traffic. 7. You are expanding your network and will need to invest in 50 to 100 new network cards. Your accounting office found a really good deal on network cards, but they are not all the same. Why should you refuse this offer? First, you cannot be sure that they will meet the specifications of your network. Also, having to maintain a variety of network cards will increase the workload of your IS department – it is better to standardize network cards in a large network. 8. Your company just bought ten new computers and all are guaranteed to meet the minimum requirements of Windows NT. Was this a good purchase? No – the minimum requirements are just enough to run the NOS, but not enough to run it efficiently. 9. How do you know if a new piece of hardware will work with Windows NT? Check the hardware compatibility list (HCL).

Review Questions Chapter 7

1. What is the difference between a hub and a MAU? Hubs are used with Ethernet networks and MAUs are used with Token Ring networks. 2. What is the difference between an active hub and a passive hub? Active hubs are used to connect nodes and boost the signal strengths. An active hub requires some input power. Passive hubs are used only to make connections.

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 3. Define a repeater, a bridge, a router, and a gateway. Repeater - A repeater is a device that is used to extend the cable lengths of a network segment. They do not translate or filter any information. They do however, amplify the signal thereby compensating for signal loss due to long cables. Repeaters work in the Physical layer of the OSI model. Bridge - A bridge does the same things as a repeater but has one additional feature. A bridge can be used to isolate segments on a LAN, thus reducing the traffic for each segment. Bridges work in the Data Link layer of the OSI model. Router - A router has all the features of a bridge, but it can switch packets across multiple networks. They can also determine the best path for “routing” traffic and filter broadcast traffic to the local segment. Not all network protocols will work with a router. For example, NetBEUI is not routable. Gateway - Gateways make it possible to connect different network architectures. Think of a gateway as a computer that acts as a translator between two networks that don’t speak the same language. 4. What is analog communication? Analog communication is based on PSTN or public switched telephone network. 5. A form of digital line that is capable of 1.544 Mbps transmissions is called? T1 6. Name three advanced WAN environments. Frame Relay, ISDN, and SONET 7. What are the two components of remote network accessing? RAS (remote access server) and DUN (dial up networking). 8. Name three RAS protocols. SLIP, PPP, PPTP and L2TP 9. Name four forms of RAS security. Auditing, Callback Security, Security host, and PPTP filtering. 10. Describe the difference between BAUD and bps. BAUD rate is the number in cycles per second of the carrier signal of a modem. BAUD is limited to 2400 bps. A bps or bit per second is the actual data transmission rate of a modem. In older modems, BAUD and bps were the same thing.

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Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers

Review Questions Chapter 8

1. What are the four layers that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite? The four layers of TCP/IP are: Application, Transport, Internet and Network Interface. 2. How many primary protocols are used to make the TCP/IP Suite? There are five primary protocols: they are – TCP, UDP, IP, ICMP, and ARP. 3. Name three of the five other protocols used within TCP/IP Additional protocols are: POP3, SMTP, FTP, SNMP, and HTTP. 4. What is the purpose of DNS? The Domain Name System is used to resolve host names into IP addresses. 5. What is an FQDN and give an example? FQDN is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. An example is http://www.microsoft.com. 6. What is a domain? A domain is a group of computers that share a common general purpose. 7. Who is responsible for maintaining top-level domains? The InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) is responsible for top-level domain names. 8. Which of the name resolution services will work only in Windows? WINS 9. IPv4 addresses consist of a ______ bit number. 32 10. What is the value of the leading bit (one on the far left) for a Class A IP address? Class B? Class C? Class A Class B Class C 01-126 128-191 192-223 (leading bit is 0) (leading bit is 1) (leading bits 11)

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Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide 11. Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into _________ and ________ groups Subnetting is the process of breaking an IP address into meaningful and manageable groups. 12. What are five reasons to use subnetting? Connect physically remote local networks Connect a mix of network technologies (Ethernet and Token Ring) Allow an unlimited number of hosts to communicate Reduce network traffic by limiting broadcast and local traffic to a single segment

Review Questions Chapter 9

1. You are the manager of a large network and have been getting complaints about the system being slow. What kind of software package can you purchase to help analyze your network? Network Management Software is used to analyze network traffic and network status. 2. In order for your new network management software to monitor the activities of the entire network, each device will need to be _________ compliant. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) 3. TCP/IP provides several tools that you can use to validate the statistics of your network. List as many as you can. Event Viewer, ROUTE, NBTSTAT, NETSTAT and TRACERT.

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What is the function of a firewall? A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to your network from outside via the Internet. In a share level model. It can also be configured to prevent unauthorized transmissions from leaving your network. 2. 323 . 5.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Review Questions Chapter 10 1. What purpose does encryption play in your security model? Encryption encodes a message so that it cannot be read if it is intercepted during transmission. What does the acronym RAID stand for? Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. 4. What are the two requirements of user level logon? The user must type in a Username and a Password. What are the six levels of RAID? RAID 0 Non-redundant striped array RAID 1 Mirrored arrays RAID 2 Parallel array with ECC RAID 3 Parallel array with parity RAID 4 Striped array with parity RAID 5 Striped array with rotating parity 6. Resources 3. passwords are assigned to __________.

and Repair the Problem. 2. After repairing a problem. What would be the best tool to help you locate the cable in question? The best tool for isolating a single cable from many is the tone generator or tone locator. Isolate the Problem.0. You are working with a TCP/IP network and want to confirm the protocol stack in a specific workstation.Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Review Questions Chapter 11 1. WINIPCFG from the RUN command. You have found the cabinet with the patch panel and hub. What tool would you need to find the short? TDRs (Time-Domain Reflectometers) are used to locate shorts in cables. What utility can you use to confirm the protocol stack is good? PING the loopback IP. 5. You are troubleshooting a cable problem. You need to know the IP address of a workstation. 8.0. and think it might be shorted. What TCP/IP utility can you use to find the IP address of the workstation? You can use IPCONFIG from a DOS prompt or if using Windows. you should see the green light that indicates that the network card has detected the presence of a network. 324 .1 7. What is the loopback IP address? 127. 6. What are the three primary steps to take when troubleshooting? The three steps to troubleshooting are: Define the Problem. 3. are you finished with the troubleshooting process? NO – You still need to confirm the repair and document the problem and solution. What is the easiest way to tell if the network card can “see” the network? If the network card has indicator lights. The fox and hound. You have just connected a workstation to the network. You have located the cable in question #3. 4. but need to know which of the 50 cables goes to the accounting office.

What utility can you use to determine the performance of the server? Performance Monitor 325 . You have a Windows NT network and received complaints that the server is running slow. Throughput is the maximum speed that a message can be transmitted. 10. What is the difference between bandwidth and throughput? Bandwidth is the amount of traffic that a network can handle at a given time.Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers 9.

...........................87 Boot Prom’s.....................129 AppleTalk..68 attributes...................................................................................................................... 128 Application Layer............................................................................................ 121 10Base5................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 B backbone..................................................................................................... 121 10BaseFL...................................123 10Base2................................................................................................................................26 ARCNet........................121 10BaseT...................................................235 BOOTP................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Index 1 100BaseX...........95 Beaconing..............................................................................................58 application server...........257 Banyan VINES.....................................................................................87...............................68 Broadband...........................................................................36 Address Resolution Protocol......................................................................88 AWG................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................196 BRI....................................................................................................................................................121 A access method..........................................................................................126 binding...........................................51 base memory address..................................................................................................98 AppleShare...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 Broadband Optical Telepoint........................130 ARP.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49 AUI connector......................................................................................................................................................28.......................................77..................................................................................172 bridge..........................................................................................87....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 backup utility..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 220 ATM...................................................105 brouter...........................................................................................................................................73 BNC............................................................................................100 Baseband......................................................123 100VG-AnyLAN.........................................................................................................................100 Boot Sector.......191 Analog......75......................................115 Active Directory...............230 Bandwidth.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 C 326 ...............171 attenuation......................................................................51 active hubs.................................................................................................................

.....75 demand priority.............194 Domain Reflectometer (TDR)............107 Change.........99 DLC...........78 coaxial cable.33 Carriers....................................................................................................................50 CSU/DSU...........................................................................102 EMI..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................49....................................................................................................................................................................................................169 Class A.....................................200 Class C................................................200 Client Software........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Cellular Networking.................................................................................151 Ethernet.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD...............................................98 Direct Memory Access (DMA)...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................73 continuity............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Clocking........................................................................................... 194 domain controller................................................................49 Domain Name Service (DNS).............................................................................................86 Computer compatibility..................................................................................118 D Data Link Layer..................................................................................................................................................45 clients.............................................................................................................. 121 EtherTalk............................166 Category 3........................................................................................60 Data Protection.........................90 Category 5..........................................................................................235 EISA...............................247 CSMA/CD..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 DMA..............................................200 Class B..............................45 DECnet...................................................................................................................................................................50 Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP).........................................................................................................................................................167 Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC)......................................................................................49 Circuit-switched............................115............................................................................................................................................................................................................234 Differential backup......................98 cloud.................................................................................................230 Digital...........................................................................................................................................................................................68 E EES............................................................................................................90 environment.......................................158 connection-oriented...........33.......................................................................116 DES (Data Encryption Standard).............129 327 .........................................................100 domain......................................249 DSMN.....196 dynamic routers..................................................................................................................................................... 116 CSNW............................................................................................

....................................................................228 FPNW...............................................................................................................................................51 GSNW....................................................................92 IBM Type 3 UTP..............................................................................................................................................................................34 FAT.....................................................................................................................50 H Half-Duplex........................................................................................................................................................................76........................95 G gateway..................178 ICMP..........................................................118 HOSTS file........................................................70 Internet Control Message Protocol.............192 hubs..............................................................................191 Incremental backup.....................................................................127 ICA.......................................................................................................................................................................230 Full Control...............................................................................................30 I I/O port number....220 IMAP4....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................165 Gigabit Ethernet.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................218 F Fast Ethernet..............................................................................................................................................................95 headers.................................................................................50 Frame Relay.............49 Full-Duplex...................................................................192 HTTPS..............................................................................163 hybrid topologies...........................................197 IFCONFIG...............................................................195 gateways.........................................................................................................................................123 ground probe........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192 Full backup...............................................69 Gateways..............................................................................................230 FDDI .........49 fault tolerance.....................................................................195 HTTP.....................................64 Headers........ (IEEE)......................................................Fiber Distributed Data...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................235 fire codes.......................79 ICS..95 firewall.........................................91 File Infectors...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................230 Infrared.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Event Viewer.......................................................................................................................................................191 328 ............105 Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers......................172 FTP...............................................................................................100 IBM cabling......................... Inc.....................................247 Group policies..........................171 fiber-optic................................................................................................

.....127................................................................................75 M Macintosh....................30 LSL..............................................................................................................................................................................................................75 modem.......................................................................................................48 MIB (Management Information Base)......178 L L2TP.............................178 LAN...............172 ISDN adapters.........190 interoperability.........................................178 Line-of-Sight Infrared................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 LLC...................................................................................................................................105 LAT................................52 Macro Virus..........45 MAU................................................................................................................. 190 IP address................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................236 Managing User Accounts...........................................129 logical topology.................................................................................................................30 MHS................................................177 IPv6..... 163 MAUs ...................................195 LocalTalk.......................................................................................................................................................173 MSAU.........................................................................................................247 mesh topology..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Multiple Access Units................35 media access methods...........................................................................................................................................247 multitasking...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25 Laser..............Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers Internet Protocol (IP)....102 ISDN..................................... 253 IPsec...............................................220...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................100 ISA..........105 Linux..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol........................................................................................41 329 ......................33 Media Compatibility...............216 MIC (Media Interface Connectors).........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Media Tester........................................................................127 Microwave....................................................................................48 IP 76...............................................................................................................75 IRQ...............................................................................................................................................................200 IPX.............................................................105 MLID...................................................121 LMHOSTS...............198 IPCONFIG.................................................................................167 K Kerberos.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Multimeter......................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................175 NWLink...........................................................................................................................169 Packet-Radio Networking...................................................................77 NLSP.........220 NTFS......................................................................................102 PDC ......................121 Network Time Protocol (NTP).......................................................................50........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 passive hub.............................................................26 330 ...............118 parallel communication...............................78 NETBIOS...........................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Network-attached storage (NAS)......................................................47 NetWare Client32 for DOS.....................................................................................................................................................................................................196 NBTSTAT....................75 No Access..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 NSLOOKUP...............Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide N NAT.................................................40 OS/2....................42 Network standards........................218 NetWare......................................................................47 NetWare file server...................................................................................................................................102 PCMCIA.....49 Null-Modem.........................................................................................................47 NetBEUI......................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for Macintosh.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 Network Neighborhood............................107 packets........................................................... 76 O ODI...............................72 NDS (NetWare Directory Services)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................47 NetWare Client32 for OS/2...................................................................................................................................................48 NetWare security...........................................................................................................................................163 PCI..............................................................................................57 operating system.............47 NetWare Client32 for Windows 95................................................................................................................................................................................98 Network Layer............................................................................................................233 Patch Panel.................................232 NFS................218 NCP.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................Primary Domain Controller........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 NDIS.................................................................................................48 NetWare Print Services......................................................................................................................35 Passwords.......................................................44 P Packet switching...............................................................................................................................48 Network Adapter Cards...............................................................................................................................195 NETSTAT.............................................72 Open Systems Interface (OSI)....................................................................................................49 NOS – Network Operating System..................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................234 S SAP.....................................45 server-based network..........................................................................................................................................................................................................196 Punch Down Tool.................................................................................68.................................................................... 176 Preemptive multitasking........................................................................................105 RAID............178 Security.............................................................................................253 plenum............................................................................45.........................................................................................................................98 Server room........................................................................................................................................................................................76 Satellite Station Networking........................................................................................................ 164 requester..................................................................................................................75...................................................42 PGP.....................229 removable optical disk.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Reflective Infrared................................................220 Read................................................46 ring topology..................................175 removable disks................................................................................. 72 proxy server....235 physical topologies............................................................................................................151 Server Software......................................................79......... 73 RPC.........................220 PING.............................231 RARP................................................................................................. 225 segment....................................................................................................................................................................................218 router.....................................................................29 RIP...................................................229 repeater................105 relative humidity.................105 SDH...................107 Scatter Infrared......................151 Remote Access Server or RAS......................................................................................................................................49 redirector...................................................................................................................172 protocol................................................................................................................26 331 ................................................................................. 77 ROUTE...................................................................................................................................................165 routers..........................................................................................................27 Peer-to-peer LANs................................................................................................................................................................30 Ping...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................172 security.. 176 PPTP.............................................................................................................................................41 PRI..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 PPP.......................................................79.........................................79 RSA.........246 R Radio..................................................................................114 protocols...............................................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers peer-to-peer..............28 serial communication.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57.........................................68....................................

.................119 transceiver.........................................................................................................................................................................216 Simplex....................................................89 U UDP..............257 TLS...................................................................................................................................................249 SONET..............................77.................................................76 sneaker net............................................................................................................................................................................................86 Thinnet................................................ 192 SNA......................................76......................... 189 Telnet...............................................................................................................................................................218....................................................................178 Standards.......................................................................86 throughput............................................................................................................................. 88 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)......................................................................................24 SNMP.................. 176 SMAU.............................................................. 187 332 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................68 Storage Area Network (SAN)...................................................................................28 twisted-pair...232 STP..................................................................................125 topology....................................................28................159 star topology.......................................................................95 SLIP.......................................................... 192 Software analyzers.........................................................................................................................................................................................90 Subnetting................................................26 sharing applications.......................................................................................................................................................................................................241 trunk..................................................................................................................76 SMDS..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................79.........................................................................................................................172 SMTP................................................................................................................................................................229 TCP......................79............................................................59 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)....... 253 Trailer............................................................................................................................................28 TRACERT...................... 116 token ring............................44 servers...................................................236 troubleshooting....................................................................76 Trojan Horses..................................................................172 SPX......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................178 token passing.................................................................................................................................75 SSL............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 88 thicknet.........24 signal bounce..........................................................................33.........................................................................................................................................Network + Training & Test Preparation Guide Server-based network...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................28.....................................................................................................................76........................................................................................88 Transport Layer..............................................29 static routers.......................................127 SMB................................................................................................................................................203 T tape backup............................................................................................................................77 terminator................................................................................................................

...................................................89 V vampire taps..............................................................................................25 Warp Connect............................................................................................................42 Windows NT Print Servers................................................................................................................................................235 VLAN..........246 Wireless.............................................................................................. 171 XDR...............................................50 WINS... 131 wireless network....................................................................234 W WAN................................................................................................................................................25.............................................................................................................................170 VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks).............................78 333 ..........................................104 Wireless NICs.......31....................................................................................................................................................................89 virtual connections....................................................................................................................................66 Viruses........................................26 X X..............................................................................190 UTP.....................................................................................................................................................42 Windows for Workgroups......................................................................161 Windows 95/98.........51 User Datagram Protocol (UDP).......................................................................................................................................................................................195 Wire Crimper.............................................................................................................................................................................................77....................................................................................................................................................................................Appendix F – Chapter Review Questions and Answers UNIX..........................................................................................................................................................79 XNS............44 Windows 2000......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 workstation......................................................................................................................