Football may refer to one of a number of team sports which all involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball with

the foot to score a goal. The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football, more commonly known as just "football" or "soccer". Unqualified, the wordfootball applies to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears, including American football,Australian rules football, Canadian football, Gaelic football, rugby league, rugby union and other related games. These variations of football are known as football "codes".Common elements The various codes of football share the following common elements: 

Two teams of usually between 11 and 18 players; some variations that have fewer players (five or more per team) are also popular. 

    

A clearly defined area in which to play the game. Scoring goals or points, by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line. Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between two goalposts. The goal or line being defended by the opposing team. Players being required to move the ball³depending on the code³by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball. Players using only their body to move the ball. In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players offside, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a crossbar between the goalposts. Other features common to several football codes include: points being mostly scored by players carrying the ball across the goal line; and players receiving a free kick after they take a markor make a fair catch. Peoples from around the world have played games which involved kicking or carrying a ball, since ancient times. However, most of the modern codes of football have their origins inEngland.[1] Etymology Main article: Football (word) While it is widely assumed that the word "football" (or "foot ball") references the action of the foot kicking a ball, there is a historical explanation, which is that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval Europe, which were played on foot.[2] These games were usually played by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by aristocrats. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation, and the word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not just those that involved kicking a ball. In some cases, the word football has even been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the ball.[citation needed] Early history Ancient games

Ancient Greek football player balancing the ball. Depiction on an AtticLekythos. The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as " › " " (episkyros)[3][4] or

" (phaininda),[5] which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, Antiphanes (388²311 BC) and later referred to by

the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c.150-c.215 AD). These games appear to have resembled rugby

football.[6][7][8][9][10] The Roman politician Cicero (106²43 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis.[11][12] Documented evidence of an activity resembling football can be found in the Chinese military manual Zhan Guo Ce compiled between the 3rd century and 1st century BC.[13] It describes a practice known as cuju ( , literally "kick ball"), which

originally involved kicking a leather ball through a small hole in a piece of silk cloth which was fixed on bamboo canes and hung about 9 m above ground. During the Han Dynasty (206 BC²220 AD), cuju games were standardized and rules were established. Variations of this game later spread to Japan and Korea, known as kemari and chuk-guk respectively. Later, another type of goal posts emerged, consisting of just one goal post in the middle of the field.

A revived version ofKemari being played at theTanzan Shrine. The Japanese version of cuju is kemari ( ), and was developed during the Asuka period. This is known to have been played

within the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). The game appears to have died out sometime before the mid-19th century. It was revived in 1903 and is now played at a number of festivals.

An illustration from the 1850s ofAustralian Aboriginal hunter gatherers. Children in the background are playing a football game, possiblyWoggabaliri.[14] There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer namedJohn Davis, went ashore to play a form of football with Inuit (Eskimo) people in Greenland.[15] There are later accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In 1610, William Strachey, a colonist at Jamestown, Virginia recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman. On the Australian continent several tribes of indigenous people played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians asMarn Grook (Djab Wurrung for "game ball"). The earliest historical account is an anecdote from the 1878 book by Robert BroughSmyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about 1841 in Victoria, Australia, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it." Some historians have theorised that Marn Grook was one of the origins of Australian rules football. The M ori in New Zealand played a game called Ki-o-rahi consisting of teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and since their influence on modern football games is minimal, most do not class them as football. Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a

game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse (as its modern descendant is called) is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football." These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. Medieval and early modern Europe Further information: Medieval football The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England. The game played in England at this time may have arrived with the Roman occupation, but the only pre-Norman reference is to boys playing "ball games" in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. Reports of a game played in Brittany,Normandy, and Picardy, known as La Soule or Choule, suggest that some of these football games could have arrived in England as a result of the Norman Conquest.

An illustration of so-called "mob football". These forms of football, sometimes referred to as "mob football", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams, who would clash in a heaving mass of people, struggling to move an item such as an inflated pig's bladder, to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church. Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below). The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about 1174²1183. He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday: After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents.[16] Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the idea that the games played at the time did not necessarily involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from 1280 at Ulgham, Northumberland, England: "Henry... while playing at ball.. ran against David".[17] Football was played in Ireland in 1308, with a documented reference to John McCrocan, a spectator at a "football game" at Newcastle, County Down being charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.[18] Another reference to a football game comes in 1321 at Shouldham, Norfolk, England: "[d]uring the game at ball as he kicked the ball, a lay friend of his... ran against him and wounded himself".[17] In 1314, Nicholas de Farndone, Lord Mayor of the City of London issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time. A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [rageries de grosses pelotes de pee] in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game to be used in the city in the future." This is the earliest reference to football.

And drive it to the Gole. propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along the ground. Blows below the belt were allowed. It is one in which young men. In 1584 and 1602 respectively. other twayne in like distance. King Edward III of England issued a proclamation banning ".. the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as "calcio storico" ("historic kickball") in the Piazza Santa Croce. when he issued a proclamation forbidding the levying of money for "foteball". Similarly in a poem in 1613.it is an instrument for the foote and then it is calde in Latyn 'pila pedalis'.[17][19] There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Cawston. which was popular in East Anglia). my mother often sayes. in the sense of a ball rather than a game. in country sport. This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling: "[t]he game at which they had met for common recreation is called by some the foot-ball game.[22] He is also the first to describe goalkeepers and passing of the ball between players. Calcio Fiorentino An illustration of the Calcio Fiorentino field and starting positions. showing that "football" ³ whatever its exact form in this case ³ was being differentiated from games involving other parts of the body. Nottinghamshire. in squadrons forth they goe".. some eight or ten foote asunder. ten or twelue [twelve] score off."[21]  the first references to goals are in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. and that not with their hands but with their feet. football. coursing and cockfighting. Carew described how goals were made: "they pitch two bushes in the ground."[17]   a pair of football boots was ordered by King Henry VIII of England in 1526. For example. The game is said to have originated as a military training . John Norden and Richard Carew referred to "goals" in Cornish hurling. When she. from a 1688 book by Pietro di Lorenzo Bini. which they terme their Goales". such as handball. shoulder charge. a fotebal. with girles at football playes...[17] Other firsts in the mediæval and early modern eras:  "a football". The young aristocrats of the city would dress up in fine silk costumes and embroil themselves in a violent form of football. or other such idle games". in 1409.[20] women playing a form of football was in 1580. published 1659): "I'll play a gole at camp-ball" (an extremely violent variety of football. was first mentioned in 1486. with skirts tuckt very hy.[19] This reference is in Dame Juliana Berners' Book of St Albans. Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw. King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football". when Sir Philip Sidney described it in one of his poems: "[a] tyme there is for all.. and kick opponents. or hockey.  the first direct reference to scoring a goal is in John Day's play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (performed circa 1600. kicking in opposite directions" The chronicler gives the earliest reference to a football pitch.. calcio players could punch.handball. It states: "a certain rounde instrument to play with . Main article: Calcio Fiorentino In the 16th century. and directly against them. stating that: "[t]he boundaries have been marked and the game had started.In 1363.

and punishable by a fine of four pence. 1349. you base football player" (Act I. which was necessary for war. Second. on June 12. King Edward II was so troubled by the unruliness of football in London that on April 13. and he will spurn me hither: If I last in this service. By 1608. the word "football" was used disapprovingly by William Shakespeare. many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at . That like a football you do spurn me thus? You spurn me hence. were explicit: football and other recreations distracted the populace from practicing archery. "Spurn" literally means to kick away. football was banned in England alone by more than 30 royal and local laws. you must case me in leather." The reasons for the ban by Edward III. and glasse windowes broken yearlye and spoyled by a companie of lewd and disordered persons .[24] The book's aim appears to be an attempt to offset the strictness of the Puritans regarding the keeping of the Sabbath. Count Giovanni de' Bardi di Vernio wrote Discorso sopra 'l giuoco del Calcio Fiorentino. The need to repeatedly proclaim such laws demonstrated the difficulty in enforcing bans on popular games. First of all. In 1580.[25] Establishment of modern codes English public schools Main article: English public school football games While football continued to be played in various forms throughout Britain.[there] hath beene greate disorder in our towne of Manchester we are told... This was especially the case in England and in other parts of Europe. the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport."[23] That same year.. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. during the Middle Ages and early modern period. instructs Christians to play at football every Sunday afternoon after worship. on pain of imprisonment. the local authorities in Manchester were complaining that: "With the ffotebale. In 1424. on behalf of the King. The game was not played after January 1739 (until it was revived in May 1930). particularly the most rowdy and disruptive forms. Shakespeare also mentions the game in A Comedy of Errors (Act II. its "public" schools (known as private schools in other countries) are widely credited with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. the Parliament of Scotland passed a Football Act that stated it is statut and the king forbiddis that na man play at the fut ball under the payne of iiij d ² in other words. playing football was made illegal. such game to be used in the city in the future.exercise. Official disapproval and attempts to ban football Main article: Attempts to ban football games Numerous attempts have been made to ban football games. King James I of England's Book of Sports (1618) however. thus implying that the game involved kicking a ball between players. 1314 he issued a proclamation banning it: "Forasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large balls from which many evils may arise which God forbid.. we command and forbid. Scene 1): Am I so round with you as you with me. Scene 4). Shakespeare's play King Lear contains the line: "Nor tripped neither. Between 1324 and 1667.

a referee ("judge over the parties") and a coach "(trayning maister)".. He also mentions tactics ("leaving some of their best players to guard the goal").these schools.[citation needed] A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby's Book of Games. Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball ("strike it here"). In particular.[27] Among his contributions are the earliest evidence of organised team football.[30] In the earliest manifestations of these rules. by the chiefe use of the legges. is the first to describe goals and a distinct playing field: "a close that has a gate at either end. during the late 18th century.[30] The first known codes ³ in the sense of a set of rules ³ were those of Eton in 1815 [31] and Aldenham in 1825. scoring ("they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win") and the way teams were selected ("the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness"). Mulcaster's writings refer to teams ("sides" and "parties").[citation needed] English public schools were the first to codify football games. Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football: [s]ome smaller number with such overlooking. There is a reference to "get hold of the ball". or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players ("drive that man back"). sorted into sides and standings. who had studied at Bishop Vesey's Grammar School. He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball". as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester. Rugby. they devised the first offside rules. Harrow and Cheltenham.. may use footeball for as much good to the body. players were "off their side" if they simply stood between the ball and the goal which was their objective. it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" (or "carrying") games first became clear. most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week. offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at the each school. many children were . not meeting with their bodies so boisterously to trie their strength: nor shouldring or shuffing one an other so barbarously . They could only dribble with their feet." His book includes a diagram illustrating a football field. However. Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde". a teacher from Aberdeen. students and former students from these schools who first codified football games. it was teachers. to enable matches to be played between schools. The gates are called Goals. mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.[26] Richard Mulcaster.[31]) During the early 19th century. Finally. upper-middle and professional classes ³ comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in 1519.[29] Willughby. often for over twelve hours a day. has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football". at the time.[28] In 1633. written in about 1660. during between 1810 and 1850. either by foot or by hand. They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and. The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools ³ mainly attended by boys from the upper. David Wedderburn. Third. Sutton Coldfield. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward. suggesting that some handling was allowed. a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools. positions ("standings").

This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals.m. Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of 1850. many British children had to work six days a week. Public school boys. grass courts. This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football. For example. Each school drafted its own rules.[32] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards. which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted (as at Eton. However. became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. as in modern soccer. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games. playing fields. However. Marlborough and Cheltenham). as each school played by its own rules.19th century. etc. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. in winter) or after 6 p. The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves. including various forms of football. on Saturdays they had to cease work at 2 p. making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried (as at Rugby. for more than twelve hours a day. many of them are still played at the schools which created them (see Surviving UK school games below). Harrow. who enjoyed some freedom from work.[33] Apart from Rugby football.or late. which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children. and the other half by the visiting "away" school. however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory. pitches.m. the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields.m. one half played by the rules of the host "home" school. The boom in rail transport in Britain during the 1840s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before. etc. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls. and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal. first took the ball in his arms and ran with it.m. Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas. the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters. but there is little evidence that it occurred. Before 1850. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. in winter). The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball. on weekdays (7 p. The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid. lawn tennis. The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. Firsts .m. From 1850." in 1823. a pupil at Rugby School.[citation needed] Rugby School William Webb Ellis. it was difficult for schools to play each other at football. is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football. (7 a. Inter-school sporting competitions became possible.part of the labour force. The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in 1830. thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Westminster andCharterhouse). they could not work before 6 a. as played in his time[emphasis added].

Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the ball to keep their shape. said to have been founded in 1839. Dublin University Football Club³founded at Trinity College. and Guy's Hospital Football Club. played in 1861 under the Melbourne Rules. It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football. For instance. Richard Lindon and William Gilbert.[39] The oldest football league is a rugby football competition. exhibited both round and oval-shaped balls at the Great Exhibition in London. in 1851. 1870 at the Oval under the authority of the FA.Clubs Main article: Oldest football clubs Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century. contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College. The South Australian Football Association (30 April 1877) is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition. early footballs were made out of animal bladders. in the sense of a club which is not part of a school or university. donated by the Royal Caledonian Society of Melbourne.[38] This further assisted the spread of the Rugby game. Neither date nor the variety of football played is well documented. more specifically pig's bladders. for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the mid-18th century and ceased playing matches in 1796. the United Hospitals Challenge Cup (1874). are strongholds of rugby football: the Barnes Club. both shoemakers from the town of Rugby(near the school). The first Rugby international took place in 1871. although it was played under experimental rules in its first year. three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.[40] However. In 1845. Melbourne every year since 1858.[34][35] The first documented club to bear the title "football club" is one in Edinburgh. but such claims nevertheless allude to the popularity of rugby before other modern codes emerged. . Modern balls Main article: football (ball) Richard Lindon (seen in 1880) is believed to have invented the first footballs with rubber bladders. while the oldest rugby trophy is the Yorkshire Cup. In Europe. The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5. during the period 1824²41.[41] Lindon also won medals for the invention of the "Rubber inflatable Bladder" and the "Brass Hand Pump". The first football trophy tournament was the Caledonian Challenge Cup.[37] Two clubs which claim to be the world's oldest existing football club. The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup (1867) and the oldest national soccer competition is the English FA Cup (1871). Scotland. The Football League (1888) is recognised as the longest running Association Football league. These were the first set of written rules (or code) for any form of football. in 1843. which were inflated. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.[36][37] The club forbade tripping but allowed pushing and holding and the picking up of the ball. contested since 1878. Dublin in 1854 and later famous as a bastion of the Rugby School game³is the world's oldest documented football club in any code. Competitions Main article: Oldest football competitions One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup.

These included free kicks[disambiguation needed] . to play various codes of football. who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side.S. Rugby. inventor Charles Goodyear ³ who had patented vulcanized rubber ³ exhibited a spherical football.S. Mr. H. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U.[45][46] The first side to play a passing combination game was the Royal Engineers AFC in 1869/70[47][48][49] By 1869 they were "work[ing] well together". Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule. sent it to the captain who drove it at once between the Nottingham posts"[54] The first side to have perfected the modern formation was Cambridge University AFC[55][56][57] and introduced the 2²3²5 "pyramid" formation. No copy of these rules now exists. the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule. The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities (but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Associationcommittee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football). The code was largely independent of the public school rules. was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football. Winchester and Shrewsbury.[50] By 1870 the Engineers were passing the ball: "Lieut. handball.C. known as the Cambridge rules.[58][59] Cambridge rules Main article: Cambridge rules In 1848. the club initially played its own code of football: the Sheffield rules. Thring. called a meeting at Trinity College. corner kicks. the U. J.In 1855. who kicking it cleverly in front of the goal. but a revised version from circa 1856 is held in the library of Shrewsbury School. Harrow.[62] By the 1870s they became the dominant code in the north and .A. "backing up" and benefiting from "cooperation".[42] Modern ball passing tactics Main article: Passing (association football) "Scientific" football is first recorded in 1839 from Lancashire[43] and in the modern game in Rugby football from 1862[44] and from Sheffield FC as early as 1865. throw-ins and the crossbar. with an exterior of vulcanized rubber panels. who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called"[51] Passing was a regular feature of their style[52] By early 1872 the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together"[53] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March 1872. the first of which is irrefutably a shortpass: "Mr Absey dribbling the ball half the length of the field delivered it to Wallis. de Winton and Mr. at the Paris Exhibition Universelle. disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal. Sheffield Football Club. Creswell. The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football.[61] However. at Cambridge University. Sheffield rules Main article: Sheffield rules By the late 1850s.[60] The rules clearly favour the kicking game. An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules. who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School. founded in 1857 in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest. many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world. Cambridge with 12 other representatives from Eton.

On 7 August 1858. It used cricket fields. Smith. He was a rugby footballer. tackling. Wills umpired a relatively well documented schoolboys match between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College. Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club (the oldest surviving Australian football club) on May 14. an Australian of convict heritage was educated in England. organised football matches rapidly increased in popularity. Following these matches. While these origins are still the subject of much debate the popularisation of the code that is known today as Australian Rules Football is currently attributed to Tom Wills. which had become known as "Victorian Rules".[65] The code was distinctive in the prevalence of themark. The committee members debated several rules including those of English public school games. 1858. (A wood engraving by Robert Bruce.[63] This is considered by historians to be a defining moment in the creation of the new sport. At first he desired to introduce rugby school rules. Thomas Smith was a school teacher who emigrated from Ireland. The form of football spread quickly to other other Australian colonies. J. Outside of its heartland in southern Australia the code .B. Instead the committee decided on a game that was more suited to Australian conditions and Wills is documented to have made the declaration "No. They met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. William Hammersley. Melbourne. a rugby ball. Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules. Hammersley was a cricketer and journalist who emigrated from England.midlands of England. 1859. The first members included Wills. in 1866.) Main article: Australian rules football See also: Origins of Australian rules football Various forms of football were played in Australia during the Victorian gold rush. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in 1877. Thompson and Thomas H. specialised goal and behind posts. free kick. on July 10. Australian rules An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock. The backgrounds of the original rule makers makes for interesting speculation as to the influences on the rules. Despite including aspects similar to other forms of football there is no conclusive evidence to point to any single influence. calling for a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. bouncing with the ball while running and later spectacular high marking. 1858. we shall have a game of our own". Wills wrote a letter to Bell's Life in Victoria & Sporting Chronicle. lack of an offside rule and that players were specifically penalised for throwing the ball. The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. from which emerged a distinct and locally popular sport. a cricketer and had strong links to indigenous Australians. A significant re-write in 1866 by H C A Harrison's committee to accommodate rules from the Geelong Football Club made the game. increasingly distinct from other codes.[64] the first recorded of which occurred on July 31. Wills. They were redrafting several times during the 1860s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.

except Charterhouse and Uppingham. J. attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of 1863. his side was entitled to afree kick at goal. He said: "hacking is the true football". a player could make a fair catch and claim a mark. London on the evening of October 26. who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules.experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown other parts of the world at an amateur level and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition. M. but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time. a draft set of rules were published. C. X.[68] The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football. but F. In total. derives from an abbreviation of "Association". the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. However. the FA published the "Laws of Football". After the third meeting. Thring. . The two contentious FA rules were as follows: IX. In 1862. the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football. ³[66][67] At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. in use since the the late 19th century. The term "soccer". Main article: The Football Association#History During the early 1860s. which entitled him to a free kick. Following the first meeting. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. Eton. six meetings of the FA were held between October and December 1863. Great Queen Street. there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. However. In early October 1863 another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow. the public schools were invited to join the association. representatives of several football clubs in the London Metropolitan area met for the inaugural meeting of The Football Association (FA). namely running with (carrying) the ball and hacking (kicking opposing players in the shins). The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas. trip or hack him. Football Association The first football international. any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge. but which are still recognisable in other games (such as Australian football and rugby football): for instance. was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" (these are also known as the Uppingham Rules). Rugby. the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer. If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal. Scotland versusEngland. but in case of a fair catch. All of them declined. from 15 yards (13. At the Freemasons' Tavern. 1863. Shrewsbury. hold. objected. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch. The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members. or to wrest the ball from him. Campbell. After the final meeting on 8 December. Most of the delegates supported this. or catches the ball on the first bound. if he makes his mark he shall not run.5 metres) in front of the goal line. at the beginning of the fourth meeting. and if a player touched the ball behind the opponents' goal line. Marlborough and Westminster.

S. This is also often considered to be the first U. However. Within a few years. North American schools and universities played their own local games. when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union (RFU). by the early 19th century. at the Massasoit Convention. game of college football. there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until 1871. Rugby league Main article: History of Rugby league In 1895. Ontario. they eventually merged with the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to form the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. not association football). the first game played in the United States under rules based on the FA code occurred. In Britain.S. Australia. and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868. They also included the try. disputes amongst members of the RFU led to a breakaway faction creating its own rules and competitions. though drop-goals from marks and general play. however. the first recorded football club in Canada. and Harvard University in 1874. it was agreed by these universities to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules. Harvard students are reported to have played the Boston Game ³ a running code ³ rather than the FAbased kicking games favoured by U. a variant of the association football codes. Modern American football grew out of a match between McGill University of Montreal. by 1870. This made it easy for Harvard to adapt to the rugby-based game played by McGill and the two teams alternated between their respective sets of rules. Students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football. universities. between sides made up of students. where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal. The first official RFU rules were adopted in June 1871. when British Army officers played local civilians. in the sense of a game between colleges (although the eventual form of American football would come from rugby. The game gradually gained a following.[69] The first game of rugby in Canada is generally said to have taken place in Montreal. Over time this has developed into a distinct code of football known asrugby league. In 1876. as early as the 1820s. there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game. university teams to do the same. Canada and New Zealand.S. The "Tigers" of Hamilton. and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest. At the time. with some variations. In 1869. a team still active in the Canadian Football League. Harvard had both adopted McGill's rugby rules and had persuaded other U. between Princeton and Rutgers.Rugby football Main article: Rugby football A rugby scrum in 1871. in 1865. These rules allowed passing the ball. Founded 1869 as the Hamilton Foot Ball Club. North American football codes Main articles: History of American football and Canadian football#History As was the case in Britain. . circa 1906. There were also "rugby" clubs in Ireland.

Scrimmage refers to the practice of starting action by delivering the ball from the ground to another player's hand. 1882 In 1880. Teams are given a limited number of downs to achieve a certain distance (always measured in yards). The violence became so drastic that PresidentTheodore Roosevelt threatened to shut down the game in 1905. In American football. today known as Rugby Canada. Rugby is still fundamentally a continuous-action game. Rutgers and others continued to compete using soccer-based rules for a few years before switching to the rugbybased rules of Harvard and its competitors. he is ruled down and play stops. for many years. while the teams reset on either side of the line of scrimmage.) American football was also frequently described as "rugby" in the 1880s. some players are primarily involved in running with the ball (the running back) while others specialize in throwing (the quarterback). One of these was that Canadian football. Yale coach Walter Camp. With the advent of free substitution rules in the 1940s and 1950s. teams are given four downs to advance the ball ten yards. after which possession of the ball changes. while North American codes are organized around running discrete "plays". In Canadian football. in its early years. did not officially distinguish itself from rugby. but also retained many unique characteristics. These rules created a fundamental distinction between the North American codes and rugby codes. rather than a rugby union body. Several rule changes were put into place that year. Canadian football absorbed some developments in American football. teams could deploy separate offensive and defensive "platoons" which led to even greater specialization.S. colleges did not generally return to soccer until the early 20th century. Rutgers College Football Team. as defined as starting with the delivery from "scrimmage" and ending with the "down". players became more specialized in their roles. The rule also established a distinct line of scrimmage which separates the two teams from each other. Camp's two most important rule innovations in establishing American football as distinct from the rugby football games on which it is based are scrimmage and down-and-distance rules. plagued with several deaths and life-changing injuries every year. Camp's original rule allowed this delivery to be done only with the feet. Gaelic football . was not formed until 1965. fundamentally changed the nature of the sport. should rules not be changed to minimize this violence. When a player is tackled. the rule was soon changed to allow the ball to be passed by hand. but the most enduring has been the introduction of the legal forward pass. or blocking (the offensive line). like Camp's rule changes of the 1880s. (The Canadian Rugby Union. founded in 1884 was the forerunner of the Canadian Football League. For example. was an excessively violent game. catching (the wide receiver). devised a number of major changes to the American game. as the different positions on the team required different skill sets. Play then resumes with the delivery of the ball. U. American football. which. teams are allowed three downs to advance ten yards.Princeton. Thus. the Canadian Rugby Football Union. When it became legal to throw the ball forward. As a result. an entire new method of advancing the ball emerged. Over the years.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7. an arch-opponent of player payments.The All-Ireland Football Final in Croke Main article: History of Gaelic football In the mid-19th century. "holding" opposing players. and was won by one team taking the ball across a parish boundary. I don't play with boys who can·t afford to take a holiday for football any day they like!" Miller: "Yes. "Wrestling". fie. you·d make it so that no lad whose father wasn·t a millionaire could play at all in a really good team. but rifts were beginning to emerge in the code. as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train. which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby. following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments. a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football. travel. Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland. that's just you to a T. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely. In 1895. and the epic "cross-country game" which took up most of the daylight hours of a Sunday on which it was played." Further information: History of rugby league The International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) was founded in 1886. representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football . was shared only by other Irish games like hurling. described period: the "field game" in which the arch-like goals. This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU. a long-time opponent of Marshall. go away naughty boy. By the 1870s. Father W. Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby (see the Developments in the 1850s section. attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England. various collectively as caid. Ferris. and by Australian rules football). The caption reads: Marshall: "Oh. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports. 2004. until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884. formed from the Park. One two main forms of caid during this object was to put the ball through boughs of two trees. Split in Rugby football An English cartoon from the 1890s lampooning the divide in rugby football which led to the formation of rugby league. The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule (an attribute which. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football. for many years. The caricatures are of Rev. referred to Ireland. above). Frank Marshall. remained popular in observer. such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football. and carrying the ball were all allowed. and James Miller. For my part I see no reason why the men who make the money shouldn·t have a share in the spending of it. by the 1890s. Trinity College. especially in County Kerry. play and recover from injuries. Professionalism was beginning to creep into the various codes of football. 1887. In England. Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football. traditional football games.

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris on May 21. became known as rugby union. Harvard University had just built a concrete stadium and therefore objected to widening. NRFU players could be paid. This occurred reputedly at the behest of President Theodore Roosevelt. which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled. However. The changes did not immediately have the desired effect. Belgium. within two years. Over time.. Within a few years the NRFU rules had started to diverge from the RFU. The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each . This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck". to form an international association. and Switzerland. but was perceived as making no progress. a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain. The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body. Further divergence of the two rugby codes Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in 1906. Its first president was Robert Guérin. the rules of professional games varied from one country to another.S. receiving an enthusiastic response. Sweden. and 33 American football players were killed during 1908 alone. Denmark. The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. However. the number of deaths and injuries did gradually decline. Consequently. The meetings are now considered to be the origin of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. as well as the deaths of a significant number of players. Netherlands. 1904. with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. He was considered a fancier of the game. a series of meetings was held by 19 colleges in 1905²06. instead proposing legalisation of the forward pass. Spain. By the early 20th century in the U. the RFU form of rugby. It fell to associations from seven other European countries: France. and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year. even outside French-speaking countries. the first time the name rugby league was used officially in England. with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB. Reform of American football Both forms of rugby and American football were noted at the time for serious injuries. The separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901. The report of the meetings introduced many restrictions on tackling and two more divergences from rugby: the forward pass and the banning of mass formation plays. being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. this had resulted in national controversy and American football was banned by a number of colleges. In 1907. Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held. The French name and acronym has remained. However. One proposed change was a widening of the playing field. forming theNorthern Rugby League.A.Union (NRFU). Globalisation of association football Main article: History of FIFA The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century. However. but he threatened to ban it unless the rules were modified to reduce the numbers of deaths and disabilities. but they were required to have a job outside sport. most notably with the abolition of the line-out.

During the second half of 20th century. In particular. and the consequent speeding up of the game. while the opposition form a "wall". and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised. that is one which allowed professional players. Canada."[72] . including: the United States. saying "the international game is called football. kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised. much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football. the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region. new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul. the rules changed further. Because of this. So. the Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) was formed at a meeting in Bordeaux. rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: a team could retain possession of the ball for no more than four tackles. and New Zealand.[70] Of the 45 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language. Ireland. A few FIFA affiliates have recently "normalized" to using "Football". primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.international match. effectively. inAssociation football Use of the word "football" The word "football". most currently use Football in their organizations' official names. the five metre off-side distance between the two teams became 10 metres. The laws of rugby union also changed significantly during the 20th century. the Canadian code is known as football and association football is known as le soccer. and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule. Australia. Players assemble at the line of scrimmage in an American footballgame. when at the instigation of the French league. In 1966. goals from marks were abolished. rugby union became an "open" game. among other changes. what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above. Most often. The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six (in 1971). This situation endured until 1948. including:   Australia's association football governing body changed its name in 2007 from using "soccer" to "football"[71] New Zealand also changed in 2007. and the replacement rule was superseded by various interchange rules. The FIFA affiliates in Canada and theUnited States use Soccer in their names. where Canadian football is more popular. American football is always football in the United States. In 1995. In francophone Quebec. A player takes a free kick. With the advent of full-time professionals in the early 1990s. Association football is known generally as soccer where other codes of football are dominant. Although the original dispute between the two codes has now disappeared ³ and despite the fact that officials from both forms of rugby football have sometimes mentioned the possibility of re-unification ³ the rules of both codes and their culture have diverged to such an extent that such an event is unlikely in the foreseeable future.

footy and footie Indoor/basketball court varieties of Football: Five-a-side football ³ played throughout the world under various rules including: Futsal ³ the FIFA-approved five-a-side indoor game Minivoetbal ³ the five-a-side indoor game played in East and West Flanders where it is hugely popular Papi fut the five-a-side game played in outdoor basketball courts (built with goals) in Central America. Indoor soccer ³ the six-a-side indoor game. also known as football. soccer.[73][74] Present day codes and families Association football and descendants Main article: Variants of association football An indoor soccer game at an open air venue in Mexico. and usually known simply as "football" or "footy" in the Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland.   Rugby league nines (or sevens) Touch football (rugby league) ³ a non-contact version of rugby league. The referee has just awarded the red team a free kick.[75] Includes: Football 5-a-side ³ for visually impaired athletes Football 7-a-side ³ for athletes with cerebral palsy Amputee football ³ for athletes with amputations Deaf football ³ for athletes with hearing impairments Electric wheelchair soccer Beach soccer ³ football played on sand. Samoa changed from "Samoa Football (Soccer) Federation" to "Football Federation Samoa" in 2009. known in Latin America. Often called simply "touch". as fútbol rápido ("fast football")                Masters Football six-a-side played in Europe by mature professionals (35 years and older) Paralympic football ³ modified Football for athletes with a disability. where it is often played in open air venues. in South Africa it is known as "six down"  Rugby union .        Association football. also known as beach football and sand soccer Street football ³ encompasses a number of informal varieties of football Rush goalie ³ is a variation of football in which the role of the goalkeeper is more flexible than normal Headers and Volleys ³ where the aim is to score goals against a goalkeeper using only headers and volleys Crab football ³ players stand on their hands and feet and move around on their backs whilst playing football as normal Swamp soccer ³ the game is played on a swamp or bog field Rugby school football and descendants Rugby football Rugby league ³ often referred to simply as "league".

and other traditions. but using Canadian rules. In some areas (erroneously) referred to as "AFL". eight-man football. Comparison of Canadian and American football. and informally as "football". These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule. and "gridiron" in Australia and New Zealand.  Mini rugby a variety for children. in which a flag that is held by velcro on a belt tied around the waist is pulled by defenders to indicate a tackle   Street football (American) ³ American football played in backyards without equipment and with simplified rules Canadian football ³ called simply "football" in Canada. and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union Irish and Australian varieties International rules football test match from the 2005 International Rules Seriesbetween Australia and Ireland at Telstra Dome. the requirement to bounce or solo (toe-kick) the ball while running.  Australian rules football ³ officially known as "Australian football". six-man football ³ versions of tackle football. "football" in Canada can mean either Canadian or American football depending on context   Canadian flag football ³ non-tackle Canadian football Nine-man football ³ similar to nine-man American football. in which a velcro tag is removed to indicate a tackle Gridiron football American football ³ called "football" in the United States and Canada. Fiji v Cook Islands at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne       Rugby tens Beach rugby ³ rugby played on sand Touch rugby ³ generic name for forms of rugby football which do not feature tackles Tag Rugby ³ a non-contact version of rugby. Sometimes called "tackle football" to distinguish it from the touch versions   Indoor football. Melbourne. played by smaller schools in Saskatchewan that lack enough players to field full 12-man teams See also: Comparison of American football and rugby league. Comparison of American football and rugby union. Australia. Rugby sevens Rugby sevens. which is the name of the main organising body and competition  Auskick ³ a version of Australian rules designed by the AFL for young children . like touch football. handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it. "footy" or "Aussie rules". arena football ³ an indoor version of American football Nine-man football. played primarily by smaller high schools that lack enough players to field full 11-man teams   Touch football (American) ³ non-tackle American football Flag football ³ non-tackle American football.

Northumberland Royal Shrovetide Football in Ashbourne.) Inside the UK              The Haxey Hood. played on Epiphany in Haxey. Perthshire Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands Outside the UK Calcio Fiorentino ³ a modern revival of Renaissance football from 16th century Florence. (Photographer: Gary Austin. County Durham In Scotland the Ba game ("Ball Game") is still popular around Christmas and Hogmanay at: Duns. running variety of Australian rules.k. Metro footy (or Metro rules footy) ³ a modified version invented by the USAFL. such as the use of rugby football fields Masters Australian football (a. for use on gridiron fields in North American cities (which often lack grounds large enough for conventional Australian rules matches)   Kick-to-kick ² informal versions of the game 9-a-side footy ³ a more open. Sometimes referred to as "football" or "gah" Ladies Gaelic football [76][77][78] International rules football ³ a compromise code used for games between Gaelic and Australian Rules players See also: Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football Surviving medieval ball games The ball is hit into the air at the 2006 Royal Shrovetide Football match. which replaces tackles with tags    Touch Aussie Rules ³ a non-contact variation of Australian Rules played only in the United Kingdom Samoa rules ³ localised version adapted to Samoan conditions. Lincolnshire Shrove Tuesday games Scoring the Hales in Alnwick. requiring 18 players in total and a proportionally smaller playing area (includes contact and non-contact varieties)  Rec footy ³ "Recreational Football". Derbyshire The Shrovetide Ball Game in Atherstone. a modified non-contact touch variation of Australian rules. Berwickshire Scone. Superules) ³ reduced contact version introduced for competitions limited to players over 30 years of age  Women's Australian rules football ³ played with a smaller ball and (sometimes) reduced contact version introduced for women's competition    Gaelic football ³ Played predominantly in Ireland. created by the AFL. Dorset Hurling the Silver Ball at St Columb Major in Cornwall The Ball Game in Sedgefield.a. Surviving UK school games . Warwickshire The Shrove Tuesday Football Ceremony of the Purbeck Marblers in Corfe Castle.

 Bossaball mixes Association football and volleyball and gymnastics.a. Based on FA rules      Cubbies Three sided football Triskelion Based on rugby Force ·em backs a. Sepak takraw has ancient origins and cannot be considered an hybrid game. and head.  Speedball (American) . invented in Melbourne during World War II.k.  Footbag is a small bean bag or sand bag used as a ball in a number of keepie uppie variations. forcing back. forcemanback Hybrid games Austus a compromise between Australian rules and American football. played on sand Note: although similar with football and volleyball in some aspects. knees. shoulders. invented in the United States in about 1942. including hacky sack (which is a trade mark). played on inflatables and trampolines.  Freestyle football a modern take on keepie uppie where freestylers are graded for their entertainment value and expression of skill.  Footvolley mixes Association football and beach volleyball. Games still played at UK public (independent) schools:      Eton wall game Harrow football Winchester College football Eton field game Recent inventions and hybrid games Keepie uppie (keep up) is the art of juggling with a football using feet. chest.  Football tennis mixes Association football and tennis  Kickball a hybrid of Association football and baseball.Harrow football players after a game at Harrow School.

devised by Italian fascist leader. Jogo de Botões Penny football FIFA Video Games Series Pro Evolution Soccer Based on rugby Penny rugby Based on American football Paper football Blood Bowl Fantasy football (American) Madden NFL Based on Australian football List of Australian rules football computer games AFL Premiership 2005 Based on Rugby League football Sidhe's Rugby League series Rugby League 3 Australian Rugby League . trialled in Sydney in 1933. Based on ice hockey and basketball rather than rugby. devised in the United States in 1912. invented in Canada in 1977.  Universal football a hybrid of Australian rules and rugby league. Augusto Turati. Tabletop games and other recreations Based on Football (soccer)                   Subbuteo Blow football Table football ³ also known as foosball. babyfoot.[79]  Volata a game resembling Association football and European handball. in the 1920s. and basketball. bar football or gettone) Fantasy football (soccer) Button football ³ also known as Futebol de Mesa. table soccer.a combination of American football. soccer.  Wheelchair rugby also known as Murderball.

Spanish and Dutch forces fought in Philippine waters. two Spanish galleons engaged the Dutch armada consisting of eighteen ships. Though outnumbered. who was recently acquired by Barcelona FC from Valencia FC for a fee of ¼40 million. you read it right. Born in 1896 to a Spanish military officer and a Filipina mother in Iloilo. This caused the Dutch to abandon their attempt to invade the Philippines due to the heavy damages they sustained from the battle. On February 25. But did you know that one of Barcelona FC¶s early football stars was a Filipino? Yes. the Filipino-Spanish forces were not outfought. Filipino connection to Barcelona FC Eight players from the 2010 World Champions came from the Spanish Football Club. Paulino Alcantara is widely regarded as the first Filipino and Asian player to play for a European club. David Villa. but it was Andres Iniesta. the Dutch were once ruled by the Spaniards. led the entire team in goal scoring throughout the tournament. Alcantara moved to Spain at the young age of 14 to play for FC Galeno. he Paulino Alcantara . In 1646. With the help of a large Filipino contingent. This led them to begin a revolt in 1568 that lasted 80 years. Barcelona FC.A bit of football and history by JB Casares Spain¶s victory in the recently concluded FIFA World Cup reminded me of one event in the history of the Philippines that is rarely discussed in our classrooms or even written in our history books ± the Battle of La Naval. at the age of 15. The Dutch were trying to capture the Philippine Islands from the Spanish. another Barcelona FC player. Much like the Filipinos. It is a popular belief that the Blessed Virgin Mary had a hand in these series of unexpected victories against superior numbers. Déjà vu The heavily favoured Dutch National Team (they reached the finals with an unblemished record) might have felt a distinct sense of déjà vu when they lost in the finals of the World Cup against the underdog Spanish National Team. He was later discovered and recruited to play for Barcelona FC by the club¶s founder Joan Gamper. 1912. Philippines. who scored the winning goal on the 116th minute of the 1-0 victory by the Spanish side.

He made his debut for Spain¶s national team the following year. Pele. He went on to set an unprecedented record of 357 goals in 357 matches ± a feat that remains unparalleled in the club¶s history. He represented the Philippines in the 1917 Far Eastern Championship Games in Tokyo and helped the Philippine national football team defeat the host nation 15 to 2. playing football is just like playing sipa. the team was placed as low as 195th on the FIFA World Rankings. When Alcantara returned to the Philippines in 1916. Besides. we should draw our inspiration from Paulino Alcantara and start playing football again. the Philippines¶ national football team was established in 1907. He hung up his jersey in 1927 at the age of 31. Instead. International Football stars like. Today most Filipinos prefer to play and watch basketball. basketball gained prominence at the expense of football. In the Philippines. made him the youngest player to play or score for the club.wikipedia. Sources: The Battle of La Naval y www. State of Philippine Football Considered the oldest in Asia. Between 1921 and 1923. they have not had much success in international play since the 1940¶s. Carlos Messi and David Villa have shown that you don¶t need a lot of height to play good football. which is not a common trait among us. During the period of the Commonwealth. During the 1920 Olympics. He earned the nickname El Rompe Redes (the net breaker) when he ripped the net with a powerful kick 35 yards from the goal in a game against France. even though it is a game that requires height. Diego Maradona. scoring both goals in a 2-0 victory against Belgium. However. Alcantara was selected to represent Spain but he remained in the Philippines to finish his studies to become a medical doctor. Alcantara made five appearances and scored six goals for Spain. By 2006. despite their long association with the beautiful game. Alcantara played for the Bohemian Sporting Club and helped them win two Philippine Championships.scored the first three goals in his debut for Barcelona in the Catalan Football Championships. His performance in the 9-0 victory against Catala SC.com . Barcelona failed to win championships in his absence. They are currently ranked 167th in the world and did not enter the qualifications for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

It is said that during medieval times. In 1424 King James I of Scotland also proclaimed in the Parliament "Na man play at the Fute-ball" (No man shall play football) When and where exactly did soccer start is a question that has no precise answer to it.barcelonafc. some colleges and schools opted for Rugby rules that allowed tripping. In October 1863. Sometimes the competition grew fierce and masses got so wild that there were frequent incidents of violence during the game. Some amusing facts even mention that the first ball used was the head of some Danish brigand. It is said that early growth of the modern soccer started in England. These rules were exclusively prohibited as per the Cambridge rules. The outcome of this meeting was the formation of the Football Association. known as the Cambridge Rules. shin kicking and also carrying the ball. . The nativity of modernday soccer must be credited to Britain. You can easily say that this popular game has been played for more than three thousand years. Recorded facts also support the fact that Romans and Greeks used to play ball for fun and frolic. It was also known as the association football. the Rugby Football and Association football finally split as the supporters of the Rugby School rules walked out. It has a vivid and interesting history in the world of sports. Football was segregated into two groups. punching. In December 1863. In China. The main aim was to carry the ball to a target spot. It is also said that soldiers admired the game so much that they missed archery practice to watch it.com www.inquirer. Early evidence of soccer being played as a sport finds occurrence in China during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. King Edward III banned soccer in 1365 owing to the growing incidents of violence and military indulgence in the sport. Colleges and Schools. biting and gouging.net Soccer History Soccer is one of the most popular sports in Europe and the Americas. Modern History of Soccer: 18th Century onwards In 1815. it was during the Han dynasty that people dribbled leather balls by kicking it into a small net. eleven representatives from London clubs and schools met at the Freemason s Tavern to set up common fundamental rules to control the matches amongst themselves. the old form of soccer used to allow many ill practices like kicking.y y www. with Scotland and England being the co-founders of the systematic game of soccer. The history of modern-day soccer was established in 1863. The popular English School and Eton College came forth with a set of rules. People grew so fond of the game that they would throng the field all day long. a major development took place that made soccer popular in Universities. Some facts point to Kyoto in Japan where kicking of ball was a popular sport.

This period is split into two 45-minute halves. The meeting in 1863 saw the drawing up of a universal code which provided the foundations on which future amendments could be made. and match rules were often only decided on the day. Italians. development and its growing craze all over the world. Fairplay in football Alongside the laws of the game. the Football Association strictly banned any kind of handling of the ball. Soccer s popularity spread rapidly during the 1800s as British sailors. Basics of football At its core. Prior to the FA¶s foundation. check the FIFA official website. The current µlaws of the game¶ are monitored by the domestic Football Associations and FIFA. FIFA advocates a Fair Play programme. played over the course of 90 minutes. football is a game with two teams of eleven players. Observe the Laws of the Game. violence and other harmful vices. Based around a number of rules. Respect everyone involved in the game. If you want to educate yourself on the minutiae. FIFA was established in the year 1904 and by early 1930s. Help others to do exactly the same. Play to win but accept defeat properly. The history of soccer is rich with events. racism. each club adhered to their own regulations.Firmly establishing the foundation of soccer in 1869. while Argentina. Denounce any who discredits the integrity of football. Honour those who defend football¶s reputation. The following is an interpreted list of those laws. The objective of the game is to score more . minus much of the detail which is applicable only to prospective referees and to ensure a particular game conforms exactly to official FIFA standards. Austrians and Germans drew to Europe. they are intended to inform footballers and spectators on proper behaviour on and off the field: y y y y y y y y y y Play fair on the field. Use football to make a better world. Uruguay and Brazil adopted the sport in South America. Promote football¶s interests. typically involving abstract ideas. You will find yourself amazed as you learn about different times of this wonderful sport that has held our awe and admiration for over 3000 years. traders and soldiers introduced the sport to different parts of the globe. FIFA is credited with organizing the first world cup in Uruguay. drugs. different leagues were operating from various countries. Reject any corruption.

5 metres from each goalpost and extends 16.g. each one defended by one of the teams.32 metre area between the posts. with the dimensions of 90-120 metres long by 45-90 metres wide. the guidelines for international matches are stricter (100-110 metres x 64-75 metres). The substitute then comes on as a replacement for one of the 11 current players. The ball Naturally spherical. The eleven players are supplemented by the option to bring on a maximum of three substitutes from a pre-decided list of three to seven players (the number of substitutes permitted is slightly higher for international friendly matches). A µgoal¶ is scored by depositing the ball into the opponent¶s area. with a circumference of 27-28 inches. with the two lines joining vertically Penalty Area: Starts 16. Goals: 7. Notably. However. the referee must first be informed and then there has to be a break in the play (for example. with a quarter-circle on the field (1 metre in radius).5 metres out.µgoals¶ than the opposition. . Number of players One of the eleven is classified as the goalkeeper and permitted to handle the ball in his team¶s penalty area. the shape of the field must be rectangular. a free-kick or a throw-in). and 2. with the two lines joining vertically. The term µgoal¶ refers to two areas either side of the pitch. Astroturf) surface. The Laws of the Game Field of play Football can be played on a natural or artificial (e. In order to bring on a substitute.44 metres high.5 metres from each goalpost and extends 5. The posts cannot exceed 5 inches in width. y y y y Goal Area: Starts 5. Flagpost: Placed at each corner.5 metres out.

which can influence all manner of decisions. situated on the touchline. The goalkeeper is also permitted gloves and a different coloured jersey for identification purposes. Referee The referee adjudicates the match in collaboration with two linesmen (properly referred to as µreferee¶s assistants¶) and a fourth official.Equipment Basic equipment is the team jersey. . they wave a brightly coloured small flag. To signify their decision or grab the referee¶s attention. The referee¶s tasks include acting as a timekeeper (although with advice on the amount of µinjury time¶ to be added on to the 45 minutes each half to compensate for injuries and other stoppages). Assistant referees Follow play from their respective touch lines and help to decide on throw-ins. if necessary. shorts. which they keep at all times. providing there is an µadvantage¶ to be gained by the team against which the foul has been committed. corner kicks and goalkicks along with offside decisions (although naturally the referee has the final say). shinguards with socks and studded boots or trainers depending on the surface. awarding free kicks and penalties and generally dealing with anything requiring a ruling. Can also choose to allow play to proceed in case of a foul. Can also draw the referee¶s attention and advise on or alert him/her to any on-field activity.

extra-time is used if there is no winner after 90 minutes. the task befalling the team who has conceded. being in an offside position. then a penalty shoot-out takes place. . The µaway goals¶ rule means that. players from each side must all be in their half of the field. the goal counts extra (therefore. the team with the most successful penalties is declared the winner. Should they choose to kick-off then the other captain will be allowed elect which end to attack in the first half. to commit an offside offence is to have the ball played forward towards you while in that position. the winner of which will get the choice of choosing which end to attack or whether to kick-off. In that instance. Scoring A team can only score if the whole ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts. where each team will take one penalty until one of the two sides has scored move than the other after the side amount of spot kicks. The player who kicks off cannot touch it again until another player has made contact. if a team scores a goal away from their home stadium. The winner is the team who scores more goals.Duration of the match The match officially lasts 90 minutes. a 1-1 scoreline would mean the away team wins). except in a competition where the µaway goals¶ rule applies. and for both halves of extra-time. split into two 45-minute halves with a half-time interval of no longer than 15 minutes. This is made somewhat harder by the fact there are two elements to offsides in football. split into two 15 minute halves. Should the winner decide to choose which end to attack then the loser can choose whether to kick-off in the first or second half. Start and restart of play A coin toss takes place just before the game starts. In the knock-out stages of competitions. If extra-time does not find a winner. where five players from each team are selected and alternate shots on goal from the penalty spot against the opposition goalkeeper. and committing an offside offence. you can be in an offside position and not commit an offside offence. However. As such. The kick-off is also used after a goal has been scored. Offside The perennial problem for newcomers to football is understanding the offside rule. If they are still tied then they will move on to sudden-death penalties. The actual kick-off takes place on the centre spot in the centre circle. At the kick-off. This extra period is 30 minutes. To be in an offside position is to be closer to the opponent¶s goal than the last opposition outfield player (therefore excluding the goalkeeper) and the ball.

A straight red card (no previous µcaution¶) can be shown for extreme offences such as serious foul play. and a free kick is awarded where that foul takes place (excepting fouls in the penalty area. it means a« Red Card . Punishment for offences If the single infraction is deemed serious enough or the culprit persistently offends during a match.The rule is further complicated by the fact the referee or his assistant must adjudge you to be µactive¶ in the play before giving an offside decision against you. The referee can choose simply to award the foul. There are other factors to consider which can exempt you from the offside rule. violent conduct. what one referee or linesman considers to be active can be very different to another individual¶s interpretation. deliberate hand-ball to prevent a goal. the referee can choose to take extra action against a particular individual: y y Yellow Card . speak to the player about his conduct or take matters further. which result in a penalty kick). If two of these cards are shown to the same player. Fouls and misconduct A foul can take place anywhere on the pitch. indirect free kick or corner kick is taken. However. and you cannot be penalised for being in an offside position when a goal kick. a professional foul (denying a goalscoring opportunity) and insulting language and/or gestures. Free kicks . and the offside rule is generally a major debating point. throw-in.Showing a red card to a player means he/she is expelled from the match. spitting. The official rule states µactive¶ as meaning ³interfering with play« or an opponent« or gaining an advantage by being in that position´. You cannot be offside in your own-half of the pitch. as you will find as you watch more and more games. but it can be extremely nebulous. for example. for example if you touch the ball in an offside position. This can be obvious.A µcaution¶ given to a player.

If a direct strike is successfully made on goal. . a sliding tackle which takes the player first. who immediately picks it up rather than taking a touch with his feet. Throw-in A throw-in is awarded when the whole ball crosses the touch line (conceded by the team who last touched the ball). Goal kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line if it last touched an opposition player. Awarded as a result of fouls with evidence intent to harm or reckless/excessive force (e. shirt-pulling and a deliberate hand-ball). Otherwise it is deemed to be a µfoul throw¶ and a throw-in is given to the opposition. a goal kick to the opposition is given. After he has taken the kick. A nominated member of the team awarded the penalty is allowed a strike at goal from the penalty spot (see the image in the µfield of play¶ section). depending on the nature of the offence: Direct free kick . The free kick is subsequently taken wherever the goalkeeper picked the ball up. the kick is retaken. and all other players must be outside the area behind the penalty spot. An indirect free kick can be awarded in the case of a passback offence. he cannot strike the ball again without another player touching the ball. with only the goalkeeper to beat. but must cross the penalty area line. If this rule is not adhered to.Allows the team to take a direct shot at the opponent¶s goal. There are two types of free kick awarded. y Indirect free kick . a fairly uncommon foul in the game. y Penalty kick A penalty kick is awarded for offences taking place in the penalty and goal area. This is given if one team¶s player passes the ball to the keeper. It is delivered off the field of play with both hands and from behind and over the deliverer¶s head. An indirect free kick is awarded for any foul which is dangerous or impedes an opponent.Whenever a free kick is taken. The goalkeeper must remain on his line until the ball has been kicked. It cannot go direct to the goalkeeper¶s hands (if on the same team) and you cannot score directly from a throw-in.g. the opposition must be at least 10 yards away from the ball until it is delivered. meaning any shot must come from the second player to touch the ball after the kick is taken. The ball is kicked from anywhere in the goal area outfield.A direct strike on goal is not permitted.

in the prescribed quartercircle space. However. the governing body of football in the Philippines. they enjoyed some success in its early years between 1913 and 1934 in the Far Eastern Championship Games. after last touching one of their players. Further Reading y Referees y Yellow Cards y Red Cards y Penalty Kicks y Penalty Shoot Outs y Silver Goal y Golden Goal The Philippines national football team is the national football team of the Philippines and represents the country in international football.Corner kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line of the opposition. Opponents must be 10 yards from the corner arc and the kicker cannot touch the ball a second time without contact from someone else beforehand (or the opponent receives an indirect free kick). The team is controlled by the Philippine Football Federation (PFF). the Philippines has never qualified for theAsian Cup or the World Cup. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Team Image . Taken from the corner of whichever side the ball exited the field. Despite being one of the oldest national teams in Asia.

6 Southeast Asian Games 6.7 Far Eastern Games 6.3 Previous squads 5 Coaches 6 Competition records o o o o o o o o 6. after a good run in the 2007 ASEAN Football Championship qualification.1 World Cup 6.1 Current squad 4. its lowest ever.1 Kit 2.4 Asian Games 6.2 Names 3 Home stadium 4 Players o o o 4. aimed to reach the semi-finals with two wins at the group stage.[2] as the Philippines have only won their first ever win of the tournament during the 2004 edition.[5] .[2] They were able to win three games in a row which was a first for the Philippines and thus qualifying for the 2007 ASEAN Football Championship.[1] By the end of the year.2 Asian Cup 6.2 Recent call-ups 4.[4] The decision came despite Philippine Football Federation president Juan Miguel Romualdez stating that they would still be underdogs in the tournament and that they mustn't raise their expectations too high.5 ASEAN Championship 6. the Philippines moved back up to 171st overall.3 Challenge Cup 6.o o 2.[3] Coach at that time Aris Caslib.8 Minor tournaments 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit]History In September 2006 the country fell to 195th on the FIFA World Rankings.

all from Southeast Asia not to enter after a record number of entries. They advanced 5±1 on aggregate. The traditional home kit is similar to the France national team. as well as becoming a major partner in its grassroots development programs.[6] as well as the refusal of the PFF to register and enter the qualification stages for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In 2011. beating Sri Lanka 4±0 in the second leg of the first preliminary round. becoming one of the biggest upsets in the history of the tournament.[9] Since 2007. the Philippine Football Federation signed a threeyear.The Philippines eventually failed to reach their target. 2011. the Philippines recorded their first ever victory in FIFA World Cup Qualifiers. They came close in 2008 after missing out on the 2008 AFC Challenge Cup only on goal difference. only getting a draw in three matches. whose term ended in 2003.[11] In 2010. the Philippines have failed to qualify for a major competition.[14][15] The previous outfitter was Adidas.[7] Instead. On July 3. the Philippines qualified for the AFC Challenge Cup for the first time since qualifiers were introduced in the tournament. drawing 1±1 in the first leg before winning at the Rizal Memorial Stadium. the PFF wanted to focus on domestic and regional competitions.[13] [edit]Team [edit]Kit Image In March 2008. where they stayed undefeated in the group stage and also went on to beat defending champions Vietnam. Their poor performances led to Caslib's resignation. and red .[8] However it was revealed that the decision not to enter the 2010 as well as the 2006 World Cup qualification was made during the PFF presidency of Rene Adad.[7] They would be one of four nations. 9-million contract with Mizuno to become the official outfitter and equipment supplier of the national team. they qualified for the 2010 AFF Suzuki Cup. white shorts. eventually losing to Indonesia in the semifinals.[12] The team reached the knockout stage for the first time.[10] and the 2008 AFF Suzuki Cup with an inferior goals scored record. blue jersey.

the acronym for the country's official name.[17] The team is also identified under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) country code for the Philippines as PHL.[29] One of the facilities within the complex is the 30.000 capacity national stadium. they are also referred to as the "Azkals". known as the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium or simply the Rizal Memorial Stadium. this acronym is used by FIFA. Republika ng Pilipinas. [edit]Names Under the official FIFA Trigramme the team's name is abbreviated as PHI.[27] They are also known as the "Tri± Stars" which is derived from the three stars on the Philippine flag.[21] The local press have since referred to the team as either "PH/PHL Booters"[22][23] or "PH/PHL XI". Since its opening.[16] However. they played their home matches at the Manila Carnival Grounds.[24][25] Among these names. all-red or all-white. the AFC and the AFF to identify the team in official competitions.[17] which the local press used when they referred to the team as the "RP Booters"[19] or the "RP XI". By 1934 it became the site of the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.[26] The name. the home and away kit has either been all-blue. in recent times.[28] [edit]Home stadium Main article: Rizal Memorial Stadium During the early years of the Philippine national team.socks. Currently the home kit is allwhite. ." became a trending topic on Twitter during the semi-finals of the 2010 AFF Suzuki Cup.[20] This was until late October 2010 when the Department of Foreign Affairs decided to change the official abbreviation of the country from "RP" to "PH" or "PHL". although this nickname is not frequently used. a Filipino term for "street dog. to be in line with ISO standards. derived from askal.[18] However the team was more commonly known as the RP. it has been the home venue of the Philippine national team. while the away kit is all-blue.

The continued use for athletics along with poor maintenance has deteriorated the stadium and the 1991 Southeast Asian Games was the last time it was used for international football matches. the Philippine Sports Commission planned to transform it to a modern football stadium which would make it usable by the national team for international matches.[30] Other stadiums used:     Barotac Nuevo Plaza Field Iloilo Sports Complex Panaad Stadium PhilSports Stadium [edit] . it has also become a hub for athletics. In early 2009.However.

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